Table of Contents
 Part 1. Initial diagnosis...
 Part 2. Experimentation, ongoing...

Group Title: Kumarin Press library of management for development
Title: Working together
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089582/00002
 Material Information
Title: Working together gender analysis in agriculture
Series Title: Kumarin Press library of management for development
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Kumarian Press,
Kumarian Press
Place of Publication: West Hartford Conn
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Research -- Case studies   ( lcsh )
Women in agriculture -- Research -- Case studies   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Case studies   ( lcsh )
Farms, Small -- Case studies   ( lcsh )
Agricultural systems -- Research -- Case studies -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Women in agriculture -- Research -- Case studies -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Case studies -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Farms, Small -- Case studies -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: editors, Hilary Sims Feldstein and Susan V. Poats.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089582
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 21227640
lccn - 90004287
isbn - 0931816580 (v. 1) :

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 109
    Part 1. Initial diagnosis and planning
        Page 110-111
        Page 112-113
        Page 114-115
        Page 116-117
        Page 118-119
        Page 120-121
    Part 2. Experimentation, ongoing diagnostic research and evaluation
        Page 122-123
        Page 124-125
        Page 126-127
        Page 128-129
        Page 130-131
        Page 132-133
Full Text
Working Together-Gender Analysis in Agriculture
Kumarian Press, Inc. Copyright'O 1989

Figure 5-1
Map of Colombia Showing CIAT and the Research Site, Pescador

Vol. 1 Case Studies Hilary Sims Feldstein/Susan V. Poats

Chapter 5

Production and Consumption Aspects
of Technology Testing in Pescador



Part 1 Initial Diagnosis and Planning
Early Consultations
Key Informant Interviews
Formal Questionnaire
Innovative Farmer Survey
Study Questions

Part 2 Experimentation, Ongoing Diagnostic Research, and Evaluation
Participant Observation
Study Questions

Part 3 Findings and Future Research (in Working Together, Volume 2)

This case was prepared as a basis for discussion rather than as an
illustration of either effective or ineffective handling of a project.



Table 5-1
Farm Size Distribution

Farm Size Distribution of Farms (%)

Large (> 15 ha) 16
Medium large (10-15 ha) 23
Medium small (5-10 ha) 21
Small (< 5 ha) 40
Total 100

Table 5-2
Land Use

Use Avg. Land Area (ha)

Coffee 1.56
Cassava 1.75
Beans 0.33
Other minor crops 0.22
Pasture/Fallow 5.16
Average farm size 9.02

Table 5-3
Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples (N=46)

Percent of
Soil Properties Range Samples

Pppm (Bray II) 0.10 1.50 53
1.50 3.30 47
K meq/100 g 0.10 0.15 37
0.15 0.35 63
Organic matter (%) 3.70 10.00 63
10.00 20.00 37
Aluminum saturation (%) 26.70 50.00 37
50.00 93.00 63
pH 4.40 5.00 63
5.00 5.30 37

The group discussed what type of bean varieties farmers in this sys-
tem might be most interested in. The breeder asked whether climbing
beans or bush beans would be the most appropriate. The agronomist
wondered what farmers' interests were in intensive versus minimum input

Figure 5-2
Response of Beans to Phosphorus Sources and Rates, 1982

1250 -

tKX) -




TSP Y3 = 454.1 + 12.04 P3- 0.05 P3 b
PAHPR Y2 = 454.1 + 11.97 P22 0.05 P2 b
GHPR Y1 = 454.1 + 7.38 P1 0.05 P2 a
R2 = 0.72


TSP = Triple Super Phosphate
PAHPR = Partially Acidulated Huila Rock Phosphate
GHPR = Ground Huila Rock Phosphate

Note: Beans were grown in fourteen sites in Pescador as the first crop. Pairs of response
functions with the same letters are not significantly different at the 0.05 level of significance.

management of the bean crop. The economist asked what farmers' prefer-
ences were as to bean grain types. Small farmers in Colombia were pro-
ducing beans as a cash crop for the consumption of a rapidly urbanizing
population with specific cultural preferences for a large red opaque-type

Part 1 113


bean. In view of the importance of grain size in determining bean prices,
it would be significant to test varieties which had high probabilities of ac-
ceptance in the market and higher prices than less preferred grain types.
The breeder pointed out that the central objective of the bean breed-
ing program was to breed high-yielding disease resistant varieties. It had
proved problematic to combine high-yielding characteristics with the pre-
ferred large red opaque grain type for varieties adapted to the altitude and
climatic conditions of the proposed research site. For this reason, the pro-
gram's improved varieties that adapted to the agroclimatic zone tended to
be somewhat inferior in grain type to the currently available varieties grown
by small farmers in Colombia. However, the breeder identified ten promis-
ing materials which he ranked in order of acceptability (see Table 5-4).
The social scientist proposed that the first step in the farmer participa-
tion methodology would include asking farmers to evaluate samples of the
grain types and to select, from among these ten varieties, three or four that
were acceptable. Then farmers could evaluate these varieties in field trials.
In view of the short time available for planning experiments for the
February planting season, the group decided to go to the field with a
rapid diagnostic survey that would describe bean cultivation practices in
the proposed site and answer some of the questions raised in the group.


In early January, a field research team consisting of the social scientists
and the agronomist began this diagnostic research by conducting informal
interviews with key informants who were experienced bean farmers in

Table 5-4
Breeder's Ranking of Ten New Bush Bean Lines and
Varieties in Terms of Likely Acceptability to Farmers

Rank Bean Variety Grain Size and Color
1 A-36 Medium, red opaque
2 A-486 Large, pink opaque
3 AFR-205 Large, purple mottled
4 HORSEHEAD XYC 206 Small, red opaque
5 ANTIOQUIA 8L-40 Small, red opaque
6 G 7223 x BAT-1276 C Small, red opaque
7 PVAD-1261 Medium, red opaque
8 G 4453 x BAT-1386 C Small, red opaque
9 ANCASH 66 Medium, white
10 BAT-1297 Very small, red opaque
Note: Rank 1 = most acceptable; 10 least acceptable.

Pescador. They soon identified a list of farmers who included beans in
their cropping system. The initial key informant interviews very quickly
indicated that there was a division of labor in the farming system between
field crop production activities carried out by men and domestic activities
carried out by women and children. For example, when the researchers
visited farms, children often led them to the fields to interview men.
When interviewed at home, men took the leading role in the informal in-
terviews. Women disappeared into the kitchen to prepare food and drink
for the visitors.


A formal questionnaire on bean production activities was administered to
forty male heads of household. The responses were quickly tabulated to
provide a picture of farmers' current bean production technology. 71t-
survey results showed that the large red opaque grain type was the most
commonly grown, whether of bush or climbing bean varieties (see Table
5-5). The results also showed that climbing beans were grown mainly in
subsistence-oriented systems intercropped with maize and that fertilizer
practices for climbing beans were different from those for bush b.eans
(see Table 5-6). Bush beans were monocropped mainly as a cash crop. al-
though most farmers retained part of the harvest for seed and household
consumption purposes. All farmers applied fertilizer to bush beans.
The rapid diagnostic survey found that 50 percent of farmers applied
chicken manure using a standard measure of a tinful macarela in each
planting site. Chicken manure was sold locally in 50-kilogram bags at a
price of Col $230 per bag, delivered at the farm gate by vendors who pass
through the area with truckloads of manure obtained from industrialized
chicken producers located nearby. Another 35 percent of farmers custom-
arily applied smaller quantities of chicken manure, measured in handfuls.
and in some cases farmers were experimenting with handfuls of chicken
manure mixed with a compound fertilizer, 10-30-10 (see Table 5-7).
Although the standard practice used for planting was two to three
seeds per planting site, farmers considerably varied the distances between
planting sites, which they related to the fertility of the plot and the type of
land preparation (see Table 5-8). As a result, fertilizer rates varied, ranging
from as little as 1,000 kilograms per hectare of chicken manure to more
than 5,000 kilograms per hectare. However, the most common practice of
applying a tinful of chicken manure at a planting distance of 60 centime-
ters between planting sites and 80 centimeters between furrows or rows
gave an estimated rate of 5,000 kilograms per hectare of chicken manure,
at a cost of Col $23,000 per hectare. Farmers universally stated that with-
out fertilization, bush beans could not be grown in the region. The avail-

Partn 1 I


Table 5-5
Bean Varieties Grown by Farmers (N=40)

% of Farmers
Bean Variety Size and Color of Grain Growing Variety

Bush beans
Calima Large, red opaque 62.9
Cuarzo Rayado Large, red opaque 24.2
Cuarzo Rojo Large, red brilliant 6.9
Cuarzo Amarilli Large, yellow opaque 6.0
Total 100.0
Climbing beans
Sangre Toro Large, red brilliant 45.8
Cuarzo de Vara Large, red brilliant 10.4
Revoltura Mixture of types 20.8
Miscellaneous Also found in mixtures 23.0
Total 100.0
Source: Formal Questionnaire, Diagnostic Survey, Pescador, Colombia (1984).

Table 5-6
Farmers Using Fertilizer on
Bush and Climbing Beans (N=40)

Fertilizer Type Climbing Beans Bush Beans

Chicken manure 25.9 74.1
10-30-10 21.2 0.0
Chicken manure/10-30-10 mixed 0.0 22.2
Farmyard manure 4.7 3.7
Other chemical fertilizer 4.8 0.0
No fertilizer used 43.4 0.0
Total 100.0 100.0
Source: Formal Questionnaire, Diagnostic Survey, Pescador, Colombia (1984).

ability of chicken manure had increased in the five years prior to the di-
agnostic survey, and this innovation appeared to have stimulated plant-
ings of bush beans in the area.


Concurrently with the survey research activities, the field research team
implemented the farmer participation methodology. Key informants were
asked to identify a group of farmers among bean farmers in Pescador

Part 1 117

Table 5-7
Quantities of Fertilizer Applied to Bush Beans (N=40)

Application Measured Equivalents
Fertilizer Rate per Site N P K Cost

---- kg/ha Col S/ha
Chicken manure 1 tinful 315 14 129 23.000
Chicken manure 1 handful 236 8 97 17,250
Chicken manure 1/2 handful 118 4 48 8,625
Chicken manure 1/2 handful
+ 10-30-10 + 1 pinch 145 39 71 15,300
Source: Formal Questionnaire, Diagnostic Survey, Pescador, Colombia (1984).

Table 5-8
Distances Between Planting Sites for Bush Beans (N=40)

Percent of
Distances farmers using

80 cm 8.7
70 cm 4.3
60 cm 26.1
50 cm 8.7
40 cm 21.7
30 cm 8.7
25 cm 8.7
20 cm 8.7
10 cm 4.3
Total 100.0
Source: Formal Questionnaire, Diagnostic Survey, Pescador, Colombia (1984).

who were known in the community to be experimenting with different
ways of growing beans. The sociologist and agronomist interviewed these
sixteen innovative farmers about their objectives in growing beans: what
aspects of bean production were they attempting to improve, and why?
The farmers were shown the samples of the ten new bean varieties and
were asked to select six what they would be interested to try with respect
to grain type. Each farmer ranked six preferred grain types in order from
most to least preferred.
The researchers made a content analysis of the open-ended discus-
sions with the group of innovative bean farmers about their production
practices. The farmers had expressed a concern toward cutting the high
costs of fertilizer entailed by growing bush beans on their poor soils. Tra-
ditionally, the more fertile plots were reserved for climbing beans. Farm-


ers were attempting to cut bush bean production costs by mixing
purchased chicken manure and chemical fertilizers and applying these
mixtures at reduced rates. At the same time, some were increasing labor
inputs to production, primarily by spraying their bean crop with greater
frequency to control pests and disease. Some farmers expressed interest
in disease-resistant varieties that would require less spraying; others said
they did not care about the extra work as long as the varieties of beans
had a superior grain quality for the market.
The innovative farmers' ranking of the ten bean varieties was tabu-
lated (see Table 5-9). While farmers appeared less concerned with grain
color than expected, the results confirmed the judgement of the breeder
that large grain types would be preferred, with one surprising exception.
The very small red opaque type, BAT-1297, was ranked overall in sixth
place. As they reviewed the interviews on a case by case basis, the re-
searchers found that in several instances BAT-1297 had been ranked as
high as third place. They tried to recapture what had occurred in the inter-
views to produce this deviation from the normal range of preferences, and
realized that these interviews took place in situations where both the hus-
band and wife had examined the grain samples-often because the discus-
sion had occurred at the farmhouse instead of in a meeting in one of the
fields. Interview notes showed that some women had claimed to recognize
the very small red grain as a traditional variety which had disappeared
from the locality, but which was high yielding and very flavorful.

Table 5-9
Innovative Farmer Evaluation of Grain
Quality of New Bush Bean Lines (N=16)

Size and Color No. of Farmers Total
Bush Bean of Grain Selecting Typea Scoreb
AFR-205 Large, purple mottled 16 68
A-486 Large, pink opaque 14 56
A-36 Medium, red opaque 13 51
ANCASH 66 Medium, white 12 46
PVAD-1261 Medium, red opaque 8 28
BAT-1297 Very small, red opaque 7 21
G 4453 x BAT-1386 C Small, red opaque 7 19
HORSEHEAD XYC 206 Small, red opaque 8 19
G 7223 x BAT-1276 C Small, red opaque 7 18
ANTIOQUIA 8L-40 Small, red opaque 4 10
Source: Innovative Farmer Interviews, Pescador, Colombia (February 1985).
aFarmers were asked to select six preferred grain types out of the total ten proposed for on-
farm trials.
bEach farmer ranked his six preferred types in order from most preferred (score 6) to least
preferred (score 1).

As the February planting season fast approached, the field research
team of the project sat down with their colleagues to review the informa-
tion they had obtained from diagnostic research. They concluded that one
objective of on-farm experimentation for testing new bean varietal materi-
als and rock phosphate fertilizers should be to follow up on farmer ex-
perimentation with fertilizer mixtures. They saw a need to evaluate vari-
etal-fertilizer interactions utilizing mixtures of rock phosphate with other
nutrient sources, including the chicken manure purchased locally by farm-
ers. The soil scientist had been evaluating a large number of fertilizer mix-
tures on-station in greenhouse experiments, and proposed testing differ-
ent dosages of one of the potentially most promising of these mixtures in
an exploratory on-farm trial. A minimum dosage of the proposed mixture
applied at the research station was 1,153.8 kilograms per hectare made up
of 195 kilograms of rock phosphate, 945 kilograms of chicken manure,
and 15.6 kilograms of sulfur. In order to plant trials in February, the soil'
scientist wanted to use monocropped bush beans as the test crop because
climbing beans could not be planted until September.
The researchers identified two types of farmer management strategy
from the results of the diagnostic research. They suggested that, given the
potential of the new bean varieties for improved disease resistance, it
would be important to evaluate varietal-fertilizer interactions under repre-
sentative farmer management conditions for the control of pest and dis-
ease problems as shown by the rapid diagnostic survey. Moreover, most
farmers expected less disease stress in the second planting season, Au-
gust/September, so it would be important to repeat evaluations in both
planting seasons. The interviews with innovative farmers, which were in-
tended to provide scope for farmer input into how new technology was
tested, had indicated that some farmers were adopting more intensive
methods of pest and disease control. The researchers recommended that
this level of management be included in the trials.
In choosing which bean varieties to test, the agronomist and soil sci-
entist preferred to include only one or two varieties in order to keep the
trials simple. However, farmer participation in the selection of preferred
grain types during the initial diagnostic research had produced an intrigu-
ing result: an apparently unattractive small grain type, BAT-1297, had
been selected by some farmers.
The sociologist argued that the selection of BAT-1297 when women
took part in these discussions was potentially an important clue to the exis-
tence of a broader range of preferences than were being tapped by the in-
terviews with farmers who were male heads of household. The social sci-
entists and agronomist had retabulated the miscellaneous category of bean
varieties identified in the rapid diagnostic survey and had found that a di-
versity of grain types were in fact grown in the semisubsistence-oriented,
climbing-bean production system of Pescador (see Table 5-10). Apparently

Part 1 119


Table 5-10
Retabulation of Bean Varieties Grown by Farmers (N=40)

Percent of Farmers
Bean Variety Size and Color of Grain Growing Variety

Bush Beans
Calima Large, red opaque 62.9
Cuarzo Rayado Large, red opaque 24.2
Cuarzo Rojo Large, red brilliant 6.9
Cuarzo Amarilli Large, yellow opaque 6.0
Total 100.0
Climbing Beans
Sangre Toro Large, red brilliant 45.8
Revoltura Mixture of types 20.8
Cuarzo de Vara Large, red brilliant 10.4
Liberal Small, red brilliant 6.2
Care Vaca Medium, red-white opaque 4.2
Bolon Rojo Medium, red brilliant 2.1
Mortino Large, purple opaque 2.1
Algarrobo Medium, red-yellow opaque 2.1
Blanquillo Medium, white opaque 2.1
Conejo Small, brown opaque 2.1
Novillona Medium, red-white opaque 2.1
Total 100.0

inferior grain types were utilized in subsistence production and thus might
find acceptance still if women were included in the evaluation process.
The group decided to table the question of which varieties to plant
until the following morning's meeting. Their tasks at that meeting would
be to make a decision on varieties and to design on-farm trials which ex-
perimented with all three elements-fertilizer responses, farmer manage-
ment practices, and selected bean varieties. The sociologist reminded
them that in thinking about trial designs, they should consider their objec-
tive of implementing farmer participation in experimentation.


1. What are the objectives of the research?

2. What is known about men's and women's roles with respect to bean
production in Pescador?

3. What are the different kinds of beans grown in Pescador? What are
the cultivation practices associated with them and what are their

4. What should be the main components of an experimental program in
February in terms of (a) varieties, (b) fertilizer use, and (c) farmer
management? How can farmer participation be maximized? What fur-
ther research would be useful at this phase?

(alternate) Develop an on-farm experimental program for beans.
Consider the trial objectives, the group of farmers to which it is di-
rected, treatments and levels for each trial, selection criteria for coop-
erators, and data to be collected for evaluation purposes. What addi-
tional research should be done?


1. The Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) is a nonprofit agricultural
research organization headquartered in Cali, Colombia, with regional cooperation staff
posted in Central and South America, Brazil, Peru, Asia, and Eastern Africa. CIAT is
one of the thirteen International Agricultural Research Centers (IARCs) under the aus-
pices of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) which
was formed in 1971 by donor agencies in order to provide long-term support for agri-
cultural research in the developing world. All the IARCs have specific mandates for
commodities, regions, or other areas important to agricultural research. CIAT's work is
concentrated in four commodity programs: rice, tropical pastures, cassava, and beans.
The Bean Program's mandate is to stabilize dry bean production at high levels, espe-
cially in regions where the crop plays an important role in human diets.
Because beans are grown under a wide range of environmental and socioeconomic
conditions, neither a single variety nor several varieties can meet farmers' needs over a
wide area. For this reason, the Bean Program has focused its research on small farm
production systems, with emphasis on developing technology requiring as few
purchased inputs as possible and on the incorporation of desirable characteristics into
improved bean genotypes. To do this, the Bean Program is using farming systems
research and extension perspectives and methodologies in order to design effective
on-farm research methods for developing bean technology and for adapting that
technology to specific areas. The CIAT Bean Program's on-farm research activities fall
into the category of farming systems research "with a pre-determined focus."
In Colombia, CIAT's on-farm bean research is conducted in collaboration with several
other entities, both international and national. The Bean Program cooperates with the
International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) in a phosphorus project that
involves on-farm research in various Colombian locations. Intercropping and
economics studies have been done with FEDECAFE (Federacion Nacional de
Cafeteros), the Colombian national coffee growers' federation. This is part of a larger
government effort to help farmers diversify their production from coffee. Though there
were no formal linkages, the development of improved bean varieties would be useful
to the government's seed multiplication and extension programs.

Pan 1 121


Colombia: Part 2
Experimentation, Ongoing Diagnostic
Research, and Evaluation



The final research design for on-farm experimentation included three
levels of the proposed fertilizer mixture and two levels of pest and dis-
ease management. These were designed to simulate the two farmer strate-
gies found in the diagnostic research:

1. Typical farmer management, which aims for minimum input control
of pest and disease, is interested in disease-resistant varieties and
tends to apply high levels of fertilizer for beans;

2. Innovative farmer management, which aims for optimum pest and
disease control including more labor, wants increased productivity
from varieties, but wants to reduce overall cash expenditures mainly
via reduced fertilizer costs.

With regard to varieties, the team accepted the argument that appar-
ently inferior beans might be utilized in subsistence agriculture. Therefore,
it was decided not to discard varieties which had been ranked low by the
farmers as a group, but to include a larger mix of varieties in the agro-
nomic trials than originally planned.
The final experimental design for exploratory trials which the team
drew up from this discussion to test fertilizer-varietal interactions with two
levels of management proposed to address the following objectives:

1. to identify fertilizer-responsive and disease-resistant varieties suitable for
typical farmer (or minimum input) management of pest and disease;

2. to identify varieties which would respond to innovative farmer (or
high input) management of pests and disease at lower fertilizer rates
and costs compared with a farmer fertilizer check treatment;

3. to select a reduced number of varieties for further testing in regional
trials to be carried out subsequently.

The social scientists questioned the compatibility of the experimental
design, given its complexity and large number of treatments, with the ob-
jective of the project to implement farmer participation in the assessment
of new technology. Moreover, the design required a large-sized plot rela-
tive to the size of most farmers' bean plots. The team accordingly estab-
lished this design as an exploratory trial, with only two farmers, and im-
plemented farmer participation in a larger number of farmer-managed
trials. The latter would superimpose the new varieties onto a range of
farmer management and fertilization practices in order to enable farmers
to become familiar with and evaluate the varietal materials, and to enable
them to participate in the selection of varieties which would enter into
subsequent fertilizer trials.
Farmers who planned to plant beans in February were contacted.
The social scientist and the agronomist selected thirteen farmers from
among them to take part in the farmer-managed trials. These farmers
were selected to represent a range of socioeconomic resources, identified
in terms of indicators such as farm size, ownership of livestock, nonfarm
employment, and whether their management style for the bean crop
would be typical or innovative.

Exploratory Trial

The exploratory trial (see Table 5-11) was established in fields belonging
to two farmers, with an agreement that each farmer would spray his crop
once to represent traditional or minimum-input management of pest and
disease control on two replications in the trial at the time judged appro-
priate. Innovative or high-input management would include additional
crop spraying of the remaining two replica ions. implemented at the judg-
ment of the agronomist responsible for overall management of the trial
and based on his observation of how "innovative" key informants in the
vicinity were treating their bean crop.

Farmer-Managed Varietal Trials

The farmer-managed varietal trials were designed to be as simple as
possible so that the eleven cooperating farmers could plant and could eval-
uate readily several varieties. The layout for the trial plots was staked by the
agronomist's assistant in the fields designated by each farmer for planting
that season's bean crop. Each farmer was provided with separately labeled
packets of seed for each variety. Farmers planted one packet of seed or
one variety in each parcel staked out in the field, starting at the top end of
a parcel and planting as far as the seed lasted. The last row of the variety

Part 2 121


Table 5-11
Experimental Design for Exploratory On-farm Trial

Treatment Fertilizer Product Rate
Number Managementb Mixture RFc CM S
kg/ha (kg/ha)
1-8 TF 1,153.8 195 945 15.6
9-16 TF 2,307.7 390 1,890 31.2
17 24 TF 3,461.5 585 2,835 46.8
25 32 IF 1,153.8 195 945 15.6
33 40 IF 2,307.7 390 1,890 31.2
41- 48 IF 3,461.5 585 2,835 46.8
49 Farmer check TF 2,307.7 0 2,307.7 0.0
50 Farmer check IF 2,307.7 0 2,307.7 0.0
aEach fertilizer treatment repeated with 8 bush bean lines = AFR-205, A-486, A-36,
A-66, PVAD-1261, BAT-1297, ANTIOQUIA-8L40, CALIMA (local check).
bTF = traditional farmer management; IF innovative farmer management.
CRF = rock phosphate; CM = chicken manure; S = sulfur.

was marked with another stake. The remainder of the field was planted on
the same day using the farmer's preferred local variety. The farmer was to
carry out the usual management operations for the whole bean plot.
Data on labor and other inputs, including fertilizers and chemicals for
fumigation applied by each farmer, were recorded. Each farmer had a
simple record-keeping sheet for entering labor inputs and purchased in-
puts as they applied to the whole bean field, including the trial plot.


While the agronomic trials were being planted, the social scientists
conducted further diagnostic research to discover what role women's pref-
erences might play in technology adoption and how these preferences
could be given scope in the testing and evaluation of the technology.
The sociologist decided that the informal survey approach to diag-
nostic research which had utilized random meetings with farmers in their
fields had excluded the researchers from contact with women, whose ac-
tivities were centered around the farmhouse and the domestic sphere.
Meeting farmers in their fields may have biased some of the earlier find-
ings. However, efforts to interview women through visits to their homes
were consistently frustrated by the perception of the women themselves
that the men of the household were the relevant informants in an
interview situation. Women were "too busy" to sit and talk, a situation in
which they were evidently ill at ease, particularly in the presence of the
men of the household.

To overcome these problems, a different approach was devised. The
sociologist selected ten families participating in the farmer-managed tri.ils
with which to conduct case studies. Participant observation methodology
was utilized to spend part of a day each week helping out in the kitchen
of each household alongside the women for a period of six weeks. The
sociologist observed women's activities while taking part in their tasks
and in their conversations, and shared in the family meals and in other
activities (such as husking maize, packing tomatoes in cases, or sorting
coffee beans) in which the whole family took part. As the sociologist xbe
came integrated into these domestic activities, the problem of access to
women as informants was solved.
This methodology very rapidly showed, in the course of a few weeks,
that women's participation in production activities had been underestimated
in the initial diagnostic interviews with male key informants. Women were
involved in a broad range of activities outside the domestic sphere.
Women spent a major part of their time in the kitchen preparing
meals that they carried to the fields. Most families hired some laborers
who had to be fed three times a day. The use of hired labor is an integral
feature of the farming system, not only for the main cash crop, coffee, but
also for other cash crops such as cassava, sugar cane, bush beans, and
tomatoes. Cauca Department, where Pescador is located, is one of the
lowest wage areas of Colombia, and labor migrates seasonally to higher
wage areas. As a result, it is almost impossible to obtain labor at local
wage rates outside the pool of workers constituted by the extended fam-
ily and neighbors.
Family labor, such as when sons work for their fathers, is customarily
paid the going wage. Hired laborers are typically the young adult men
from farm families in the community, and providing these youngsters with
employment to keep them living at home and to discourage them from
migrating elsewhere is part of the motivation for using hired labor among
local farmers.
Local wages were Col $200 per day with meals, or Col $400 per day
without meals. The quality of meals could be a factor in the ability of
farmers to attract laborers, and farmers without women in their family to
prepare meals either could not obtain labor or had to hire someone to
prepare meals. Farmers explained that they preferred to hire laborers on a
wage basis that included meals, not only because it involved less cash
outlay, but also, most importantly,, because laborers would turn up for
work earlier in the day and stay longer if meals were provided.
The social scientist discovered that the preparation of meals drew on
a wide variety of foodstuffs available from the farm. Some of these were
brought to the farmhouse from outlying plots by the men and were stored
in the farm storeroom. Close by the farmhouse was the huerta (home-
stead plot), usually an agroforestry garden of foodstuffs in daily demand:

Part 2 12;


coffee, plantains, fruit trees, cassava, medicinal herbs, cucurbits, and
minor root crops. These plots were cared for by women. Sometimes the
huera also included a small fenced area where maize, beans, and vegeta-
bles were cultivated (see Figure 5-3). Crops grown in the homestead plot
supplied many of the ingredients for the traditional sancocho (stew) that
is basic to the local cuisine. Although the contents of the daily sancocho
prepared by women for family and laborers were varied, some ingredi-
ents were considered an indispensable component of the meals and they
represented part of the hired workers' remuneration.
One of the vital ingredients in laborers' meals was beans. Several
farm women explained that beans could be substituted for meat to ac-
company the rice and the soup in the customary sancocho prepared for
field laborers' meals. When the farm housewife had a stock of beans pro-
duced on the farm, savings could be made on meat which otherwise had
to be purchased.
Women also influenced production decisions through their part in
managing consumption. The adult men in farm families customarily con-
tributed cash as well as a certain amount of the farm product in kind to-
ward the household expenses. These cash and kind resources were man-
aged by the women. The amount of the contribution might be decided by
the men, but women significantly influenced what foodstuffs should be

Figure 5-3
Types of Plots in Pescador

provided from the farm, and this appeared to affect decisions about whlit
should be planted.
Decision making in the household about resource allocation did not
take place in clearly demarcated gender-related spheres of influence.
Women's influence on production decisions might be indirect: for example,
by insisting certain resources of cash be devoted to school expenses or
medical care for children, women indirectly influenced cash availability for
purchasing agricultural inputs. In such cases, women's influence on farrn
management was the result of a negotiated or bargaining process of deci-
sion making that sometimes included several adults in the family network,
such as the husband and wife, their parents, and other relatives or neigh-
bors whose resources might be involved in production decisions.
Participant observation showed that, although women seldom directly
managed the inputs and outputs of field crop production, they actively ex-
pressed an interest in production practices and discussed among them-
selves and with men which crops and varieties were high yielding or prof-
itable. Some of the younger farm women explained their concern with
these issues in terms of their perception that providing food and income
from a farm was a partnership between husband and wife, who shared
the responsibility of providing for their family. Young women could mi-
grate to the city, and in many cases had done so before marriage to work
as domestic servants. Women who could earn an income did not have to
stay on the farm. These women were interested in making an economic
contribution which the men had to recognize and respect. They often took
out credit and hired labor to work on plots of land which were legally
theirs through inheritance or which belonged to their parents. Newly mar-
ried daughters living in the extended family household were loaned or
given plots of land to cultivate by their parents to enable them to accumu-
late capital toward setting up their own households. These young women
and their husbands were often the most actively interested in trying out
new crops, such as bush beans or tomatoes, and in trying out new tech-
niques which would enable them to maximize income and savings toward
setting up their own independent households.


Exploratory Trial

Harvest time arrived and the results of the on-farm trials were evaluated
by the research team. Data from the exploratory trial were processed, and
an analysis of variance was made to evaluate fertilizer and variety effects
under two management strategies (see Table 5-12).
Several response function models (quadratic, semilog, and linear)
were tested for the range of fertilizer rates used. The response function

Pan 2 127


Table 5-12
Analysis of Variance to Evaluate Fertilizer
and Variety under Two Management Strategies

Dependent Variable: Bean Yield
Source of Degrees Traditional Innovative
Variation of Freedom Management Management
----% of sums of squares --
Replications 1 0.8 NS 3.90 NS
Fertilizer 2 44.83c 27.78c
Variety 8 12.20a 41.60c
Variety x fertilizer 14 24.68a 11.82 NS
Error 24 18.21 14.90
Total 49 100.00 100.00
Source: J. A. Ashby and J. Henao, "Farmers' experimental strategies as a diagnostic tool for
design of on-farm trials" (1986), in preparation.
significant value at 0.05 probability level
bSignificant value at 0.01 probability level
CSignificant value at 0.001 probability level

analysis found that under traditional or minimum-input management only
two bean varieties showed significant response to fertilizer (BAT-1267 and
PVAD-1261). Under innovative or high-input management, all the bean
varieties with the exception of one had significant response to fertilizer,
although a much lower proportion of variation in yield could be ex-
plained by the model.
In summary, the analysis of the exploratory trial indicated that the
four best bean varieties for inclusion in further trials would be BAT-1297,
A-36, A-486, and PVAD-1261. However, BAT-1297 was the lower quality,
small grain type of bean. The question remained, would farmers accept
this variety if recommended?

Varietal Trials

Approximately sixty days after planting, the first stage of the farmer evalu-
ation of the farmer-managed trials took place. The agronomist and sociol-
ogist accompanied each farmer to his bean trial and asked him to evalu-
ate the appearance of the different treatments. Farmers' comments on
plant architecture, disease susceptibility, or other characteristics of the
bean plants were noted (see Table 5-13).
After harvesting the varietal trials, the researchers took samples of
each variety to local middlemen and asked several farmers to do the same.
In this way, they estimated a price for each variety and found that, as ex-
pected, the small grain type BAT-1297 received a significant price discount.
A simple partial cost-benefit analysis was conducted with each farmer, uti-

Table 5-13
Farmers' Visual Evaluations of Farm Trials (N=11)

Bean Variety Characteristics
High Low Disease Upright Sprawling
Variety Yield Yield Early Late Infected Resistant Plant Plant

Most preferred
A-486 100 22 11 22 22 -
PVAD-1261 100 11 22 11 44 -
BAT-1297 77 11 22 4.
A-36 55 11 11 11 11
Least preferred
Calima 55 11 44 -
ANTIOQUIA 11 55 11 33 11
ANCASH-66 11 55 33 11 44
AFR-205 11 11 44 11

lizing the grain yield from each variety in his trial, the cost of fertilizer he
had applied, and the estimated prices. BAT-1297 was consistently the most
profitable variety when grown in farmers' fields. Farmers then selected
three or four preferred varieties and ranked them in orde: of pr.- : :.
The results showed that the two varieties selected in first order of prefer-
ence by farmers were consistent with the earlier predictions of the
breeder: A-36 and A-486 were the top-ranking varieties (see Figure 5-4).

Consumption Characteristics

The social scientists felt that the findings of the diagnostic research, which
showed the role of beans in the management of household food supplies
by farm women, suggested that consumption aspects of the varieties re-
quired evaluation. The sociologist conducted a series of interviews with
women in the families participating in the trials to find out what criteria
women utilized to define an acceptable bean variety. Women told her that
they looked for several features when cooking beans: flavor, color of the
broth, softness of skins, and quickness in cooking time. Most importantly,
they said that the bean should swell and "yield in the cooking pot" so that
a small quantity of beans would provide a substantial number of servings.
The sociologist identified two groups of women who took responsi-
bility for organizing social get-togethers in the community for religious
festivals and other communal events and asked them to collaborate in a
cooking test of the eight bean varieties, including the locally preferred va-
riety. Each variety was assigned a letter from A to H; the women cooked

Part 2 129


Figure 5-4
Men's Responses to "Which Variety Would You Rank First?"

Figure 5-5
Women's Responses to "Which Variety Would You Rank First?"


0 0
A-66 AFR-205

6.6 6.6


0 0
A-66 AFR-205

each one in quantity in a separate cooking pot, using a local recipe, over
a wood fire. This cooking test was carried out on two separate occasions.
The women gave each variety a score on the quickness of cooking and
yield in the cooking pot. They invited their families along, and everyone
tasted the beans one by one in small amounts. The women assessed each
variety on flavor, color, and softness, and they recorded their three most-
preferred varieties and ranked them in order (see Figure 5-5).
Given the results of the agronomic evaluation from the exploratory
trial and these two sets of preferences, the researchers confronted the ques-
tion of which varieties would ultimately find widest acceptance in the farm-
ing community. Which varieties should be excluded from further testing?
What combination of variety and fertilizer technology would be feasible? By
now the second planting season had arrived, and it was time to reestablish
the exploratory trials and farmer-managed trials to evaluate the perfor-
mance of the technology in different seasonal conditions, as planned.

Follow-up Dissemination Study

In an effort to clarify the selection of a preferred variety for inclusion in
future trials, the social scientists decided to carry out a follow-up study to
see which varieties were being disseminated as seed or replanted by the
families who had participated in the varietal trials. In September, at the

beginning of the subsequent planting season, they visited families to ask
both men and women which varieties they had replanted, given away, or
sold to neighboring farmers. The results showed that varieties preferred
for their consumption characteristics in the evaluations conducted with
women were being most widely replanted after the conclusion of the on-
farm trials (see Table 5-14).
Notably the variety BAT-1297, which the breeder had anticipated
would find little acceptance, was reported by farmers as popularly in de-
mand among neighbors. The researchers met other farmers in the com-
munity who had heard that BAT-1297 was high yielding and very tasty,
and, even if not readily sold on the market, that it was very useful for
household consumption purposes. As one farmer put it: "I want to plant
A-36, but my wife insists that she will plant BAT-1297 in her garden be-
cause she wants these beans for housekeeping purposes." For these rea-
sons, they were anxious to obtain the seed and often requested it.

Reanalysis of Varietal Preference

The social scientists decided to reanalyze varietal preferences expressed
by men, based on the trial results in the households that had been se-
lected for case study analysis. They found that farmers who ranked large-
grain varieties highly in the trial evaluations formed a group distinct from

Part 2 131

It "In

I ,


Part 2 133

Table 5-14
Percent of Times Each Variety Replanted and/or Seed Given
to Other Farmers by Farm Trial Participants

Bean Variety Percent Bean Variety Percent
A-486 30.2 ANTIOQUIA 9.3
BAT-1297 23.2 ANCASH 66 6.9
A-36 13.9 AFR-205 6.9
PVAD-1261 9.3

those who ranked small grain varieties highly. By examining differences
in age, family size, and family structure, the farmers who preferred large-
grain varieties (A-486, AFR-205) could be characterized as either unmar-
ried or recently married, and living in extended families. They were mem-
bers of large households, including their parents or in-laws, where several
adults were engaged in farming in a mixture of cooperative arrangements
for sharing land, as well as independently owned and managed plots.
These families included entrepreneurial young men and women, or cou-
ples, who were spearheading the introduction of tomatoes and horticul-
tural crops into the farming system.
Many belonged to a self-proclaimed group of tomato growers which
had formed in the community to share experiences with tomato produc-
tion technology, and which was attempting to set up a cooperative to ob-
tain technical assistance and to market tomatoes. These young people
typically had access to capital, often from nonfarm employment, but had
limited access to land. They were often motivated toward maximizing
cash income with the objective of getting married and/or setting up inde-
pendent households. Their agricultural activities were heavily market ori-
ented in new crops, such as beans and tomatoes, which were perceived
as risky in the community. Their investment in risky, market-oriented en-
terprises appeared to be viable because they typically contributed cash to
the extended household, and they were not obliged to provide traditional
subsistence crops for household consumption nor were they obliged even
to contribute a regular input to the weekly housekeeping budget. The ex-
tended family provided for these needs, and so functioned as a safety net
for young people to experiment with new technology. Both young men
and women in this position in extended families were interested in the
new large-grain bean varieties because of their profitability, and because
they were aggressively seeking new market outlets for their production
outside the local community.
Farmers who had an expressed interest in small grain varieties, in
particular BAT-1297, were in a different position in their domestic life
cycle and in their family structure. This group included young farmers

who had set up their separate households and were heads of household
of a nuclear family with infants or school-age children. Also included in
this group were farmers who were heads of household of extended fami-
lies. Their preferences for bean varieties were related to both market and
household consumption objectives. The men were interested in a bean
type which had an established niche in the market, and which they could
rely upon selling. However, in such families there was an explicit recogni-
tion of different preferences of women toward the new varieties.
The research team was informed that a meeting was to be held the
following day to discuss what had been learned about household prefer-
ences concerning beans. The team members were asked to consider what
further experimentation should be done. They were also asked what rec-
ommendations could be made to small farmers and to the government of
Colombia. In addition, considering what they had learned from the first
season's research activities, what recommendations could they make to
other agricultural research institutions?


1. What was learned about incentive structures in bean production?
Household resource control? Household preferences for bean vari-
2. What research activities were actually undertaken during the project?
Where were they located? What are the strengths and weaknesses of
each activity?
3. What should the research team recommend to small farmers? To the
government of Colombia? To similar research institutions?

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