• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Center information
 Abstract
 Agricultural imports
 Vulnerability of the U.S. food...
 Vulnerability of the U.S. food...
 Food safety inspection service
 Animal and plant health inspection...
 Conclusion
 Tables
 Reference






Group Title: Policy Brief Series - International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center. University of Florida ; no. 02-4
Title: International imports and the safety of the U.S. food and fiber system
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 Material Information
Title: International imports and the safety of the U.S. food and fiber system
Series Title: Policy Brief Series - International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center. University of Florida ; no. 02-4
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Jiminez, Mariano
Salnars, Christian
VanSickle, John
Publisher: International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2002
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089754
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Center information
        Page 2
    Abstract
        Page 3
    Agricultural imports
        Page 4
    Vulnerability of the U.S. food supply system to bio terrorism
        Page 5
    Vulnerability of the U.S. food supply system to invasive pests
        Page 6
    Food safety inspection service
        Page 7
    Animal and plant health inspection service
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Conclusion
        Page 10
    Tables
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Reference
        Page 18
Full Text



PBTC 02-4


POLICY BRIEF SERIES


UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA


Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


INTERNATIONAL IMPORTS AND THE SAFETY
OF THE
U.S. FOOD AND FIBER SYSTEM
By
Mariano Jimenez, Christian Salnars and John VanSickle


PBTC 02-4 October 2002


~I










INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE
AND POLICY CENTER


MISSION AND SCOPE:

The International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center (IATPC) was established in 1990
in the Food and Resource Economics Department (FRED) of the Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) at the University of Florida. Its mission is to provide
information, education, and research directed to immediate and long-term enhancement
and sustainability of international trade and natural resource use. Its scope includes not
only trade and related policy issues, but also agricultural, rural, resource, environmental,
food, state, national and international policies, regulations, and issues that influence trade
and development.

OBJECTIVES:

The Center's objectives are to:

Serve as a university-wide focal point and resource base for research on
international agricultural trade and trade policy issues
Facilitate dissemination of agricultural trade related research results and
publications
Encourage interaction between researchers, business and industry groups,
state and federal agencies, and policymakers in the examination and
discussion of agricultural trade policy questions
Provide support to initiatives that enable a better understanding of trade and
policy issues that impact the competitiveness of Florida and southeastern
agriculture specialty crops and livestock in the U.S. and international markets









INTERNATIONAL IMPORTS AND THE SAFETY
OF THE
U.S. FOOD AND FIBER SYSTEM

Mariano Jimenez, Christian Salnars, and John VanSickle

Mariano Jimenez and Christian Salnars, Research Associates, and John VanSickle,
Executive Director of the International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center, Food and
Resource Economics Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science,
University of Florida


Abstract: The trend towards globalization has led an increase in the U.S. Food trade.
Threats of bio-terrorism and safety of the agriculture production system have become
larger concerns to U.S consumers and policy makers. This paper analyzes how
agriculture imports have changed in the past years; and how the government has reacted
to the vulnerability of the U.S. food supply system to bio terrorism and invasive pests.
Changes in budgets for the Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) and Animal and Plant
Health Inspection Services (APHIS), agencies who are in part responsible for the food
security, were compared to the increase in imports to provide a gauge for the response of
the Federal Government to these threats.

Keywords: globalization, food imports, food safety, bio terrorism, invasive pests and
diseases, homeland security, APHIS, FSIS.









INTERNATIONAL IMPORTS AND THE SAFETY
OF THE
U.S. FOOD AND FIBER SYSTEM

Mariano Jimenez, Christian Salnars and John VanSickle'

Economic globalization (or simply, "globalization") is the name given to the trend

towards increased integration of world markets for goods, services and capital (Spence).

Most of the world's countries and their economies are experiencing the trend toward

globalization in markets. The U.S. is no exception to these trends. The U.S. has

increased trade with foreign countries at an increasing rate. Among the products the U.S.

imports are agricultural and food products. With the increase in imports of food and

agricultural products, and the terrorist attacks in the U.S., food safety has become a larger

concern to the U.S. consumers and policy makers.

With an increase in imports, another issue that has become more critical to the

U.S. is the safety of the agricultural production system. Recently, England was

devastated with Foot and Mouth Disease. The U.S. poultry industry in Virginia and

North Carolina was infected with Avian Influenza. These concerns raise many questions.

How safe is the food supply in the U.S.? How should inspection at ports and borders be

executed to guarantee food safety and eliminate the probability of being infected with

some sort of disease or virus that would have a negative impact on US agriculture?

Agricultural Imports

As the trend toward globalization spreads throughout the world, countries are

exporting and importing more. U.S. imports exceeded 6 million shipments worth more

than $80 billion in 2000, and these imports are rising rapidly. More than 80 percent of all

1 Mariano Jimenez and Christian Salnars are Research Associates and John VanSickle is the Executive
Director of the International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center, Food & Resource Economics
Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, at the University of Florida.









seafood, 20 percent of all fresh produce, and millions of other FDA-regulated products

consumed or used in the U.S. are produced abroad (FDA, 2002).

Tables 1 and 2 demonstrate how U.S. imports have changed from 1997 to 2001.

Table 1 summarizes U.S. imports of certain food and agricultural products. Most of the

broader agricultural product categories have witnessed increased imports. From 1997 to

2001 only grains, ground crops, and cotton & tobacco experienced decreases in imports

(11.2%, 50%, and 0.9%, respectively) (table 2). All other commodity groups experienced

increases in imports. Total meat imports increased 34.8 percent. Live animal imports

increased 48.6 percent, while seafood imports have increased 25.1 percent. Fruit and

vegetable imports increased 27.9 percent and 9 percent, respectively. The largest

increase in imports was seen in dairy at 164.6 percent. Imported food products have

increased significantly since 1997, and those trends are likely to continue with the trade

agreements that are currently being negotiated, such as WTO and FTTA.

Vulnerability of the U.S. Food Supply System to Bio Terrorism

The events of September 11, 2001 were an awakening event for the American

people and many industries across the country. As a result, the threats of terrorism and

bio terrorism are being taken more seriously. The U.S., as well as many other countries in

the World, is taking measures to prevent future attacks from happening.

The Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak in the United Kingdom and the more

recent Avian Influenza outbreak in Virginia are proof of how important the role of bio

security can be for a country like the U.S. that imports many agricultural and food

products. Although these outbreaks were not caused by terrorist acts, they reflect the









type of damage that could be caused to the food supply system by introduction of

invasive pests and diseases (Bryan, 2002).

The question that remains for consumers and policy makers is whether the U.S.

food supply system is vulnerable to attacks by terrorist activities. A large part of the food

supply in this country is supplied by imports from foreign countries, where a proper

inspection and monitoring system is harder to maintain.

On May 30, 2002, U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Ann Veneman announced that

the USDA was going to invest $43.5 million for homeland security. These funds will be

used to support the food supply network. The funds are being distributed among

different institutions and sectors. Of these $43.5 million, $20.6 million is being provided

to state and university cooperators to be used to establish a network of diagnostic

laboratories disbursed strategically throughout the nation to permit rapid and accurate

diagnosis of animal disease threats; $14 million is being used to strengthen state

capabilities to respond to animal disease emergencies, primarily by helping every state to

meet the national standards of emergency preparedness established by the National

Animal Health Emergency Management System; $4.5 million is being used to strengthen

state-level surveillance for animal disease; and $4.3 million is being used to assist states

to improve their capability to detect plant pests and diseases (Harrison, 2002). The $43.5

is also being distributed more to those states where imports are more concentrated. Table

3 contains the distribution of the funds among the different states (Harrison, 2002).

Vulnerability of the U.S. Food Supply System to Invasive Pests

The United States has been increasing their imports of agricultural products from

throughout the world. This increase in imports means that more agricultural products are









crossing U.S. borders, increasing the probability of invasive pests and diseases entering

the continental U.S. The economic impact of an invasive pest that becomes established

in the U.S. could threaten the viability of certain agricultural industries. Citrus canker is

but one of many invasive pests and diseases that that have been introduced to the U.S.

through imports and tourism. Citrus canker threatens the Florida citrus industry and is

costing several millions of dollars to combat.

The United States government has institutions in the USDA who are responsible

for the inspection of imports for food borne organisms that can cause illness to consumers

and for inspection of imports for invasive pests and diseases. The Animal and Plant

Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) are the

organizations the USDA uses to ensure the safety of the food supply and domestic

agriculture.

Food Safety Inspection Service

The Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) is an agency of the U.S. Department

of Agriculture. It protects consumers by ensuring that meat, poultry, and egg products

produced domestically and imported are safe, wholesome, and accurately labeled (FSIS,

2001).

The main function of FSIS is to protect the consumers of the products they inspect

that are produced domestically. It regulates all raw beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and turkey,

as well as processed meat and poultry products, including hams, sausage, soups, stews,

pizzas, and frozen dinners (FSIS, 2001).

FSIS is also responsible for the safety of imported products. FSIS maintains a

comprehensive system of import inspection and controls. Annually, FSIS reviews









inspection systems in all foreign countries eligible to export meat and poultry to the U.S.

to ensure that they are equivalent to those under U.S. laws. Re-inspection of all imported

meat and poultry products entering the U.S. is done to verify that the exporting country's

inspection system is working (FSIS, 2001).

The FSIS budget has been analyzed to see if it has kept pace with the increase in

imports (table 4). Inspection of all types of meats that are imported into the U.S. is part of

the FSIS responsibilities.

From 1997 to 2001 imports of all meats (including pork, beef, sheep, poultry, and

other types of meats) increased 34.8 percent based on volume. Total seafood imports

(including fresh and dried fish, crustaceous, mollusks, and others) increased 25.1 percent.

The FSIS budget increased 29.1 percent from 1997 to 2001, indicating that budget

increases did keep pace with the increases in imports for the products FSIS inspects. The

question that remains is, how efficient is the FSIS, and is it doing what is necessary to

guarantee food security? FSIS is responsible for inspecting both domestically produced

and imported meats. They face increasing concerns not only for imported product but

also for domestically produced product.

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

Sanitary and phytosanitary issues play a very important role in agricultural trade.

APHIS is the agency responsible for enforcing animal and plant import regulations in

order to help ensure that foreign pests and diseases are not introduced into the U.S.

Among the activities performed by APHIS to prevent pests and diseases from

entering the country is the execution of agricultural pest and disease inspection services

at all major international airports, shipping ports, and land borders. APHIS not only tries









to protect against inadvertent introduction of pests and diseases, but also to protect

against intentional introduction. APHIS works largely in coordination with state and

local agencies, private groups and foreign governments. The role APHIS plays in

homeland security is very important (USDA, 2001).

There has been an increase in the budget for APHIS for each year from 1995 to

2001 (table 5). As previously shown, the U.S. food industry also has experienced

increases in imports. The fruit sector alone experienced a 27.9 percent increase in the

amount of fruits imported to the U.S. from 1997 to 2001. Other sectors have experienced

similar increase, such as the vegetable and live animal sectors experienced increases of 9

percent and 48.6 percent, respectively.

From 1997 to 2001, the increase in total funds available to APHIS was 110

percent, which indicates there has been an attempt to match the increase in imports.

These funds are distributed to the different activities this agency administrates.

In 2002, APHIS received supplemental funding of $119 million for homeland

security. These funds are being used mainly to improve effective border protection, to

work in coordination with the States to expand survey efforts for plant and animal pest

and disease detection, and to enhance building security (USDA, 2002). The same issue

raised for FSIS applies to APHIS. How efficient is the APHIS in fulfilling its obligations,

and is it doing what is necessary to guarantee the safety of the U.S. food and fiber

system?









Conclusions

Increases in imports of food and agricultural products and the recent concerns

raised by the war on terrorism bring forth concerns about the safety of the U.S. food and

fiber industry. Consumers are worried about the integrity of the food they eat and the

agricultural industry is worried about the protection of their production system against

invasive pests and diseases. The U.S. has been a leader in globalizing markets for food

and agricultural products and has made trade in agricultural products one of the key

issues for the Doha Round of Negotiations for the World Trade Organization (WTO).

The USDA is given primary responsibility for protecting consumers from food

borne illnesses (FSIS) and for protecting the agricultural industry from invasive pests and

diseases (APHIS). The analysis in this paper indicates that funds available to FSIS and

APHIS for protecting the food and fiber system have kept pace with increases in imports,

but it does not answer the question of whether these increases keep pace with the threats

to the food and fiber system. There also are increased threats from tourism as tourists

unknowingly carry in invasive pests and diseases and from terrorism that intentionally

introduces pests and diseases. The cost of failure in the protection of the food and fiber

system could range from cost of attempting to eliminate an invasive pest (e.g.,

Mediterranean Fruit Fly and citrus canker) to human death (e.g., E. Coli). The risk does

warrant the attention consumers and policy makers are giving to these issues. It also

warrants the need for discussion in negotiations of future trade agreements.












Table 1. United States Imports of selected agricultural products from the world, 1997 to 2001

COMMODITY DESCRIPTION: Jan-Dec 1997 Units" Jan-Dec 1998 Units Jan-Dec 1999 Units Jan-Dec 2000 Units Jan-Dec 2001 Units
MEAT
TOTAL BEEF 733,013,374 KG 823,838,340 KG 882,046,590 KG 953,141,864 KG 988,269,398 KG
MEAT OF BOVINE ANIMALS, FRESH OR CHILLED 262,999,679 KG 295,935,119 KG 337,992,678 KG 336,114,457 KG 368,769,412 KG
MEAT OF BOVINE ANIMALS, FROZEN 470,013,695 KG 527,903,221 KG 544,053,912 KG 617,027,407 KG 619,499,986 KG
MEAT OF SWINE (PORK), FRESH, CHILLED OR FROZEN 191,096,336 KG 217,191,873 KG 266,278,305 KG 321,039,499 KG 324,972,512 KG
MEAT OF SHEEP OR GOATS, FRESH, CHILLED OR FROZEN 37,862,689 KG NRb 50,454,959 KG 60,409,002 KG 67,186,428 KG
MEAT & ED OFFAL OF POULTRY, FRESH, CHILL OR FROZEN 4,639,436 KG 5,605,694 KG 8,227,300 KG 9,152,195 KG 13,110,156 KG
OTHER MEATS 3,277,493 KG 3,515,242 KG 3,341,467 KG 4,402,347 KG 4,437,249 KG
MEAT OF HORSES, ASSES, MULES, HINNIES FR, CHLD, FZ 23,120 KG 65,681 KG 30,872 KG 39,545 KG 86,084 KG
MEAT & EDIBLE OFFAL NESOI, FRESH, CHILD OR FROZEN 3,254,373 KG 3,449,561 KG 3,310,595 KG 4,362,802 KG 4,351,165 KG
LIVE ANIMALS
SWINE, LIVE 3,179,578 NO 4,122,914 NO 4,135,663 NO 4,359,355 NO 5,337,088 NO
STEER>320 KG, FOR IMMEDIATE SLAUGHTER 397,990 NO 427,257 NO 362,259 NO 360,875 NO 426,047 NO
HEIFER>320 KG, FOR IMMEDIATE SLAUGHTER 355,205 NO 348,772 NO 212,478 NO 198,287 NO 286,417 NO
BULL>320 KG FOR IMMEDIATE SLAUGHTER 54,794 NO 45,131 NO 36,586 NO 44,344 NO 54,409 NO
COW>320 KG FOR IMMEDIATE SLAUGHTER 305,074 NO 266,014 NO 170,340 NO 171,448 NO 257,985 NO
MALE 90-199KG 404,809 NO 430,897 NO 648,921 NO 799,541 NO 669,708 NO
FEMALE 90-199KG 12,117 NO 5,800 NO 12,190 NO 49,961 NO 49,891 NO
MALE 200-319KG 310,372 NO 299,326 NO 298,621 NO 329,564 NO 394,732 NO
FEMALE 200-319K 64,551 NO 25,754 NO 21,936 NO 73,400 NO 79,897 NO
FISH
TOTAL FISH 737,972,866 KG 563,290,384 KG 789,233,918 KG 787,594,712 KG 786,296,915 KG
FISH, FRESH OR CHILLED (NO FILLETS OR OTHER MEAT) 187,924,055 KG 191,907,955 KG 187,281,673 KG 186,315,042 KG 183,710,014 KG
FISH, FROZEN (NO FISH FILLETS OR OTHER FISH MEAT) 200,586,401 KG 198,624,163 KG 175,423,305 KG 175,250,158 KG
FISH FILLETS & OTH FISH MEAT, FRESH, CHILL OR FROZ 349,462,410 KG 371,382,429 KG 403,328,082 KG 425,856,365 KG 427,336,743 KG
OTHER FISH 358,052,682 KG 379,260,908 KG 403,751,615 KG 413,490,751 KG 585,238,783 KG
FISH, DRIED, SALTED ETC, SMOKED ETC; ED FISH MEAL 29,501,678 KG 30,327,617 KG 28,795,161 KG 30,257,545 KG 29,865,803 KG
CRUSTCNS LVE FRSH ETC, CKD ETC.; FLRS MLS H CNSUMP 328,551,004 KG 348,933,291 KG 374,956,454 KG 383,233,206 KG 441,520,391 KG
MOLLUSCS & AQUA INVERT NESOI, LVE ETC.; FLOURS ETC NR NR NR NR 113,852,589 KG









Table 1. United States Imports of selected agricultural products from the world, 1997 to 2001 (cont.)
COMMODITY DESCRIPTION: Jan-Dec 1997 Units Jan-Dec 1998 Units Jan-Dec 1999 Units Jan-Dec 2000 Units Jan-Dec 2001 Units
GRAINS
WHEAT* 2,216,346,000 KG 2,005,916,000 KG 2,214,564,000 KG 1,862,217,000 KG 2,098,725,542 KG
SOYBEANS* 272,900,000 KG 171,757,000 KG 105,397,000 KG 132,025,000 KG 112,127,632 KG
RAPESEED, COLZA OR MUSTARD OIL ETC, NOT
CHEMMODIF 405,733,142 KG 408,189,677 KG 449,343,491 KG 454,606,912 KG 456,323,754 KG
TOTAL FLAX 300,697,370 KG 249,185,316 KG 256,745,505 KG 180,927,419 KG 110,085,105 KG
FLAXSEED (LINSEED), WHETHER OR NOT BROKEN 223,868,048 KG 171,416,725 KG 183,001,738 KG 122,573,401 KG 50,067,072 KG
FLAX, RAW ETC BUT NOT SPUN; FLAX TOW AND
WASTE 76,829,322 KG 77,768,591 KG 73,743,767 KG 58,354,018 KG 60,018,033 KG
OATS* 1,902,083,000 KG 1,743,977,000 KG 1,680,618,000 KG 1,730,201,000 KG 1,962,471,618 KG
RICE 361,656,000 KG 278,595,000 KG 353,643,000 KG 304,452,000 KG 405,800,189 KG
SUNFLOWER SEEDS, WHETHER OR NOT BROKEN 25,945,180 KG 34,335,370 KG 31,919,613 KG 56,975,871 KG 71,912,748 KG
OTHER GRAINS 1,337,704,998 KG 1,151,145,874 KG 1,193,938,777 KG 981,400,613 KG 1,012,795,133 KG
RYE IN THE GRAIN* 144,223,000 KG 94,173,000 KG 82,328,000 KG 83,385,000 KG 131,965,306 KG
BARLEY* 869,437,000 KG 730,247,000 KG 629,616,000 KG 581,305,000 KG 644,207,450 KG
CORN (MAIZE)* 300,675,207 KG 300,861,521 KG 459,151,983 KG 293,229,790 KG 210,041,928 KG
GRAIN SORGHUM* 804,000 KG 520,000 KG 133,000 KG 10,000 KG 48,493 KG
BUCKWHEAT, MILLET & CANARY SEED; CEREALS
NESOI 22,565,394 KG 25,344,343 KG 22,709,719 KG 23,471,750 KG 26,531,956 KG
TOBACCO & COTTON
TOTAL COTTONc 73,981,034 KG 99,914,246 KG 222,027,390 KG 159,241,240 KG 130,338,329 KG
COTTON, NOT CARDED OR COMBED 2,201,796 KG 8,355,183 KG 104,571,426 KG 10,102,498 KG 1,942,453 KG
COTTON WASTE (INCLUDING YARN WASTE ETC.) 7,933,486 KG 7,020,268 KG 10,009,824 KG 11,092,202 KG 8,744,656 KG
COTTON, CARDED OR COMBED 28,352 KG 66,844 KG 76,898 KG 456,583 KG 87,185 KG
COTTON SEWING THREAD, RETAIL PACKED OR NOT 415,461 KG 637,099 KG 627,733 KG 544,355 KG 392,798 KG
COTTON YARN (NOT SEWING THREAD) NU85%COT
NO RETAIL 54,912,245 KG 72,528,657 KG 93,422,434 KG 121,396,979 KG 108,275,902 KG
COTTON YARN (NOT SEWING THREAD) UN85%COT
NO RETAIL 7,479,304 KG 10,290,383 KG 12,687,125 KG 15,052,240 KG 10,207,251 KG
COTTON YARN (NOT SEWING THREAD) RETAIL
PACKED 1,010,390 KG 1,015,812 KG 631,950 KG 596,383 KG 688,084 KG
TOTAL TOBACCOd 309,377,366 KG 249,746,024 KG 244,473,893 KG 200,308,349 KG 256,590,675 KG
TOBACCO, UNMANUFACTURED; TOBACCO REFUSE 306,838,251 KG 246,761,740 KG 241,062,004 KG 196,596,547 KG 254,365,326 KG
CIGARS, CIGARETTES ETC., OF TOBACCO OR
SUBSTITUTES 5,031,326 THS 6,962,608 THS 11,360,808 THS 15,625,790 THS 18,013,085 THS
TOBACCO & TOBACCO SUBST MFRS NESOI; TOB
PROCES ETC 2,539,115 KG 2,984,284 KG 3,411,889 KG 3,711,802 KG 2,225,349 KG











Table 1. United States Imports of selected agricultural products from the world, 1997 to 2001 (cont.)

COMMODITY DESCRIPTION: Jan-Dec 1997 Units Jan-Dec 1998 Units Jan-Dec 1999 Units Jan-Dec 2000 Units Jan-Dec 2001 Units
GROUND CROPS
POTATOES (EXCEPT SWEET POTATOES), FRESH OR
CHILLED 346,916,640 KG 481,272,466 KG 418,861,674 KG 365,350,336 KG 304,422,337 KG
PEANUTS (GROUND-NUTS), RAW 51,775,084 KG 44,152,746 KG 48,551,733 KG 88,609,510 KG 50,291,050 KG
CANE SUGAR, RAW, SOLID FORM, W/O ADDED
FLAV/COLOR 2,877,849,980 KG 1,959,847,628 KG 1,613,379,712 KG 1,336,186,495 KG 1,284,722,254 KG
VEGETABLES
TOMATOES, FRESH OR CHILLED 742,463,919 KG 847,319,528 KG 740,656,025 KG 730,063,196 KG 823,541,250 KG
PEAS (PISUM SATIVUM), FRESH OR CHILLED 13,100,133 KG 14,789,349 KG 14,106,502 KG 15,519,022 KG 17,039,244 KG
BEANS (VIGNA SPP., PHASEOLUS SPP.) FRESH OR
CHILLD 24,786,125 KG 23,869,391 KG 24,031,228 KG 26,967,240 KG 27,911,030 KG
PUMPKINS, SQUASH, AND GOURDS* 184,841,000 KG 214,087,000 KG 207,252,000 KG 213,327,000 KG NR KG
LENTILS, DRIED SHELLED, INCLUDING SEED 14,927,165 KG 13,962,269 KG 8,553,876 KG 7,838,383 KG 9,644,532 KG
CUCUMBERS AND GHERKINS, FRESH OR CHILLED 302,794,969 KG 328,084,505 KG 340,016,819 KG 346,060,944 KG 368,136,509 KG
VEGETABLES NESOI, FRESH OR CHILLED 655,110,147 KG 771,250,927 KG 775,836,919 KG 805,601,142 KG 865,785,554 KG
FRUITS
APPLES, FRESH 159,085,178 KG 141,970,832 KG 164,167,284 KG 163,894,217 KG 157,119,526 KG
ORANGES, FRESH 31,619,650 KG 38,529,761 KG 103,923,851 KG 46,591,819 KG 55,737,544 KG
PEARS AND QUINCES, FRESH 78,610,912 KG 68,276,704 KG 89,785,219 KG 93,631,370 KG 85,396,388 KG
PEACHES, INCLUDING NECTARINES, FRESH 41,201,127 KG 35,171,760 KG 48,361,063 KG 44,147,508 KG 55,152,344 KG
STRAWBERRIES, FRESH 14,478,951 KG 26,375,607 KG 43,001,112 KG 34,580,424 KG 32,061,373 KG
FRUIT NESOI, FRESH 126,458,630 KG 149,278,067 KG 179,035,130 KG 187,576,273 KG 191,770,251 KG
DAIRY
MILK AND CREAM, NOT CONCENTRATED OR
SWEETENED 9,161,273 L 16,788,529 L 17,371,223 L 9,393,096 L 13,755,176 L
MILK AND CREAM, CONCENTRATED OR SWEETENED 14,680,421 KG 21,032,360 KG 24,765,647 KG 28,257,172 KG 25,592,975 KG
BUTTER AND OTHER FATS AND OILS DERIVED FROM
MILK 12,620,722 KG 40,095,587 KG 29,467,943 KG 22,159,738 KG 57,146,805 KG
Sources of Data: U.S. Dept. of Commerce and FAOSTAT
units are reported in Kilograms (KG), number (NO), Thousands (THS) or Liters (L)
bNR indicates data not available
'TOTAL COTTON excludes COTTON, NOT CARDED OR COMBED
TOTAL TOBACCO excludes CIGARS, CIGARETTES ETC., OF TOBACCO OR SUBSTITUTES






















Table 2. Percentage change in U.S. import volumes for selected agricultural
products, 1997 2001.
COMMODITY: % Change 1997-2001 COMMODITY: % Change 1997-2001


MEAT
BEEF
PORK
SHEEP
ALL POULTRY
OTHERS
LIVE ANIMALS
SWINE
HEIFFERS & STEERS
COWS AND BULLS
YOUNG FEEDERS
FEEDERS
FISH
FISH
OTHER FISH
GRAINS
WHEAT
SOYBEANS
CANOLA
FLAX
OATS
RICE
SUNFLOWERS
OTHER GRAINS


34.82%
70.06%
77.45%
182.58%
35.39%


67.86%
5.41%
13.19%
72.60%
26.59%


6.55%
63.45%


-5.31%
-58.91%
12.47%
-63.39%
3.17%
12.21%
177.17%
-24.29%


GROUND CROPS
POTATOES
PEANUTS
SUGAR CANE
VEGETABLES
TOMATOES
PEAS
BEANS
LENTILS
CUCUMBERS
OTHER VEGETABLE
FRUITS
APPLES
ORANGES
PEARS
PEACHES
STRAWBERRIES
OTHER FRUITS
DAIRY
ALL TYPES
TOBACCO & COTTON
COTTON
TOBACCO


Source of Data: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Census, and FAOSTAT.


-12.25%
-2.87%
-55.36%


10.92%
30.07%
12.61%
-35.39%
21.58%
32.16%


-1.24%
76.28%
8.63%
33.86%
121.43%
51.65%


164.6%


76.18%
-17.06%











Table 3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Investment in Homeland Security as Announced
May 30, 2002 by Secretary AnnVeneman.

Partnering for Homeland Security With States
Total Dollars
Animal Animal Plant Pest & Rapid Detection
Disease Disease Disease & Diagnostics
States Surveillance Response Detection Networks Total
Alabama 51,841 131,486 75,000 0 258,327
Alaska 5,836 51,455 50,000 0 107,291
American Samoa 5,000 25,000 0 0 30,000
Arizona 41,386 113,298 75,000 750,000 979,684
Arkansas 82,372 184,599 50,000 0 316,971
California 271,410 1,513,459 350,000 2,900,000 5,034,869
Colorado 133,401 273,373 60,000 2,000,000 2,466,774
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 5,000 25,000 0 0 30,000
Connecticut 9,600 58,003 50,000 0 117,603
Delaware 6,672 52,909 50,000 0 109,582
Florida 69,407 162,045 350,000 1,650,000 2,231,451
Georgia 53,095 133,669 75,000 2,000,000 2,261,764
Guam 5,000 25,000 0 0 30,000
Hawaii 10,019 58,731 100,000 0 168,749
Idaho 94,918 206,426 75,000 0 376,344
Illinois 79,862 180,234 75,000 0 335,096
Indiana 68,570 160,590 75,000 850,000 1,154,160
Iowa 212,022 410,144 75,000 750,000 1,447,166
Kansas 241,307 461,091 75,000 900,000 1,677,398
Kentucky 91,573 200,606 75,000 0 367,178
Louisiana 35,530 103,112 50,000 750,000 938,642
Maine 10,855 60,185 50,000 0 121,040
Maryland 19,220 74,737 75,000 0 168,957
Massachusetts 8,764 56,548 75,000 0 140,312
Michigan 62,296 149,675 105,000 900,000 1,216,972
Minnesota 154,307 309,741 75,000 0 539,048
Mississippi 42,222 114,753 75,000 0 231,975
Missouri 26,748 87,833 75,000 0 189,581
Montana 121,685 252,991 50,000 0 424,676
Nebraska 249,663 475,626 75,000 0 800,289
Nevada 26,329 87,105 50,000 0 163,434
New Hampshire 7,509 54,365 50,000 0 111,875
New Jersey 10,855 60,185 75,000 0 146,040
New Mexico 70,243 163,499 50,000 0 283,742
New York 77,771 176,596 200,000 1,650,000 2,104,368
North Carolina 94,082 204,971 75,000 750,000 1,124,053











Table 3. U.S.
May 30, 2002


Department of Agriculture Investment in Homeland Security as Announced
by Secretary Ann Veneman. (cont.)


Partnering for Homeland Security With States
Animal Animal Plant Pest & Rapid Detection
Disease Disease Disease & Diagnostics
States Surveillance Response Detection Networks Total
North Dakota 92,152 201,613 75,000 0 368,765
Ohio 77,333 175,834 75,000 0 328,16
Oklahoma 183,582 360,670 70,000 0 614,252
Oregon 64,388 153,314 75,000 0 292,702
Pennsylvania 99,519 214,429 75,000 0 388,948
Puerto Rico 198,154 386,020 50,000 0 634,174
Rhode Island 5,418 50,727 25,000 0 81,145
South Carolina 30,512 94,381 75,000 0 199,892
South Dakota 181,073 356,304 50,000 0 587,375
Tennessee 81,953 183,871 75,000 0 340,824
Texas 457,520 1,837,225 300,000 2,000,000 4,594,745
Utah 48,077 124,938 50,000 0 223,015
Vermont 20,056 76,192 50,000 0 146,248
Virginia 79,862 180,234 75,000 0 335,09(
Virgin Islands 5,000 25,000 0 0 30,00C
Washington 62,715 150,403 75,000 750,000 1,038,118
West Virginia 22,147 79,829 75,000 0 176,97(
Wisconsin 160,580 1,320,654 75,000 2,000,000 3,556,234
Wyoming 73,589 169,320 50,000 0 292,905
Tribal Nations 0 1,000,000 0 0 1,000,00(
Total 4,500,000 14,000,000 4,335,000 20,600,000 43,435,00C
Source: Harrison, 2002












Table 4. The USDA Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) Budget for fiscal
ears 1995 to 2001.
Change in
User Fees & total from
Year Appropriations Trust Funds Others Total previous year
(Millions of Dollars)
1995 542 84 626
1996 545 85 630 +0.64%
1997 574 85 659 +4.60%
1998 590 89 679 +3.03%
1999 617 102 719 +5.89%
2000 649 102 751 +4.45%
2001 752 99 851 +13.32%
Source: USDA, 1995-2001.


Table 5. Funds available for use by the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection
Service (APHIS), fiscal years 1995 through 2001.
User Fees & Change in total
Year Appropriations Trust Funds Other sources Total from previous year
(Millions of Dollars)
1995 342 113 25 480
1996 349 126 35 510 +6.25%
1997 349 139 31 519 +1.76%
1998 347 155 31 533 +2.70%
1999 345 165 143 653 +22.51%
2000 356 193 217 766 +17.30%
2001 511 232 346 1,089 +42.17%
Source: USDA, 1995-2001.









References


Bryan, Jones. "Bioterrorism and Biosecurity Concerns in Food Animal Products." Presentation
at the Southern Extension Committee Meetings, Nashville, TN. June 12, 2002.

Food and Drug Administration. "Food and Drug Administration in the International Area."
http://www.fda.gov/oia/homepage.htm. August 12, 2002.

Food Safety Inspection Service. "Protecting the Public From Food Bourne Illness: The Food
Safety Inspection Service." http://www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/background/fsisgeneral.htm.
April 2001.

Harrison, Alisa. "USDA Releases $43.5 Million to States for Strengthening Agriculture
Homeland Security Protections." http://www.usda.gov/homelandsecurity/response.html.
May 30, 2002.

Spence, Robert A. York University. "Economic Globalization and Sustainable Development."
http://yorku.ca/faculty/academic/spence/index.htm.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. "USDA Budget Summary for FSIS and APHIS."
1995-2001. http://www.usda.gov/agency/obpa/Budget-Summary. April, 2001.




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