Group Title: Working paper - International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center. University of Florida ; WPTC 05-07
Title: Institutional and socioeconomic model of farm mechanization and foreign workers
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Title: Institutional and socioeconomic model of farm mechanization and foreign workers
Series Title: Working paper - International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center. University of Florida ; WPTC 05-07
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Language: English
Creator: Napasintuwong, Orachos
Emerson, Robert D.
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Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: July 2005
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WPTC 05-07


I '-ional Agricultural Trade and Policy Center



INSTITUTIONAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC MODEL OF FARM
MECHANIZATION AND FOREIGN WORKERS
By
Orachos Napasintuwong, & Robert D. Emerson

WPTC 05-07 July 2005


WORKING PAPER SERIES


'V


i~fr


UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA


Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences









INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE AND POLICY CENTER


THE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE AND POLICY CENTER
(IATPC)

The International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center (IATPC) was established in 1990
in the Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences (IFAS) at the University of Florida
(UF). The mission of the Center is to conduct a multi-disciplinary research, education and
outreach program with a major focus on issues that influence competitiveness of specialty
crop agriculture in support of consumers, industry, resource owners and policy makers.
The Center facilitates collaborative research, education and outreach programs across
colleges of the university, with other universities and with state, national and
international organizations. The Center's objectives are to:

* Serve as the University-wide focal point for research on international trade,
domestic and foreign legal and policy issues influencing specialty crop agriculture.
* Support initiatives that enable a better understanding of state, U.S. and international
policy issues impacting the competitiveness of specialty crops locally, nationally,
and internationally.
* Serve as a nation-wide resource for research on public policy issues concerning
specialty crops.
* Disseminate research results to, and interact with, policymakers; research, business,
industry, and resource groups; and state, federal, and international agencies to
facilitate the policy debate on specialty crop issues.









INSTITUTIONAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC MODEL OF FARM
MECHANIZATION AND FOREIGN WORKERS




Orachos Napasintuwong
International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center
Food and Resource Economics Department
PO Box 110240
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
onapasi@ufl.edu


Robert D. Emerson
International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center
Food and Resource Economics Department
PO Box 110240
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
remerson@ufl.edu


Selected Paper prepared for presentation at the American Agricultural Economics
Association Annual Meeting, Providence, Rhode Island, July24-27, 2005




Copyright 2005 by Orachos Napasintuwong and Robert D. Emerson. All rights reserved.
Readers may make verbatim copies of this documentfor non-commercial purposes by any
means, provided that this copyright notice appears on all such copies.









INSTITUTIONAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC MODEL OF FARM
MECHANIZATION AND FOREIGN WORKERS


Introduction

The United States has a long history of technological innovation in agriculture.

The recent focus of technological development in agriculture has been on agricultural

biotechnology and farm mechanization. The development of farm mechanization

received special attention following changes in immigration policy in 1986, the

Immigration Reform and Control Act. The uncertainty of labor availability and

difficulties associated with hiring foreign workers are argued to induce the development

of advanced labor-saving technology such as mechanical harvesters in labor intensive

agricultural production. Several previous studies on technological change adopted the

induced innovation theory developed by Hayami and Ruttan. Although their basic theory

of induced innovation can explain the pattern of technological change, subsequent

variations in the theory generate additional insights.

First, the standard theory of induced innovations is applied in a comparative

statics framework, but does not explain the mechanism of technological change. Second,

the theory assumes that prices are the major (if not the only) driving force of

technological innovation. The original induced innovation theory assumed market

perfection, although producers and other agents often face different prices, and thus do

not necessarily demand the same technology. Specifically, producers with different

demands for technology may not have the same political power to influence the supply of

the technology. Consequently, the supply of technology is influenced not only by prices,

but also by the political pressure from different economic agents having different









interests. In other words, different transaction costs of various market agents may distort

the technological developments from the social optimum. Finally, the basic theory does

not consider the importance of the changing social and institutional environment that

often influences the direction of technological change.

The new direction of induced innovation theory emphasizes the role of

institutions and their relationship with technological change as suggested by Binswanger;

de Janvry (1973, 1978); de Janvry, Fafchamps, and Sadoulet; Roumasset; and Ruttan.

Previous empirical studies of technological change largely ignore the importance of the

socioeconomic and institutional environment. To our knowledge, de Janvry, et al. are the

fist to develop an empirical model of induced innovation that includes transaction costs.

Their study assumes that each producer demands a different technology based on farm

size. The explanatory variables are chosen to reflect the price, structural, institutional, and

political determinants of factor biases. The results based on 27 developed countries

indicate that the structural, institutional, and political variables (farm size, farm

distribution, and research budget) indeed affect the direction of technological change.

We, Napasintuwong and Emerson (2003), also developed an empirical socioeconomic

model of induced innovation based on a cost minimization model. Our study in 2003

incorporated the socioeconomic variables believed to influence the change of agricultural

technology, particularly to explain the path of farm mechanization in the presence of

foreign workers in U.S. agriculture. In that study, we included the number of deportable

aliens, argued to represent changes in immigration and labor policy enforcement. Also

included were government payments on conservation programs and the market share of

large producers to reflect the importance of the size of producer in determining the









direction of technological change.

In this paper, the social and institutional structure that can influence the direction

of technological change is emphasized. In order to understand the determinants of

technological development in the U.S., particularly farm mechanization in the context of

immigration policy, we emphasize the characteristics of the labor market and the role of

government in the development of farm mechanization resulting from immigration policy

concerns. The variables most closely associated with immigration policy are changes in

the number of unauthorized farm workers (which reflects the stringency of policy

enforcement) and changes in the number of temporary guest workers in agriculture (H-

2A). In addition, the budget allocation among biological efficiency, mechanization,

noncommercial biotech and biometry, and pesticides and herbicides of publicly funded

agricultural research is assumed to reflect the demand for technology through the political

institutions, and is included in the analysis. Private research expenditures respond more

directly to market incentives, and have a different pattern than public expenditures, and

are also included.



Methodology

A multi-output translog cost function model is adopted in this study. The

direction of input use indicates the biased technological change as defined by the theory

of induced innovation. A time variable is included in the model to represent the state of

technology. The socioeconomic variables are also included to capture their effects on the

rate of biased technological change. The parameter estimates of the translog cost










function provide estimates for elasticities of factor demand and elasticities of factor

substitution.

Model

The model assumes multiple agricultural outputs and multiple inputs, and that the

mixture of outputs as well as input prices may affect the relative use of inputs at the

optimal cost minimization. The production of m agricultural products Q = (Qi, Q2,...,

Qm) at output prices P = (P1, P2,..., Pm) requires n variable inputs X = (Xi, X2,..., Xn) with

a vector of input prices W = (W1, W2,..., Wn) and fixed input K = (K1, K2,..., Ki) at price

R = (R1, R2,..., Ri). Using time as representative of technological knowledge, production

cost is therefore a function of output quantities, variable input prices, fixed input

quantities, and the technology variable. This model, we assume only one fixed input,

land. Thus, the translog cost function C = f(W1,..., Wn, P1, P2,..., Pm, K, t) can be written

as

n 1 m 1 m
lnC=vo+ vlnW+-l, 1n lnWIn + a, InQ, +- Z InQInQ,
1 2 ,1 J=l r=l 2 r, s
1 m 2 m
+- 3,lnQI lnW,+ vklnK+wk(lnK)2 +L,In InK+L ulnQlnK (1)
Sr=1 r=
nm
+vlnt +o),(lnt)2 + Zo)lnWnt+Z lnQrlnt +(plnKlnt
il r=\

A cost function linearly homogeneous in variable input prices implies that


S= 1; /, = ; J Y ; = 0.


In addition, a symmetry restriction is also assumed to hold.

Y1 = Y ; Ars = Asr for all i, j, i # j and all r, s, r # s










Utilizing Shepard's Lemma, OC/OWi = Xi, the first derivative of a translog cost function

with respect to an input price generates the input share equation.

O1nC XW
lnC = S i = 1,..., n (2)
8lnW, C

n m
S, = v, + ,, lnWj + ,, InQ +, InK + nt i 1,...,n (3)
J=1 r=1

Assuming that marginal cost equals output price in the perfectly competitive market,

dC/aQr = Pr, we obtain a revenue share equation from

SInC P, Q
In Qr C Y r 1,..., m (4)
8lnQr C

m n
Y, = a, +I hrs In Qs + 6 IlnW, + Inr K + $,lnt r= 1,...,m (5)
s=1 1=1

From equation (3), we can see that a change in the factor share is a result of changes in

factor prices, output quantities, the fixed input, and a change in the state of technology.

Applying the induced innovation theory, the direction of bias in technological change is

measured by the change in the factor share, given that relative factor prices, level of

outputs and fixed inputs remain constant. In a multi-input case, a bias in technological

change of input i (Bi) is defined as input i-saving, i-neutral, or i-using if the share of

factor i in variable costs decreases, stays constant, or increases.

< [i saving
dS, 1
B, I relative factor price, output, fixed input t S, 1 0 neutral (6)
> u sin g


A technological bias can be calculated from dSi*

dS = ,d In t i= ,...,n (7)









where dSi* is changes in the factor share as a result of changes only in the technology

variable. From equation (7), the sign of ci determines the bias of technical change, and

coi, can be interpreted as a constant rate of bias of factor i during the study period. We

assume that the socioeconomic factors such as immigration policy and public research

expenditures endogenously influence the rate of biased technological change. As a result,

we estimate the bias as a function of those factors. The vector of socioeconomic and

institutional factors is Z = (Zi, Z2,..., Zi). The input share equation in equation (3) can

then be written as

n m L
S, =v, + 1, InW, +j InQ,+0,InK+(a, + bZ,)lnt i= ,...,n (8)
]=1 r=l 1=1

Similarly, we can estimate the impact of technological advance on changes in

output prices for given factor prices, levels of output quantities, and a fixed input. For a

multi-output production, an alteration in product prices (Ar) is defined as output price r-

decreasing, r-neutral, or r-rising if the revenue share of output r in variable costs

decreases, remains constant, or increases.

< r decrea sing
Ar relative factor price, output, fixed input Y 0 neutral (9)
> r -rising

The alteration in product price can be calculated from dYi*, a change in revenue share as

a result of changes only in the technology variable.

dYl = Idlnt r 1,...,m (10)

The sign of 4r indicates the direction of output price alteration, and the magnitude of 4r is

the rate of output price alteration.









The price elasticities of factor demand (rij) may be calculated from the parameter

estimates of input share equations as follows.


r1 = + S for alli,j;i j (11)


i = S, -1 for alli (12)
S1

Most studies of technological change use the Allen elasticity of substitution; we

instead adopt the Morishima elasticity of substitution (MES). Blackorby and Russell

(1989) show that MES preserves the original Hicks concept of measuring the effect of

changes in the capital/labor ratio on the relative shares of labor and capital, or the

measurement of the curvature of the isoquant. It measures the curvature, determines the

effects of changes in price or quantity ratios on relative factor shares, and is the log

derivative of a quantity ratio with respect to a marginal rate of substitution.

The MES in cost minimization is defined as

8ln(X* /X*')
MES1 = l (13)
S aln(W /W,)

where X*i's are the optimal cost minimizing inputs, and Wj's are the input prices.

Applying Shephard's Lemma and homogeneity of the cost function, and assuming that

the percentage change in the price ratio is only induced by Pj,

PC PC
MESj =- (14)
SC, Ci

MESj = 1l 1A (15)

The Morishima elasticity of substitution (MESij) can be calculated from the

parameter estimates. Unlike the Allen elasticity of substitution, MES is not symmetric,









but depends on which input price changes. Two inputs are substitutes if the MES >0, and

are complements if MES<0.

Data

The input prices are quality-adjusted prepared by Eldon Ball, Economic Research

Service, USDA. One difference between using this data set and the published production

account data is that we could aggregate the contract labor with other types of labor (self-

employed and hired) instead of including it in the material inputs category in the

published series. The input data include price indices and implicit quantities of aggregate

inputs, providing total variable cost and input shares. We use the study period from 1971

to 1995 for the United States. There are four variable inputs capital, labor, chemicals,

and materials; one fixed input land; and three outputs perishable crops, cereals, and all

other outputs. Capital includes autos, trucks, tractors, other machinery, inventory, and

buildings. Labor includes self-employed labor, contract labor, and hired labor.

Chemicals are comprised of pesticides and herbicides, and materials include feed, seeds,

and livestock purchases. Perishable crops include horticultural products, vegetables,

fruits and nuts. Livestock, forage, potatoes, industrial crops, household consumption

crops, secondary products, and all other products are included in other outputs.

There are eleven socioeconomic variables and institutional factors to capture the

changes in political and institutional environment related to immigration policy and the

research and development of new agricultural technology. Included are the number of

deportable Mexican aliens working in agriculture, the number of H-2A workers, the

shares of public expenditures on biological efficiency, non-commodity biotechnology and









biometry, pesticides and herbicides, and mechanization, and the share of private

expenditures on plant breeding, chemicals, machinery, and veterinary pharmaceuticals.

We hypothesize that labor and machinery (or capital in our definition) are

substitutes even though some mechanical technology may not be able to replace labor,

and vice versa. As a result, the change in immigration policy which may largely change

the supply of farm labor will change the incentive for the adoption of farm

mechanization. From this perspective, we include the two variables that reflect changes in

immigration policy. First, the percentage of deportable Mexican aliens working in

agriculture relative to total hired workers represents the proportion of unauthorized farm

workers. It also characterizes the level of stringency of border crossing and internal

enforcement of unauthorized workers which is an indicator of the political market, and

the influence of anti-foreign worker activists and producers who may favor the

availability of foreign workers. A large flow of illegal workers across the border and a

high level of apprehensions reflect a lax policy. By contrast, with a very stringent policy,

there would be few apprehensions since there would be few attempts to cross the border

for work. Figure 1 shows that the percentage of the number of deportable Mexican

workers dropped dramatically after passage of IRCA in 1986. The IRCA legislation was

designed to reduce the flow of illegal workers, and the decrease in the number of

deportable Mexican workers suggests that there may have been less incentive for

unauthorized workers to cross the border, or those workers may have found jobs in other

industries where it may be less likely to be captured, or they may have become more

careful to avoid getting caught since it is more difficult to cross the border. The data on

deportable aliens are obtained from selected INS yearbooks.









The second variable is the number of H-2A workers. We use the data on H-2A

from Emerson (1988) and Martin (2004). The temporary guest workers program or H-2

program was established in 1952, and modified into the H-2A program as part of IRCA.

The H-2 and successor H-2A programs allow agricultural employers who anticipate a

shortage of domestic labor supply to apply for nonimmigrant alien workers to perform

work of a seasonal or temporary nature.1 Figure 1 displays the number of H-2A

certifications. As may be seen, the number of guest workers increased after the passage

of IRCA, but declined a few years afterwards.

Our next variable is the plant variety protection certificates (PVPCs). Intellectual

property rights have become more important in agricultural practice because of the

technological advance in biotechnology. The structure of institutions that facilitate the

protection intellectual property rights is very important for the incentive for future

development. The number of PVPCs represents both the awareness of government to

protect new knowledge and also how the public and private sector are actively involved

in the biological technology. Figure 2 shows that the number of PVPCs has increased

over time.

The next set of variables includes the public and private expenditures on research

and development of different categories of research. The shares of research expenditures

do not sum up to one because other categories are excluded in our model. The data are

obtained from Fernandez-Comejo (2004). Figure 3 displays the public research

expenditure shares, and Figure 4 displays the private research expenditure shares. As



1 H-2A workers are nonimmigrant workers certified at the request of petitioning employers for temporary
agricultural work in the U.S. Certification involves a determination that domestic workers are not available
for the work, and that the nonimmigrant workers will not adversely affect similarly employed domestic
workers.









may be seen from Figure 3, the public expenditure on mechanization is very small

compared to other technology, and seems to decline over time. From Figure 4, the share

of private expenditure on mechanization is much greater in the private sector, but also has

a decreasing trend.

Estimation

The estimates of biased technical change for each factor and the output price

alternation are obtained from the share equation estimates. There are four variable inputs

- capital, labor, chemicals, and materials; one fixed input land, and three outputs -

perishable crops, cereals, and other outputs. We assume that there are eleven

socioeconomic variables and institutional factors (as discussed in the data section) that

endogenously affect the rate of biased technological change.

A system of revenue share equations (5) and factor share equations (8) is

estimated with the homogeneity and symmetry restrictions imposed. The sum of factor

share equations (8) must equal to unity. In order to solve the singularity of the

disturbance covariance matrix, the material equation is dropped from the system, and the

price of material becomes the numeraire. All input prices in the model are relative to the

price of material. The remaining equations are estimated using seemingly unrelated

regression (SUR). We also added a dummy variable, T2, for years after 1986 to capture

the shift of the rate of bias and alteration after the passage of IRCA. Each factor share

equation can be written as

3 W 11
S,= v, +Z ln + Z6,,InQ,+, ln(land)+(a,+ZbZi+c,lT2)lnt i=1,2,3
J-1 Wmati r1= 1=1

(16)









3 3 W 11
Y, =a, +-,rs lnQ, + 16r,1n 1 +ir ln(land)+(d, +ZerkZ +frT2)lnt r= 1,2,3
s=- 1=1 Wmatl 1=1

(17)

where j includes all other variable inputs except materials, and Z1 are the eleven

socioeconomic variables.



Results

Parameter estimates of the input share equations and revenue share equations are

summarized in Table 1. The estimates of coefficients in the materials share equation and

coefficients of material price in each equation are derived from the other estimates based

on homogeneity, symmetry, and adding-up restrictions. The signs of socioeconomic

variables in each input share equation suggest the impact of those variables on the share

of input cost. It is interesting that the number of unauthorized workers has no significant

impact on the share of any input, but significantly increases the revenue shares of cereals

and other outputs. The number ofH-2A or guest workers significantly decreases the cost

share of capital, but has no significant impact on the share of labor. However, it

increases the revenue share of cereals. The public expenditure on mechanization

decreases the cost share of capital, but private expenditure on machinery increases the

cost share of capital. Public expenditure on mechanization increases the revenue share of

cereal, but decreases the revenue share of perishable crops and other outputs.

The plant variety protection certificates have no significant effect on the cost

shares of inputs, but significantly increase the revenue shares of all outputs. Private

research investment seems to have no significant influence on the cost shares of most

inputs except for the share of capital. Private investment in plant breeding and veterinary









pharmaceuticals decreases the cost share of capital, and private investment in plant

breeding increases the revenue share of cereal whereas it decreases the revenue share of

perishable crops. Public investment in biological efficiency and non-commodity

biotechnology and biometry also increases the revenue share of cereal. Public investment

in herbicides and pesticides increases the cost share of chemicals, but decreases the cost

share of labor. It also increases the revenue share of perishable crops and decreases the

revenue share of cereal.

The rates of bias of technological change for each input and the rate of output

price alteration calculated from the socioeconomic variable coefficients are estimated at

the means of each socioeconomic variable in each period, and are summarized in Table 2.

The signs of the rate of biased technological change indicate the combined effects of

socioeconomic variables on the direction of technological change. Over all, the

technological change has been biased toward labor-saving, and was capital- neutral.

After IRCA, the technology became more labor-saving while remaining capital-neutral.

The result is the similar to Binswanger's (1974a, 1974b) and Antle's results that the

technology was labor-saving in the early and mid 1900s. The total effects of

socioeconomic variables significantly increase the price of perishable crops, but decrease

the price of cereal and both at greater rates after IRCA.

The price elasticities of input demand calculated from expected shares are

reported in Table 3. The estimates of all own price elasticities of demand have negative

signs and are significant (except for labor). The elasticity of demand for capital is

inelastic whereas those of chemicals and materials are elastic. This implies that even









when the price of capital or mechanized technology became less expensive, producers did

not increase the use of it very much.

The Morishima elasticities of substitution are calculated indirectly from

elasticities of demand (equation 15). Our results show that capital and labor are

substitutes only when the price of capital changes. However, when the price of labor

changes, capital is not a significant substitute. This result is similar to our paper on the

labor substitutability, Napasintuwong and Emerson (2004), that when the price of capital

changes, the average MES of both hired labor and self-employed labor to capital are

positive during 1960-1998 in Florida. Other MESs also show that all input pairs are

significant substitutes.



Conclusions

This is our second paper to capture the impact of socioeconomic variables and

institutional factors on the changes in U.S. agricultural technology. Unlike our first paper

in 2003, we use the multi-product cost function in this paper instead of a single output

cost function so the potential effects of the socioeconomic variables on the output prices

can be estimated. We use the factors that are a more direct result of political market

pressure by using the research and investment of public and private expenditure in

agricultural technology. The plant variety protection certificates also represent

intellectual property rights in agricultural research which is evidence of how transaction

costs may be altered by the government. The two factors regarding immigration policy

are the number of unauthorized farm workers and the number of guest workers.

Incorporating these factors in our empirical study of biased technological change added









new information on the mechanism of the change in agricultural technology in addition to

the factors in our previous study.

We found that the public expenditure on mechanization has a significant impact

on reducing the cost share of capital. However, the private expenditure on machinery

increases the cost share of capital. Public expenditure on mechanization increases the

revenue share of cereal, but decreases the revenue share of perishable crops and other

outputs.

The combined effects of the socioeconomic variables on the direction of

technological change show that the technology was biased toward labor-saving, and

neutral in capital. Their effects increase the rate of labor-saving technological change

after the passage of IRCA, but have no significant impact on capital. The combined

effects of the socioeconomic variables also raise the price of perishable crops, but

decrease the price of cereal, and at higher rates following IRCA.











10 30
9 % of Deportable Mexican In Ag.
(Left Axis) 25 m
8 o
I--
7 H-2A Certificati n
6 \ (Right Axis)
5 15
4
3 10
2 5
1
0 0
'r- Co L0 rI- O( Co LO r- O( '- Co LO
I'- I'- N- N- N CI C0 O C0 C0 C0 O O0 OC OM

Year
Source: USCIS for Deportable Mexicans, and Emerson (1988) & Martin (2002) for H-2A


Figurel. Percentage of deportable Mexican aliens working in agriculture and
number of H-2A certifications




700

600

500

0 400

0- 300

200

100

0
o- c) L0 N OI -- Co L0 I- OC Co L)
I- I- I- 1- 00 00 00 00 00 CO ) O ) O O

Year
Source: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office; Fernandez-Cornejo, 2004


Figure 2. Plant variety protection certificates










18

e 16 Pesticides& Herbicides
14
12 -iological Efficiency
X
W 10 Non-commodity
0
a 8 Biotech & Biometry
S6
4
-3 Mechanization
0. 2

0
I'- I' I' I' I' CO CO CO CO CO 0 cO LO
0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0)

Year
Source:Fernandez-Cornejo, 2004 calculated from CRIS, CSREES

Figure 3. Shares of public expenditures in agricultural research and development



50
2 45
Xo Food & Kindred Prod
-40
35
0.
X 30
3.1. Ag. Chem
0 25
0 20 Machinery
S15
10 P ar ace tlca s
a. 5
0 *Plant Breeding
0 1 01 01 01 01 I1 I1 I1 I1 I1 0 1 01 01 01 001 -1 71 -


Year
Source: Fernandez-Cornejo, 2004 calculated from Klotz, Fuglie, and Pray 1995, 1998

Figure 4. Shares of private expenditures in agricultural research and development












Table 1. Parameter Estimates of the Translog Cost Function, 1971-1995
Cost Share of Revenue Share of
Variable Perishable
Capital Labor Chemicals Materials Other Outputs Cereal Crops


1 0 A A *


?nf oon*


Intercept IO.U- I 1I .LLzU I.Ui Y -LZ.LOOU Y.j-o- y.00U0 U.OIL
(4.5247) (5.8823) (5.3693) (10.9533) (14.5522) (5.6485) (6.4164)
Input Price of
0.1249* -0.1923* -0.0014 -0.0376*
Capital (0.0098) Symmetric (0.0480) (0.0218) (0.0109)
-0.0631* 0.1721* 0.0280 -0.1993* 0.0830*
Labor (0.0078) (0.0126) (0.0626) (0.0215) (0.0132)
0.0150 0.0340* -0.0175 -0.2815* 0.0584 -0.0515*
Chemicals (0.0091) (0.0118) (0.0158) (0.0738) (0.0263) (0.0157)
-0.0768* -0.1430* -0.0316 0.2515*
Materials (0.0104) (0.0123) (0.0112) (0.0236)
Quantity of Land -1.3897* -1.1348* 0.1041 2.4203* -0.6968 -1.1821* 0.1888
(0.3868) (0.4977) (0.4535) (0.9320) (1.2828) (0.5293) (0.5407)
Output Quantity of
-0.2131* 0.1164 -0.2258* 0.3225* -0.0055
Other Outputs (0.0047) (0.0608) (0.0612) (0.0950) (0.2770) Symmetric
0.0721* -0.0027 0.0147 -0.0842* 0.1161* 0.1094*
Cereal (0.0107) (0.0128) (0.0120) (0.0236) (0.0449) (0.0160)
-0.1553 -0.0212 0.0439 0.1326 -0.2596* 0.0252 -0.0026
Perishable Crops (0.0388) (0.0526) (0.0451) (0.0984) (0.0687) (0.0145) (0.0566)
Socioeconomic Variables*ln(t)
0.0331 -0.0525* 0.0314 -0.0120 0.3352 -0.1540* 0.1245 *
Intercept (0.0216) (0.0259) (0.0247) (0.0440) (0.1136) (0.0402) (0.0284)
Deportable 0.0012 -0.0009 0.00009 -0.0003 0.0064* 0.0034* 0.0012
Mexicans (0.0006) (0.0008) (0.0008) (0.0015) (0.0028) (0.0011) (0.0009)
-0.000001* -0.0000004 0.00000003 0.000002* -0.0000009 0.000001* -0.0000006
H-2A (0.0000002) (0.0000004) (0.0000003) (0.0000006) (0.000001) (0.0000004) (0.0000004)
0.000002 -0.000002 0.000008 -0.000007 0.00006* -0.00003* 0.00001*
PVPC (0.000005) (0.000006) (0.000006) (0.00001) (0.00002) (0.000009) (0.000007)
Public Biological -0.0028 0.0066* -0.0046 0.0007 -0.0117 0.0074* -0.0088*
Efficiency (0.0018) (0.0024) (0.0024) (0.0034) (0.0119) (0.0033) (0.0027)
Public Non-
Commodity 0.0092* -0.0013 -0.0044* -0.0035 -0.0002 0.0064* 0.0017
Biotech (0.0017) (0.0021) (0.0019) (0.0038) (0.0068) (0.0029) (0.0023)
0.0007 -0.0026* 0.0033 -0.0014 -0.0005 -0.0103* 0.0047*
Public Chemicals (0.0010) (0.0013) (0.0013) (0.0020) (0.0062) (0.0019) (0.0015)

Public -0.0348* 0.0114 -0.0012 0.0246 -0.0663* 0.0383* -0.0430*
Mechanization (0.0086) (0.0111) (0.0103) (0.0205) (0.0312) (0.0101) (0.0123)
Private Plant -0.0051* -0.0029 -0.0006 0.0086* -0.0095 0.0097* -0.0035*
Breeding (0.0012) (0.0015) (0.0014) (0.0025) (0.0060) (0.0022) (0.0017)
0.0003 -0.0002 -0.00002 -0.0001 -0.0013 -0.0005 -0.0004
Private Chemicals (0.0002) (0.0002) (0.0002) (0.0004) (0.0008) (0.0004) (0.0003)
0.0017* -0.00006 0.0001 -0.0018 -0.0012 -0.0002 -0.0004
Private Machinery (0.0006) (0.0008) (0.0007) (0.0015) (0.0019) (0.0008) (0.0009)
Private Vet -0.0016* 0.0006 0.0011 -0.0002 -0.0034 0.0015 0.0005
Pharmaceuticals (0.0005) (0.0006) (0.0006) (0.0012) (0.0026) (0.0011) (0.0007)
0.0217* 0.0010 -0.0012 -0.0215 0.0774* -0.0073 0.0173*
Dummy for t>1986 (0.0058) (0.0075) (0.0070) (0.0138) (0.0208) (0.0070) (0.0083)
* Significant at 95% confidence level


n o~n?


1 1 /^ /n


1 m nn


n A oA


n oor-o









Table 2. Estimates of Rate of Bias Technological Change/Rate of Output Price Alteration
Bias Alteration
Other Perishable
Capital Labor Chemicals Materials Outputs Cereals Crops
Before 0.0059 -0.0470* 0.0097 0.0313* 0.0146 -0.0254* 0.0192*
IRCA (0.0052) (0.0062) (0.0059) (0.0114) (0.0250) (0.0107) (0.0070)
After 0.0112 -0.0683* 0.0102 0.0469* 0.0681 -0.0487* 0.0476*
IRCA (0.0088) (0.0106) (0.0100) (0.0197) (0.0413) (0.0167) (0.0119)
* Significant at 95% confidence level


Table 3. Estimates of Price Elasticity of Input Demand
Factor Price of
Demand for Capital Labor Chemicals Materials
-0.1762* -0.0661 0.1543* -1.0624*
Capital (0.0490) (0.0390) (0.0455) (0.0519)
-0.0531 -0.0598 0.2160* -1.2534*
Labor (0.0314) (0.0507) (0.0475) (0.0492)
0.3901* 0.6787* -1.1413* -1.0779*
Chemicals (0.1150) (0.1494) (0.1994) (0.1418)
0.3134* 0.4597* 0.1258* -2.0493*
Materials (0.0153) (0.0181) (0.0166) (0.0347)
* Significant at 95% confidence level


Table 4. Estimates of Morishima Elasticity of Substitution
MESij Factor Price of j
Input
Factor i Capital Labor Chemicals Materials
N/A -0.0063 1.2956* 0.9869*
Capital (0.0617) (0.2276) (0.040)
0.1231* N/A 1.3572* 0.7960*
Labor (0.0582) (0.2332) (0.0308)
0.5664* 0.7385* N/A 0.9714*
Chemicals (0.1444) (0.1817) (0.1220)
0.4896* 0.5195* 1.2670* N/A
Materials (0.0428) (0.0433) (0.1955)
* Significant at 95% confidence level









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