Group Title: Journal reprint - International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center. University of Florida ; JRTC 03-1
Title: Brazil's ethanol program : the case of hidden sugar subsidies
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Title: Brazil's ethanol program : the case of hidden sugar subsidies
Series Title: Journal reprint - International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center. University of Florida ; JRTC 03-1
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Schmitz, Troy G.
Schmitz, Andrew
Seale, James L. Jr.
Publisher: International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center. University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: April 2003
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UNIVERSITY OF
SFLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


BRAZIL'S ETHANOL PROGRAM: THE CASE OF HIDDEN
SUGAR SUBSIDIES

By
Troy G. Schmitz, Andrew Schmitz, and James L. Seale, Jr.

JRTC 03-1 April 2003


i ii


II


I


I









INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE
AND POLICY CENTER


MISSION AND SCOPE: The International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center (IATPC) was
established in 1990 in the Food and Resource Economics Department (FRED) of the Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) at the University of Florida. Its mission is to provide
information, education, and research directed to immediate and long-term enhancement and
sustainability of international trade and natural resource use. Its scope includes not only trade
and related policy issues, but also agricultural, rural, resource, environmental, food, state,
national and international policies, regulations, and issues that influence trade and development.

OBJECTIVES:

The Center's objectives are to:

Serve as a university-wide focal point and resource base for research on international
agricultural trade and trade policy issues
Facilitate dissemination of agricultural trade related research results and publications
Encourage interaction between researchers, business and industry groups, state and
federal agencies, and policymakers in the examination and discussion of agricultural
trade policy questions
Provide support to initiatives that enable a better understanding of trade and policy
issues that impact the competitiveness of Florida and southeastern agriculture
specialty crops and livestock in the U.S. and international markets









BRAZIL'S ETHANOL PROGRAM: THE CASE OF HIDDEN SUGAR SUBSIDIES

Troy G. Schmitz, Andrew Schmitz, and James L. Seale, Jr.

INTRODUCTION

Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugarcane, the world's largest exporter of sugar,

and the world's third largest consumer of sugar. Brazil produces sugarcane-refined sugar for

human use as well as anhydrous and hydrous alcohol, which are used mainly as a blend when

converting alcohol to domestically consumed gasoline. Over 50 percent of Brazil's sugarcane

production is converted into fuel for automobile use.

The Brazilian government affects Brazil's sugarcane market through its alcohol fuel

program. The government sets the blend ratio of blending alcohol with gasoline. At the FAO

Conference in Africa in October 2002, one of the authors was repeatedly asked whether or not

Brazil's fuel policy provided a hidden subsidy to Brazilian sugarcane farmers (Schmitz, Seale,

and Schmitz 2002). As this paper shows, this is indeed the case. We show that changes in the

ethanol program, in the direction of increasing blend ratios, transfer more than a 100 million U.S.

dollars annually in the form of hidden subsidies. However, the effects of these subsidies on

world market prices are much different than in the case of price support deficiency payment

type schemes. In the case of Brazil, the fuels policy can result in an increase in world sugar

prices, whereas prices would fall under alternative type direct subsidies. Cases can exist where

prices are unaffected as a result of Brazil's fuel policy even though sugarcane production

increases and producer welfare increases. Traditional producer subsidy equivalent (PSE)

measures as used by the OECD are not well equipped to quantify hidden subsidies, which come

about through a policy that creates an alternative demand for the product in question.









THE BRAZILIAN SUGAR INDUSTRY

Brazilian sugarcane has three major uses. It is used to create refined sugar, anhydrous

alcohol, and hydrous alcohol. Anhydrous alcohol is used to blend with gasoline as mandated by

the Brazilian government, and hydrous alcohol is used as fuel for vehicles that are powered 100

percent by alcohol. The majority of Brazilian sugarcane is produced in the Center-South region

and the North-Northeast region. Hydrous alcohol production in both regions has declined by

more than 50 percent over the last ten years while anhydrous-alcohol production has increased

more than five-fold over that same period (Table 1).

Part of the reason for the substantial increase in anhydrous alcohol production in Brazil is

because of a phenomenal increase in the yield of ethanol from sugarcane. In 1999, roughly

5,500 liters were produced per hectare, while in 1975 per-hectare yield was only approximately

2,000 liters (Figure 1). This represents almost a three-fold increase in the efficiency of ethanol

produced from sugarcane. Brazil exports between 0.5 and 1.0 billion liters of ethanol per year.

The portion of sugarcane used for both anhydrous and hydrous fuel alcohol from 1970

through 2000 is provided in Figure 2. The portion of sugarcane used for fuel alcohol in Brazil

increased steadily from 1976 through 1985 and reached a peak of 74% in 1989. It then exhibited

a declining trend during the 1990s and reached 55% in 2000. The number of vehicles powered

by hydrous alcohol has declined sharply over the years although these vehicles still exist due to

the subsidies provided by the Brazilian government for rental cars, taxis, and some government

vehicles powered by hydrous alcohol.












Table 1. Fuel Alcohol (Ethanol) Production by Type and by Region in Brazil
(1990/91-2002/03).


Center-South Region


North-Northeast Region


Brazil All Regions


Year 0
<<


1990/91 1.1 8.9
1991/92 1.8 9.1
1992/93 1.9 8.1
1993/94 2.4 8.0
1994/95 2.6 8.6
1995/96 2.6 8.3
1996/97 3.8 8.3
1997/98 4.8 8.5
1998/99 4.8 7.4
1999/00 5.4 6.2
2000/01 5.3 5.9
2001/02a 5.5 4.6
2002/03a 7.7 4.1


0-
t


0
C.)


Billion liters


10.0 0.2 1.6
10.9 0.2 1.6
10.0 0.3 1.4
10.4 0.1 0.8
11.2 0.3 1.3
10.9 0.4 1.3
12.1 0.8 1.5
13.3 0.8 1.2
12.2 0.8 0.7
11.6 0.6 0.5
11.2 0.7 0.5
10.1 1.0 0.4
11.8 1.3 0.5


0-
t


-h


0-
t
of r


1.8 1.3
1.8 2.0
1.7 2.2
0.9 2.5
1.6 2.9
1.7 3.0
2.3 4.6
2.0 5.6
1.5 5.6
1.1 6.0
1.2 6.0
1.4 6.5
1.8 9.0


10.5
10.7
9.5
8.8
9.8
9.7
9.8
9.6
8.1
6.7
6.4
5.0
4.6


11.8
12.7
11.7
11.3
12.7
12.7
14.4
15.2
13.7
12.8
12.4
11.5
13.6


aEstimate and forecast, JOB Economica and Peter Buzzanell & Associates, Inc.
Source: FNP (2002) and USDA (2001).













5,500


5,000


4,500


4,000
.o




3,000


2,500


2,000


1,500





Figure 1. Yield of Ethanol from Sugarcane in Brazil (1975-99)
(Schmitz, Seale and Buzzanell, 2002).

80%


5 70%
0



" 50%




0)

a 20%

o
0 10%

000


YEAR


Figure 2. Portion of Sugarcane used for Fuel Alcohol in Brazil (1970-2000)
from 81/82 to 99/00 Informativo Datagro, datas from IAA, MIR, MIC, MICT.
DATAGRO Boletim Informativo Quinzenal sobre Cana, Afiicar e Alcool Year
99 Number 14 P









Prior to 1998, the Brazilian sugar industry was highly regulated. The Institute of Sugar

and Alcohol (IAA), created in 1933 to solve a sugar overproduction problem, acted as a state-

trading enterprise that set sugar production quotas and fixed prices in order to control the volume

of exports. Brazil also had import tariffs and export taxes placed on sugar to ensure that alcohol-

production targets were met (Schmitz, Seale and Buzzanell, 2002).

The Brazilian National Alcohol Program (PROALCOOL) was created in 1975 in

response to the 1973 oil crisis. Under this program, the IAA purchased anhydrous alcohol at an

equivalency rate of 44 liters of alcohol per 60-kilogram bag of sugar while Petrobas, the state-

owned oil company, controlled ethanol distribution. Credit guarantees and low fixed-interest-

rate subsidies were also provided for the construction of distilleries and autonomous plants built

adjacent to sugar mills.

The monopoly enjoyed by Petrobas was removed as policy changes were enacted in

1997/98 in a two step process. First, anhydrous alcohol prices were liberalized in May 1997.

The government also originally planned to liberalize hydrous alcohol prices in May 1997, but

these prices were not actually liberalized until February 1999. Subsidies paid to hydrous-alcohol

producers were reduced from 0.98 reals per liter to 0.45 reals per liter while subsidies paid to

anhydrous-alcohol producers were eliminated (USDA, 2001). However, ethanol production is

still regulated by government decree. Each year, a Presidential Decree sets an alcohol-to-gasoline

blend-ratio range for the percentage of ethanol that must be used in Brazilian gasoline.

Both the domestic sugar and ethanol markets are protected from competition from other

low-cost exporters. A common external tariff of 20 percent on sugar imports and 30 percent on

imports of ethanol was put in place in 2001. However, there is no tax on intra-zone trade of

ethanol for Brazil's Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR) partners. Furthermore,









these tariff levels are relatively low when compared to trade barriers for sugar and ethanol in

many other sugar-importing countries around the world. There still remains a support

mechanism that compensates for sugarcane-cost differentials across regions that is well under the

de minimis clause of the WTO agricultural agreement.


SUGAR AND ETHANOL PRICES


Prior to 1998, the government set the price paid to independent growers of sugarcane in

Brazil. With the removal of government price setting, Sao Paulo producers, the largest producers

in Brazil, set up a model sugarcane-payment system regulated by the Sao Paulo State Sugarcane,

Sugar and Alcohol Producers' Council (CONSECANA-SP). The formula for calculating the

grower price for independent growers of sugarcane is based on the following four criteria:

(1) the quality of each grower's sugarcane expressed in terms of recoverable total sugar;

(2) the average Sao Paulo state price for sugar and alcohol, free on board (f.o.b.) at the mill as

surveyed by the University of Sao Paulo, College of Agriculture in Piracicaba (ESALQ);

(3) the mix of products (sugar, anhydrous, and hydrous alcohol) at each mill; and

(4) the sugarcane share of the total cost of sugar and alcohol at the state level.

However, a significant portion of sugarcane can also be attributed to mill estates, as opposed to

independent growers.

Monthly prices received for refined sugar, anhydrous alcohol, and hydrous alcohol, from

January 1999 through March 2002, are provided in Figure 3. The prices have been converted

from data provided by ESALQ to U.S. dollars using monthly exchange rates provided by the

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. This conversion to U.S. dollars is used for illustrative

purposes only, so that comparisons can be made without having to adjust for inflation in the










Brazilian real and because world sugar prices are usually based off the New York price.

Refined-sugar prices in Brazil reached as low as U.S. 4.59 cents per pound in June 1999, but

climbed to a peak of U.S. 12.75 cents per pound by August 20001. The internal prices for both

anhydrous and hydrous alcohol followed a similar trend over this time period. In March 2002,

the price of refined sugar in Brazil was U.S. 8.23 cents per pound, the price of anhydrous alcohol

was U.S. 25.94 cents per liter, and the price of hydrous alcohol was U.S. 30.02 cents per liter.

45
40 A
35
30 -
25
S20 -
15 -
10 *_ --
5
0
1999 2000 2001 2002
Refined sugar (U.S. cents/lb) --Anhydrous alcohol (U.S. cents/litre)
Hydrous alcohol (U.S. cents/litre)


Figure 3. Prices for Refined Sugar, Anhydrous Alcohol, and Hydrous Alcohol in Brazil
(January 1999-March 2002) (Schmitz, Seale and Buzzanell, 2002).


BLEND RATIOS AND BRAZILIAN SUGARCANE MARKETS


The Brazilian government sets the portion of anhydrous alcohol that is used in gas-

powered vehicles. This "blend ratio" is adjusted from time-to-time by government decree. Data

regarding blend ratios set by the Brazilian government from 1970 through 2002 were obtained

through personal communications with the University of Sao Paulo. The raw data contained

each announcement date by the government along with the corresponding blend ratio. The data


1 As pointed out by a reviewer, Brazilian sugar export quantities are affected by exchange rates. The purpose of
this paper is to measure the impact of changes in the blend ratio not on quantifying the impacts of exchange rates.
Even so this may not be a major constraint of our analysis since we are only doing a comparative static analyses at
one point in time











was transformed into yearly averages by taking the weighted weekly average of the blend ratio in

each fiscal year (Figure 4).


30%


25% -
o-
8
0
20% -



c 15%


0
0
10% -


S5% -


0%


YEAR



Figure 4. Blend Ratios for Anhydrous Alcohol in
(Marjotta-Maistro, M.C., University of Slo


Gas-Powered Vehicles (1970 2003)
Paulo Personal Communication).


The blend ratio was 25 percent in 1970 and then dropped to 11 percent by 1976. It

increased to 22 percent in 1985, but then decreased to 13 percent by 1990. It reached as high as

25 percent in June 2002, but was then decreased to 20 percent in January 2003. The reasons for

the changes in the government mandated blend ratio are beyond the scope of this paper. We

focus on the economic welfare implications of a change in the blend ratio. In the theoretical

model provided below, we illustrate the situation in which the blend ratio increases. However,




2 An anonymous reviewer pointed out that a major factor influencing the Government's choice of the blend ratio is
the level of domestic sugar production. Blend ratios increase when sugar production is high. In part this is done to
avoid dumping excess sugar on the world market.









the theoretical analysis can readily be adapted to the case of a decrease in the blend ratio. In the

empirical section that follows, we explore the implications of both an increase and a decrease in

the blend ratio.

Theory

Both domestic and foreign sugar markets confronting Brazil are depicted in Figure 5.

Consider the 2001 situation in which the blend ratio for anhydrous alcohol was 22 percent. The

aggregate domestic demand curve for sugarcane D0 is comprised of the horizontal sum of the

demand for anhydrous alcohol Do, the demand for hydrous alcohol (not shown), and the

domestic demand for sugar produced from sugarcane (also not shown). The aggregate supply of

sugarcane Sc is also in Figure 5.3

The initial excess supply curve ES? and the excess demand curve ED, for sugar are

shown in the right panel of Figure 3. ED, begins at point c, moves to point d, but is

discontinuous at this point, and then moves along the solid line ED, in the right panel. (The

excess demand curve ED, is comprised of the demand for sugar in the United States at a fixed

TRQ price Psus and the demand for sugar from the rest of the world (ROW).










3 Brazil obtains certain preferential treatment from key sugar importers. For example, consider
U.S. sugar imports under tariff-rate quotas (TRQ) by country from 1995/96-2000/01 under WTO
regulations. The Dominican Republic was the largest exporter of sugar to the United States,
receiving 185,346 mt of the TRQ allotment while Brazil received the second largest allotment of
the TRQ from the United States at 152,700 mt. These Brazilian exports to the United States are
priced at the U.S. internal sugar price, which in 1999 was at least three times higher than world
sugar-market prices.

















w _______________g :h n
_O e / S
w S


P 0 i D
cc
C


1D DO

QoQ Qo Q X1 Xo

Figure 5. Theoretical Model Depicting an Increase in Ethanol Blend Ratios


The excess supply curve for Brazilian sugar ES? is derived from the domestic supply

curve Sc and demand curve Dc for sugarcane, but the intercept of the excess supply curve ESi is

higher than what would be the case if the right panel represented sugarcane. This is because the

demand in the foreign sugar market is for refined sugar. Hence, all prices and quantities in the

foreign sugar market have been converted into sugarcane-equivalent form. The difference

between the equilibrium price of refined sugar in sugarcane-equivalent form po and the

equilibrium price of sugarcane in the domestic market Pc is the processing and handling cost of

getting sugarcane to the foreign market in its refined form. Under a low anhydrous/gasoline

blend ratio, sugar exports in sugarcane-equivalent form total X. The aggregate domestic demand

for sugarcane from all four sources is Q3. Under this scenario, sugarcane-producer surplus equals

area Pcbo +cdef Consumer surplus is comprised of domestic sugar-processor surplus, anhydrous-

alcohol surplus, hydrous-alcohol surplus, and foreign-sugar surplus and can be measured as long

as consumption is kept in sugarcane-equivalent form. Aggregate domestic-consumer surplus is










equal to area Poi in Figure 5. Measures of consumer surplus for individual sectors can also be

calculated, but are not shown. ROW welfare from trading with Brazil is equal to areaflm in the

right panel of Figure 5.

An increase in the blend ratio of anhydrous alcohol in gasoline shifts the domestic

demand for anhydrous alcohol outward from Do to D' causing the aggregate demand curve for

sugarcane to shift from Do to Di in the left panel (Figure 5). This causes the excess demand

curve, EDs, to shift to Es8 resulting in an equilibrium world price for sugar in sugarcane-

equivalent form P,. Brazil exports X1 and domestic production is increased to Qs. Producer

surplus is now equal to area P ao+cdhg, and aggregate domestic-consumer surplus equals area

Pjsr. ROW welfare from trading with Brazil is area mnh in the right panel of Figure 5.

Comparing producer and consumer welfare yields the following results. The change in

producer surplus is area PcabPj ghfe. This amount is always positive since area PcbaP] > gnle >

ghfe. Hence, producers always gain. The change in aggregate domestic-consumer surplus is area

P sr-oij, which can be either positive or negative depending upon its relative elasticities.

Finally, the net importers (ROW) lose area gnle due to higher export prices and lower exports.4

However, ROW sugar cane producers gain welfare due to the increased world sugar price.









4 As a reviewer correctly points out, this model may well underestimate the impact of a change in the blend ratio on
producer welfare. If the blend ratio is in part dependent on sugar production, a shift in the demand curve as a result
in the change in the blend ratio also is correlated with a shift in the supply curve. We have only modeled a shift in
the demand schedule due to a change in the blend ratio. A more elaborate model would have to take both shifts into
account. However, note that later, we model the effect of risk aversion. In this case we deal with both demand and
supply shifts. Still this model has to be extended to deal specifically with the effect of over supply of sugar on the
blend ratio.









Empirical Results Associated with a Change in the Blend Ratio

In order to empirically estimate the welfare effects of changes in the blend ratio we

proceed as follows. First, we use the 1998/99 2000/01 three-year average as a benchmark

based on actual data regarding the blend ratio, supply, and demand over a range of plausible

assumptions regarding the shape of the supply and demand curves. Using the data available, the

three-year weighted weekly average of blend ratios from 1998/99 2000/01 was approximately

22 percent. After we obtain empirical results associated with the benchmark, simulations are

performed to determine the effects of a decrease in the blend ratio to 20 percent, and an increase

in the blend ratio to 24 percent. In order to derive our simulation results, we assume linear

supply, demand, and excess demand curves. We use the 1998/99-2000/01 three-year average as

a benchmark for our simulation. The simulations are run using different sets of values for the

price elasticity of domestic sugarcane demand, the price elasticity of domestic sugarcane supply,

and the price elasticity of excess demand for sugar in the ROW. These elasticities represent a

range of possible parameters over which the true outcome would most likely be contained. The

three-year average sugar price in the U.S. over this period was U.S. $20.51 cents per pound. This

number, along with the average U.S. TRQ of 152.7 mt, is used for both the benchmark and the

simulations associated with a change in the blend ratio.

In order to obtain estimates of welfare effects, we converted all values to their sugarcane-

equivalent form. This is accomplished using data on the percentage of sugarcane used for sugar

production against the percentage used for anhydrous and hydrous alcohol. Taking the 1998/99-

2000/01 average values for production of these three different products made from sugarcane

and converting them to sugarcane-equivalent form, the following conversion rates are calculated


5 The methodology used here has a strong support in empirical economics. For a detailed justification of our
approach see Just, Hueth and Schmitz, 1982.









from actual data over the base period, and are assumed to remain fixed from the base period to

the simulation period. The average conversion rate for sugar with respect to sugarcane over the

three-year benchmark period was calculated as 13.39 percent. This implies that one metric tonne

of sugarcane yields approximately 133.9 kilograms of sugar. The conversion rate for alcohol

with respect to sugarcane was computed by aggregating anhydrous and hydrous alcohol and

taking the average over the benchmark period. The average conversion rate for ethanol was

calculated as 7.95 percent of 1000 liters per metric tonne. Hence, one metric tonne of sugarcane

is used in the production of 79.5 liters of alcohol. Quantities for all sugarcane uses are converted

to sugarcane-equivalent form using these rates of conversion. The sugarcane price received by

farmers is in sugarcane-equivalent form. As a point of reference, the change in the world sugar

price is converted back to refined-sugar by inverting the aforementioned conversion rate.

Once the benchmark is established, two sets of simulations are performed in order to

obtain empirical results for the impact of a change in the blend ratio over a typical marketing

year. The first set simulates an increase in the blend ratio from 22 to 24 percent. This reflects

what actually occurred at one point during 2002. The second set simulates a decrease in the

blend ratio from 22 to 20 percent, which reflects what was announced in January 2003. Results

are obtained under low, medium, and high price elasticities. In the low-sensitivity case, the

initial values for the demand elasticity are set at -0.5, the supply elasticity is set at 0.5, and the

excess demand elasticity is set to -2.0. In the medium-sensitivity case, the demand elasticity is

set to -1.0, the supply elasticity is set to 1.0 and the excess demand elasticity is set to -5.0. In

the high-sensitivity case, the demand elasticity is set to -2.0, the supply elasticity is set to 2.0,

and the excess demand elasticity is set to -20.









An Increase in the Blend Ratio from 22 to 24 Percent

The empirical results associated with an increase in the ratio of anhydrous alcohol used in

gasoline from 22 to 24 percent are provided in Table 2. The first column associated with each

set of elasticities gives the absolute difference between a 22 percent blend ratio and a 24 percent

blend ratio. The second column indicates the percentage change associated with the increase in

the blend ratio. All prices are converted to U.S. dollars for comparison purposes only, and all

prices and quantities are given in sugarcane-equivalent form. For example, the first entry in the

table shows a U.S. 31 cents per metric tonne increase in the cane price received by farmers. This

number is given in U.S. dollars per metric tonne of raw sugarcane. The second entry shows a

U.S. $2.30 per metric tonne increase in the world sugar price. In this context, the world sugar

price is given in U.S. dollars per metric tonne of sugarcane equivalent, meaning that you would

have to convert this to the world price for processed sugar by using the average conversion rate

from sugarcane to sugar for the 1998/99-2000/01 period of 13.39%. Hence, dividing U.S. $2.30

by 13.39 percent would yield a change of U.S. $67.85 per metric tonne in the actual price for

refined sugar.

As the results in Table 2 indicate, an increase in the blend ratio from 22 to 24 percent

causes the amount of cane used for anhydrous alcohol production to rise by between 8.9 and 18.2

mmt, an increase of between 12 and 24.7 percent. This increase in the use of sugarcane for

anhydrous alcohol causes a partial substitution away from domestic refined sugar, domestic

hydrous alcohol, and refined sugar export markets. Hence, the sugarcane used for both domestic

sugar and hydrous alcohol drops by between 1.6 and 2.6 percent. In addition, refined sugar

exports drop by between 2.6 and 10.3 percent. This drop in the quantity of sugar exported by

Brazil causes a shortage in the world market place, increasing the world sugar price by between










1.3 and 0.5 percent. However, the aggregate quantity of sugarcane produced and consumed in

Brazil rises due to the increase in the demand for sugarcane cause by the increase in the blend

ratio. Total cane consumption rises from between 2.8 and 6.2 percent. Total cane production

rises by between 1.6 and 2.6 percent. The difference is made up by the drop in sugar exports.


Table 2: An Increase in the Blend Ratio for Anhydrous Alcohol used in Gasoline from 22 to 24 Percent.
Low Sensitivity Medium Sensitivity High Sensitivity
Absolute Percentage Absolute Percentage Absolute Percentage
Differencea Difference Differencea Difference Differencea Difference
Cane Price Received by Farmers ($/MT) $0.31 3.2% $0.20 2.1% $0.12 1.3%
World Sugar Price ($/MT) $2.30 1.3% $1.47 0.8% $0.92 0.5%
Cane Used for Domestic Sugar (mmt) -1.1 -1.6% -1.4 -2.1% -1.7 -2.6%
Cane Used for Anhydrous Alcohol (mmt) 8.9 12.0% 11.9 16.1% 18.2 24.7%
Cane Used for Hydrous Alcohol (mmt) -1.4 -1.6% -1.8 -2.1% -2.3 -2.6%
Cane Exported as Sugar to ROW (mmt) -1.7 -2.6% -2.6 -4.1% -6.6 -10.3%
Total Cane Consumption (mmt) 6.4 2.8% 8.7 3.8% 14.2 6.2%
Total Cane Production (mmt) 4.7 1.6% 6.1 2.1% 7.6 2.6%

Sugar Consumer Surplus -$20 -3.2% -$13 -4.1% -$8 -5.1%
Anhydrous Consumer Surplus $180 25.5% $123 34.9% $98 55.5%
Hydrous Consumer Surplus -$27 -3.2% -$17 -4.1% -$11 -5.1%
Aggregate Domestic Consumer Surplus $133 6.0% $93 8.5% $79 14.4%
Domestic Producer Surplus $91 4.2% $58 4.1% $37 5.0%
Aggregate Domestic Welfare $224 5.2% $151 6.0% $116 9.1%
ROW Sugar Processor Surplus -$20 -5.0% -$12 -8.0% -$8 -19.4%
aMeasures an increase in the blend ratio from 22 to 24 percent over the benchmark period (1998/99-2000/01).
*All prices were converted to U.S. dollars for ease of comparison only.
**All welfare results are in millions of U.S. dollars.
Low Sensitivity Results use initial values of demand elasticity = -0.5, supply elasticity = 0.5, and excess demand elasticity = -2.0
Medium Sensitivity Results use initial values of demand elasticity = -1.0, supply elasticity = 1.0, and excess demand elasticity = -5.0
High Sensitivity Results use initial values of demand elasticity = -2.0, supply elasticity = 2.0, and excess demand elasticity = -20


The aggregate consumer surplus for sugar processors, anhydrous-alcohol processors, and

hydrous-alcohol producers combined is also provided in Table 2. Note that these sectors are

technically consumers in this model because they are the ones purchasing the sugarcane from

producers. Aggregate consumer surplus for all three domestic uses of sugarcane combined

increases by between U.S. $79 and U.S. $133 million annually. In addition, the surplus accruing









to sugarcane producers increases by between U.S. $37 million and U.S. $91 annually. Finally,

aggregate welfare in the Brazilian sugar sector increases by between U.S. $116 million and U.S.

$224 million.6 In other words, Brazilian sugarcane producers would receive a subsidy of

between U.S. $79 and U.S. $133 million per year if the blend ratio for anhydrous alcohol used in

gasoline were increased from 22 to 24 percent.

A Decrease in the Blend Ratio from 22 to 20 Percent

The empirical results associated with a decrease in the ratio of anhydrous alcohol used in

gasoline from 22 to 20 percent are provided in Table 3. The entries in this table are similar the

corresponding entries in table 2. The results in the top half of table 3 are all inverses of the

corresponding top half of Table 2. This is because the behavioral equations are all assumed to be

linear. For example, a decrease in the blend ratio from 22 to 20 percent causes the amount of

cane used for anhydrous alcohol production to fall by between 8.9 and 18.2 mmt, a decrease of

between 12 and 24.7 percent.

However, the bottom half of Table 3 is more interesting because surplus measures are not

linear, even though their bounds are determined by linear functions. Aggregate consumer

surplus for all three domestic uses of sugarcane combined decreases by between U.S. $57 and

U.S. $112 million annually if the blend ratio is decreased from 22 to 20 percent. In addition, the

surplus accruing to sugarcane producers decreases by between U.S. $36 million and U.S. $90

annually. Finally, aggregate welfare in the Brazilian sugar sector decreases by between U.S. $93

million and U.S. $201 million annually. However, sugar exports increase by between 2.6 and

10.3 percent as a result of a government policy that lowers the blend ratio from 22 to 20 percent.




6 Of course, this latter number does not include the losses accruing to crude-oil producers, crude-oil importers, etc.
On the other hand, it does not include the gains accruing to Brazilian society in general due to the fact that ethanol
has been shown to be more environmental friendly than gasoline made from crude oil.










Table 3: A Decrease in the Blend Ratio for Anhydrous Alcohol used in Gasoline from 22 to 20 Percent.
Low Sensitivity Medium Sensitivity High Sensitivity
Absolute Percentage Absolute Percentage Absolute Percentage


Cane Price Received by Farmers ($/MT)
World Sugar Price ($/MT)
Cane Used for Domestic Sugar (mmt)
Cane Used for Anhydrous Alcohol (mmt)
Cane Used for Hydrous Alcohol (mmt)
Cane Exported as Sugar to ROW (mmt)
Total Cane Consumption (mmt)
Total Cane Production (mmt)

Sugar Consumer Surplus
Anhydrous Consumer Surplus
Hydrous Consumer Surplus
Aggregate Domestic Consumer Surplus
Domestic Producer Surplus
Aggregate Domestic Welfare
ROW Sugar Processor Surplus


Differencea Difference
-$0.31 -3.2%
-$2.30 -1.3%
1.1 1.6%
-8.9 -12.0%
1.4 1.6%
1.7 2.6%
-6.4 -2.8%
-4.7 -1.6%


$21
-$160
$28
-$112
-$90
-$201
$20


3.2%
-22.6%
3.2%
-5.1%
-4.2%
-4.6%
5.2%


Differencea Difference
-$0.20 -2.1%
-$1.47 -0.8%
1.4 2.1%
-11.9 -16.1%
1.8 2.1%
2.6 4.1%
-8.7 -3.8%
-6.1 -2.1%


$13
-$105
$18
-$74
-$57
-$131
$13


4.2%
-29.7%
4.2%
-6.7%
-4.0%
-5.2%
8.3%


Differencea Difference
-$0.12 -1.3%
-$0.92 -0.5%
1.7 2.6%
-18.2 -24.7%
2.3 2.6%
6.6 10.3%
-14.2 -6.2%
-7.6 -2.6%


$8
-$77
$11
-$57
-$36
-$93
$8


5.2%
-43.3%
5.2%
-10.4%
-4.9%
-7.3%
21.5%


aMeasures a decrease in the blend ratio from 22 to 20 percent over the benchmark period (1998/99-2000/01).
*All prices were converted to U.S. dollars for ease of comparison only.
**All welfare results are in millions of U.S. dollars.
Low Sensitivity Results use initial values of demand elasticity = -0.5, supply elasticity = 0.5, and excess demand elasticity = -2.0
Medium Sensitivity Results use initial values of demand elasticity = -1.0, supply elasticity = 1.0, and excess demand elasticity = -5.0
High Sensitivity Results use initial values of demand elasticity = -2.0, supply elasticity = 2.0, and excess demand elasticity = -20



ETHANOL POLICY AND SUGARCANE SUPPLY RESPONSE

Theory

In the previous analysis, while we did account for a change in the quantity of sugarcane

supplied, we did not consider an actual shift in the supply curve that might also accompany a

change in the blend ratio. The theoretical implication of a shift in the supply curve is illustrated

in Figure 6, which provides a simplified version of Figure 5. The supply of sugarcane is given

by Ss. Total demand is given by DT (assuming a 20 percent blend ratio), which includes not only

the domestic demand for sugarcane for fuel but also the domestic demand for sugar (Ds) and the

export demand for sugar ED. In equilibrium, the price is pl, and qi of output is produced.









Suppose now that the Government decides to increase the blend ratio for fuel. This shifts

the total demand for sugar to DT'. For sugarcane growers, the price increases to p2. Output

increases to q2. However, what if producers are "risk averse" and respond to the policy under the

perception that increased policy certainty is added to the market? Supply now shifts to Ss1 (Just,

Hueth, and Schmitz, 1982). As a result, output increases further to q3. But note that, in this

particular case, prices are not affected by the change in the blend ratio (the supply curve, in the

short run, is much more inelastic than drawn in Figure 4, at least for prices below pi). As a

result, exports are unaffected as is the domestic consumption of sugar. The use of sugarcane for

fuel clearly increased. Here is a case where policy is production distorting but not trade

distorting.




Ss

Ss1

P2 e ,i

d\
Pi c



a 1 \ DT

b


1 1
q2 q3 qi q2 q3

Figure 6. Risk Averse Supply Response









Compare the situation with the standard price support export trade model used in most

PSE calculations. With price support deficiency payment type schemes, a wedge is driven

between domestic and world prices where domestic prices rise and world prices fall. However,

this is clearly not the case with the Brazilian fuel program.

Several points should be noted concerning the above discussions. First, given that the

Government changes the blend ratio from time to time, producers may not perceive any risk

reducing effects from this policy. If so, the supply curve in figure 4 does not shift to Ss1.

Second, if there is a positive risk averse effect from the Brazilian ethanol program, then the

magnitude of the hidden subsidy calculated without the supply response shift is understated.

Third, depending on the magnitude of the supply curve shift, world sugar prices may go up,

down, or remain unchanged as a result of the ethanol program. If the supply curve were to shift

between Ss and S' in Figure 4, the world price of sugar would increase, as was the earlier case

with no supply shift. However, for supply shifts beyond S' the price of world sugar would fall,

clearly distorting both production and trade.

Empirical Results

The empirical results for the case described in Figure 6 are presented in Table 4. We

show the effect of an increase in the blend ratio from 22 to 24 percent accompanied by an

outward shift in the supply curve for sugarcane that moves the price back to its original level.

When the increase is accompanied by a corresponding shift in the supply schedule that keeps

prices unchanged, the following results are obtained:

(1) Exports and domestic consumption of sugar are unaffected.

(2) Sugarcane output is increased but the increase is used entirely for alcohol production.










(3) The supply response due to risk adverse behaviour by producers does not drive a

wedge between domestic and foreign prices.

(4) Producer welfare is increased from between U.S. $96 million and U.S. $129 million.

Table 4: An increase in the blend ratio of Anhydrous Alcohol from Sugarcane in Brazil from 22 to 24 percent
under Producer Risk Aversion.
Low Sensitivity Medium Sensitivity High Sensitivity
Absolute Percentage Absolute Percentage Absolute Percentage


Cane Price Received by Farmers ($/MT)
World Sugar Price ($/MT)
Cane Used for Domestic Sugar (mmt)
Cane Used for Anhydrous Alcohol (mmt)
Cane Used for Hydrous Alcohol (mmt)
Cane Exported as Sugar to ROW (mmt)
Total Cane Consumption (mmt)
Total Cane Production (mmt)


Differencea Difference
$0.00 0.0%
$0.00 0.0%
0.0 0.0%
10.1 12.0%
0.0 0.0%
0.0 0.0%
10.1 4.2%
10.1 3.3%


Differencea Difference
$0.00 0.0%
$0.00 0.0%
0.0 0.0%
13.4 15.4%
0.0 0.0%
0.0 0.0%
13.4 5.5%
13.4 4.4%


Differencea Difference
$0.00 0.0%
$0.00 0.0%
0.0 0.0%
20.1 21.4%
0.0 0.0%
0.0 0.0%
20.1 8.1%
20.1 6.4%


Sugar Consumer Surplus $0 0.0% $0 0.0% $0 0.0%
Anhydrous Consumer Surplus $206 22.6% $140 28.4% $110 38.3%
Hydrous Consumer Surplus $0 0.0% $0 0.0% $0 0.0%
Aggregate Domestic Consumer Surplus $206 8.6% $140 11.3% $110 16.6%
Domestic Producer Surplus $96 4.3% $129 8.2% $100 12.0%
Aggregate Domestic Welfare $302 6.5% $269 9.6% $209 14.1%
ROW Sugar Processor Surplus $0 0.0% $0 0.0% $0 0.0%
aMeasures an increase in the blend ratio from 22 to 24 percent over the benchmark period (1998/99-2000/01) accompanied by a subsequent
outward shift in the supply curve that moves the price back to its original level.
*All prices were converted to U.S. dollars for ease of comparison only.
**All welfare results are in millions of U.S. dollars.
Low Sensitivity Results use initial values of demand elasticity = -0.5, supply elasticity = 0.5, and excess demand elasticity = -2.0
Medium Sensitivity Results use initial values of demand elasticity = -1.0, supply elasticity = 1.0, and excess demand elasticity = -5.0
High Sensitivity Results use initial values of demand elasticity = -2.0, supply elasticity = 2.0, and excess demand elasticity = -20


An increase in the blend ratio from 22 to 24 percent, accompanied by an outward shift in

the supply curve for sugarcane that keeps the sugarcane price constant, causes sugarcane

production to increase by between 3.3 and 6.4 percent. and an 8 percent increase in total sugar

cane production. The welfare of anhydrous alcohol consumers and producers are affected. The

surplus for anhydrous alcohol consumers (processors that mix anhydrous alcohol with crude oil

to make gasoline) rises by between 8.6 and 16.6 percent, which translates to an increase of









between $110 and $206 million annually. Also, aggregate producer surplus increases between

U.S. $96 million and U.S. $129 million annually. Aggregate domestic welfare increases between

U.S. $209 million and U.S. $302 annually. Refined sugar producers, hydrous alcohol producers,

and refined sugar exporters are unaffected, because the supply schedule adjusts in order to keep

these prices constant.

CONCLUSIONS
Brazilian sugarcane producers receive indirect subsidies through Brazil's fuel-

alcohol program. If Brazilian sugarcane producers are risk neutral, an increase in the blend ratio

from 22 to 24 percent will raise the domestic price of sugarcane by between 1.3 and 3.2 percent.

Both Brazilian and ROW sugarcane producers would benefit from these price increases.

Brazilian producers would receive between U.S. $37 and U.S. $91 million annually in indirect

sugarcane subsidies from an increase in the blend ratio. If the blend ratio were to decrease from

22 to 20 percent and Brazilian producers are risk neutral, producers would lose U.S.$36 to U.S.

$90 million annually. Some advocates who promote the production and use of fuel alcohol in

Brazil foresee the development of a substantial fuel-alcohol-export market. In 2002 only about

0.5 to 1.0 billion liters of production are exported annually. To help promote the trade

globalization of ethanol, Brazil is providing information on the economics and technological

aspects of ethanol production and trade worldwide.

If Brazilian sugarcane producers are risk averse, there will be a supply response to

Brazilian fuel policy. In this case, the size of producer subsidies is larger than in the absence of

risk aversion effects. Specifically, if the Brazilian government dictates an increase in the

alcohol/gas blend ratio, both the demand and supply curves for Brazilian sugarcane will shift

outward to the right. World sugar prices can fall due to an increase in the blend ratio making the

Government policy trade distorting.









Further research should extend the above models to account for the various factors that

likely influence the Government's decision on setting blend ratios. A complete model would

incorporate not only demand effects from changing blend rates but also the supply of sugar that

effects the choice of blend rates.









REFERENCES


FNP. (2002) Agrianual 2001 Anuario da Agricultura Brasileira. Sao Paulo, Brazil.

JOB Economica. (2002) Weekly Sugar andAlcohol Report (4 April). Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Peter Buzzanell & Associates, Inc. (2000) The Brazilian Sugar and Alcohol Industry: 2000 and

Beyond. Reston, VA (June).

Just R., D. Hueth, and A. Schmitz. Applied Welfare for Economics and Public Policy: Prentice

Hall, 1982.

Schmitz, Andrew, Troy G. Schmitz, and James L. Seale, Jr. "Brazil as a Dominant Player in the

World Sweetener Market: Do Prices Matter." FAO Third International Sugar

Conference, Maputo, Mozambique, October 2002.

Schmitz, Troy G., James L. Seale, Jr., and Peter J. Buzzanell. "Brazil's Domination of the

World Sugar Market." In Sugar and Related Sweetener Markets in the 21st Century.

International Implications, edited by Andrew Schmitz, Thomas Spreen, Charles B.

Moss, and William Messina. Wallington, England: CABI Publishers, November 2002.

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). (Various years) Sugar and Sweetener

Situation Outlook Yearbook. Market and Trade Economics Division, Economic Research

Service, Washington, DC.

(2001) Brazil Sugar Semi-Annual Report. Sao Paulo, Brazil: U.S. Agricultural Trade Office,

October.




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