Half Title
 Title Page
 Historical information
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 List of maps
 List of photos
 Chinese agiculture
 Agricultural regions
 The topography of China
 The land
 Livestock and fertility mainte...
 Size of farm business
 Farm labor
 Prices and taxation
 The standard of living

Title: Land utilization in China;
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089529/00001
 Material Information
Title: Land utilization in China;
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Buck, John Lossing,
Publisher: Reproduced by the Council on Economic and Cultural Affairs,
Copyright Date: 1956
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089529
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: 05316677 - OCLC

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Half Title
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Historical information
        Page v
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
    List of Tables
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
    List of Figures
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
    List of maps
        Page xxix
    List of photos
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
        Page xxxii
    Chinese agiculture
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Agricultural regions
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
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        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    The topography of China
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 96a
        Page 96b
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
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        Page 103
        Page 104
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        Page 111
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        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 120a
        Page 120b
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
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        Page 125
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        Page 140
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        Page 142
        Page 142a
        Page 142b
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        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    The land
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
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        Page 186a
        Page 186b
        Page 187
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        Page 188a
        Page 188b
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 190a
        Page 190b
        Page 191
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        Page 206
        Page 206a
        Page 206b
        Page 207
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        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 238a
        Page 238b
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
    Livestock and fertility maintenance
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 258a
        Page 258b
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
    Size of farm business
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
    Farm labor
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 306a
        Page 306b
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
    Prices and taxation
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
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        Page 350a
        Page 350b
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        Page 432
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        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
    The standard of living
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 440a
        Page 440b
        Page 441
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Full Text




A study of 16,786 farms in 168 localities, and 38,256 farm
families in twenty-two provinces in China, 1929-1933

Professor of Agricultural Economics
The University of Nanking

This book is a photo-offset printing of an edition
published in 1937 by the University of Nanking

It has been reproduced
The Council on Economic and Cultural Affairs, Inc.
630 Fifth Avenue
New York 20, New York
Copies may be obtained only from this Council

The original 1937 edition of this book was published by the
University of Nanking, Nanking, China and printed by the North
China Daily News, Shanghai, China. Exclusive distributors for that
edition were the Commercial Press, Ltd., Shanghai, The University of
Chicago Press, Chicago, and the Oxford University Press, London.
Sheets of the book were bound from time to time as required by
the distributors. Unfortunately, the stocks of sheets were destroyed
during the war and the original edition is therefore now out of print.
The original edition consisted of three volumes, of which the other
two were Land Utilization in China Atlas, and Land Utilization in
China Statistics. These two volumes are not being reproduced at
this time.


The idea of a study of land utilization in China was first
suggested by Dr. O. E. Baker of the Division of Agricultural
Economics, United States Department of Agriculture, at the
second conference of the Institute of Pacific Relations at Honolulu
in 1927. A project was drawn up which called for the study of
China's land utilization in Washington, D. C. Later, when Dr. J. B.
Condliffe, Research Secretary of the Institute of Pacific Relations,
visited China in the winter of 1928, he and Dr. L. T. Chen,
Secretary of the China Council of the Institute, visited the Uni-
versity of Nanking. They were favorably impressed with the
work of the Department of Agricultural Economics and asked
the Department to submit a project on land utilization. A
carefully planned study was presented. It was approved by the
China Council and later by the International Research Committee
of the Institute of Pacific Relations which appropriated, from
funds given by the Rockefeller foundation, a series of grants for
the next five years. Grateful acknowledgment is extended the
Institute for making available such a large proportion of its
research funds to this study.
The project was administered by the Department of Agri-
cultural Economics of the College of Agriculture and Forestry,
the University of Nanking, as an integral part of the research
program of the China Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations.
Besides the funds provided by the Institute, contributions
to cover expenses of publication have been made by the National
Economic Council (Yuan 20,000), and the Central Bank of China
(Yuan 15,000). Deep appreciation is expressed to His Excellency
Dr. H. H. Kung for his assistance in enlisting the support of
these two organizations for the publication of the Atlas and the
Statistical Volumes.
There was a threefold purpose in the project; first, to train
students in the methods of research in land utilization; second,
to make available knowledge of China's agriculture, for its im-
provement, and as a basis of national agricultural policies; and,
third, to make available to people of other countries interested


in China's welfare certain elementary information about land
utilization, food, and population in China.
Data were collected by the sampling method from 22
provinces. Each regional investigator was assigned a major
natural region. The investigators were graduates of the College
of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Nanking, and, in
addition, were specially trained to undertake the work.
Language difficulties and the necessity of having local men
collect information directly from the farmer, made it necessary
to use regional investigators to find and train local men to fill
the farm and population schedules.
Intensive farm studies were conducted in 168 localities
scattered in 22 provinces of the country. The sampling was as
representative of major types of farming in China as possible.
Sometimes samples could not be taken in the most desirable
locations because of the absence of suitable local investigators,
or because of disturbed political conditions. For instance, no
samples were obtained in the southern part of Kiangsi because
at the time of the investigation that area was not under the control
of the Central Government.
The areas studied were determined by types of farming
areas, which were differentiated by crops using 20 per cent or
more of the farmer's labor, and extending over several hsien.
Preliminary approximate boundaries to such areas were
determined by obtaining estimates from at least three persons
familiar with conditions in the hsien and in adjacent hsien.
After having determined the representativeness of an area,
the particular villages accepted for study were selected according
to the availability of a suitable local investigator and the personal
contact which could be made by the regional investigator. The
personal approach for investigational work in China is very
important in order to ensure as accurate information as possible.
There were some villages where surveys were actually started but
where the suspicion was so great that they had to be discontinued
and other villages chosen.
For each type of farming area, a representative village (or
group of small villages or hamlets) was selected, and 100 farms
were studied in detail by use of the Farm Schedule. In addition,
250 farm families, or more, were selected in the same village, or
in neighboring villages, for the Population Schedules. Food


Surveys were obtained from twenty families in most of the
localities in which Farm Surveys were made. One Locality
Survey schedule was filled for each community in which the Farm
Surveys were made. One Hsien Survey schedule was obtained
for each hsien in which a Farm Survey occurred. Agricultural
Surveys contained questions pertaining to a more or less homo-
geneous agricultural section, often the same size as a hsien but
sometimes larger or smaller. These schedules were used with
the purpose of checking the accuracy of estimates obtained by
this method with results obtained in the more detailed schedules
used for individual families or farms.
Instructions to investigators were to select farms and families
on the basis of taking all the farms or families in a village, or, in
the case of a large village, by taking them consecutively along
typical streets or sections of the village.' In many localities,
this did not prove feasible, and for this reason there may be some
bias in the data, probably resulting in the selection of samples
better than average.
On the basis of the data collected, the country was divided
into eight agricultural areas and the representativeness of the
studies can be observed from table 1, where it is seen that the


Percentage of total for each item in each area
Gross Cultivated Farm Farm survey
area (rea rea (a) population (b) studies
CHINA.. ..... .... 100 100 100 100
WHEAT REGION .... 33 51 41 42
RICE REGION ...... .. 67 49 59 58
Spring Wheat ... ... 9 7 4 8
Winter Wheat-millet 11 9 6 12
Winter Wheat-kaoliang 13 35 31 22
Yangtze Rice-wheat.. .. .. 8 12 16 23
Rice-tea .. ... .. .. 18 12 16 16
SzechwanRice ...... .. 11 14 11 5
Double Cropping Rice 11 6 11 7
Southwestern Rice ...... 19 5 5 7

(a) The Land Chapter, table 1. (b) The Population Chapter, table 1.

The Statistical Volume. Chapter XII, table 1.



Number of Number of Number of
schedules collected hsien studied localities studied
Farm Surveys. ..16,786 154 168
Agricultural Surveys 272 180 272
Locality Surveys .. .. .. ..165 165 160
Hsien Surveys 179 174 -
Price Surveys .. .. .. .. 1,041 106 108
Marketing Surveys 121 121 121
Farm Practice Surveys. .. 1,874 128 125
Food Surveys .. .... 2,728 131 136
Standard of Living Surveys 439 143 150
Population Surveys (b).. .. .. 53,283 186 191

(a) The total number of different hsien studied is 308.
(b) The schedules for vital statistics are included.

Tsinghai .. 2 Kiangsu .. 13
Kansu 4 Hupeh 6
Ninghsia 1 Szechwan .. 7
Shensi .. .. 8 Kweichow .. 5
Suiyuan .. .. 2 Hunan .. .. 8
Liaoning .. .. 1 Kiangsi 6
Shansi .12 Chekiang .11
Hopeh .. .. .. 10 Fukien.. 5
Shantung .... 14 Kwantung .. 7
Honan .. .. .. 13 Kwangsi 2
Anhwei 10 Yunnan .. .. 7
proportion of the studies to the cultivated area and farm popula-
tion shows a rather close correlation. The total number of hsien
in which one or more types of studies were made is 308 (table 2).
The location of the Farm Survey studies by provinces is shown
in table 3. The largest number, 14, occurred in the province of
Shantung and the smallest, one, in the province of Ninghsia.
The schedules used and the instructions to investigators are
all reproduced in Chapter XII, Sources of Information, of the
Statistical Volume. In a few cases, information called for in
the schedules has not been tabulated because it was unobtainable,
unreliable or inadequate.
The shortcomings of the study are many and are fully re-
cognized. It has been carried out under the difficulties of a
limited number of trained personnel, insufficient funds for the
size and comprehensiveness of the study, and amid other duties on
the part of the Director and members of the staff. The point
of view has been to show relationships between facts rather than


obtain data of only current value. The principles discovered are
as applicable now, and in the future, as to the year in which the
data were collected.
It is too much to hope that no errors have crept into the
work, but every effort has been made to prevent them and all
statistical computations have been carefully checked and
The statistical validity of all factors studied in individual
localities is believed to be reliable since at least 100 farms are
included in the sample. The statistical comparisons between
areas, however, must be made with care, because for several
areas, the number of localities studied was not great due to the
limitation of funds. In the interpretation of the data this limita-
tion has been taken into account, and conclusions made only
where data were adequate. It is expected, therefore, that the
interpretation presented will be verified by more extended studies
in the future.
The statistical validity of any factor may be checked in the
following manner:
Computation of standard error of mean farm area for the YangtZe
Rice-wheat Area.-A sample of farms was studied in each of 38
localities, the total number of farms studied in the whole area
being 3,679.
Let :-
X = Farm area
Av X = Mean farm area of farms studied in one of the
38 localities
Mean (Av X) = Mean farm area obtained by averaging together
Av X for the 38 localities
Then :-
Mean (Av X) = 22.11 mow
Standard deviation of (Av X) = 15.06 mow
Number of localities = 38
Standard error of Mean (Av X) = 0.77 mow
This shows that if all the farms in the Yangtze Rice-wheat
Area were studied, their mean farm area would be found to be,
two chances out of three, within the limits of one standard
error (0.77 mow) above and below the mean (22.11 mow) obtained
by averaging the 38 locality means-that is within the limits of


21.34 and 22.88 mow. Twenty-one chances out of twenty-two,
the true mean for all the farms in the area would be found to
be within two standard errors (1.54 mow) of the mean obtained
from the samples-that is within the limits of 20.57 and 23.65
Whenever a comparison of the means for two different areas
is made, the significance of the difference between the two means
can be judged from its standard error
Standard error of difference V (/Standard 2 /Standard 2
bet n= 'o m s error of first error of second
between two means mean / \mean
If the observed difference is twice the standard error of the differ-
ence, 21 chances out of 22 an actual difference does exist. If the
observed difference is three times its standard error, 369 chances
out of 370 an actual difference does exist.
The standard error of the mean of any factor is not the same
in the various areas because the number of localities studied and
the variance among the locality averages are not the same in
each area.
In a project of this size and extent, the acknowledgments
are many and at best can only be inadequate. It has been possible
to make and complete the study only with the hearty co-operation
of many individuals. Those persons most closely connected
with it and engaged in it throughout its execution arc listed under
personnel immediately after the title page. To them most
grateful acknowledgment is given.
Special recognition is due Dr. Condliffe, Research Secretary
of the Institute of Pacific Relations, for his encouragement and
counsel in the early stages of the study and later to Mr. W. L.
Holland who succeeded Dr. Condliffe.
The encouragement and interest in the project of Dr. D. K.
Lieu and Dr. Franklin L. Ho, Research Secretaries of the China
Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations, is also deeply
Mr. Bruno Lasker, whose services for a few weeks were made
available by the Secretariat of the Institute of Pacific Relations,
gave editorial suggestions which were both timely and helpful,
and are gratefully acknowledged.
The work of the regional and local investigators who, through
many difficulties, have found ways and means of collecting the


desired data, deserve very special recognition. The names of
the-regional investigators appear in the Personnel list, but two
others, Lih-o Wang and Hsien-kwen Li, helped in this capacity
for a short time.
The special co-operation of two provincial governments was
most helpful. The Bureau of Reconstruction of Shensi Province
co-operated by paying all the field expenses for collecting data and
by putting their administrative facilities at our disposal. Grateful
acknowledgment is given to Mr. I. C. Li, Director of the Bureau,
and Mr. K. C. Li, Agricultural Technician, for this arrangement.
The Kiangsi Provincial Economic Council agreed to make the
land utilization study in Nanchang while the Department of
Agricultural Economics studied five other localities in the province,
the data to be available to both organizations. The Council
rendered very useful service by making its administrative facilities
available to the investigators. Grateful acknowledgment is given
Mr. C. C. Hsiao, Executive Secretary of the Council, for this
Grateful acknowledgment is due to Rev. Father E. Gherzi,
s.j., Director of the Siccawei Observatory, Shanghai, whose
generous assistance was invaluable in the preparation of all the
climatic data, and who has, moreover, given permission for direct
incorporation of several of his maps and tables from his own
Dr. Co-ching Chu, Director of the Institute of Meteorology,
Academia Sinica, Nanking, has generously given us permission
to incorporate rainfall data from his Chinese Rainfall" and
other publications of the Institute and has also given valuable
Miss Liu En-lan, head of the Department of Geography,
Ginling College, Nanking, has not only made many suggestions
but has permitted the use of material from her thesis Climate,
a Dictator of China."
Dr. G. B. Cressey has kindly given permission to incorporate
sections, especially Chapter II of his China's Geographic
Foundations." He drew the outline of the base map on which
most of the Atlas maps were made and contributed at several points
to the map of the eight agricultural areas.
Dr. Carl Alsberg of the Food Research Institute of Leland
Stanford University co-operated by granting a sum of U.S. $1,350
for paying Professor Swen's salary for one year and for part of
the cost of obtaining and analysing data on food consumption.


Dr. Leonard A. Maynard of the Division of Animal Hus-
bandry, Cornell University, spent one semester at the University
of Nanking to assist in the food consumption part of the project
with Professor W. Y. Swen. He not only taught a class of students
on nutritional problems, but also participated in the analysis of
the data on food consumption and, with Professor W. Y. Swen,
wrote the chapter on this subject. Dr. Maynard's services were
made available by Cornell University during his leave of absence
in the spring of 1934.
Dr. B. S. Platt of the Henry Lester Institute of Medical
Research, Shanghai, also read the manuscript of the Nutrition
chapter and gave helpful suggestions.
Most of the meteorological data in the Climate chapter was
prepared by Mr. B. Burgoyne Chapman. It was first published
in 1931 as a preliminary monograph, The Climatic Regions
of China." Mr. Chapman continued to add revised material and
in 1935 arranged the climatic data by the eight agricultural areas,
which is the chief contribution of this chapter to a knowledge of
China's climate.
Especially am I indebted to Mr. H. Brian Low who has done
most of the work in bringing the materials together in the Atlas
and has assisted in many other ways in compiling the text, and
for his large amount of proof reading for all three volumes.
Mr. J. Hanson-Lowe while in China, on a fellowship from
the China Universities Committee, generously co-operated in
writing the chapter on Topography.
Dr. Charles F. Shaw, Professor of Soil Technology, Uni-
versity of California, was granted leave of absence from that
institution to initiate the Soils work in the Land Utilization survey.
The results of his study were published as Soils Bulletin No. 1 of
the National Geological Survey, Peiping, China, under the title
" Soils of China." His work laid the foundation for the present
Soil Survey of the National Geological Bureau.
Special mention must be made of the excellent co-operation
of Dr. Wen-hao Wong of the National Geological Survey in
making the facilities of the Soil Survey available to the Land
Utilization Project. After Dr. Shaw's return to America, and
upon his recommendation, Dr. Robert L. Pendleton, College of
Agriculture of the Philippine Islands, was invited to serve at the
National Geological Survey Bureau for field soil surveys. The
Bureau kindly co-operated with the Land Utilization survey in
the further training and supervision of the regional investigators


in the soils part of their work, and for the technical part of this
co-operation considerable credit must be given to Dr. Robert L.
Pendleton. After Dr. Pendleton's return to the Philippines,
co-operation was continued with the help of Mr. James Thorp
of the National Geological Survey, who was kind enough to
write the chapter on Soils for this Land Utilization study, basing
the information largely on his own study but partly with Shaw's
and Pendleton's work as a basis. The personal assistance of
Professor T. H. Shao to Professor Shaw and Dr. Pendleton in
the initial stages of the soil investigation was very instrumental
in its success.
Special acknowledgment is due the late Mr. Edgar Syden-
stricker of the Milbank Memorial Fund who made a grant of
U.S.$3,000 for the collection of population data, and arranged
for the tabulation of the information in the New York office of
the Foundation. He was also adviser on the Population study
and lecturer to the staff on statistical problems.
Owing to the death of Mr. Sydenstricker, the chapter on
Population, which he was to have prepared with the collaboration
of Professor C. M. Chiao, was written by Mr. Notestein, who had
also supervised the tabulation of the very large amount of data.
Professor C. M. Chiao was responsible for direct supervision
of the collection of the field data for this chapter, for the coding
of the data before it was sent to New York, and for a preliminary
report of the study and was in consultation with Mr. Notestein
in the interpretation of the data from a Chinese viewpoint.
Dr. Warren S. Thompson, Director of Scripps Foundation
for Research in Population Problems, was a visiting professor
on Population Problems from October 1934 to April 1935. He
very kindly gave his services to the Department of Agricultural
Economics for seven months and taught a course on Population
Problems. Grateful acknowledgment is given the Scripps Founda-
tion for the contribution of all expenses in connection with Dr.
Thompson's services.
Dr. David Weeks, Professor of Agricultural Economics in
the University of California, was adviser on Land Utilization
problems and instructor to students and staff on Land Utilization
in the spring semester of 1932. His services were especially
helpful in the training of students and in advice offered on the
field work of the land utilization investigators. His services
were loaned by the University of California during his leave
of absence.


For secretarial work in the preparation of the manuscript I
am greatly indebted to Miss Enid Saunders who also gave
valuable editorial suggestions, to Miss Doris Drake, to Dr. W.
Marshall Curtiss for the indexing, to Miss P. Margaret Turner
who assisted in the proof reading after Mr. H. Brian Low left
in January, 1937, and to Miss Martha R. Carlton for obtaining
most of the comparative data with other countries.
An author's feelings for a publication are greatly affected by
his relations with the printer and in this instance I wish to
express my deep gratitude to Mr. T. D. Davy for his personal
interest in the work and for his share in the happy relationship
maintained in bringing a difficult task to completion.

Director of the Survey
March 1, 1937.


Director of the Survey :

Acting Director:
WEN-YUH SWEN (July 1932 to October 1933)
(November 1934 to May 1935)

Statisticians :
STANLEY W. WARREN (September 1932 to August 1933)
ARDRON B. LEWIS (October 1933 to June 1936)

Associate Statisticians :
MEO YIEH (June 1929 to March 1934)
MING-TSONG YANG (beginning with March 1934)

Geographer :
Assisted by LAN-YIN CHEN

Business Managers:
HSIEN-YAO SHEN (July 1929 to February 1933)
PEH-HSIUNG HWA (December 1934 to August 1936)

Director of Food Consumption Survey :

Director of Population and Vital Statistics Survey :

Technical Assistants





Regional Investigators:

Contributing Authors:



Other acknowledgments are made in the Preface

PREFACE (explaining method and scope of study) vii

The Wheat Region-The Rice Region-Spring Wheat Area-
Winter Wheat-millet Area--Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area-
Yangtze Rice-wheat Area Rice-tea Area -Szechwan Rice
Area-Double Cropping Rice Area-Southwestern Rice Area

Basic climatic factors-Climatic elements-Types of climate in
the different agricultural areas-Famines
Classification of soils-Calcium soils-Leached soils-Soils in
relation to man
Gross area and water area-Cultivated and uncultivated land-
Arable uncultivated area-Classification of land-The uses of
land-Fragmentation of land-Modification of land by man-
Land ownership-Size of farm and efficiency in the use of land-
The place of land in the future of China's agriculture

Types of farming-Distribution of crops-Varieties of crops-
Crop yields-Irrigation of crops-Cash crops-Utilization of
crops on the farm-Cropping systems-Adages pertaining to
Kind and amount of livestock-Density of animal population-
The dairy and poultry industries in relation to land utilization
in China-Fertility maintenance-Changes in the use of


Size of the farm-Crop yields in relation to size of farm-Index
of double cropping and size of farm-Man-equivalent and size
of farm-Labor animal units in relation to size of farm-Farm
population and size of farm-Relation of size of farm to farm-
stead area, area in productive use, size of plots, and size of
fields-Production per farm, per man-equivalent, and per capital.
Employment of the farm population-Man labor requirements-
Farm wages-Adages-Animal labor requirements.
Factors affecting prices in China-Prices received by farmers-
Prices paid by farmers for commodities used in living and
production-Wages of farm year labor-Prices of farm labor
animals-Farm land taxes-Farm land values-Seasonal variation
in farm prices-Prices paid and prices received-Prices received
by farmers, and farm wages, farm taxes, and prices of labor
animals-Farm prices received and farm land values-Conclusion.
Marketing by farmers-Transportation methods-Costs of
transportation-Marketing costs-Trade in agricultural products.
The sample-Density of population-The family-Occupation-
Education-Age and sex distributions-Marriage-Fertility-
Mortality-Natural increase.
Sources of food supply-Amounts and sources of energy-
Calories supplied by important staple crops-Amounts and
sources of protein-Calcium, phosphorus and iron-Vitamins-
Changes in kinds and quantities of foods consumed-The
improvement of the Chinese farm diet.
Clothing-Farm buildings-Quantity and quality of furniture
per family-Quantity and quality of farm equipment per family-
Changes in the plane of living-Farm credit and indebtedness-
Other indices of the standard of living.



1. Data used for determining the two agricultural regions and the eight
agricultural areas ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 28

1. Continental depressions (extratropical cyclones) ... ... ... 105
2. Typhoons ... ... ... ... ... ... .. .. ... 105
3. Precipitation ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 111
4. Heavy precipitations in twenty-four hours in low rainfall areas ... 111
5. Relative humidity ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 116
6. Temperature ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 116
7. Frequency and extent of famine within memory of informants ... 124
8. Causes and effects of famine within memory of informants ... ... 124
9. Percentage of crops destroyed by natural calamities causing over
20 per cent loss but not causing famine ... ... ... ... 126
10. Number of times of occurrence of natural calamities causing over
20 per cent loss but not causing famine ... ... ... ... 126

1. Gross area of provinces of China included in the eight agricultural
areas ... ... ... 163
2. Reliability of statistics of cultivated land in China ... ... ... 164
3. Estimates of the amount of cultivated area in the eight agricultural
areas, China ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 165
4. Per cent of land cultivated in the eight agricultural areas ... ... 166
5. Gross area and cultivated area for the eight agricultural areas ... 167
6. Major uses of land in eight countries ... ... ... ... ... 172
7. Percentage of farm area devoted to different uses ... ... ... 172
8. Percentage of farms having the various uses of farm land ... ... 175
9. Number and area of graves in farms ... ... ... ... ... 177
10. Area of graves ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 177
11. Percentage of crop area harvested, unharvested or idle, and percentage
of farms having the item ... ... ... ... ... ... 179
12. Reasons for non-use of land ... ... ... ... ... ... 182
13. Number, distance and size (crop area in acres) of parcels and fields ... 183
14. Per cent of farms having the specified number of parcels ... ... 183
15. Per cent of farms having the specified number of fields ... ... 184
16. Sources of irrigation water ... ... ... ... ... ... 188
17. Changes in amount of crop area irrigated ... ... ... ... 188
18. Frequency of failure of water supply ... ... ... ... ... 189
19. Classification of land by type of ownership ... ... ... ... 193
20. Land holdings in China in 1865 by type of ownership ... ... 193
21. Percentage of farm area rented for farms grouped by size ... ... 194


22. Percentage of farmers who are owners, part owners, and tenants ... 196
23. Size of farms by ownership ... ... ... ... ... ... 197
24. Percentage of farms having the specified renting system ... ... 198
25. Percentage of farm area in farmsteads by size of farm ... ... 199
26. Size of parcels by size of farms ... .. ... ... 200
27. Size of fields by size of farms ... ... .. ... ... ... 201
28. Percentage of farm area in productive uses by size of farm ... ... 202

1. Percentage of the total crop acre area devoted to various groups of
crops ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 209
2. Percentage of all localities having important crops of specified rank... 210
3. Percentage of the crop area occupied by various crops (combined
average of Crop Report and Agricultural Survey data) ... ... 211
4. Percentage of farms growing the important crops ... ... ... 215
5. Index of double cropping ...... ... ... ... 216
6. Trends in crop acreages ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 217
7. Trends in crop acreages-reasons for increases ... ... ... 218
8. Trends in crop acreages-reasons for decreases ... ... ... 218
9. Percentage of crop area devoted to crops by seasons. ... ... 219
10. Percentage of crop acre area by size of farm for each group of crops... 220
11. Number of varieties of important crops grouped by percentages they
occupy in the area of all varieties in the crop in a given locality ... 221
12. Number of varieties of important crops having the specified
characteristics ... ..... ... ... ... ... ... 222
13. A comparison of average, normal, best and most frequent yields,
with the most frequent yields in each locality taken as 100 ... 223
14. Most frequent yield per acre of crops occurring on 20 per cent or
more farms for each locality ... ... ... ... ... ... 224
15. Comparison of yields of important crops ... ... ... 227
16. Most frequent yield per acre for by-products of important crops
(in pounds)... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .229
17. Relation of type of soil to crop yields per hectare (in quintals) ... 230
18. Relation of type of soil to proportion of crop area used for various
crops ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 231
19. Irrigation of crops ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 232
20. Percentage of crop area irrigated by size of farm for important crops 232
21. Most frequent yield per acre (in bushels) for important crops grown
on irrigated and non-irrigated land in the same area ... ... 233
22. Proportion of the total crop sold for crops occurring in ten or more
localities ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... 234
23. Utilization of crops by percentage for each use ... ... ... 236
24. Utilization of by-products by percentage for each use ... ... 238

1. Number of each kind of livestock per farm ... ... .. ... 246
2. Percentage of farms having the specified animals ... ... ... 246
3. The most usual number of livestock per farm ... ... ... 248


4. Percentage distribution of animal units by kinds of animals ... ... 248
5. Percentage distribution of animal units by kind of animal by
countries, 1929 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 250
6. Number and proportion of labor animal and productive animal
units per farm ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 251
7. Percentage of farms without animals by size of farm ... ... ... 252
8. Percentage of farms without labor animals by size of farm ... 253
9. Labor animal units per man-equivalent by size of farm ... ... 254
10. Percentage of farms without productive animals by size of farm ... 254
11. Density of animal population ... ... ... ... ... 255
12. Amount of manures produced on the farm by size of farm ... ... 259
13. Relation of size of farm to pounds of all manures and all other
fertilizers applied per crop acre of all crops ... ... ... ... 259
14. Percentage of farmers applying fertilizer to the crop ... .. 261
15. Changes in the use of fertilizers ... ... ... ... ... ... 262
16. Percentage of farms reporting decreased use of the specified
fertilizers ... ... ... ... ... ... ...... 263
17. Percentage of farms reporting increased use of the specified
fertilizers ... ... ... ... .. .. .. ... ... 263
18. Percentage of farmers reporting the reasons why the use of the
specified kind of fertilizer is decreasing for all farmers giving some
reason ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 264
19. Percentage of farmers reporting the reasons why the use of the
specified kind of fertilizer is increasing for all farmers giving some
reason ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 264

1. Size of farm as measured by the means and medians of farm area,
crop area, and crop acre area ... ... .. ... ... ... 268
2. Most usual size of farm and range in size of farm ... ... ... 269
3. Changes in size of farm since 1870 ... ... ... ... ... 270
4. Reasons for changes in size of farm ... ... ... ... ... 270
5. Number of farms in each class ... ... ... ... ... 271
6. Per cent of farms in each class ... ... ... ... ... ... 271
7. Average size of farm (in acres) for farms in each size group ... 272
8. Median size of farms for farms in each size group ... ... ... 273
9. Relation of size of farm to crop yields ... ... .. ... 273
10. Relation of size of farm to index of double cropping ... ... 274
11. Relation of size of farm to number of man-equivalent per farm ... 275
12. Relation of size of farm to crop acres per man-equivalent ... ... 276
13. Relation of size of farm to crop acres per labor animal unit ... ... 277
14. Relation of size of farm to size of household (persons) ... ... 278
15. Number of acres of crop area per person by size of farm ... ... 279
16. Efficiency factors in relation to size of farm ... ... ... ... 279
17. Production per man-equivalent in kilograms of grain equivalent ... 282
18. Production per man-equivalent in kilograms of grain equivalent by
size of farm ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 283
19. Grain equivalent per capital (in kilograms) ... ... ... ... 286
20. Production of grain-equivalent per farm ... ... ... ... 288



1. Amount of farm and subsidiary work ... ... ... ... ... 290
2. Proportion of men, women and children employed in farm and in
subsidiary work ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 291
3. Proportion of farms having men, women, and children hired as
laborers by the year ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 291
4. Amount of farm work (in months) performed by family and hired
labor ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 293
5. Percentage of farm work (in months) performed by family and
hired labor ... ... .. ... .. ... ... ... 293
6. Employment of able-bodied men (over 15 and under 60 years of age) 294
7. Number of idle months per able-bodied man by size of farm ... 295
8. Percentage distribution of idle time by months ... ... ... 296
9. Amount of subsidiary work and income from other than farm work 297
10. Proportion of farm families engaged in various subsidiary occupa-
tions ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 297
11. Percentage of net income from other than farm sources ... ... 299
12. Known changes in subsidiary occupations by percentage of localities
reporting the item ... ... .. ... ... ... 300
13. Agricultural labor shortage ... ... ... ... ... 301
14. Man labor requirements (number of days per crop acre) for growing
various crops ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 302
15. Percentage of man labor by kinds of work for growing important
crops in China (1929-1933) ... ... ... ... ... 304
16. Farm wages (in silver yuan) ... .. ... ... ... ... 305
17. Number of kilograms of rice and wheat that could be bought with
the total money value of the wages of year labor ... ... ... 306
18. Animal labor requirements (number of days per crop acre) for
various crops ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 308
19. Percentage of animal labor by kinds of work for growing important
crops in China (1929-1933) ... ... ... ... ... ... 309


1. Number of localities for which price indexes of various commodities
are included in the index of prices received by farmers for commodi-
ties sold ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 313
2. Number of localities for which price indexes of various commodities
are included in the index of retail prices paid by the farmers ... 314
3. Farm price relationships in the Wheat Region, 1906-1933 ... ... 316
4. Farm price relationships in the Rice Region, 1906-1933 ... ... 318
5. Farm price relationships in China, 1906-1933 ... ... ... ... 319
6. Index number of wages of farm year labor in different areas 1900-1933
(1926= 100) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 321
7. Index numbers of the price of farm labor animals in different areas
1906-1933(1926=100) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 322
8. Taxes paid to the Hsien Government per acre of the most usual kind
of farm land in different areas, 1907-1933 ... ... .. ... 324


9. Taxes paid to the Hsien Government per acre of the most usual kind
of farm land, 1907-1933 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 329
10. Index number of total taxes paid to the Hsien Government on the
most usual kind of farm land in different areas, 1907-1933 (1926=100) 330
11. Index numbers of the value of farm land in different areas, 1906-1933 332
12. Index numbers of seasonal variation in the price of millet in the
W heat Region ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 336
13. Index numbers of seasonal variation in the price of rice ... .. 338
14. Index numbers of seasonal variation in the price of wheat ... ... 338

1. Marketing by farmers ... ... ... ... ... ... 349
2. Methods of transportation ... ... ... ... ... ... 351
3. Distance (miles) for transportation of agricultural products ... ... 353
4. Average cost of transportation for agricultural products per ton
mile ... ... ... 354
5. Percentage distribution of costs in marketing for products... ... 355
6. Imports and exports of agricultural commodities in localities studied
ranked in order of importance in the locality (all China) ... ... 356
7. Trend in imports of agricultural commodities (mostly domestic
commodities) into localities studied (the index is for the base period
1904-1909=100) ... ... .. .... ... ... ... 357
8. Trend in export of agricultural commodities from the hsien when
the base period is 1904-1933 ......... ... 357

1. Geographic distribution of the sample ... ... ... ... 359
2. Total households, farm households, and farm population in the
eight agricultural areas ... ... ... ... .. 362
3. The distribution of population in city and country ... ... ... 365
4. Distribution of family members by relationship to the family heads 367
5. Distribution of families by size ... .. ... .... 368
6. Distribution of families by tenure of farm, and mean size of family
for each tenure group ... ... ... ... 368
7. Size of family ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 370
8. The relation of crop area of the farm to the mean size of family ... 370
9. Occupational distribution of the population, including non-residents 372
10. Schooling and literacy of the population, including non-residents... 373
11. Type of education, and mean number of years of schooling, for
persons who received some education, including non-residents ... 374
12. Sex ratio of the population, for various countries ... ... ... 376
13. Proportion of males to the total population ... ... ... ... 376
14. Age distribution of the population for various countries ... ... 377
15. Distribution of the population of each age group by marital condition 378
16. Distribution by marital condition of the population 15-44 years of
age, for various countries ... ... ... ... .. ... 379
17. Age-at-marriage distribution of persons contracting marriage for the
first time, for various countries ... ... ... ... 380



18. Mean age at marriage of all persons contracting marriage, for various
countries ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 381
19. Crude birth rates, births per 1,000 married females 15-44 years of
age, and the sex ratios at birth ... ... ... ... ... ... 383
20. Crude birth rates and births per 1,000 married females 15-44 years of
age, for various countries ... ... ... ... ... ... 383
21. The relation of crop area of the farm to the fertility of married women 385
22. Crude death rates, for several samples of the Chinese population ... 387
23. Crude death rates for each sex ... ... ... ... ... 388
24. Crude death rates, for various countries ... .. ... ... 388
25. Infant mortality rates ... ... ... .. ... ... ... 389
26. Mortality rates per 1,000 population (1,000qx) .. ... ... 390
27. Number of survivors to selected ages from 100,000 persons born alive
(1x), for various countries ... ... ... ... ... ... 391
28. Expectation of life in years (ex) at selected ages, for various countries 391
29. Death rates from selected causes of death ... ... ... ... 393
30. Changes in population growth ... ... ... ... ... 394
31. Migrants per 10,000 resident and non-resident population of each sex 396

1. Percentage of food calories supplied by the farm, purchased and
from other sources ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 401
2. Percentage of each important food consumed which is supplied by
the farm, purchased, and from other sources ... ... ... ... 404
3. Percentage of families consuming each important food product ... 407
4. Daily intakes of calories per adult-male unit and percentage of
calories supplied by different classes of food ... ... .. ... 407
5. Animal food calorie intake ... ... ... .. ... ... 413
6. Percentage of calories supplied by different important staple crops... 413
7. Daily intakes of protein per adult-male unit and percentage of protein
supplied by different classes of food ... ... ... ... ... 419
8. Daily intake of calcium, phosphorus and iron per adult-male unit... 419
9. Weight (grams) of foods containing the specified vitamins consumed
daily per adult-male unit ... ... .. ... ... ... 427

1. Average size of farms reporting standard of living data compared
with average size of farms in the farm surveys... ... ... ... 438
2. Number and kinds of work garments ... ... ... ... 439
3. Number and kind of dress garments ... ... ... ... ... 440
4. Size of farm building per farm .. ... .. .. ... 441
5. Construction materials of farm buildings ... ... ... ... 443
6. Value of farm buildings (in yuan) per farm .. ...... ... ... 445
7. Common bad features in farm housing conditions ... ... ... 447
8. Special good farm housing conditions ... ... ... ... ... 448
9. Number of rooms, doors and windows per person ... ... ... 449
10. Number of rooms, doors and windows per gien ... ... ... 450
11. Uses of rooms in residence and farm buildings combined ... ... 451



12. Uses of rooms in residences ... ...... ... ... ... 453
13. Uses of rooms in farm buildings ... ... ... ... ... 454
14. Number of pieces and kind of furniture per farm family ... ... 456
15. Quality of furniture per family ... .. ... ... ... 457
16. Kind of farm equipment per farm family (number of pieces) ... 458
17. Changes in standard of living in recent years .. ... .. 459
17A. Changes in standard of living in recent years ... .... ... 459
17B. Changes in standard of living in recent years ... ... ... ... 460
18. Amount and character of farm credit and interest rates ... ... 462
19. Percentage of farms obtaining credit and percentage of credit for
productive and non-productive purposes ... ... ... ... 462
20. Percentage of farmers obtaining credit from the specified sources... 465
21. Amount, extent and form of farmers' savings ... ... ... ... 467
22. Special expenditure (in yuan) per farm family having the expenditure
on all farms ... ... ... ... ... ... 468
23. Special expenditure (in yuan) per farm family having the expenditure
by size of farm in China... ... ... ... ... ... ... 469
24. Agricultural conditions ... ... ... ... ... 471


1. Proportion of farm area devoted to different uses ... ... ... 173
2. Proportion of farm area devoted to different uses in China and in
the United States ... .......... ... ... ... 174
3. Location of grave land ... ... ... .. ... ... ... 178
4. Frequency distribution of parcels per farm ... ... ... ... 181
5. Frequency distribution of fields per farm ... .. ... ... 185
6. Size of farm by land tenure ... ... ... ... 197
7. Proportion of the farm area in the farmstead ... ... ... .. 200
8. Size of parcels by size of farm ... ... ... ... ... ... 201
9. Size of fields by size of farm ... ... ... ... ... 201

1. Percentage of crop acre area devoted to various groups of crops, by
countries, 1929 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 205
2. Crops ranked by percentage of crop acre area occupied ... ... 213
3. Percentage of the crop area occupied by important crops in the
Wheat Region (434 hsien) and in the Rice Region (396 hsien)
1929-1933. Data are from the combined averages of the Crop
Report and Agricultural Survey data ... ... ... ... ... 214
4. Average crop yields for eight countries, 1929-1933. Data for China
from 16,334 farms, 162 localities, 150 hsien, 22 provinces, China,
1929-1933. For other countries from the International Yearbooks
of Agricultural Statistics, 1930-1931 and 1932-1933 ... ... ... 226
5. Percentage of total crop sold; 15,647 farms, 156 localities, 146 hsien,
22 provinces, China, 1929-1933 ... .. .. ... ... 235

1. Percentage distribution of animal units ... ... ... ... 249
2. Percentage distribution of labor and productive animal units by
countries ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... 251
3. Percentage of farms without any animals by size of farm ... ... 252
4. Percentage of farms without labor animals by size of farm ... ... 253
5. All animal units per crop acre by countries, 1929 ... ... ... 255
6. Labor animal units per crop acre by countries, 1929 ... ... 256

1. Average size of farm in seven countries ... .. ... .. 268
2. Man-equivalent per farm by size of farm ... ... ... ... 275


3. Crop acres per labor animal unit by size of farm ... ... ... 276
4. Size of farm household (persons per farm) by size of farm ... ... 277
5. Number of acres of crop area per person by size of farm ... ... 278
6. Production per man-equivalent in kilograms of grain-equivalent
for the eight agricultural areas ... .. . ... ... 282
7. Production per man-equivalent in kilograms of grain-equivalent
by size of farm ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 285

1. Proportion of farm and subsidiary work performed on the farm ... 290
2. Percentage of farm work performed by members of the farm family 292
3. Distribution of idle time of farmers by months ... ... ... 294
4. Amount of farm work, in man-equivalent per farm, performed
by family and hired labor ... ... ... ... ... ... 296
5. Proportion of farm families having the specified subsidiary work... 298
6. Days of man labor per acre required to grow various crops in China
and in the United States ... ... ... ... .. ... 303
7. Days of animal labor per acre required to grow various crops in
China and in the United States ... ... ... ... .. ... 307

1. Index numbers of the prices received by farmers for commodities
sold in the Wheat Region, the Rice Region, and all China, 1906-1933
(1926= 100) ... ... ... ... ..... 315
2. Index numbers of the prices paid by farmers for commodities used
in living and production in the Wheat Region, the Rice Region,
and all China, 1906-1933 (1926=100) ... .. .. ... ... 316
3. Index numbers of wages of farm year labor, in the Wheat Region,
the Rice Region, and all China, 1906-1933 (1926=100) ... ... 320
4. Index numbers of the price of labor animals, in the Wheat Region,
the Rice Region, and all China, 1906-1933 (1926=100) ... ... 325
5. Taxes in silver dollars per acre paid by farmers on high, medium,
and low grade land in the Wheat Region and in the Rice Region.
47 localities, 47 hsien, 14 provinces, China, 1929-1933 ... ... 326
6. Index numbers of land taxes paid by farmers to the Hsien Govern-
ment per acre of the most usual kind of farm land, in the Wheat
Region, the Rice Region, and all China, 1907-1932 (1926=100) ... 331
7. Index numbers of the value of farm land in the Wheat Region, the
Rice Region, and all China, 1906-1932 (1926=100) ... ... ... 334
8. Seasonal variation in the price of millet in the Wheat Region ... 335
9. Index numbers of seasonal variation in the price of rice, in the Rice
Region ... ... ... ... ... ... 337
10. Index numbers of seasonal variation in the price of wheat, in the
Wheat Region, the Rice Region, and all China ... ... ... 339
11. Index numbers of prices received by farmers for commodities sold,
and of retail prices paid for commodities used in living and produc-
tion in the Wheat Region, 1906-1932 (1926=100) ... ... ... 340



12. Index numbers of prices received by farmers for commodities sold,
and of retail prices paid for commodities used in living and produc-
tion in the Rice Region, 1906-1933 (1926=100) ... ... ... 341
13. Index numbers of prices received by farmers for commodities sold,
of wages of farm year labor, of the price of labor animals, and of
farm land taxes, in the Wheat Region, 1906-1932 (1926=100) ... 342
14. Index numbers of prices received by farmers for commodities sold,
of wages of farm year labor, of the price of labor animals, and of
farm land taxes, in the Rice Region, 1906-1933 (1926=100) ... 343
15. Index numbers of prices received by farmers for commodities sold
and index numbers of farm land values, in the Wheat Region, 1906-
1933 (1926=100) .. ..... ... .. ... ... ... 344
16. Index numbers of prices received by farmers for commodities sold
and index numbers of farm land values, in the Rice Region, 1906-1933
(1926= 100) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 346

1. Distance farm products are transported by different methods from
the farm to the local market ... ... ... ... ... ... 352
2. Distance farm products are transported by different methods from
hsien city to markets outside the hsien ... ... ... ... ... 352
3. Cost of marketing products by different methods of transportation
from the farm to the local market ... ... ... ... ... 355

1. Age distribution of each sex for the entire sample, and of the total
population for North and South China, 1929-1931 ... ... ... 375

1. Proportion of foods from various sources in the Chinese farm diet 403
2. Percentage of calories supplied by different classes of food in the
Chinese farm diet ... ... ... ... ... 411
3. Comparison of sources of calories in the Chinese farm diet and an
average diet of 224 urban and rural families in the U.S.A. ... ... 414



1. The portion of China studied ... .. ...... ... 23
2. Political map of the portion of China studied ... 24
3. The two agricultural regions of China ... ... ... ... 25
4. Agricultural areas of Cnina ... ... ... ... ... ... 27

1. Generalized sketch of the major topographic units of China ... 93

1. Winter monsoon regime ... ... ... ... ... ... 103
2. Summer monsoon regime ... ... ... ... ... 103
3. Annual mean precipitation, isohyets ... ... ... ... ... 109
4. Monthly distribution of rainfall, temperature variation and length
of frost-free period ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 113

1. The general distribution of acid. neutral and alkali soils in China... 133

1. Percentage of the total land area cultivated ... ..... ... 168
2. Percentage of land irrigated ... .. ... ...... 187
3. Percentage of farms owned ... ... ... .... 195

1. Production per capital ... ... ... ... ... .. ... 281
2. Number of persons (farm population) per square mile of crop area... 284

1. Location of hsien in which population and vital statistics data were
collected. ... .. .. ... ... ... .. ... 360
2. Farm population (in millions) ... ... ... ... ... ... 364
3. Density of farm population (number of persons per square mile of
crop area) ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... 366

1. Crops supplying 5 per cent or more of the total calories in each area
in order of importance ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 410
2. Calories supplied by animal products per adult-male unit per day ... 412
3. Calcium intake per adult-male unit per day in milligrams (standard
800) ... ..... ... ... .. ... ... ... 422


1. View from a Taoist temple in the southeast of Kweiyang, Kweichow 96
2. Typical karst hills in Kweichow ... ... ... ... ... 96
3. Ta Ch'ing Mountains to the north of the railroad between Kweisui
and Paotow ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 96
4. Typical topography along a road on the Kweichow-Szechwan border 97
5. The tributaries of the Min river at Kwanhsien, Szechwan ... ... 97
6. Hills of severely eroded clay soils near Hengshan, Hunan ... ... 97

1. Hailstones at Salachi, Suiyuan ... ... ... ... ... ... 120
2. Upright poles for the prevention of hailstorms, erected by the Dalai
Lama, eastern Tsinghai ... ... ... 120
3. Topography and evaporation in the Wheat Region ... ... 121

1. Loess deposits many meters thick on ancient red clays several miles
east of Titao, southern Kansu ... ... ... ... ... 142
2. A bare alkali spot near Salachi, Suiyuan ... ... ... ... 143
3. A bare white alkali spot 15 li east of Paotow, Suiyuan ... ... 143
4. The dark band along the bank is a buried Chernozem soil on the
eastern slope of the Liupanshan, west of Pingliang, Kansu ... ... 143

1. Erosion on sloping loess terraces, west of Tsingning, Kansu ... 186
2. Dark grey estuarine rice lands near Wantang, Chekiang ... ... 187
3. The utilization of good land for graves at Yuankiang, Yunnan ... 188
4. A wooden paddle chain pump turned by an ox for irrigating rice ... 189
5. All the hill land that is not too steep is cultivated in sloping terraces
on the hills to the right ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 189
6. Alluvial lands on the Chengtu Plain near Kwanhsien, Szechwan ... 190
7. Patches of cultivation on the steep slopes of the Kungling section of
the Yangtze gorges ... ... ... ... ... ... 190
8. Hillside cultivation in Northern Chekiang ... ... ... ... 190
9. Rice growing in a level and well watered section of the upper Wei
River Valley, southern Kansu. On the distant hill slopes the levelled
terraces are being rapidly cut into by erosion ... ... ... 191
10. Stone faced terraces growing millet north of the Great Wall at
Wanchuan (Kalgan or Changchiakow), Chahar province ... ... 191
11. A typical landscape just south of the Great Wall at Wanchuan
(Kalgan or Changchiakow), Chahar ... ... ... ... ... 191


1. Gathering water-chestnuts, one of the crops which make water
areas contribute to the farm income ... ... ... ... ... 206
2. Young tobacco plants in double rows between rows of opium poppy
which is nearly ready for harvesting, Tao Ho valley near Hsintienpu,
K ansu ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 206
3. Sunning tea, Hsiushui, Kiangsi ... ... ... ... ... 207
4. A rice field ridged up and planted to broad beans as a winter crop... 207
5. A peach orchard on Nanking clay loam west of Puchen, Kiangsu,
north of the Yangtze River ... ... .. ... ... ... 238
6. An old woman threshing rice by beating bundles of rice against a
wooden frame, Kiangsu ... .. ... *.. .. 238
7. A threshing floor scene in Kiangsu ... ... ... ... ... 239
8. A boy pulling up roots of cotton, with iron pincers, for use as fuel,
Linchang, Honan ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 239

1. Flocks of sheep, goats and yaks on the grass lands at the south edge
of Tsinghai (Kokonor Lake) ... ... ... ... 258
2. Camels grazing near Paotow, Suiyuan ... ... .. 258
3. Sheep and goats at Wanchuan (Kalgan or Changchiakow), Chahar 258
4. Goats and yaks, Tsinghai (Kokonor Lake), west of the limit of
cultivation ... ... ... ... ... 259
5. A large flock of geese in Kiangsu ... ... ... ... ... 259
6. Applying night soil on a rice field in Hsiushui, Kiangsi ... ... 259

1. Plowing with a water buffalo, Wukiang, Anhwei ... ... ... 306
2. A farmer returning home at lunch time from his scattered fields
carrying his brush, harrow and other implements ... ... ... 306
3. A rice husking machine made of two pine blocks, the top one of
which revolves ... ... ... ... 306
4. Hitching a water buffalo to a harrow, Wukiang, Anhwei ... ... 307
5. The sprocket wheel of a wooden paddle chain pump operated by
foot ... .. ... ... ... ... 307
6. This wooden plow is used in the loess soils of the Spring Wheat
A rea ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 307

1. A farm cart ready to be loaded with unthreshed wheat ... ... 350
2. Ox skins being dried ready to be filled with wheat ... ... ... 350
3. The wheelbarrow is one of the most common means of transporta-
tion, both for goods and for passengers-Kiangsu ... ... ... 350
4. A market scene in Anshun, Kweichow ... ... ... ... 351
5. A bamboo raft on one of the innumerable waterways of the Yangtze
delta ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... 351
6. A new highway from Hangchow to Hweichow ... ... ... 351



1. Flat-roofed houses in the Sining Valley, eastern Tsinghai ... ... 440
2. Laborers walking westward following the wheat harvest up the
valley in July ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... 440
3. A farmer's house of sun dried mud brick, Yuankiang, Yunnan ... 441
4. A farm woman weaving straw shoes near Tangshan, Kiangning
hsien, Kiangsu ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 441
5. A typical village in Tsaoyang, Hupeh, located near the boundary
between the Rice Region and the Wheat Region ... ... ... 444
6. A farm house and threshing floor at Kunshan, southern Kiangsu ... 444
7. The ruins of a mud walled village after a famine in the upper Wei
River Valley, southern Kansu ... ... ...... ... 445
8. A farm house of tamped earth walls and thatched roof, with a bamboo
grove and other trees ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 445
9. Typical nearly flat-roofed, mud brick walled houses in a village
several miles east of Lunsi, upper Wei Valley, southern Kansu ... 452
10. Houses in a village several miles east of Titao, southern Kansu ... 452
11. Stones are used for walls in the houses on a rock-strewn alluvial fan
northwest of Peiping ... .. ... ... ...... 453
12. A farm house of rough stone in Yunnan ... ... ... 453



Chinese agriculture is almost as different from European
agriculture as is Chinese civilization from European civilization.
The technic of crop and animal production, however, is
practically the same in both civilizations, except for contrasts
in the extent of the development of agricultural science. It is
rather the type of land utilization, and the success in land use that
differentiates the agriculture of the Oriental and the Western
There are any number of approaches to the study of land
utilization but the ultimate criterion of land use is the satisfaction
which the farm population receives from the type of agriculture
developed, the provision for future production, and the contribu-
tion to national needs. Associated with the type of use, however,
are the various agrarian relationships which may facilitate or
hinder any particular type of land use. In this study no attempt
has been made to appraise in detail the so-called agrarian situation
which may be thought of in terms of the political, economic and
social relationships between farmers and other classes of society.
The data obtained do, however, throw some light on agrarian
problems and suggest further studies concerning them. Some
reformers assign most of the Chinese agricultural ills to a faulty
agrarian situation comprising such problems as farm tenancy,
injustice in the settlement of legal questions and disputes, usury,
exhorbitant profits of middlemen and the like. Whatever the
relative importance of the two aspects of the problem, the present
study is confined to a description and appraisal of the characteristics
of Chinese land utilization, especially to its agricultural land now
under cultivation. Such an appraisal must take into account the
basic or natural factors affecting both the type and success of use
of land, the factors determining the type of use of land and those
factors responsible for the degree of success in use of land.
The portion of China included within the scope of this study
is agricultural China exclusive of the three northeastern provinces
commonly termed Manchuria. It extends northward to the
three northeastern provinces and the Mongolian desert and
westward to the grazing lands of the Tibetan mountains.


The basic or natural factors considered are topography,
climate, soil, natural vegetation, crop insects and diseases, racial
groups and accessibility to markets. These are responsible to a
very large extent for both the type of use of land and the success
in its use.
The topography of China varies from great plains at nearly
sea level to very rough mountainous country at elevations over
10,000 feet-so high as to be above the limit of crop production,
and is one of the very important factors responsible for the type
of land use in many sections. For instance, in the northwest
the elevation becomes so high as to shorten the growing season so
that only crops like oats, Irish potatoes and proso-millet can be
grown. On the other hand, in the same latitude on the great
plains at nearly sea level such crops as cotton, peanuts, and corn
are grown with success, and much of the land even produces two
crops in one year. Fortunately, most of the agricultural land is
at the lower elevations which make large agricultural production
The climate of China is very diverse. Latitude, altitude,
winter and summer monsoons, cyclonic storms, and typhoons,
all have a part in determining the climate in any one section.
Winter monsoons give North China her cold, dry sunny winters
while the summer monsoons are chiefly relied upon for the rainfall
required for crop production. Typhoons which accompany the
summer monsoons help to cool the air and ameliorate the op-
pressive summers of southern China. Precipitation decreases from
the southeast to the northwest and varies from 85 to only 13
inches, or even less, if one includes the desert portions which are
outside the scope of this study. Precipitation is least dependable
in north China where it is the lowest and where over 80 per cent
of it falls in the summer months. Much of the summer rainfall
throughout China is of the convectional type, and thus much of
its utility is lost because of excessive run-off. Evaporation is
increased by the high winds of north China, and thus it is that the
effectiveness of the low rainfall for growth is greatly reduced.
The great variability of precipitation is responsible for floods or
drought with consequent famines.
Temperatures also increase from the northwest to the south-
west, from a January mean of 120F. to one of 570F. and a July
mean of 73'F. to 84F. The growing season ranges from the
full year in the south to one of less than 130 days in the northwest
and the type of crops grown are affected accordingly-oranges


in the south and oats, spring wheat and Irish potatoes typical
of the sections with a short growing season, in the northwest.
The humidity of south China is favorable for tea but un-
favorable for cotton especially at harvest time. Sunshine is
required for the satisfactory maturing of cotton and wheat; and
thus north China with its sunshine in the late spring and early
autumn is favorable to both of these crops. The winds of north
China cause dust storms in late winter and spring, which work
havoc with crops in addition to creating an unfavorable environ-
ment for human life. A hot May wind may reduce the wheat
crop greatly by blighting." Strong winds in south China at
rice blossom time often curtails the rice production. Hail limits
crop production particularly in the northwest.
The vicissitudes of the Chinese climate make crop production
hazardous-perhaps a little more so than on other surfaces of the
earth of equal size. Such risks, however, can be minimized with
a greater degree of economic organization, with better transporta-
tion and communication facilities, and with conservancy projects.
The great variation in climate provides the country with almost
every possible kind of food and agricultural raw materials and
makes a self-sufficient agricultural economy, nearly, if not almost,
entirely possible. The effects of climate on human life in China
are contrary to what one might expect from observations in other
parts of the world, since South China, with its semi-tropical
climate, has produced a more active and virile population than
has Central China. For this there are, of course, explanations
outside the immediate effects of climate.
The nature of the soils in any country depends to a large
extent upon climatic factors. North China, with its meager
rainfall has an unleached calcium soil (Pedocal soil) while south
China with abundant rain has a leached, or acid soil (Pedalfer soil).
Transported soils comprise about nine-tenths of the agricultural
soils of China. The vast loessial or wind-blown soils of the
northwest, and the alluvial deposits of the Yellow, Yangtze and
other rivers of east and south China make up the larger portion
of these transported soils. The other one-tenth are residual
soils, found usually on hills and mountains as a result of disintegra-
tion and weathering of rocks. As a whole the residual soils are
less fertile than the transported ones, and in many cases are ex-
tremely infertile.
There are many soil groups of varying fertility within the
two categories of leached and unleached soils. The unleached


or slightly leached soils are fairly rich in mineral constituents
suitable for plant food but are deficient in organic matter, partly
because of the burning of crop residue for fuel-even to the
pulling up of the roots of crops for this purpose. Scarcity of
rainfall, however, is the chief factor limiting the productivity
of these soils.
The leached soils have had much of the mineral plant foods
reduced below the point of availability to the plant. Moreover,
rapid oxidation makes constant additions of large quantities of
organic matter necessary. Fertilization is, therefore, even more
important in south China than in north China.
The soils of China cannot be said to be better than those of
other countries having similarly varied topographical and climatic
conditions. Agriculture has developed chiefly in the valleys
and on the plains where the soils are best. Encroachment on the
hills and mountains has been quite extensive, however, and has
been carried on to marginal land for farming, with accompanying
severe erosion, of the sheet and gulley type, resulting in
destruction of soils and eventual abandonment of an area amount-
ing, perhaps, to several per cent of the total cultivated area. The
addition of nitrogen, phosphorous, organic matter, and in some
cases potash are the great needs in addition to drainage, irrigation,
and protection from erosion.
Crop insects, pests and diseases seem more prevalent in
China than in many other countries. There is little scientific
control, and for this reason they flourish and limit production
probably by as much as 10 to 20 per cent of the crop. Aphis,
smuts, rusts, locusts, boll worms and grubs are among the most
prevalent of these plant enemies. Animal diseases are also
important, especially rinderpest among cattle. Many of these
losses are preventable at small cost, and such control is one of the
easiest ways of increasing production.
The racial composition of the population in different parts
of the country also to some extent accounts for the types of
agriculture that prevail. The Sinification of the older in-
digenous tribes in the South and of the invading ethnic groups
in the North and West has by no means been as complete as
some writers claim. Turki, Mongolians and Tibetans in the
northwest raise and consume more animal products than do the
Chinese, even in areas where there is just as forceful an argument
for a greater animal industry. Tribes in the southwest raise
corn in the mountains while the Chinese raise rice in the valleys.


Topographical differences no doubt account for this to some extent.
But the freedom of the invading group, in each case, to select
the sites for its settlement in accordance with the suitability of
the land for the type of agriculture to which it was accustomed,
probably explains these differences seemingly due to topography.
The Chinese however, are responsible for pushing the tribes into
the mountains where corn is better adapted than rice. The in-
fluence of racial custom, at least, cannot be eliminated from any
study of land use, and it may be greater than is generally
surmised. Of course the natural conditions influence social
customs strongly, but there is a converse influence also.
Access to markets, or what might be termed geographical
location, and transportation facilities, affect the type of crop
production. Bulky products of small value per unit of weight
cannot be shipped long distances. China is a country of great
distances; and this, combined with primitive methods of trans-
portation, such as carrying goods by a pole over the shoulder and,
to a lesser extent by cart and junk, makes distance from the market
an important factor in determining the type of production. The
methods of transportation used make it possible to carry goods
from 40 to 300 miles at costs of 1.62 Yuan by carrying by a pole
over the shoulder, and 0.39 Yuan by junk. Rail and steamboat
transportation is increasing but still the predominant methods
are the more laborious and inefficient ones. Moreover,
unimproved roads limit the efficiency of the present systems of
transportation and limit the time of marketing. For instance,
in the absence of a well-developed transportation system opium
has become a crop particularly adapted to the frontier provinces;
and crops are produced on mountain sides better adapted to
forests, because of the inaccessibility of markets. Thus, not only
is the type of agricultural crop grown affected, but even the type
of land use as between forests and agriculture.
It is now clear that certain basic factors limit the type of
agriculture possible in various sections of China. The next step
is to discover the type of land use developed under the limits set
by these conditions.
Within an approximate total gross area of some 1,400,000
square miles, in agricultural China, exclusive of the three
northeastern provinces, 340,000 square miles, or approximately
one-fourth is cultivated. This amount compares favorably with
other countries with percentages of land area cultivated varying
from 12 to 45 per cent. The other three-fourths of the gross


area not cultivated has a little over one-half in some kind of
productive use-chiefly in trees, grass and reeds for fuel-but
over one-fifth is in forest and 12 per cent in pasture. The arable
portion of this uncultivated land is estimated to be over one-
tenth, but that estimate does not give sufficient consideration to
the profitability of cultivating such land or to the length of time
it can be cultivated with profit. Much of this supposedly arable
land has had the top soil washed away by sheet erosion and is
therefore difficult to bring into profitable production. The
development of better transportation facilities and cheaper
supplies of fertilizer will increase the amount of this land which
may be brought into cultivation with profit.
Of all land, 27 per cent is utilized for crops, 4.6 per cent for
pasture, 8.7 per cent for forest, and the remaining 59.7 per cent
is for other purposes or is valueless.
Land in farms (farm area) is used to approximately 90 per
cent in crops, nearly four per cent in roads, ponds, graves and the
like, over three per cent in farmsteads, over one per cent in pasture
land and wooded pasture, one per cent in forest, over one-half
of one per cent in grass and bushes cut for fuel, and three-tenths
of one per cent in ponds producing water crops or fish. Ninety
per cent of the farm area of China is in crops-compared with 42
per cent in the United States. On the other hand, pasture in
China constitutes only 1.1 per cent of the farm area, as compared
with 47 per cent of the area in the United States. Herein is the
great contrast between Chinese and American or Western agri-
culture. It denotes a small animal industry in China and a con-
sequent low food consumption of animal products, as compared
with a large animal industry and a high consumption of animal
products in many of the Western countries. Early Chinese
civilization shows no evidence of use of animal products to a
greater extent than at present. It is the use of vegetarian products
that has made possible a density of 1,500 farm population per
square mile of cultivated land. Whether or not this represents
a more efficient use of land will be discussed later. It is an intensive
type of land use even to the point of developing water areas for
such crops as water chestnut and for fish culture. In south China
a large portion of the farms have at least one pond for such
In China, man has greatly modified the land for farming
purposes. Nearly one-half is irrigated chiefly for rice, although
irrigation is common in many sections of north China. Water


is pumped chiefly by means of human power, although animal
pumps are quite common and windmills less frequently found.
Recently the oil engine has been successfully introduced on a
commercial basis in the lower Yangtze valley. The sources of
water are streams, ponds, canals, lagoons, or wells, the latter
being chiefly confined to the large plains of north China. Irriga-
tion involves not only application of water to the land but in the
Rice Region especially it entails the levelling of land so that the
fields can be maintained in a flooded condition. It also concerns
human relations since economic organization is required for
successful irrigation projects. Many a village quarrel over
irrigation water not infrequently becomes a battle waged with
hoes and other agricultural implements. Water rights in China
still need to be more clearly defined and upheld, by means of
proper laws justly enforced.
What constitutes terracing of land is subject to definition,
but it is estimated that one-quarter of all the cultivated land is
so modified, not only to hold water for rice culture in south
China, but to make cultivation easier, to prevent erosion and
in parts of north China to catch surface run-off where the terraced
fields are not irrigated. Except for the very level land of south
China, all rice fields may be said to be terraced, although the term
is usually thought of in relation to the more pronounced terraces
of the hillsides.
Artificial drainage in China is confined chiefly to open ditches
and dyking, the latter being a method of keeping water off the
land rather than one of draining it off. Five per cent of all the
cultivated land is estimated to be drained. Underground tile
drainage is practically unknown, although a few localities in
south China have been reported to use bamboo tubes for this
purpose. The heavier, less well drained soils of China are found
in south China where rice is well adapted, so that underground
drainage is not a problem. Most rice fields are surface drained so
that winter crops can be grown. The great need in China in the
matter of drainage is large scale control of rivers to prevent floods.
Other types of modification of land by man occur to a lesser
extent, such as the transposition of sandy deposits with good soil
underneath, and the mulching of land with pebbles in the far
Soils of China are modified by fertilization as in most other
countries. In China, however, three practices exist in addition
to the use of farm manures universally applied throughout the


world. Human excrement is used throughout China, in south
China in liquid form with urine and feces applied directly on the
growing crop while in north China only the dried feces are used
and applied directly to the soil. The application of such night
soil" in liquid form is one of the great menaces to health, as
many intestinal diseases are transmitted through the bare feet of
farmers working in such fields. Raw vegetables cannot be safely
eaten because of this practice, but when properly cooked such
vegetables are as safe and wholesome as the drinking water of
modern cities in the West, which is so often obtained from rivers
in which sewers of cities are emptied.
Oil cakes, the residue from expressing oil from seeds of
soybeans, sesame, cotton, rapeseed, tea oil nuts, and wood oil
nuts, are extensively used for direct fertilization. If these cakes
were first fed to animals, 80 per cent of their fertilizing value would
still be returned to the land in animal manures-a practice which
would probably be an improvement in farm economy over the
present one.
Ashes from by-products of crops-straw and stalks-and from
grass and bushes cut from the hills, burned for cooking and heating
purposes, are used as fertilizer throughout the country and supply
considerable potash to the soils. This practice also is a doubtful
one in farm economy because much of these by-products could
be utilized for feeding animals and the fertility returned in animal
Much of the soil erosion found in China is essentially a form
of modification by man with the help of nature. Man has cut
the forests or broken up grasslands and has neglected to protect
the soil thus exposed from being slowly or even rapidly washed
away. Consequently, vast quantities of top soil have been wasted
by sheet erosion and even still larger quantities by gully erosion.
One needs only to observe the sea of gulleys in the loessial high-
lands of the northwest and the heavily laden muddy waters of
these rivers extending far out into the sea, or to realize the rate
with which the Yangtze river is building up the coast of the
province of Kiangsu, to realize that the upland soils of China are
being rapidly destroyed. In some places where this destruction
is slow the soil building processes may keep pace with it, but
there is a net loss which probably limits agricultural production
as much as it can be increased through any improvement adopted,
such as better fertilization, improved seeds and control of insects
and plant diseases.


In China, modification of land by man has taken place to a
much greater degree than in a new and less densely populated
country like the United States. The combination of cheap
labor and high land values means that land which in other countries
might be marginal for farming, or used for forest, or for pasture,
can be used for farming purposes in China.
Land in China is almost entirely privately owned, there
being only seven per cent held by the State. This privately
owned land is mostly in the hands of individuals, but a small
portion, less than one per cent, is owned by temples and family
clans and leased to tenants. Somewhat less than three-fourths
of the privately owned farm land is owned by the farmer himself,
and over one-fourth is rented. Owner farms are larger than
tenant farms, averaging 4.22 acres as compared with 3.56 acres.
Consequently, a little over one-half of the farmers are owners,
less than one-third part owners, and 17 per cent are tenants.
Farmers who own their farmsteads, but who rent all their crop
land are classified as tenants rather than as part owners. Tenancy
is much more prevalent in south China than in north China and
varies greatly in amount for different sections of the country
from no tenants to all farmers as tenants.
The problems of tenancy, therefore, are not universal. They
are of great importance in certain sections, and here a national
policy must be developed t6 meet the needs of the farmers working
the land. It is generally assumed that the best practice is owner-
ship by the farmer working the land. In some countries, such
as England, farmers seem to prefer to be tenants because they
are thus relieved of certain responsibilities taken by the landlord,
while on the other hand, enjoying considerable security of tenure.
Two problems are involved, the best practice from the viewpoint
of the State and the adjustment most suited to the man on the
land. In China, at least, this combination of interests can probably
for the present best be satisfied by farmer ownership. While
it may not be desirable to break up tenancy arrangements where
these are deep-rooted in custom and, on the whole, meet the
situation, it is generally held that the State should encourage a
diffusion of ownership in those parts of the country where the
prevailing form of tenancy meets neither the cultivators' nor the
State's needs and where a large proportion of the tenants desire
to become owners.
Fragmentation of land,-the ownership by individuals of
scattered pieces of land, is the rule in China. The number of


such pieces per landholding is unknown, but there are nearly
six pieces, or parcels, per farm averaging a little less than an
acre in size. Such fragmentation has the disadvantages of using
up land in boundaries, increasing the number of boundary disputes,
consuming time to reach the plots,. increasing the difficulties
of irrigation, limiting the size of fields and hence the use of
machinery, and making crop protection difficult. The chief
advantage is that one farmer may have land of differing qualities
and this is important in a country of small farms where a complete
crop failure would be disastrous.
The unfenced fields are nearly twelve per farm of not quite
one-half an acre each. The fields are too small for much farm
machinery; but the limiting factor in the use of such machinery
is not in the main the smallness of fields, or farms as such, but in a
dense population which makes labor cheap and the use of machinery
Graves in China are placed to a large extent in the farmer's
fields, in spots determined as desirable by the geomancer, re-
gardless of their hindrance to farm operations. Such graves
occupy almost two per cent of all farm land in China. A more
intensive use of land in China could be brought about by the
removal of graves from farm land, by the elimination of land in
boundaries, by consolidation of fragmented holdings, by the
profitable cultivation of arable lands not now cultivated, and
by an economic unit size of farm which would lessen the pro-
portion of area in farmsteads. This might make available nearly
another twenty-five million acres for the eight agricultural areas
of China.
The kind of crops grown on nine-tenths of the farm land of
China is another criterion of the type of land use. Those crops
which appear as the most important in the type of farming for
China as a whole are rice and wheat for food, and cotton for
clothing and other textile uses. Other crops characteristic for
the country as a whole, occupying one per cent or more of the
crop acreage, in order of importance, are: millet, soybeans,
kaoliang, barley, corn, sweet potatoes, rapeseed, broad beans,
peanuts, Astragalus sinensis for green manure, green beans mungg
bean), field peas and the opium poppy. The mulberry tree,
grown for its leaves for the silkworm, tea, oranges and tobacco are
still other crops important in Chinese rural economy. Compared
with that in most Western countries, the production of these crops
is more intensive because of the absence of hay and other fodder


crops required for the animal industry of such countries. In this
respect China is more like Japan, India and even Soviet Russia
than like the United States or Western Europe.
The growing of two or more crops a year on nearly two-
thirds of the cultivated land is one way by which the Chinese have
adjusted production to the density of population. The trends in
kind and proportion of crops grown indicate that crops producing
more food and requiring more labor per acre are in the ascendancy,
to meet the needs of an increasing population.
Agriculture is more self-sufficient in China than in most
Western countries; but still China has a highly developed civil-
ization, and the farmer needs ready money for many purchases
as do farmers of other countries. He must pay for such necessaries
as salt and oil, for the occasional meats and other delicacies that
enrich his diet on festive occasions, for utensils and wearing
apparel, for tobacco or other such luxuries, for schooling and
recreation, for weddings and funerals, and for religious observ-
ances. Cash for these wants are supplied through the sale of such
crops as tobacco, opium, peanuts, rapeseed, cotton, cocoons or
raw silk, and, to a lesser extent in proportion to the total crop
raised, (although the total value may be as great), from soybeans,
wheat, green beans, kaoliang, field peas, sweet potatoes and rice.
Often he sells his superior food products like wheat, and consumes
inferior grains, like kaoliang. In order to meet the requirements
of both home consumption and ready cash the Chinese farmer has
developed innumerable cropping systems designed to produce
the variety of crops required and to utilize his labor more or less
throughout the growing season. Some of these systems are
suggestive for adoption in other countries having similar climatic,
soil and market conditions.
In a way, frequency of crop failure is an indication of the
type of land use. Risk in farming in China-chiefly from too
much or too little water, culiminating in drought or flood-is
a major problem and its removal will do more to increase pro-
duction than any one other thing.
The kinds of animals raised is still another factor depicting
types of land use. Three-fourths of the animals in China, in
terms of animal units on the basis of food consumed per animal,
are used for draft purposes and only one-fourth for production
purposes-the utilization of the meat, hides, eggs, wool, and
the like. The three most important animals are oxen or other
cattle for draft purposes, water buffaloes and hogs. Sheep,


mules, and donkeys and goats are other characteristic animals
but of less economic importance. By comparison, in Great
Britain only one-tenth and in the United States 22 per cent of the
animals raised are for draft purposes. The density of animal
population is, however, surprisingly high in China: 0.34 animal
units per crop acre, as compared with 0.70 in Great Britain, 0.23
in the United States, and 0.19 in Japan. China's density of animal
population, even in the absence of an animal industry as such,
is therefore, quite high and means that over a large part of the
country the farms are moderately to well-stocked. This is true
in spite of the fact that 10 per cent of the farms have no animals.
This degree of animal density is a large factor in the maintenance
of the fertility of the land. In the opinion of three-fourths of
the farmers, increased use of fertilizer would be profitable, but
insufficient capital and unavailable fertilizer curtail such develop-
ment. Some increase in the animal industry seems possible by
using oil cakes and other crop by-products, for feed, and also by a
larger use of hill lands for pasture. It would have the advantage
of supplying additional fertility, of distributing work more evenly
throughout the year, and of providing a more varied and therefore,
more reliable source of income. At best, however, its develop-
ment cannot be great, since an acre produces six to seven times as
much food-growing crops for direct human consumption as one
producing milk and about 19 times as much food as one producing
The size of farm is also an indication of the type of land
use, since it affects the proportion of land in productive pur-
poses and the efficiency of operation. There are many measures
of the size of the farm business other than the number of acres
in the farm. The farms of China which have a median size of
3.31 acres, have a median area of land in crops of 2.37 acres,
a crop area of acres harvested, which includes double cropping, of
3.58 acres, a man-equivalent of 2.00 engaged in farm work, or
one of 2.5 if all work done on the farm is considered, 1.34 animal
units per farm, 0.97 labor animal units, and have a production
per farm of 3,492 kilograms of grain or about one-fourteenth
of the production in the United States. Of these factors, the
man-equivalent is the only one corresponding in amount closely
to measures of size in the United States. All the other factors
depict a much smaller size of farm business than in the United
States or than in most other countries. Farms when grouped
into five size groups, show that very.large farms have only 2.5


per cent of the area in farmsteads as compared with 5.8 per cent
for small farms. Likewise small farms have only 89.8 per cent
of the land in productive purposes compared with 93.3 per cent
for the very large farms. A denser population, therefore, does
not-as one might expect-use a larger proportion of the cultivable
land for crop production but, on the contrary, less. Housing
and farm administration eat deeply into the small farm acreage
where it is most needed. Large farms have the advantage over
the small farms also in that parcels and fields are larger and the
crop acreage per man-equivalent and per labor animal unit are
2.5 times as great.
The main source of power on Chinese farms is human labor,
with animal labor second. This conditions the type of land use.
The large amount of available human labor makes it cheap and
offers keen competition with other potential sources of power,
such as the use of expensive machinery. Hand labor methods
continue, therefore, even though the total production might be
somewhat less than with the use of machinery.
The dense population and the consequent small size of farm
business compel the farmer to utilize every possible opportunity,
apart from crop production, to add to his income-whether in
the form of objects for direct consumption or in that of articles
for sale. No less than one-fifth of all the work done on the
average Chinese farm is devoted to such subsidiary occupations.
Although labor is plentiful and cheap still there are periods
of peak labor at planting and harvest times when the available
labor power is insufficient. This is one of the reasons why
women do 13 per cent of all farm work and children seven per
cent. The largest proportion, 80 per cent, is performed by men.
Peak periods of farm work and large farms make the employment
of some hired labor necessary. It represents 15 per cent of all
farm work as compared with 30 per cent of all farm work done by
hired men in the United States.
Most of the farm labor is for the farm operations of cultiva-
tion and harvesting. These operations are also the peak periods
of work, and labor saving devices are imperative. The wheat
crop of China is about the size of that in the United States, and it is
practically all harvested with sickles within a two-weeks' period
in a given section. In the wheat district at harvest time every
available human being is out gathering in the harvest-even from
the hsien cities (county seats)-for people who do not cut their
own wheat, or who are not employed to cut for others, go out


and participate in gleaning-an inalienable right through a custom
of centuries. Often the harvest fields present the spectacle of
more gleaners than legitimate harvesters. In some sections even
young girls, who ordinarily must stay indoors, are allowed to
come out and assist in the harvest.
The amount of human labor involved in crop production
in China is large. The man-equivalent required to grow one
acre of wheat is 26 days compared with 1.2 days in the United
States; one acre of cotton in China 53 days compared with 14
days in the United States ; one acre of corn 23 days compared with
2.5 days in the United States. Even the labor animal requirement
is higher in China than in the United States because the animals
are often small or weak, implements are crude and few animals
are driven at one time. Wheat requires eight days animal labor
in China compared with 3.4 days in the United States; cotton
eight days compared with seven days and corn five days com-
pared 5.7 days.
Trends in the Chinese price level have influenced the intensity
of the use of land. China, until November 1935, had for a long
time a currency on the silver standard. From 1885-1931 silver
fell in value compared with all other commodities chiefly because
of the world demonetization of silver; and since prices in China
were measured in terms of silver the price level rose quite rapidly
during this period. As a result of monetary difficulties in gold
standard countries, silver hoarding as well as gold hoarding in
such countries began in 1931. This resulted in a rise in the value
of silver and a fall in prices resulting in the Chinese depression
which lasted until devaluation and the establishment of a managed
currency on November 3, 1935. The rising prices caused
agricultural commodities and other raw materials to rise in price
more quickly than most other groups. Wages and other costs
lagged in their rise, and hence it was profitable to use comparatively
more labor and fertilizer and thus to increase production. In
other words, rising prices make more intensive farming possible.
Falling prices, however, have the opposite effect because agri-
cultural prices as well as prices of other raw materials fall first,
and most rapidly. Other costs such as labor and taxes, lag in
their fall, and therefore costs of production are high and must
be curtailed especially in view of the low prices received. Pro-
duction, is, therefore, also curtailed. Consequently China's
monetary system has had a real influence on the type of land use
as far as intensity of use is concerned.


All these factors characterizing the type of land use portray
an intensive type of use compared with that in Western countries.
The next consideration is the success obtained in the present
type of land use. Success may be measured by a number of
factors such as yields, production per capital, wages of farm labor,
taxation of land, the standard of living and population.
The rather intensive use of land in China, so far as the nature
of her crops is concerned, does not, however, show a very intensive
culture in terms of yields. The yields of rice are quite high,
higher than those of Japan but lower than those of the United
States. Wheat yields are similar to those in the United States.
In general, China's yields are better than those of India or Russia,
not as high as those of Japan, and are less favorable than those
of Italy, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. Floods,
droughts, soil erosion, insufficient fertilization, absence of control
of insects and diseases, and inferior seeds are among the factors
accounting for this situation. Production in terms of grain
equivalent of 446 kilograms per capital of farm population is very
low. On a basis of production per man-equivalent (one farmer
working a full year), China produces only 1,400 kilograms com-
pared with 20,000 kilograms in the United States or one-four-
teenth as much. A farmer who produces little cannot expect
to have very much of this world's goods. The dense population
in relation to resources is primarily responsible for this situation,
and success in the use of land is very greatly dependent upon the
number of people on the land. If this population could be
eventually reduced in relation to the amount of land available,
and if farms could then be of the best economic size unit, on the
basis of the present farm economy the very large size group would
be the best. At present these very large farms comprise only
seven per cent of all farms. They have a farm area of 13 acres,
an equivalent of 3.7 men working full time, three animal units,
2.25 labor animal units and a production equivalent to 10,400
kilograms per farm.
Moreover, the type of land use in relation to the large farm
population does not give full employment. Wages of farm labor,
including all perquisites such as food are, only 86 Yuan per year.
Only a little over one-third of the able-bodied men are engaged
in full time work, and over one-half are employed only part time.
This idle time averages 1.7 months per able-bodied man. It is
the winter months which are responsible for four-fifths of the
idle time. Sickness averaged six days per able-bodied man. This


unemployment does not prevent labor shortage during peaks of
labor particularly at planting and harvest time. Such shortage
was reported by over two-thirds of the localities. In other
words, the hand methods in use prevent a more equal distribution
of labor throughout the year. Labor saving devices for these
peak periods would obliterate this difficulty and would permit
some of the farm population to give full time to other pursuits.
The development of professions and industry is, in part, dependent
upon labor saving machinery for operations requiring unusual
amounts of labor.
Taxation is relatively high, U.S. $1.79 per acre (1929-1932)
compared with U.S. $0.46 for all land in farms in the United
States in 1932. Even in the better farming districts of the United
States land taxes were only between U.S. $0.90 and U.S. $1.15.
The higher taxation does not represent a greater ability of the
Chinese farmers to pay but rather a policy of requiring such pay-
ments. This policy, again, is only in part attributable to a
national emergency; in part it derives from wasteful methods of
tax collection and from an unfortunate situation in many parts
of China which places the heaviest burdens on forms of production
that permit of easy collection at the source and permits other
forms of income to escape taxation.
Success in the use of land as revealed in the standard of living
can be measured by the amount and quantity of food consumed,
the kind of housing, clothing and furnishing, the amount of debt
and savings, and the expenditures for special occasions such as
weddings and funerals. Nutrition is an important measure of
living standards, since about two-thirds of the family budget is
expended upon food. Three-fourths of this food is produced on
the farmer's own farm, nearly one-fourth is purchased, and one
per cent is collected from wild plants or received as gifts. Pro-
ducts supplied by the farm are grains, seeds of leguminous plants,
tuber crops, leafy vegetables and fruits. Those chiefly purchased
are vegetable oils, sugar, and animal products. Wheat is more
universally found in the diet than rice, three-fourths of the families
consuming wheat compared with only one-half consuming rice.
The amount of food energy consumed varies in sufficiency with
the year and the locality. On the average for all localities studied
the amount of food energy was above the minimum requirement
of 2,800 calories per adult-male unit per day. Some localities
had an overabundance and other localities a serious insufficiency.
The sources of this food energy are largely vegetarian, nearly


98 per cent being from plant origin and only 2.3 per cent from
animal products. This is in great contrast to the situation in
the United States where nearly two-fifths of the food energy
consumed by farmers comes from animal products. As already
explained, it is the consumption of vegetable products rather than
animal products which enables the Chinese farmers to eke out a
living on such small amounts of land. The nutritive value of this
Chinese diet, however, is not wholly satisfactory, not so much
because of its being chiefly vegetarian, but because the grains,
such as rice and wheat, are too highly milled and because not
enough of the leafy vegetables are raised and consumed. This is
shown by the low calcium intake which in turn makes the calcium-
phosphorus ratio too low for the effective use of the phosphorus,
which would otherwise be adequate; by the source of protein
which while adequate, still is not of the best quality for growth;
and by low intakes of vitamin D and probably of vitamins A
and C. The Chinese diet is much more bulky, is lower in fat,
and less digestible than the mixed diet of Westerners. Adding
more leafy vegetables would increase its bulk and digestibility
still further; and while this might not adversely affect the adult,
it might be serious for the growing child. Strained vegetable
and fruit juices might meet the situation but a larger resort to
eggs and milk may prove necessary if the danger of malnutrition
is to be averted.
Nutrition requirements, therefore, demand some changes
in the type of land use to improve its success. Among these
changes are a shift in kinds of staple products grown, such as
more soybeans in certain localities, the growing of more fruits and
vegetables, and possibly some increase in the poultry industry,
and the introduction, to a very limited extent, of the dairy industry
for milk.
Clothing as a measure of standard of living is largely from one
of the cheapest raw materials, cotton, nine-tenths of the work
garments and three-fourths of the dress garments being of this
material. It is a satisfactory material for summer wear; but for
winter in the colder climates the padded cotton garments are
clumsy and apparently not entirely effective in providing the
necessary warmth. Wool although more expensive, affords
greater protection in cold climates.
Farm buildings including residences vary in size, in materials
of construction, and in monetary value. They average over 1,600
cubic feet of space per farm when the height is measured to the


eaves. The walls of one-half of such buildings are of tamped
earth, or earth brick. Burnt brick is used in one-fourth of all
the. buildings. One-half of the buildings have tile roofs and
one-fourth thatch roofs. Over seven-eights of the floors are of
earth. The interior and exterior walls are plastered in some
sections and more commonly on the larger than smaller farms.
Whitewashing the outside of buildings is common in the Yangtze
Delta. Ceilings are rare and the rooms usually extend to the
rafters. The value of these buildings is perhaps the best measure
of their quality, averaging 580 Yuan per farm compared with an
average value in the United States of U.S. $2,169 in 1930-a ratio
even greater than the difference in productive capacity. There
may not be, however, quite so great a difference in the net welfare
of the individual, although probably nearly so.
There are, on the average, 1.3 rooms per person but many of
these rooms have the combined use of dwelling and housing of
equipment, grain and livestock. Windows are few because of
fear of thieves and in many places for superstitious reasons. The
houses are poorly ventilated and lighted, floors are often damp
and not easily kept clean, the earth walls are insecure in sections
subject to flood or heavy rains, and the thatched roofs are fire
These houses are rather scantily furnished with an average of
28 pieces of all kinds of furniture, such as beds, benches, stools,
tables, chests, closets and sometimes chairs. Nearly four-sevenths
of such furniture is unpainted, and about one-fifth is rough and
The amount of debt and savings, in a degree, is a measure of
the adequacy of the living standard. Two-fifths of the farm
families reported debts, averaging 76 Yuan per farm, of which
only about one-fourth was for productive purposes. Only one
per cent of the debt was in mortgaged land, a situation far different
from that in other countries such as the United States. Some
farmers are badly in debt, and usury in some districts is a serious
problem. However, the most important source of credit is
from relatives and friends, two-fifths being so obtained, and
this source probably does not represent extortion except in such
special cases as with Wang Lung's uncle in The Good Earth (1).
Merchants, landlords, and shops supply most of the remainder.
These three classes of money lenders often bleed the farmer to
the limit, and for this reason better sources of credit are


Only one-fifth of the farmers reported savings, averaging 192
Yuan, though under-reporting probably occurred more for this
item than for debts. Savings in the form of money loans,
amounted to 202 Yuan for farmers having the item; in stored
agricultural products, 209 Yuan; in hoarded money, 139 Yuan;
and in agricultural products loaned to others 78 Yuan. It is
seen, therefore, that while some farmers may be badly in debt
others have substantial savings.
Special expenditures for weddings, funerals, and the like are
generally a measure of the farmer's prosperity. These expenditures
averaged 152 Yuan per family per year. A wedding costs four
months' family income and exceeds the yearly income of a hired
farm laborer. Funerals cost three months' family income and
dowries nearly three months' family income. Such expenditures
are, of course, not of annual occurrence.
In terms of standard of living, the success in use of land is
not very great. This may be ascribed more to the density of the
farm population, 1,500 per square mile of cultivated area, than
to type of land use. A birth rate of at least 38 persons per 1,000
persons and a death rate probably over 27 persons per 1,000
persons for the year studied, indicates a doubling of the population
every 65 years. Great calamities have in the past interfered with
such a rapid increase over that length of a period. Patriarchal
families represent 30 per cent of all families, the remaining 70
per cent being of the ordinary primary type found in most other
countries, of husband, wife and children. These families average
5.21 persons in size. Size of family is in close association with
size of farm-showing the effect of a dense population. Small
farms have families of only 3.96 persons per farm as compared
with 7.31 persons per farm on very large farms. This farm
population has only a meager education. Less than 50 per cent
of the male and only two per cent of the female population, seven
years of age or above, ever attended school. Of those who have
received an education, thirty per cent in the case of the males
had four years of schooling and one per cent in that of the females
averaged three years. The central fact about marriage is that
everyone marries and stays married until the death of either the
husband or the wife. More than one-half of the males and four-
fifths of the females married under 20 years of age. As to ex-
pectation of life, one-half of the population dies before the age
of 28 years-a tremendous economic loss even if one considers
only the investment in such persons.


The chief outlets for this teeming population (and these
inadequate), have been migration within the country to less densely
settled parts from the standpoint of production per capital, and
emigration to other countries.
The essential facts of type and success in land use have been
presented and in part interpreted in terms of China herself. What
they mean to the rest of the world remains to be mentioned.
China can feed herself with the adoption of modern transporta-
tion, economic organization and technical improvements in
agriculture. Her mineral resources are sufficient for a moderate
industrial development to meet her own needs.
The great question arising from the Chinese type of land
utilization is what adjustment can be made in relations between
China, a country of low standards and cheap production and one
of high standards and expensive production such as the United
States. It has been stated that the peoples who produce most
efficiently will inherit the earth. China's rural economy is one
of efficient use of the land in that the large consumption of
vegetable products requires less land to support a given popula-
tion. For this reason costs are less per unit of food and China
becomes a keen competitor with other nations producing and
consuming food less efficiently. Other nations may pursue a
policy of isolation, preventing Chinese immigration and foregoing
sales of their expensive products to the Chinese. Presumably
this is what will continue to take place at least for a very long
time to come. Eventually Chinese standards will rise somewhat.
The high standard countries may even raise their standard by
adopting the Chinese system of producing a large proportion of
food energy from vegetable products.
Having tasted a high standard of living a country like the
United States is not likely to permit it to be lowered by an undue
increase of its own population or by permitting the influx of
peoples of a much lower standard who would eventually take the
land from those having the higher standard. China cannot hope
to meet her population problem by emigration. She is faced with
a large population in relation to resources and she must devise
means of limiting the growth of that population growth along
with other improvements if she is to raise her standard very
Very briefly summarized, a land use policy or an agricultural
policy for China consists of a number of major steps. It is sug-
gested that these be undertaken under the present system of


individual farm family units and that any attempt at major changes
in agricultural economic organization such as collective farming or
other large scale farming enterprises should for the present be
undertaken only on an experimental basis and on a very limited
scale. No nation is justified in attempting any new method of
agricultural organization without first testing it, just as in modern
agricultural countries all new technical practices in agriculture
are first thoroughly tested before they are recommended to
An enumeration of the important policies suggested by the
present study follow:
1. Conservancy projects to prevent or minimize floods.
2. Reclamation projects, such as irrigation of good land
not now cultivated and drainage of lands which could be brought
into cultivation.
3. Soil conservancy projects to prevent erosion of good
4. Forestry projects to preserve and extend forests and to
prevent erosion.
5. A land program of keeping or restoring the land in the
hands of those who work it, of consolidation of holdings and an
accurate survey and registration of all land.
6. The creation of special project areas, where the area is
taken as a unit of improvement and the various specialized fields of
knowledge are drawn upon for a unified improvement program.
7. A system of agricultural experiment stations and
agricultural educational institutions, adequately staffed, located
in each major agricultural area, such as the eight agricultural
areas demarcated by this study.
8. Technical agricultural improvements, such as plant
breeding, animal breeding, control of insects and diseases of
plants and animals, care of crops such as fertilization, cultivation
and pruning, feeding and care of animals, and improvement of
9. An agricultural extension system with subsidies to local
governments, or to organizations formed especially for agricultural
extension work.
10. A system of agricultural credit.


11. A commission for the establishment and control of
standards and grades of agricultural products.
12. Agricultural laws, including pure food laws.
13. A system of agricultural co-operation as a means of
strengthening the position of the individual farmer in his capacity
as producer and as consumer.
14. A crop reporting system by agricultural areas, as well
as by political divisions such as provinces and hsiens.
15. The development of highways and railroads.
16. Farm management projects where the best combination
of factors of production are utilized for the most profitable type
of farming.
A well organized program administered by properly qualified
technical experts, with international experience and knowledge
in the subject matter of each problem will enable China rapidly to
improve her agriculture, to raise the standard of living of her
farmers, and to enhance the well being of the nation as a whole.

(1) Buck, Pearl S. The Good Earth. John Day and Company, New York.



The characteristics of Chinese agriculture having been de-
scribed, the next task is to compare one agricultural region with
another within the country itself. For this purpose the portion
of China studied was divided into two major agricultural regions
-the Wheat Region and the Rice Region-and eight sub-regions
called "areas "-the Spring Wheat Area, the Winter Wheat-
millet Area, the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area, the Yangtze Rice-

-, ,ll U. SS. R.
.--. .. . -- a "
.- '- .- Y

The square shows the area within which the sample studies were made.
It is the part of China shown in the maps which follow and represents
boundaries at the time the field studies were made. This map was
prepared from a standard map of the National Geological Survey of
China, 1932, scale 1 to 7,500,000.


wheat Area, the Rice-tea Area, the Szechwan Rice Area, the
Double Cropping Rice Area, and the Southwestern Rice Area.
The boundaries of these regions and areas were determined by
basic factors mostly physical, by factors affecting type of land use,
and by factors affecting the success of the land use.

Scale 1-10 million
In the Spring Wheat Area the area included in the present study covered
only as far as the Chahar-Jehol boundary. Besides the 18 provinces of
China Proper, parts of Tsinghai and Sikang in the west and of Suiyuan,
Ningsia and Chahar of Inner Mongolia were included as far as the edge
of cultivation. On the other hand parts of Kansu, Szechwan and Yunnan
were excluded from the eight agricultural areas because their elevation
put them outside the main areas of cultivation. The total area included
within the eight agricultural areas is approximately 1,359,000 square miles.


In order that the groups of localities in which sample studies
were made and for which averages were computed, should be as
homogeneous as possible, the number of areas was made as large
as the data allowed. If there was doubt as to where the line should
be drawn because data on type or success of use were scarce,
differences of soil and topography were the deciding factors
because these usually coincide with differences in success of land
When more data become available, some of the boundaries
will undoubtedly be changed. Moreover, individuals will always
attach different degrees of importance to certain factors, and,

Scale 1-10 million


therefore, no two people will draw identical boundaries. The
important factors used in locating the boundaries of the two
regions and the eight agricultural areas are grouped with their
numerical, or descriptive values, in table 1. The factors listed
are limited to the data collected. There are other factors which
might be used for determining regional boundaries; such, for
instance, as the monetary returns from farming. The names
applied to the areas are an attempt to be descriptive and at the
same time concise, but other names might be equally good.
These agricultural regions and areas make units much more
effective for the understanding of the agriculture of the country
than do the political units of provinces, the boundaries of which,
in most instances, do not encompass homogeneous economic,
or physical conditions. In any national program of agricultural
development these agricultural regions and areas are much the
more important units because like has been placed with like,
whereas the provincial boundaries divide like from like and com-
bine unlike factors. For instance, the northern and southern
sections of such provinces as Kiangsu and Anhwei are entirely
different. The northern parts of these two provinces are in the
Wheat Region and the Southern parts in the Rice Region. One
agricultural experiment station could well take care of both
Northern Kiangsu and Northern Anhwei and another of both
Southern Kiangsu and Southern Anhwei. As it is, both provinces
have an agricultural experiment station in the south representing
only Rice Region conditions. Even from the standpoint of poli-
tical administration the economy of the provinces differs so
greatly between the north and south as to make political administra-
tion difficult. Such instances are numerous.
Apart from these local differences, the division of the country
into regions and areas as attempted in this study becomes signi-
ficant also because of its bearing on all problems of national
economy. Thus for instance, the matter of self-sufficiency in the
supply of food must take into account that one-third of the
cultivated area of China is in the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area
and only a small percentage either in the Spring Wheat Area or the
Southwestern Rice Area. The tabulation of current crop report
data by these areas, rather than by provinces alone, would give
much more meaning to such data. Ideally, political divisions
should correspond more closely with economic differences.
National policies should be formulated on the basis of these
homogeneous units because many mistakes can be avoided and


Scale 1-10 million

sound constructive plans can be formulated with proper con-
sideration of the needs of each region and each area.
The next step to a better understanding of each of these areas
is to demarcate the smaller sub-agricultural areas within these
major areas. Such a study was beyond the scope of the present
project. This would also supply the additional data required to
check some of the present boundaries which are doubtful at
certain points.
The best way to comprehend the agriculture of the two re-
gions and the eight areas is to study carefully table 1. A brief




SPRING WHEAT (Section at 360 N. Latitude)

WINTER WHEAT-MLErT (Section at 360 N. Latitude)

WrNTER WHEAT-KAOLIANG (Section at 360 N. Latitude)




YANGTZE RICE-WHEAT (Section at 1160 E. Longitude)
4000 -
0 1. mmnni-



RICE-TEA (Section at 1130 E. Longitude)



SRICE (Section at 30 N. Latitude)

SzECHwAN RICE (Section at 300 N. Latitude)

DOUBLE CROPPING RICE (Section at 1130 E. Longitude)


SoUTHwzsrERN RICE (Section at 260 N. Latitude)



100 0 100 200 MILES
100 0 100 200 300 KM


Basic factors affecting type and success of use of land (a)
Regions, areas Natural vegetation
and localities
Natural Typical village trees Typical fruits or other
special products





Spring Wheat .. .

Winter Wheat-millet ..

Winter Wheat-kaoliang

Vegetation is typical of the temperate, sub-
tropical, and to a small extent of tropical

Deciduous and coniferous forests, especially
in higher mountains; slow forest re-
production; deforested lands are grassy,
rocky or barren; halophytes and salt
tolerant species.

Deciduous and coniferous forests with
denser growth than in Wheat Region;
evergreen broad-leafed trees and shrubs;
pines; grass on deforested areas; quick
forest reproduction.

(Only vegetation peculiar to the area and
not to the region is mentioned).

Xerophytic plants; bunch grasses and
brush; tall and short-grass sod.

Bunch grasses and shrub to a lesser extent
than in Spring Wheat Area.

Mostly an alluvial cultivated plain, except
Shantung hills and mountains.

Sophora (Pagoda tree)
Populous (Poplar)
Ulmus (Elm)
Salix (Willow)
Juniperus (Juniper)
Ginkgo (Maiden hair fern trees by

Considerable variation between


Betula (Birch)

fQuercus (Oak)
Ailanthus (Tree of Heaven)

(a) The topographical profiles on the previous pages belong under this heading also.

Diospyros (Persimmons)
Prunus (Apricots)
Zizyphus (Jujubes)
Vitis (Grapes)
Juglans (Walnuts)
Pyrus (Pears)

Morus (Mulberry)
Thia (Tea)
Camellia (Tea-oil)
Aleurites (Wood-oil)


Walnuts and

Pears and
Cratagus (Haw)




Basic factors affecting type and success of use of land (continued)
Natural vegetation



Yangtze Rice-wheat ..


Szechwan Rice ..

Double Cropping Rice

Typical village trees

(Only vegetation peculiar to the area and
not to the region is mentioned).

A few species of evergreen broad-leafed
shrubs or trees such as the holly and the

Much grassland of cogonal type; Cunning-
hamia and Torreya.

No special difference from the region as a

Subtropical vegetation; many large grassy
cogonals not easily forested. (Tropical
vegetation on Hainan Island to the

Much grassland of cogonal type; Cumiing-
hamia, Torrea and Rhododendrons.

Regions, areas
and localities

Celtis (Hackberry)
Quercus (Oak)
Liquidambar (Red gum)
Salix (Willow)
Gleditsia (Honey locust)
Sapium (Wax tree)
Pterocarya (Wing-nut)
Cinnamomum camphora (Camphor)
Cryptomeria (Peacock tree)
False Banyan
Cupressus (Cypress)
Alnus cremastogyne (Alder)
Phoebe (Phoebe)

Livistona (Fan palm)
Caryota (Fish-tail palm)
Acacia (Acacia)
Pombax (Silk cotton tree)
Cinnamomum comphora (Camphor)


Typical fruits or other
special products

Prunus (Peaches)
Prunus (Plums)
Myrica (Wax myrtle)
Eriobotrya (Loquat)

Prunus (Peaches)
Diospyros (Persimmons)
Pyrus (Pears)
Rhus (Varnish tree)

Prunus (Peaches)
Prunus (Apricots)
Diospyros (Persimmons)
Aleurites (Wood-oil)
Rhus (Varnish tree)
Ficus (Figs)
Euphoria longana (Lungyen)
Sugar cane

Southwestern Rice ..



Basic factors affecting type and success of use of land (continued)
Climate Soils Accessibility of markets
Regions, areas
and localities Temperature Precipi-
tation Days of Crop pests Racial groups Per cent of localities
(annual growing Scientific and diseases having each transportation
January July mean season classification method in 10 per cent or
mean C mean C in mm.) more of the localities




Spring Wheat..

Winter Wheat-millet .

Winter Wheat-kaoliang

Yangtze Rice-wheat


Szechwan Rice.

Double Cropping Rice

Southwestern Rice ..

Pedocals and other
Calcium Soils

Pedalfers and other
Leached Soils

Chestnut Earths and
Desert Soils
Chestnut Earths
(chiefly loessal) and
Slightly Podzolic
Calcareous Alluvium,
Saline Alluvium,
Shantung Brown
Soils, Shachiang
Alluvium and Rice
Paddy Soils, Pod-
zolic Soils, Red
Soils, and Saline
Podzolic Soils and
Red Soils
Purple Brown (forest)
Soils, Non-calcare-
ous Alluvium and
Rice Paddy Soils,
Brown and Gray-
brown Podzolic Soils
Red Soils

Yellow Soils and
Red Soils

Aphis, nematodes,
rodents, leaf curls,
locusts, army
worms, boll worm,
grubs, wire worms,
cerotosis of cotton,
smuts and rusts
Cerotosis of cotton,
aphis, locusts, fruit
insects of many
kinds, smuts, and
Black smut, rodents,
yellow rust
Black smut, leaf curl,
yellow rust, aphis

Locusts, scales,
aphis, army worm,
mole cricket, kernel
smut, smuts

Locusts, rice borer,
leaf roller, smuts



Rice borer, various
fruit insects and
Rice smut

Chiefly Han
Han (Chinese),
and Turki (Mo-

Han (Chinese),
tribes and

Han (Chinese)
and Turki
Han (Chinese)

Han (Chinese)

Han (Chinese)

Han (Chinese),
Hakkas and
other tribes
Han (Chinese)

Han (Chinese),
Hakkas and
other tribes
Tribes, Hakkas
and Han

Carrying, 53; cart, 19;
junk. 18; wheelbarrow,
15; donkey, 10
Cart, 45 ; carrying, 33;
donkey, 22; wheel-
barrow, 18 ; mule, 14

Carrying, 65 ; unk, 26;
wheelbarrow, 14

Mule, 50 ; cart, 38; camel,
13; donkey, 13 ; unk, 13
Carrying, 60 ; donkey, 27
cart, 20 ; mule, 13

Cart, 60; wheelbarrow,
36; carrying, 32;
donkey, 21

Carrying, 41; junk, 33;
wheelbarrow, 22

Carrying, 71; junk, 25;
wheelbarrow, 17
Carrying, 100; junk, 22

Carrying, 75; junk, 33

Carrying, 75; horse, 25;
cart, 13











Factors indicating the type of use of land
Productive uncultivated land and its uses
Regions, areas ~' d Per cent of productive uncultivated land growing
and localities 10 | d *| 2 -


Spring Wheat. 123,119 22,054 7 18 43.1 13.4 17.2 14.0 33.2 22.2 89 9.3
Winter Wheat-millet. 146,609 31,869 9 22 23.8 29.5 23.7 25.0 10.4 73 41 89 06
Winter Wheat-kaoliang 175,446 118,905 93 35 68 44.8 18.5 31.9 18.3 8.5 13.2 11.9 8.6 91 1.2
WHEAT REGION 445,174 172,916 51 39 38.0 21.4 26.5 19.8 7.7 14.7 9.9 90 2.4
RicF REGION .. 913,731 166,728 49 18 62.1 23.6 29.1 26.3 3.6 10.2 7.2 89 0.3

Spring Wheat.. .. 123,119 22,054 7 18 43.1 13.4 17.2 14.0 33.2 22.2 89 9.3 0
Winter Wheat-millet. 146,609 31,869 9 22 23.8 29.5 23.7 25.0 10.4 7.3 4.1 89 0.6 Z
Winter Wheat-kaoliang 175,446 118,993 35 68 44.8 18.5 31.9 18.3 8.5 13.2 9.6 91 1.0 En
Yangtze Rice-wheat .. 115,919 40,328 12 35 62.7 11.6 19.2 18.8 7.0 25.6 17.8 91 0.2
Rice-tea .. .. 242,374 42,624 12 18 68.3 22.4 34.2 31.7 1.9 4.4 5.4 89 0.3
Szechwan Rice .. 149,835 47,579 14 32 41.7 53.1 31.2 4.2 2.3 8.8 89 0.4
Double Cropping Rice 148,710 19,155 6 13 68.0 18.0 28.7 45.6 0.5 6.5 0.7 92 0.3
Southwestern Rice .. 256,893 17,042 5 7 63.3 13.4 28.2 27.3 11.0 17.8 2.3 82 0.5

*The amount is under 0.5.
(a) For the eight agricultural areas only.


Factors indicating type of use of land (continued)
Land (continued) Crops
Modification by man Types of farming
Regions, areas > -
and localities "9" S Q -,A
8 go s G 80 Per cent of crop area in each crop appearing in
Sthe type for the region or the area as a whole

CHINA .. .. .. 0.94 0.49 17 54 47 24 5 Rice, 33; wheat, 29; and cotton, 7.
WHEAT REGION .. 1.16 0.82 6 76 18 22 1 Wheat, 40; millets, 27; cotton, 8; and kaoliang, 15.
RICE REGION .. .. 0.79 0.25 25 38 62 25 7 Rice, 68.

Spring Wheat.. .. 2.27 1.26 6 78 13 (b) 18 6 Millets, 34; Irish potatoes, 10; spring wheat, 18.
Winter Wheat-millet.. 0.74 0.52 9 68 10 35 Wheat, 40; millet, 31 ; cotton, 9.
Winter Wheat-kaoliang 0.99 0.82 5 80 10 4 1 Wheat, 46; cotton, 9; millet, 23; corn, 16; kaoliang, 19.

Yangtze Rice-wheat .. 1.01 0.37 25 42 61 19 20 Rice, 58; cotton, 13; wheat, 31; barley, 19.
Rice-tea .. .. 0.44 0.17 19 28 78 30 4 Rice, 73; rapeseed, 13.
Szechwan Rice .. 1.36 0.20 43 41 70 15 11 Rice, 41; opium, 11; rapeseed, 13; corn, 14; wheat, 19.
Double Cropping Rice 0.57 0.25 28 29 69 14 0 Rice, 90; sweet potatoes, 12; sugar cane, 6.
Southwestern Rice .. 0.64 0.12 21 57 82 33 7 Rice, 60; opium, 19; broad beans, 17; corn, 14.

*The amount is under 0.1.
(b) The estimate given in An Estimate of China's Farms and Crops, by C. C. Chang, University of Nanking.


Factors indicating type of use of land (continued)
Crops (continued)
Frequency of crop failures
Calamities (floods, droughts, insects,
Frequency and extent of famine within memory w wind and frost) occurring be-oss
teen 1904 and 1929, causing a loss of
Regions, areas Per cent of informants 20 or more per cent of the crop, but
Per cent not causing a famine
and localities of crop Per cent not causi
area in f cr Percentage of Number
winter area population of
crops cropped Number Duration famines er Percentage of all crops
of of p er en Number destroyed (range for
famines famines Emigrat there crop calamites different kinds of
en (months) ing g area per locality calamities)

CHINA .. .... 41 49 3.0 11 13 5 67 16 43-54
WHEAT REGION. .. 35 27 3.6 13 14 8 1 77 21 40-57
RICE REGION .. .. 46 66 2.5 9 11 1 57 13 40-55

Spring Wheat.. .. 7 2.6 22 19 14 1 86 20 25-53
Winter Wheat-millet.. 40 18 4.3 14 14 12 1 81 15 35-61
Winter Wheat-kaoliang 43 39 3.4 11 13 4 72 24 37-51

Yangtze Rice-wheat .. 62 65 3.0 9 20 1 68 11 34-60
Rice-tea .. .. 42 69 2.6 7 9 1 0 53 22 48-60
Szechwan Rice .. 52 67 4.6 7 5 1 52 9 20-80
Double Cropping Rice 8 76 0.4 12 0 22 9 50-60
Southwestern Rice .. 43 52 2.2 11 8 4 0 71 10 39-70

The amount in under 0.05


Factors indicating type of use of land (continued)
Livestock and fertility maintenance Size of farm business Farm labor
--------------------- '------- -- ---- fi[-

Regions, areas Q5. |R 0

Percentage distribution of animal units for all animals a g d 3
having 10 per cent or more of such units 3' | c g
0a a 0

CHINA .. .. Oxen, 34; water buffaloes, 22; hogs, 13. 0.34 25 3.8 2.6 1.34 2.0 1.7 14
WHEAT REGION .. Oxen, 37; donkeys, 20; mules, 14; sheep, 11. 0.28 22 5.1 3.2 1.37 1.9 1.8 16
RICE REGION .. .. Water buffaloes, 38; oxen, 31; hogs, 17. 0.39 28 2.8 2.1 1.32 2.0 1.7 13

Spring Wheat.. Sheep, 28; oxen, 21; donkeys, 15; horses, 11; mules, 11 0.60 36 7.3 3.5 2.76 2.0 1.7 19
Winter Wheat-millet. Oxen, 37; donkeys, 21; sheep, 14; mules, 13. 0.22 25 3.7 2.8 0.98 1.6 1.7 15
Winter Wheat-kaoliang Oxen, 40; donkeys, 21; mules, 16. 0.19 15 5.1 3.3 1.11 2.0 1.9 15

Yangtze Rice-wheat .. Water buffaloes, 42; oxen, 24; hogs, 15. 0.19 30 3.5 2.3 0.97 2.2 1.9 13
Rice-tea .. .. Water buffaloes, 32; oxen, 43; hogs, 20. 0.32 25 2.2 2.4 0.97 1.6 1.6 13
Szechwan Rice .. Water buffaloes, 12; oxen, 53; hogs, 31. 0.32 35 3.1 1.9 1.35 2.2 0.6 21
Double Cropping Rice Water buffaloes, 44; oxen, 32; hogs, 15. 0.35 24 2.3 1.7 1.31 2.3 1.7 12
Southwestern Rice Water buffaloes, 49; oxen, 14; hogs, 14. 1.28 28 2.0 1.3 3.18 2.1 1.9 9


Factors indicating success in the use of land (continued)
Production Nutrition
a as 9 Percentage of food energy
H~.0Z e (calories) from different
Regions, areas a5 g classes of food "
and localities k k W o

Spring Wheat . 84 12() 787 220 75 8 3.64 3.183 89.7 8.4 1.1 0.459
Winter Wheat-millet .. 86 14 55 1,112 284 77 12 4.82 2,897 96.5 1.4 0.6 0.417

CHINAe .. .. .. 100 16 66 1,393 446 83 24 3,295 91.8 3.9 2.3 0.444
WHEAT REGION.. .. 95 15 53 1,231 345 75 17 5.16 3,186 913.0 4.6 1.0 0.505394
RICS REGION R .. 101 16 67 1,556 406 87 31 3,400 90.6 3.3 3.6 0.385

Double Cropping Rice 101 15 42 1,281 497 101 53 3,283 86.4 8.9 3.1 0.329
Spring Wheat .. .. 84 12(c) 787 220 75 8 3.64 3.183 89.7 8.4 1.1 0.459 0
Winter Wheat-millet .. 86 14 55 1,112 284 77 12 4.82 2,897 96.5 1.4 0.6 0.417 0
Winter Wheat-kaoliang 92 15 51 1,444 426 74 28 5.79 3,372 92.0 5.0 1.2 0.579 Z
Yangtze Rice-wheat .. 98 17 63 1,357 483 89 24 3,486 93.5 1.9 2.8 0.422
Rice-tea .. .. 86 11 59 1,665 489 100 28 3,522 91.7 2.9 3.0 0.394
Szechwan Rice .. 108 23 75 1,662 712 62 31 2,955 87.7 3.2 5.6 0.393
Double Cropping Rice 101 15 42 1,281 497 101 53 3,283 86.4 8.9 3.1 0.329
Southwestern Rice .. 139 22 97(d) 1,830(d) 616(d) 68 43 6.24 3,374 89.7 1.0 5.8 0.347

(s) Spring wheat.
(d) The yield of rice is exceptionally high in two localities where the soil is especially fertile. The local measure of land is also rather indefinite
and the conversion to acres may not be quite correct. Therefore, the production of grain-equivalent may be higher than actual also.


Factors indicating success in the use of land (continued)
Standard of living Population
Per cent of Savings Credit
garments I -_______
Regions, areas S d made of '
and localities coItton J
tiP 11 0 i 1

CHINA .... 8.8 7.4 91 79 28 1,574 584 21 192 39 76 152 1,485 6.2 38.3 27.1 N
WHEAT REGION.. .. 7.7 5.9 93 83 22 1,253 524 19 214 38 71 131 1,128 6.5 37.4 24.1
RICE REGION .. 9.9 8.5 88 75 33 1,866 633 22 177 40 80 169 1,746 5.9 39.0 30.0
Spring Wheat .. .. 5.7 3.0 82 78 20 1,375 248 13 127 56 70 112 858 6.5 -
Winter Wheat-millet .. 8.1 5.5 97 87 23 1,502 465 15 210 32 61 111 1,234 6.2 -
Winter Wheat-kaoliang 8.2 7.1 95 82 22 1,000 668 24 245 35 77 149 1,165 6.7 -

Yangtze Rice-wheat .. 9.3 9.0 88 77 29 1,905 631 25 162 51 94 162 1,360 6.0 -
Rice-tea .. 9.6 7.9 91 75 31 2,195 673 11 228 39 72 172 1,788 5.5 -
Szechwan Rice .. 11.4 10.8 88 82 48 1,614 660 38 140 34 65 112 1,610 7.0 -
Double Cropping Rice 11.1 7.8 83 68 40 1,294 762 39 193 44 106 247 2,072 5.9 -
Southwestern Rice .. 9.5 8.8 86 72 30 1,577 442 14 156 11 42 137 2,636 6.2 -

(e) These data represent the number of persons per household (family and non-family members) for the farms studied with the Farm Survey
(f) Number of births per thousand persons.
(g) Number of deaths per thousand persons.


description of the outstanding characteristics of each region and
of each area with some recommendations for improved land use
may, however, be helpful.
Physiography.-The Wheat Region lies between latitudes 320
and 400 North. The topography is of two main types : the great
plains with an elevation of about 50 to 100 feet above sea level,
and the extensive mountainous plateau areas in the west, suc-
cessively higher from the east to the west, until, near the Tibetan
borderland, an elevation of 10,000 feet is reached. There agricul-
ture virtually ceases and grazing becomes the dominant form of
land utilization.
Climate.-The climate of the Wheat Region is a variant of the
temperate zone type, the latter being modified in the great plains
area by the monsoons from the sea, so that cotton grows as far
north as Peiping, 400 North latitude. The high mountainous
plateaus of the west are exposed to the cold, dry winter winds of
the Central Asia Plateaus. These winds account for the severe
dry winters and the dry freezing of plants even in the great
plains area. The winters are characterized by clear, sunny
days. Frequent dust storms occur in late winter and in spring.
Precipitation is scanty, reaching 25 inches in only a few places. It
occurs chiefly in the summer, largely in the form of convectional
rains, which often are so heavy that much of the water has no
chance to enter the soil but runs off, floods the lowlands and
causes much erosion.
Soils.-Unleached, or Calcium Soils characterize the Wheat
Region. These soils fall into two main groups, the Chestnut
Earths, largely loessial, which are predominant and the Black
Earths which are found in the higher elevations where precipita-
tion is abundant. Shantung Brown Soils, which are slightly
leached, are found in the Shantung peninsula and in a long strip
along the eastern edge of the Shansi mountains.
Most of these soils are good but lack organic matter.
Large portions of them receive too little water to make them
productive. On the other hand, large areas are subject to
flooding, or are badly drained. Alkali or saline soils of low, or
no productivity, are fairly extensive. Nitrogen is badly needed


to increase the fertility of even those soils which are suitable for
Natural vegetation.-Deciduous and coniferous forests,
although few and limited in extent, characterize the area and are
found especially in the higher mountains. Forest reproduction
is slow and it is a question whether many of the loessial hills were
ever heavily forested. Halophytes and salt-tolerant species are
common in the northern parts, but are also found in isolated areas
throughout the region. Deforested lands are either chiefly
grassy, with sod in the higher elevations, and bunch grass in the
extensive drier mountainous areas; or rocky and barren wastes.
The typical village trees are the pagoda tree, the poplar, the elm
and the willow. The usual fruits are pears, persimmons, apricots
and grapes. Walnuts are prevalent as isolated trees or in small
orchards in the Winter Wheat-millet Area.
Racial groups.-The Han race (Chinese) are the chief settlers
of the region, but Mongolians, Turki (Mohammedans) and
some Manchus are settled among the Chinese, or the Chinese
among them, in the more northerly and northwestern parts of the
region. The Turki are Mohammedans by religion and have
intermarried to a considerable extent with the Chinese. In the
eastern part of China, however, most Chinese who profess the
Mohammedan religion, show no traces of Turki blood. The
language is chiefly northern mandarin Chinese with four tones,
and the variations are not so great but that people from one section
of the region can understand those of another.
Crop insects and diseases.-The crop pests and diseases are
numerous. No attempt was made to make a detailed study of
them but a few may be mentioned: aphis, nematodes, rodents,
leaf curl, locusts, army worms, bollworms, grubs, wire worms,
cerotosis of cotton, smuts and rusts.
Accessibility of markets.-Railroads act as the main arteries of
transportation but they are few and most of the transportation for
the shorter hauls is by cart, carrying by man, donkey, wheelbarrow
and mule. Waterways are few and even these are not usually
navigable. The Yellow River and the Grand Canal are exceptions
and are extensively used for transportation by junk. Unimproved
dirt roads for cart traffic exist throughout except in the most
mountainous sections. In the summer season, with the rains,
they become very muddy and almost impassable thus influencing
the time of marketing agricultural products.



Physiography.-The Rice Region lies approximately between
the latitudes 230 North and 320 North. The topography in the
southern mountain complex consists chiefly of hills, and small
mountains and valleys with elevations varying from sea level to
1,500 meters. The western part comprises three main plateaus;
the Yunnan Plateau with an elevation between 2,000 to 2,500
meters, the Kweichow Plateau with an elevation from 1,000 to
2,000 meters and the Kwangsi Plateau with an elevation from 200
to 1,000 meters.
Climate.-The climate of the Rice Region is temperate and
subtropical, and is considerably tempered by maritime influences
in a narrow strip along the coast, at least as far north as Wenchow,
Chekiang, where oranges still grow well. High humidity char-
acterizes most of the area, especially in the spring and summer
and often in the winter. The average rainfall of the region is at
least twice that of the Wheat Region. Summers are very hot
and humid. The winters have many cloudy days compared
with the clear weather of the Wheat Region. The coast is often
subject to typhoon storms, which bring relief from heat but which
destroy crops and even villages, and may cause local floods as
far inland as 200 miles. The summer climate is largely dictated
by the summer monsoon in contrast to the climate of the Wheat
Region which is greatly influenced by the winter monsoon.
Soils.-The soils in the Rice Region are chiefly Pedalfers
and other leached soils. The high precipitation of the region
is responsible for the extensive leaching and for this reason the
soils are deficient in organic matter. Moreover, the hill soils,
of which there are a great many, have been not only badly leached
but have been denuded of the richer surface layer. Not only
are these soils, therefore, low in natural fertility but they require
large additions of organic matter and mineral plant food nutrients
in order to maintain their productivity. For this reason most
of the hill lands of the Rice Region cannot be cultivated economi-
Natural vegetation.-The natural vegetation of the Rice Region
consists chiefly of broad-leafed and coniferous forests with a
denser growth than in the Wheat Region. Evergreen and


deciduous broad-leafed trees, shrubs and pines are the prevalent
types of trees. Deforested areas grow grass, often to considerable
height and there is quick forest reproduction. Vast hill and
mountainous areas are burned each year by the local populace
for the purpose of destroying cover for tigers or for the fertilizing
value of the ash which is washed down by the rains to the rice
fields in the valleys.
Village trees vary much more than in the Wheat Region,
the camphor tree being the most common. Typical trees produc-
ing fruit or other special products are mulberry, bamboo, tea,
oranges, tea-oil, and wood-oil.

Racial groups.-The Han race (Chinese) are the chief settlers
in the Rice Region but the Hakkas and descendants of many older
aboriginal tribes are found in the mountainous regions of Fukien,
northern Kwangtung and in the mountains of the Southwestern
Rice Area.
Southern Mandarin is spoken in the northern part and dialects
of many kinds in the southern and eastern portions. In general,
the tribes are in the mountainous districts and the Chinese in the
valleys. In Yunnan the Chinese are the landlords and the in-
digenous people the tenants.

Crop insects and diseases.-The one universal crop insect
causing much damage to the rice crop each year is the rice
borer. Other insects and pests are cerotosis of cotton, aphis,
locusts, fruit insects of many kinds, smuts and rusts.

Accessibility of markets.-The most common method of
marketing products locally is carrying by man. The network of
streams and canals in parts of the Rice Region makes the junk
another important means of transportation. The wheelbarrow
is also quite common on the narrow paths characteristic of the
Rice Region. Roads for carts, except in Yunnan, did not exist
before the development of modern roads, within the last few years.
The main arteries of transportation in the Rice Region are the
Yangtze River extending west into Szechwan, the railway from
Canton to Hankow, the railways from Hangchow, north to
Shanghai thence to Nanking and north to Tientsin passing
through Pengpu on the northern border of the Rice Region, and
the railway extending westward from Hangchow to Changsha,


Land.-The Wheat Region contains only about one-third
of the gross area of the eight agricultural areas but nearly one-
half of the cultivated area. The great plain of the Wheat Region
is responsible for the high percentage of cultivation, 39 per
cent of the area, as compared with only 18 per cent cultivated
in the Rice Region. The Rice Region, with two-thirds of the
gross area and with only 18 per cent of the land cultivated, has a
little over one-half of all the cultivated land of the eight agricultural
areas. The proportion of uncultivated land which is productive
is considerably greater in the Rice Region than in the Wheat
Region because of more favorable climatic conditions. Sixty-two
per cent of the uncultivated land in the Rice Region produces
economic plants compared with only 38 per cent in the Wheat
Region. The products of this productive uncultivated land are
chiefly forests, trees and bushes, grass for fuel, reeds, pasture and
occasionally other products and occur in somewhat similar pro-
portions for both regions. The proportion of farm area in
crops is practically the same for both regions, being only about
one per cent greater in the Wheat Region. The proportion of
idle land of 2.4 per cent of the crop area is greater in the Wheat
Region, where precipitation is unfavorable, than in the Rice
Region, where it is 0.3 per cent.
Modification of land by man is greater in the Rice Region than
in the Wheat Region. Only 18 per cent of the Wheat Region is
irrigated as compared with 62 per cent of the Rice Region where
rice, which must be irrigated is the main crop. Irrigation in the
Wheat Region is limited because water is often not available,
topography is unsuitable, or the soil is porous. Approximately one-
fourth to one-fifth of the cultivated land is terraced in both regions
but with the exception of dyking only one per cent is artificially
drained in the Wheat Region and seven per cent in the Rice Region
where a larger proportion of the cultivated land is low lying.
Since the type of agriculture is somewhat more extensive
in the Wheat Region than in the Rice Region and there is more
level land, the parcels of land and the fields are three times as
large. There are no fences around the fields in either region.
Twice as many farmers own the land they work in the Wheat
Region as do in the Rice Region. Only six per cent of the farmers
are tenants in the Wheat Region compared with one-fourth of the
farmers in the Rice Region. The other farmers are part owners.


Crops.-The Wheat Region soils, climate and topographical
conditions are adapted to a number of crops. Those appearing
in the type of farming for the region as a whole are wheat on 40
per cent of the cultivated area, millet on 27 per cent, cotton on
eight per cent and kaoliang on 15 per cent.
The Rice Region type of farming is represented by a
single crop only-rice-which is especially adapted to the low
lying lands and to the impervious soils in a humid, hot summer,
A little over one-quarter of the cultivated area in the Wheat
Region grows two crops a year on the same land, usually wheat
as a winter crop followed by soybeans, millet and sweet potatoes.
Wheat is the cash crop about one-fourth of which is sold. Cereals
inferior to wheat from the standpoint of palatability and nutritive
value, such as millets and kaoliangs, are eaten because of their
cheapness. In the winter, 35 per cent of the area is in a winter
crop, mostly wheat.
In the Rice Region two-thirds of the cultivated area is double-
cropped. The first crop in the northern half of the region is a
winter crop such as wheat, barley or rapeseed followed by rice.
In the southern half of the region there are almost no winter
crops. The first crop is rice followed by a second crop of rice.
While rice, because of its extensive area, is the most important
cash crop, the actual proportion sold is less than is that of
wheat in the Wheat Region-the reason being that the rice
grown for sale here is also the almost exclusive food cereal of the
population. Hence the proportion of the principal cash crop
sold, rice, is a little over one-sixth, as against one-fourth in the
case of wheat.
Livestock and fertility maintenance.-The important livestock
in the Wheat Region are labor animals, chiefly oxen, mules and
donkeys, as compared with water buffaloes and oxen in the Rice
Region. Approximately one-fourth of the animals are in the
productive group, and among these, sheep are the most important
in the Wheat Region and hogs in the Rice Region. The land is
moderately stocked with nearly three-tenths of an animal unit
per crop acre in the Wheat Region and nearly four-tenths in the
Rice Region. Fertilizers are chiefly farm manures, night soil,
oil cakes and ashes but are insufficient to meet the fertility needs
of the two regions. In the Rice Region green manures such as
Astragalus sinensis and barley are used extensively to supply
organic matter.


Site of farm business.-The farms of the Wheat Region are
small, 5.1 acres, but are large compared with those of 2.8 acres
in the Rice Region. More unfavorable natural conditions in the
Wheat Region, including a shorter growing season, are responsible
for this difference and, therefore, the crop acres per man-equivalent,
3.2, are also greater than that of 2.1 acres per man-equivalent in
the Rice Region. The smallness of farms in both regions is also
indicated by the 1.37 animal units per farm in the Wheat Region
and 1.32 animal units in the Rice Region.
Production.-The risk in farming is much greater in the Wheat
Region than in the Rice Region because of the low and variable
precipitation which limits the yields of crops in spite of the in-
herently richer soils.
Frequency of crop failure.-During the memory of the inform-
ants, the Wheat Region had 3.6 famines per hsien; lasting an
average of 13 months and resulting in 14 per cent of the population
emigrating, and eight per cent starving. Instances of cannibalism
occurred in one each of the 3.6 famines per hsien and 77 per cent
of the area was affected in the hsiens reporting these famines. In
addition there were 21 calamities per locality during 1904-1929,
with crop failures due to such calamities as floods, droughts,
insects, civil war, wind and frost, causing losses of 40 to 57 per cent
of the crop, but not severe enough to create famine conditions.
In the Rice Region famines are less frequent and not so severe,
although the great flood of 1931 in the Yangtze Rice-wheat Area,
affecting 25 million farm population and causing a two billion
yuan loss, illustrates the extent to which famines and calamities
also affect this region, especially in the Yangtze Rice-wheat and
the Szechwan Rice Areas (2). Drought is the most common
cause of famine in the Wheat Region, although floods are also
important. Floods and droughts are about equally disastrous
in the Rice Region.
The production of grain-equivalent per man-equivalent in
the Wheat Region is 1,231 kilograms, or four-fifths of that in the
Rice Region. On a per capital basis it is 345 kilograms as compared
with 406 in the Rice Region. The difference between the two
regions is not very great, but it is evident that a farmer fares
better in the Rice Region.
Wages and land values.-The greater production per capital
in the Rice Region is reflected in higher farm yearly wages, 87


yuan, and in land values of 31 yuan per acre, or nearly one-half
greater than in the Wheat Region.
Nutrition.-Rice is the predominant food in the Rice Region
and supplies over two-thirds of the food energy. In comparison,
the diet of the Wheat Region is more varied: over one-fourth
of the food energy is from millets, approximately another one-
fourth from wheat, about one-seventh from kaoliang and another
one-ninth from corn. The amount of food energy in calories
per adult-male unit per day is similar in both regions, and appears
to be sufficient, 3,295 calories in the Wheat Region and 3,186
in the Rice Region, but these amounts are averages, and there
are many families, or even whole localities, with insufficient food.
Seeds and their products supply about the same proportion of
energy in both regions, over 90 per cent. Animal products.
supply one per cent in the Wheat Region compared with four
per cent for the Rice Region. The daily calcium intake, although
insufficient, is much better in the Wheat Region, 0.444 grams per
adult-male as compared with only 0.385 grams in the Rice Region.
Changes in diet tend slightly toward a better quality with an
increase in the consumption of corn, millet, wheat, Irish potatoes,
sweet potatoes and green beans and a decrease in kaoliang which
is made into a hard-tack much inferior to wheat bread.
Standard of living.-The various statistical measures of standard
of living point to a lower standard in the Wheat Region than in
the Rice Region. The cubic space in farm buildings in the Wheat
Region is about two-thirds of that in the Rice Region. Mud
walls and thatch roofs predominate compared with brick walls
and tiled roofs in the Rice Region while these buildings in the
Wheat Region are valued only a little over one-half those in the
Rice Region. The number of pieces of furniture in the Wheat
Region is two-thirds of the number in the Rice Region and the
number of work and dress garments is also greater in the Rice
Region. The quality of furniture, as revealed in the amount of
painting and planing appears to be about the same in both regions.
The amount of savings in the Wheat Region is one-fourth greater
and the amount of debts one-tenth less than in the Rice Region.
These measures, however, need to be interpreted with care
and do not always portray differences in standards, since natural
environment may make unequal requirements in clothing, building
space and the like. For instance, the number of garments per
family head is greater in the Rice Region than in the Wheat Region,


because the climate of the Rice Region requires more and lighter
garments. Therefore, with wide variations in the standard of
living, the true differences between the two regions in the plane
of living are not easily evaluated.
Population.-The Wheat Region supports a population of
1,128 per square mile of cultivated land, or about two-thirds that
of the Rice Region. The birth rate is 37.4 in the Wheat Region
compared with 39.0 for the Rice Region, and the death rate is
24.1 in the Wheat Region compared with 30.0 in the Rice Region.
Although the Wheat Region, has a lower density of population
than the Rice Region, it also has a lower production and a lower
standard of living and may therefore, be considered to be more
over-populated than the Rice Region. This situation is revealed by
a constant migration from the Wheat Region to the Rice Region.
If the agricultural improvements desirable for China as a
whole, in such matters as plant and animal breeding, cultivation,
fertilization and irrigation of crops, control of insects and diseases,
feeding and other care of animals, and the growing of more
vegetables in home gardens to improve nutrition, are excluded,
the removal of excessive and unnecessary risk from the occupation
of farming is the chief problem requiring attention in the Wheat
Region-risk from too much or too little water. Attention
should be given first to the problem of flood control which in-
cludes afforestation as well as engineering projects, and, second,
to that of the utilization of available sources of irrigation water
and to cheaper methods of irrigation. Dry farming, erosion
control, and an improved sheep and cattle industry in the north-
west are all improvements particularly desirable for the develop-
ment of agriculture in the Wheat Region.
The problems requiring special attention in the Rice Region
are the control of the rice borer, improved water control, both
irrigation and drainage, the replacement of the practice of the
burning of all vegetation on the hills and mountains by one of
afforestation and possibly pasturing, fertilization and addition
of organic matter to the soils.
Physiography.-The topography of the Spring Wheat Area
is very rough. High hills, small mountains, and narrow irrigated


valleys where the best agricultural land occurs, are characteristic.
High rugged mountain ranges appear chiefly in the west, and in
Suiyuan, Shansi and Chahar. The hills and smaller mountains
are covered with thick deposits of loess, easily and badly eroded.
Elevation is highest in the west, and varies throughout the area
from 1,000 to 3,000 meters. It is the high elevation of the 3,000
meter contour line which approximately marks the western edge
of cultivation. Sections of the area, such as along the Yellow
River, between Lanchow and Chungwei, are dominated by
mountains and hills which are severely eroded and desolate look-
ing, and which are only about two per cent under cultivation.
The northern boundary is the grassland and desert-ward
edge of cultivation. The Chinese farmers are pushing out into
land formerly held by Mongolian herdsmen where farming be-
comes more and more precarious. In the north-central part,
along the Great Wall in Shensi, Ninghsia and Kansu, are many
undulating migratory sand dunes extending from ten to seventy
miles both northward and southward from it. During the Mongol
occupation these were covered with grass and shrubs, but as the
Chinese settled this territory they cultivated the slightly more
fertile land in the depressions between the dunes. The soil
becomes lighter and lighter in color as one goes further out into
the grasslands, a sure indication that the rainfall is lower. Once
the grass is destroyed, the winds blow the sand so as to make
farming impossible and other nearby good soil may be covered
with the blowing sands. Such land can seldom be resodded with
grass and, it is thus that land once productive, at least for
pasture, is entirely destroyed.
In the northeastern section the mountain ranges of basalt
rock are flat, gently sloping, or hilly on top, and are extensively
cultivated, but erosion is serious. These mountains grade off
to the north into the rolling to flat steppe lands of Inner Mongolia
where the grasslands are being broken and cultivated.
The northwestern extension of the Spring Wheat Area in
Kansu is merely a narrow belt of sparse cultivation lying between
the mountains of the Nan Shan and the desert steppe to the north.
Cultivation is limited to small areas where irrigation water is
available from the melting snow of the mountains.
There are only three important plains in the area, compara-
tively small in respect to the whole-the Wuwei plain, of about
5,000 square miles, and the Ninghsia plain of approximately 2,000
square miles, both of which are irrigated, and the Salachi-Kweihua


plain north of the great bend of the Yellow River, only part of
which is irrigated.
The western boundary of this area in Tsinghai is the 3,000
meter contour which marks the approximate division between
crops and grasslands and between the Chinese, and the Tibetans
and Mongolians. The southern boundary is the division between
spring and winter wheat. Since winter wheat is the crop which
is grown furthest north as a winter crop, this boundary is the
northern boundary of winter cropping, and almost the northern
boundary of double cropping of any sort.
Climate.-The climate is cold, dry and windy in winter.
The typical precipitation is low, about 14 inches, and is exceedingly
variable, thus making agriculture hazardous. The range in
temperature of 610F. between the hottest and coldest month is the
greatest of any of the eight areas. The growing season is short,
with about five months frost-free and even the few crops that
can be grown are often injured by the autumn frosts. Hailstorms
are such a menace that altars of sod or poles are erected on the
hilltops to thwart such storms.
Soils.-The soils of the Spring Wheat Area are Calcium Soils
(unleached soils), chiefly the Chestnut Earths but some Black
Earths also. The Imperfectly Developed Light and Very Light
Chestnut Earths (loessial) predominate and the Imperfectly
Developed Chestnut Earths (loessial) follow in importance. They
are relatively fertile so far as mineral constituents are concerned
but are low in organic matter. Their productivity is limited
by scarcity of precipitation, availability of irrigation water and by a
topography which subjects these soils to severe erosion. Desert
soils are also found, but to a lesser extent, and are unproductive
because of absence of sufficient moisture.
Natural vegetation.-The vegetation of the area is distinguish-
ed from that of the other areas of the Wheat Region by the
Xerophytic plants, the bunch grasses on the higher elevations,
and the tall- and short-grass sod.
Racial groups.-The five peoples of China-Hans, Manchus,
Mongolians, Turki (Mohammedans) and Tibetans are all found
in this area, but the Hans (Chinese) predominate. Only Han
people live in North Shensi, whereas in Ninghsia proper,
northeastern Kansu and Tsinghai, Turki are scattered in
groups among the Hans. There are also a few Manchus, but
these are diminishing in number. Mongolians live in Alashan


of northwestern Ninghsia, Suiyuan, Chahar and in northern
Tsinghai. Tibetans live in western and southern Tsinghai.
Thus it is that cultures of five different racial groups converge
in this area and, even as far inland as Kaolan (Lanchow), Kansu,
one feels the conflict of racial and religious cultures and one
only has to recall the various Mohammedan rebellions, especially
the one of 1870, to realize the importance of different cultural
elements within the area. As a matter of interest, the family of
one of the regional investigators of this area has been seriously
involved at various times in the Mohammedan-Han conflicts.
The political administration of the area is largely in the hands of
Mohammedans although it changes from time to time to the
Crop insects and diseases.-Crop insects, diseases and rodents
seriously limit crop production. Black smut of wheat, barley,
millet, proso-millet and kaoliang is reported to cause losses of
from 20 to 80 per cent of the crop. Yellow rust of wheat causes
losses of 20 per cent of the crop. Leaf curl of tobacco at Lanchow
decreases the yield and affects the quality of the crop. A kind of
rodent, locally called the yellow rat was a great menace during
the drought years 1928-31.
Accessibility of markets.-The Spring Wheat Area is far from
the center of population in China and, therefore, from good
markets. It is tapped by no railroads in Kansu and Tsinghai
and only recently by one motor road from Sian to Kaolan
(Lanchow). The northern portion, Suiyuan and Chahar, is
reached by the Peiping-Suiyuan railroad, extending as far as
Paotow, and by a motor road extending west of Paotow on to
Liangchow and further west in Kansu. The other chief methods
of transport over long distances are by camels and by the floating
of produce down the Yellow River in bullock skin rafts. The
mule as a pack animal is the most usual form of transport from
the farm to the local market, with the cart, the donkey and the
junk next in importance. The long distance from markets is one
of the great handicaps to the development of this area.
Land.-The gross area of the Spring Wheat Area is 123,000
square miles of which 22,000 or 18 per cent, is cultivated. This
is a very small portion, comprising seven per cent, of the total
cultivated land in the eight agricultural areas.


Over two-fifths of the uncultivated land of the area is in
productive uses, the most important being pasture, which con-
stitutes one-third of the productive uncultivated land. There
is some arable uncultivated marginal land in every hsien, making
the acquisition of such land comparatively easy. Along the main
route between Sian, Shensi, and Lanchow, Kansu, and on the
route from Lanchow via Titao to Weiyuan the proportion cultivat-
ed is well above three-fourths.
The extent of cultivation on the hills of this area, along the
western boundary which marks the edge of cultivation, depends
upon their elevation and their steepness, and upon the dryness
of the climate. Higher elevations have a greater precipitation,
more favorable for farming. The drier, steeper hills have sparse
wild vegetation growth only, used for sheep grazing. Although
one is impressed with the degree to which such hilly land in a dry
climate is cultivated, it is probable that it has extended beyond the
most profitable use of the land. In other words, it might be more
economical if more of these hill lands were devoted to grazing;
and if the better varieties of grasses and improved breeds of sheep
were introduced, the income to be derived from this land might
be greater than at present. The percentage 'of the farm area
in crops, 89, is similar to that for the region as a whole. Low
precipitation accounts for a system of fallowing some of the crop
land each year, amounting to 9.3 per cent for the year studied.
Modification of land by man is an important factor in land
use. Irrigation occurs chiefly in the valleys, but the valleys are
narrow and comprise a small percentage of the total cultivated
area. It is estimated that 13 per cent of all the cultivated land is
irrigated. The largest irrigated area is that of the Ninghsia plain
where there are twenty-five canals from the Yellow River,
maintained by the Provincial Industrial Bureau.
The extent of irrigation sometimes depends upon the prices
of agricultural products. For instance, during the drought
years before 1932 farmers themselves undertook to dig canals
for irrigation. After 1932 prices of agricultural products decreased
though the taxation of irrigated land had increased, resulting in
the abandonment of irrigated land.
Terracing is prevalent, and is estimated to be practised on 18
per cent of all cultivated land. Much of the hill land is also
cultivated in a modified form of contour farming. The slopes
of the fields are so steep and the fields so wide that, although
there is some attempt at contour farming, it is not well carried


out and the erosion is very severe, in fact, so serious that produc-
tion is meager and one to two per cent of the land is being
An unusual type of modification of land by man is the carrying
of pebbles from stream beds to fields as a mulch for the conserva-
tion of moisture.
Fragmentation of land is universal; but individual parcels
of land, 2.27 acres in size, as well as fields of 1.26 acres, are larger
in this area than in any other.
Over three-fourths of the land is owned by the farmers who
work it and only six per cent of the farmers are tenants; the re-
maining farmers are both owners and tenants. Tenancy prevails
especially on the newly settled lands of Suiyuan province where
large landlords and land companies rent out new lands to settlers.
Crops.-The crops appearing in the type of farming of the
Spring Wheat Area are the millets (both proso and foxtail), Irish
potatoes, and spring wheat. The other characteristic crops are
oats, some kaoliang near the southeastern border in Shensi and
Shansi, the opium poppy, alfalfa, lentils, spring barley and corn.
Rice occurs in the irrigated areas of Wuwei and Ninghsia, but
the area under this crop is very limited. The type of farming at
the border of cultivation in Tsinghai just east of Tsinghai Lake,
at an elevation just under 10,000 feet, is spring barley, oats and
spring wheat.
There are only a few places within the area where winter
crops are grown, even to a limited extent, and there is almost no
double cropping.
Livestock and fertility maintenance.-The chief livestock are
sheep, oxen, donkeys, mules and horses. The flocks of sheep
over the hilltops are a feature of the landscape. The farms are
moderately well-stocked as there are six-tenths of an animal unit
per crop acre. Near the western border of the area, milk and
mutton are a part of the diet, especially of the Mohammedan and
Tibetan population.
Scarcity of fertilizer is a feature of the area and thick sod on
the uncultivated hilltops is burnt in piles to help meet the fertilizer
requirements of the fields below.
Size of farm business.-The farms of a median size of 7.3 acres
of crop area are larger than for any of the other agricultural
areas, because of the more adverse conditions. This is the only
area where the size of farm has been increasing during the last


60 years. The crop acres per man-equivalent, 3.5, and the animal
units per farm 2.76 are also high. The man-equivalent per farm,
2.0, however, is the same as the average for all the localities studied.
On the border of the area, especially in Kweisui and Paotow,
farming is less intensive than in the other areas which is evidenced
by the prevalence of many weeds as high as the crops themselves
in the fields, a sight seldom seen elsewhere in China.
Production.-The yields of crops are low, amounting to 84
per cent of the average yield for China as a whole. The produc-
tion of grain-equivalent per capital, of 220 kilograms, on a land area
per capital considerably larger than that of the other areas is only
about one-half of that for the other areas. Unfavorable climatic
and topographical conditions account for the low production.
Certain localities such as the two in Kweisui and Paotow have high
production but these are the exceptions rather than the rule.
Frequency of crop failure.-The term famine is a relative
one and its meaning varies according to one's interpretation of
what constitutes a famine. Although the number of famines
reported for this area is less than for several other areas, still,
the intensity as measured by the extent of area affected, the duration
of the famines, the proportion of people emigrating, and starving,
or the existence of cannibalism during the famine, indicate that
the area is probably the most severely affected by this misfortune
of all the.areas. It is also high in the number of calamities which
destroyed 20 per cent, or more, of the crop during the period
1904-1929 without causing what might be called a famine. It is
this factor which makes farming in the area extremely precarious.
Wages, land values and taxes.-The low production per capital
is reflected in the low farm yearly wages of 75 yuan per year, the
lowest land values for any area of eight yuan per acre, and,
rightly, the lowest taxes of 3.64 yuan per acre.
Nutrition.-The chief food is millet, with wheat and oats
next in importance. Compared with other areas the proportion
of food energy obtained from potatoes and other tubers is high.
Although the area produces more animals than the others, the
food energy from animal products is low. The daily calcium
intake as in the rest of the Wheat Region, is also low. There is a
tendency toward an increased consumption of Irish potatoes,
turnips, mutton and pork.


Standard of living.-Compared with other areas, the indices
of standard of living show a low standard which is a result of a
low production per capital. The number of work and dress
garments and the number of pieces of furniture per family head
is less than in other areas. Special expenditures for weddings,
dowries and the like are also low.
The house walls are generally of mud-brick, or of stone near
the rocky mountains. Large numbers of people have dug their
houses out of the loess hills, and literally live in caves. A slightly
sloping roof of lime and mud predominates. The value of all
kinds of farm buildings is very low, being one-half of that of the
adjacent Winter Wheat-millet Area which has the next lowest
value. Savings of 127 yuan per family are the lowest of any
Wheat Region Area while debts are about average for the Wheat
Population.-The density of farm population of about 900
per square mile of cultivated area is the lowest of all the areas;
yet, in spite of this, the production and the standard of living is
also the lowest, reflecting the unfavorableness of the area as an
agricultural producing section of China. The local population
rarely migrates out of the area. Available land in a few limited
sections of the area is settled by immigrants, chiefly from Shensi,
Shantung, Hopei, and Honan, but the merchants are largely from
Shansi. The aggregation of farm population is in hamlets. The
prevailing community organizations are societies for crop pro-
tection, rural recreation societies, and boards for the management
of irrigation and education.
Parts of the area, especially near the northern and western
borders, and the higher elevations of the hill and mountain tops
are primarily adapted to grazing and should be so utilized, rather
than broken up for farming as has been and is still being done.
The parts primarily adapted to grazing should be developed by
improving the breeds of animals, by control of animal diseases
and by the planting of better pasture grasses. This section of
China is especially suited to livestock, and its livestock products
are needed in other parts of China. Some of the higher hills and
mountains are adapted to forestry while other hills are too dry
for either pasture or forestry. The development of better
transportation will aid in the export of livestock products from
the area and the import of needed foodstuffs. The extension


of a trunk railroad westward from Sianfu through Lanchow and,
even farther west, to open up this country is imperative for its
development. However, this area cannot afford the extent of
development of most of the other areas, because conditions are
too unfavorable, and because any possible increased production
will not pay for really extensive investments.
The amount of land not now cultivated but which might be
brought under cultivation is not large. The combination of the
two factors of good land and available irrigation water occurs in
only limited areas. Where water is available the soil may be too
alkaline or too high for cultivation, as it is near the Tsinghai Lake.
A study of sections which might possibly be developed should
be made by a group of specialists, but until then, colonization
should be undertaken only with great caution. There is much
myth about the vast undeveloped resources of the Northwest."
As to the other agricultural problems, the same type of im-
provement is needed as in all of the other areas-improved seeds,
improved animals, more fertilizer, and control of insects and
diseases. Erosion control and conservation of moisture, however,
are more outstanding problems here than in most of the other
Physiography.-The Winter Wheat-millet Area comprises the
greater part of the loessial plateau, which is an old, high, dissected
peneplain, carved largely from red or purple shales and con-
glomerates and covered with continental (largely lacustrine)
deposits and blanketed by wind-blown dust, known as loess,
which varies in thickness from a few decimeters to more than
150 meters. There are several mountain ranges extending above
the general level of the plateau hills, and of these the Liupan range
in Kansu and the Luliangshan and Taihangshan in Shansi are the
most important. The elevation varies from about 1,000 to
3,000 meters. The fields are very irregular and small, and most
of the surface is so severely eroded that cultivation is difficult
and much terracing has been necessary. It is in this area that
millions of people live in cave-like homes carved out of the loess
cliffs. Level lands of importance are the Wei River Basin in
Shensi, and in the series of basins along the Fen River in Shansi,
including the Taiyuan plain. The best agricultural land of the
area is found in the valleys and basins. The kinds of crops


grown in the area are not determined so much by topography
as by other factors.
The northern boundary of the Winter Wheat-millet Area is
the Spring Wheat Line. The southern boundary is the Rice Line
which lies on the north side of the Han valley at approximately
the 500 meter contour of the southern side of Tsingling range, the
most important natural climatic boundary in China. In Honan
the east boundary of the area is the generalized 500 meter
contour as far north as the Yellow River and is, in general, the
eastern limit of much corn growing. North of the Yellow River
it is the 200 meter contour which marks the edge of the mountains
and the North China Plain. In Hopeh and Shansi this line
divides the area growing more millet, proso-millet and corn to
the west, from that growing more wheat and kaoliang to the east.
Climate.-The climate is quite similar to that of the Spring
Wheat Area but is slightly warmer and has a little more precipita-
tion. It is a transitional zone between the Spring Wheat Area
and the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area.
Soils.-The soils are Chestnut Earth (mostly loessial) of the
calcareous very Light Chestnut Earth type with the exception
of the Slightly Podzolic Soils on the eastern foothills. They have
a high natural fertility but are low in organic matter and nitrogen.
Like that of the soils of the Spring Wheat Area, their productivity
is. limited by the low precipitation, the scarcity of water for irriga-
tion, and the topography which is conducive to severe erosion.
The mistreatment of some of these soils by man is well
illustrated in Fowping, Hopeh, Shansi, in the extreme eastern part
of the area, where land rent is determined by the depth of the
soil on the hills. Farmers break up the new soil on the slopes
of the hills and plant millet for only three or four years after which
the earth will have been eroded away. They then break other
new areas and leave the old ones to grow vegetation to build up
.a new soil again. There are no forests on the hills, and the rivers
are periodically flooded, so there is a local adage, Poor hills-
furious waters."
Natural Vegetation.-Bunch grasses and shrubs characterize
this area to a lesser extent than they do the Spring Wheat Area
and isolated trees occur in many parts, especially in Shansi.
Racial groups.-The Chinese are the only racial group of the
area, with minor exceptions of a few Mohammedans and Man-
chus, and the racial element, therefore, is a homogeneous one.


A few merchants, workmen and farmers migrate to Kansu,
Ninghsia and Tsinghai-while farmer immigrants, to a limited
extent, come from Shantung, Honan, Hupeh, and Szechwan.
The merchants come chiefly from Shansi.
Crop insects and diseases.-The prevailing plant diseases of the
area, like the Spring Wheat Area, are black smut of wheat,
barley, millet, proso-millet and kaoliang, causing losses of ten to
twenty per cent annually. The other diseases are leaf curl of
cotton, and yellow rust of wheat and millet.
Accessibility of Markets.-The eastern portion of the area
has more accessible markets than the western because of railroad
transportation. One railroad extends from the east to the center
of Shansi province and connects with a north and south line
extending the entire length of the province, in its turn connecting
with the Peiping-Suiyuan railroad to the north and the Lunghai
railway to the south. The Lunghai railway also extends into
the southern part of the area. Within the area the chief means
of local transportation are carrying by man, by pack animals (the
donkey and the mule) and by cart.
Land.-The Winter Wheat-millet Area has a gross area of
147,000 square miles of which only 32,000 square miles, or 22
per cent, are cultivated-less than one-tenth of all the cultivated
land in the eight areas. Less than one-fourth of the uncultivated
land area is devoted to productive uses of which the most important
is forests. The proportion of the farm area in crops, 89 per cent,
is similar to that for the region as a whole. The greatest modifica-
tion by man has been the terracing of over one-third of the
cultivated area. The amount of land under irrigation, 10 per cent,
is similar in extent and character to that of the other two Wheat
Region Areas. The land is practically all well drained so that
little artificial drainage is necessary except for directing the run-off
into proper channels. The fields are very irregular, and small
because of the severity of gully erosion. Parcels and fields are
smaller than in the other two areas because of extremely unfavor-
able topographical conditions.
Crops.-The crops in the type of farming of the area as a
whole are winter wheat, millet, cotton and kaoliang. Cotton is
especially adapted to the Wei River plain and to the Southern
Fen River Valley where the temperature is higher than elsewhere.


Kaoliang and wheat are confined to the plains and valleys, while
millet is grown on the higher and drier hillsides. Proso-millet
is produced in high altitudes, or high latitudes where the growing
season is too short for other millet. Corn is almost as important
a crop as kaoliang and is grown mostly on hillsides having favorable
summer moisture and temperature conditions. Winter cropping,
which occurs on 40 per cent of the area, is similar in amount to
that in the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area. Double cropping
takes place on eighteen per cent of the land, in comparison with
almost none in the Spring Wheat Area and with twice as much
in the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area. Corn is chiefly a spring
crop, although in a few localities it is a summer crop planted
after winter wheat. Part of the millet crop is a summer crop
planted after winter wheat, and the remainder is a spring crop.
Cotton, kaoliang and part of the millets are spring-planted
Livestock and fertility maintenance.-Oxen, mules, donkeys and
sheep are the chief livestock, amounting in the aggregate to 0.22
animal units per crop acre. This is almost two-thirds less than
the number in the Spring Wheat Area, but is a little more than in
the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area. One-fourth of all animal units
are productive animal units, compared with a larger percentage
in the Spring Wheat Area and a smaller amount in the Winter
Wheat-kaoliang Area. The fertility problem is even greater
than that in the Spring Wheat Area because of a smaller animal
density and no other special source of fertilizer.
SiZe of farm business.-The farms average 3.7 acres of crop
area and are smaller than those of the other two Wheat Region
Areas. A small size of business compared with that in the other
two areas is also portrayed by the crop area per man-equivalent
of 2.8 acres and the man-equivalent of 1.6 per farm.
Production.-Yields of crops are considerably lower than in
the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area but slightly higher than in the
Spring Wheat Area, and are 86 per cent of the average for China.
Production of grain-equivalent per capital, 284 kilograms, is also
greater than in the Spring Wheat Area, but not nearly so great
as in the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area. The small size of farm
business, as well as adverse climatic and topographical conditions
are responsible for this low production.


Frequency of crop failure.-Famines and crop failures appear
to be more frequent than in the Spring Wheat Area but apparently
are not so severe.
Wages, land values and taxes.-Farm yearly wages of 77 yuan
are similar to those for the Wheat Region as a whole. Land
values, however, of 12 yuan per acre, and taxes, of 4.82 yuan per
acre, reflect the intermediary character of the area as between the
Spring Wheat Area and the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area.
Nutrition.-Millet and wheat are the most important foods
and are followed by corn and kaoliang. The calories per adult-
male unit per day are a little below the standard and are the lowest
of all the areas. Seeds and their products are the source of 97
per cent of food energy, a higher percentage than in any other
area. Potatoes and tubers, as a source of food energy, are also
low, 1.4 per cent, and, likewise the calories from animal products,
0.6 per cent, are low. The daily calcium intake is lower than in
the other two Wheat Region areas. The chief dietary differences
are a greater consumption of millet and corn, and a decrease in
kaoliang and pork.
Standard of living.-Although there are some inconsistencies,
in general the indices of standard of living show a higher standard
than in the Spring Wheat Area and a lower one than in the Winter
Wheat-kaoliang Area. Millions of people live in caves carved
out of loess cliffs. Otherwise tile roofed and earth walled houses
predominate. Per capital value of all farm buildings is about
midway between the values in the other two areas, again bringing
out the intermediary position of the area between the other two
areas. Savings per farm family of 210 yuan are more than in the
Spring Wheat Area and less than in the Winter Wheat-kaoliang
Area. The amount of debt is a little less than either of the other
two areas. Special expenditures per family are the same as for
the Spring Wheat Area but less than for the Winter Wheat-
kaoliang Area.
Population.-The density of farm population is 1,234 per
square mile of cultivated land, which is much more than in the
Spring Wheat Area and is slightly greater than in the Winter
Wheat-kaoliang Area. The aggregation of farm population is in
villages. A few merchants, workmen, and farming people
migrate to Kansu, Ninghsia and Tsinghai while farmers immigrate
chiefly from Shantung, Honan, Hupeh, Szechwan and merchants
immigrate chiefly from Shansi.


Recommendations.-Erosion, irrigation, dry farming, and
fertilization are the problems characteristic of this area. The
loessial hills and mountains are so severely eroded with both
vertical gulleys and sheet erosion that parcels and fields are not
only small but are fast disappearing, and a great deal of time and
energy is required to reach the little pieces of land on the hillslopes.
Some irrigation projects are already under way but others could
probably be developed. Irrigation from wells could be extended,
especially if better credit facilities were made available and if
cheaper methods of irrigation could be devised. In a region of
scanty rainfall conservation of soil moisture is extremely important,
and present practices in this respect could undoubtedly be
improved. New sources of fertilizers and the utilization of more
of the crop by-products for animal feed rather than for fuel would
help solve the fertilization question.
Cave dwelling in the loess cliffs by millions of farm families
makes for substantial housing, but more attention needs to be
given to proper ventilation and lighting of the interior rooms of
these cliff homes.

Physiography.-The great plains of North China comprise
four-fifths of the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area. These plains
are flat to gently undulating, having an elevation of about fifty
meters and large portions are subject to floods and deposits from
rivers. The most important aspect of the topography of the
plain is the depressions of varying diameters which become lakes
in the summer and therefore are known as lakelands," but which
usually dry up early enough in the autumn to permit the sowing
of winter wheat. These lakelands usually produce only one crop
a year while other adjacent higher land grows two crops each year.
The topography of the plain is varied also by sand dunes along
some of the river courses and by occasional hills and low
mountains which have been almost buried by river sediments.
In west-central and eastern Shantung, there are two large
areas of hills and low mountains, showing traces of more than one
cycle of denudation; gently sloping alluvial fans and flat river
plains and lake basins surround these hills and mountains and
follow the valleys of the numerous rivers which intersect the
regions. Some of these mountains are more than 1,000 meters


in elevation, but the greater part vary from 200 to 800 meters.
They are cultivated only on the footslopes, and are otherwise
bare except for a very sparse growth of grass and bushes which is
either pastured or cut annually for fuel.
The flat topography of this area plays an important part in
the famines of North China. Rivers, although dyked, constantly
silt up their channels and flood the surrounding country, and often
change their courses, as has happened many times with the Yellow
River. Geologically speaking, man has settled these plains
thousands of years before they were ready for occupation, and he
must therefore take the risks involved.
The northern boundary of the area is the Spring Wheat Line
running along the political boundary of north Hopeh ; the western
boundary is the 500 meter contour line at the edge of the great
plain; the southern boundary is the Rice Line which crosses from
the west from the Han valley into Honan and follows chiefly along
the south bank of the Hwai River to the north of the Hungtze
Lake and reaches the coast at the mouth of the Sinyang River.
Climate.-The precipitation averages about 24 inches and
varies within the area from 17 to 35 inches with a high concentra-
tion in the summer of a convectional type and an almost rainless
and snowless winter. The daily range in temperature is high.
There are about seven months free from frost. The winters and
springs are characterized by sunshine and by dry winds which, in
the spring, carry much dust. The entire area is subject to severe
dust storms, often carrying only local dust but not infrequently a
sandy dust from the Mongolian deserts.
Soils.-Soils are chiefly Calcareous Alluvium, with here and
there areas of Saline Alluvium especially near the coast, Shachiang
Soils and Shantung Brownsoils. The saltiness of the Saline
Alluvium Soils and the high water table greatly limit their pro-
ductivity and in places they are absolutely barren. The Calcareous
Alluvium Soils are limited in production in many places by a high
water table, by flooding and by insufficient precipitation. Gen-
erally speaking the Shantung Brownsoils are also moderately
productive. The Shachiang Soils are poor soils and often low
lying so that only a winter crop of wheat can be grown, and no
second crop because of summer flooding.
Natural vegetation.-The area is chiefly a cultivated plain and,
therefore, with the exception of a few herbaceous plants there is
little natural vegetation. The typical village trees are Paulownia,


Catalpa, oak, and Tree of Heaven. Other characteristic trees are
the haw and the pear.
Racial groups.-The people of this area are chiefly Hans but
there are some Manchus and Mohammedans (Chinese); all are
alike in most of their customs, including language and dress.
Farmers live in comparatively large villages averaging 50 to 80
families; even villages of 400 to 500 families are not infrequent.
Crop insects and diseases.-There are many crop insects and
crop diseases, partly because of the great variety of crops. Locusts
are a serious pest and at times appear in large clouds. Kaoliang
and millet are the crops which suffer most, but wheat may be
attacked either in the spring or in the fall. Scale insects attack
persimmon trees. Plant lice are especially prevalent on the young
seedlings of cotton and the heads of kaoliang. The army worm is
a serious pest to the foxtail millet at the time of heading. The mole
cricket is destructive to all young seedlings. The kernel smut
of kaoliang is a very serious disease, which may be controlled by
the use of copper carbonate. Other smuts take a large toll.
Accessibility of markets.-Markets are more accessible in this
area than in the two mountainous areas to the west because of
nearness to coast cities, greater railroad development and the
level topography favorable to earth roads which, although com-
paratively speaking unimproved, still provide thoroughfares for
transportation of agricultural products, chiefly by cart. Trans-
portation also takes place by wheelbarrow, carrying by man, and
by the use of the donkey as a pack animal. A number of import-
ant railways traverse the area; the Tientsin-Pukow railway in the
east and the Peiping and Hankow railway in the west, both running
north and south; the east and west railways, one from Tsingtao
to Tsinan and the other, the Lunghai Railway, extend from the
coast to beyond the western boundary of the area.
Land.-The gross area is 175,000 square miles of which 68
per cent, or 119,000 square miles, is cultivated. It comprises 35
per cent of all the cultivated area in China. This area, therefore,
is a very important agricultural producing section of the country
and deserves special consideration in the agricultural program of
the nation. A little less than one-half of the uncultivated land is
given over to productive uses, the most important of which is the
growing of scattered trees and bushes, chiefly for fuel. The farm


area in crops, 91 per cent, is a little greater than for the other areas
of the region. Modification by man is chiefly confined to a
limited amount of irrigation, 10 per cent of the cultivated area,
which is similar in amount to that found in the other two areas
of the region. Irrigation is rather scattered, is largely from wells,
and is found chiefly in the drier northern part of the area.
Naturally there is little terracing because, with the exception of
the Shantung peninsula, the land is comparatively level. The
parcels of land are smaller than in the other two Wheat Region
areas, practically one acre in size, and the proportion of farmers
who are owners is higher than in any of the other seven agricultural
Crops.-The crops appearing in the type of farming of the
Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area are winter wheat, kaoliang, cotton,
millet and corn. Soybeans are also an important crop and appear
in the type of farming in various sections of the area. Wheat
is extensively grown since it is the winter crop best adapted to the
area and requires little labor. The depressions throughout the
area are especially suited to wheat, which can be planted im-
mediately after the recession of floods and harvested before the
floods occur in the late spring or early summer. The major
portion of China's wheat crop is in this area, a crop approximately
the size of that in the United States. It is harvested chiefly with
a sickle, all within a period of approximately two weeks. Cotton
is better adapted than other crops to the lighter soils of the area.
Foxtail millet is resistant to drought and to the wind and dust
storms which frequently occur. Kaoliang is not only a drought-
resistant plant but stands considerable flooding. The extent
of its cultivation is also influenced by the usefulness of the stalks
for fuel, fencing and building purposes. Forty-three per cent
of the crop area is in winter crops, a slightly higher percentage
than that of the Winter Wheat-millet Area to the west. Double
cropping occurs on 39 per cent of the land which is significantly
more than in the Winter Wheat-millet Area to the west. Millet,
soybeans, and sweet potatoes are the chief summer crops planted
after the winter crops of wheat and barley. The spring crops
are kaoliang, cotton, millet, and corn.
Livestock and fertility maintenance.-Oxen, donkeys and mules
for labor animals are the chief livestock. Other animals for
production purposes assume no importance in the area. The
farms are lightly stocked, as the density of animal population is


less than for the other two Wheat Region Areas, 0.19 animal
units per crop acre. The only other area with such a low
percentage is the Yangtze Rice-wheat Area. The fertilizer prob-
lem is, therefore, important although the limited precipitation
keeps it from being as acute as it would be with heavier rainfall.
SiZe of farm business.-The farms of 5.1 acres of crop area are
relatively large and are next in size to those in the Spring Wheat
Area. The Saline Alluvium Soils and Shachiang Soils and the
poor drainage make this large farm area necessary. The crop
acres per man-equivalent, of 3.3 acres and the man-equivalent,
two per farm, point to an average sized business, whereas the
animal units per farm of 1.11 are below the average for the region.
Production.-Production, as shown by the crop yield of 92
per cent of the average for all China is significantly greater than
in the other two Wheat Region Areas. The production of grain-
equivalent per capital of 426 kilograms, is also higher than in the
other two areas.
Frequency of crop failure.-Famines are frequent but apparently
not quite so severe as in the other two Wheat Region Areas.
Calamities causing a loss of 20 per cent or more of the crop, but
not causing a famine, are reported more frequently in the Winter
Wheat-kaoliang Area than in the other two Wheat Region Areas.
Wages, land values and taxes.-The larger production is not
i flected in the yearly farm wages of 74 yuan. It is shown,
however, in the higher land values of 28 yuan per acre and in
taxes of 1.17 yuan per acre.
Nutrition.-The chief foods are identical with the Winter
Wheat-millet Area-wheat, kaoliang, millet and corn. The
proportion of food energy from potatoes and tubers is quite high
compared with that in the other areas; and the proportion from
animal products is relatively low, since most farmers eat meat
only on the few festival days of the year. The daily calcium
intake per adult is more nearly adequate than in any other area
but is still below the minimum requirement.
Standard of living. The number of work garments and dress
garments per family head is higher than for the other two Wheat
Region Areas but there is little difference in the number of pieces
of furniture per family. The cubic space of all farm buildings is
less than in the other two Wheat Region Areas, but the per capital


value is greater. Nearly one-fourth of the farmers have savings
averaging 245 yuan per family, which is more than for the other
two Wheat Region Areas. The farm debt of 77 yuan per family
is also a little higher than for the other two areas.
Special expenditures per family, of 149 yuan, are significantly
greater in the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area than in the other two
Wheat Region Areas and points to the probability that the area
has a higher standard than the other two areas of the region.
Population.-The density of farm population per square mile
of cultivated land is slightly less than that of the Winter Wheat-
millet Area. The density is so great in relation to resources that
a large amount of migration has taken place to Manchuria. Im-
portant migration occurred after the great famines of 1877 and
1920. Two types of migration have taken place, family migration,
and individual migration. Families usually migrate for permanent
settlement, whereas individuals return after three to five years.
Some sections have the reputation of producing people who
migrate as soldiers or bandits.
The removal of the risks of farming in the area is the chief
task-risks chiefly from flood and drought. Such risks may be
minimized by conservancy projects in three ways; by the protec-
tion of vegetation on watersheds, by irrigation projects and the
control of the rivers through engineering projects, and by better
economic organization, such as crop insurance. The control of
the Yellow River is the outstanding problem and one of colossal
Since the density of animal population is lower than for other
areas, insufficient fertilization is a serious problem that can be
met in part by feeding oil cakes to animals and by the manufacture
of sulphate of ammonia. More attention to windbreaks, especial-
ly in the northern part of the area, would lessen the severity of
wind erosion.

Physiography.-The Yangtze Rice-wheat Area comprises flat
to gently undulating flood plains, protected by a vast network
of dykes, and with many lakes, canals and rivers, many low
rounded hills and a few ranges of rough stony mountains. The


flood plains are especially adapted to rice culture. Mountains
and hills, the last remnants of the Tsingling Range, predominate
the landscape in the west-central part between the Hwai and the
Yangtze Rivers. Between these mountains and the flood plain
to the extreme east in Kiangsu the topography is chiefly
gently rolling to undulating. Elevation varies from sea level to
about 1,000 meters. Quite large areas of hill land are cultivated,
especially the claypan" hills near Nanking. On the lower
parts of these hills much of the land has been terraced and is
planted either to rice on the lower slopes, or to upland crops
on the higher slopes. Rice culture, in fact, has extended up
the slopes of these hills to land which may possibly be better for
other crops.
The utilization of the uncultivated area also varies. Hilly
land is used either for growing grass for pasture or grass and
bushes for fuel. It is often occupied by graves. Marsh land
grows reeds which are used for fuel, mats and baskets. Along
the sea border, much of the uncultivated area of saline soils is
used for producing salt.
The northern boundary of the area follows that between
Calcium and Leached Soils; this line, beyond which little rice is
grown, also demarcates the northern limits of tea growing.
The western boundary is the 500 meter contour which also
marks the eastern edge of considerable cropping of corn as far
south as Ichang. The southern boundary is marked by the
southern edge of the Yangtze flood plain, not including the two
lakes, Poyang and Tungting, as far east as Wuhu. Eastward
from Wuhu it extends along the edge of the hills to the south,
following the 200 meter contour and enclosing the plains area
along the coast past Hangchow as far as Yuyao. East and south
of Yuyao interplanting of early and late rice begins. The southern
boundary of this area is not sharply defined by any one agricultural
factor but is rather the transition zone for many factors. This
boundary is the northern limit of much sugar cane, of citrus fruit
and of interplanted late and early rice. It is also the northern
limit of the Torreya and Cunninghamia trees and tea to the east
of Wuhu.
This boundary is the most debatable of all the agricultural
areas defined in this study. There is reason for having it cross
the Yangtze River at Anking, because tea and other plants found
in the Rice-tea Area are grown north of the river at a point west
of Anking, and the Podzolized Old and Young Red Earths are


also found there. An argument for the southern boundary
extending still further southward would be the extensive winter
cropping which extends beyond the present southern boundary.'
Climate.-The typical annual rainfall is 42 inches, with a
variation of 28 to 59 inches between stations; and its seasonal
distribution is much better than in the Wheat Region. January
mean temperatures are well above the freezing point, and ice
does not freeze thick enough to hold a person. Each winter
has snow but usually not more than a few inches deep. Summers
are hot, humid and enervating with a typical mean July and August
temperature of 81F. September and October are characterized
by almost continuous clear weather. The dust storms of the
Wheat Region reach this area only occasionally and in a mild
Soils.-The soils are quite varied and belong chiefly to the
groups of the productive Non-Calcareous Alluvium and Rice
Paddy Soils, the fairly productive Podzolic Soils, the Podzolized
Old and Young Red Earths which are more productive than the
Old Red Earths to the south, and the Saline Alluvium Soils near
the coast which are of low productivity.
Natural vegetation.-A few species of evergreen broad-leafed
trees, such as holly and Photinia, differentiate the area from the
one to the north. Bermuda grass and Manila grass grow
abundantly, especially in the pastured places about graves. Typical
village trees are hackberry, Chinese pistachio, oak, Chinese red
gum, honey locust, willow, Chinese rosewood, Chinese tallow
tree, Zelkova, and Chinese ash. Typical fruits or other special
trees are peaches, plums, wax myrtle, loquat.
Racial groups.-The racial group is entirely Han (Chinese)
who migrated from the northwest and settled here many centuries
ago. The regional investigator of the area has described the
people of Kiangsu in three classes : "In the north, people are
wilder than in the other parts. Bandits and robbers are quite
common, and fighting is more favored than talking. In the
central part, they are quite cautious and do not venture to do
anything. They stay at home and starve and endure hardships
rather than go out to search for a living. They are illiterate and
superstitious and temples are numerous. On the south side of
the river the nature of the people is quite different from that to
I Atlas map 10, Chapter VI, Crops.


the north. They like to talk and enjoy themselves. It is a richer
part of the area which makes the people very delicate. They are
clever and smart but cowardly."
Insects and diseases.-The coast line of Kiangsu Province is
the eastern edge of the area where large stretches of uncultivated
land are breeding places of locusts, a serious pest to rice, the main
crop of the area. The northeast corner of Kiangsu, in the
southeast corner of the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area, is a
notorious breeding spot from which locusts in dry years migrate
in clouds southward and destroy all crops with the exception
of cotton and sesame. The rice-borer is a severe pest except
in sections where rice fields are irrigated throughout the winter.
The leaf roller of cotton is serious, and smut diseases are common,
especially on barley.
Accessibility of markets.-Markets are more accessible in this
area than in any other. The navigable Yangtze river extends
through its entire length, and the navigable Hwai River extends
a considerable distance along its northern border. The area
contains a network of thousands of miles of canals in the Yangtze
Flood Plain and Delta and is traversed by several railroads. More-
over, there are large cities, among which is Shanghai, the most
important port city of the whole country.
Carrying with a pole over the shoulder represents the most
common local method of transportation, although the junk is
especially important in the canalized section. Wheelbarrows are
extensively used in the eastern parts of the area.
Land.-The gross area of the Yangtze Rice-wheat Area is
approximately 116,000 square miles of which 40,000 square miles
or 35 per cent is cultivated. This is, however, only a little over
one-eighth of all the cultivated land in the eight areas. The
Yangtze Delta area has nearly 100 per cent of the land cultivated.
A little less than two-thirds of the uncultivated land is in productive
uses, the most important of which is pasture, found on one-fourth
of the productive land. The farm area in crops is 91 per cent.
Since rice is one of the major crops a high percentage, 61, of
cultivated land is irrigated. The sources of irrigation are streams
and canals and ponds in the rolling lands which catch the direct
rainfall. Water from the ponds is carried to the fields largely
by gravity. It is those lands irrigated from ponds which are
often affected by drought. People on these lands prefer rice to


other crops partly because their experience is limited to rice.
They plant rice on every available area without sufficient considera-
tion of the water supply. Sometimes the rice fields are even on
the top of a hill. Farmers say that they depend upon heaven."
Every bit of water for such fields is from direct rainfall. If it
does not rain or does not rain in time, there will be a loss. It
would be better if the land were planted to other crops, for the
average production on account of uncertainty of rainfall, is
smaller than it would be for other crops. About one-fifth of the
area is reported as artificially drained. The whole Yangtze Flood
Plain is dissected by a network of dykes. The pumping of water is
largely by means of endless-chain wooden-paddle pumps, operated
chiefly by human foot power or by water buffaloes operating
a horizontal cog wheel under thatched irrigation pavilions, which
dot much of the landscape of the Lower Yangtze Delta.
Forty-two per cent of the farmers own the land they work, a
proportion which is much less than in the Wheat Region Areas
but is the highest in the Rice Region Areas, with the exception
of the Southwestern Rice Area.
Crops.-Rice is by far the most important crop and is followed
by cotton, winter wheat and barley. The mulberry is extensively
grown in the lower Yangtze Delta area in the vicinity of Wusih,
Huchow and Hangchow. An important green manuring crop
is Astragalus Sinensis which characterizes the early spring landscape.
In the spring, the section between Wusih and Shanghai is
beautiful with its yellow fields of flowering rapeseed and purple
Astragalus Sinensis. Cotton is by far the most important crop
in the extreme lower portion of the Yangtze Delta area and
in the western part of the Yangtze Rice-wheat Area in Hupeh,
near Hankow. Barley is grown more extensively in this area,
because it has an earlier harvest than wheat and therefore permits
the early transplanting of rice and the distribution of transplanting
over a larger period of time. Winter crops occupy 62 per cent
of the cultivated land. Two-thirds of the area is double cropped,
but in the Yangtze Flood Plain nearly all the land grows two crops
a year. The summer crops planted after winter wheat, barley
or other less important winter crops, such as rapeseed and broad
beans, are cotton and rice, and some soybeans and corn. Although
a considerable amount of wheat is grown, rice is the main crop,
and wheat is a side crop, whereas in the Winter Wheat-kaoliang
Area wheat is the crop on which farmers count most for their


Livestock and fertility maintenance.-Water buffaloes and oxen
for labor animals, and hogs are the chief kinds of livestock. The
density of animal population per crop acre is low, only 0.19
animal units per crop acre. However, thirty per cent of all
animal units are productive animals, which is next to the highest
for the Rice Region.
Aside from animal manures, the chief fertilizer is canal mud,
nightsoil and oil cakes. The latter are easily transported to the
farms through the extensive canal system, especially in the Lower
Yangtze Delta area. Astragalus Sinensis and barley are grown as
green manures to supply the needed organic matter in soils where
leaching is excessive.
Site of farm business.-The crop area per farm of 3.5 acres
is the largest for any area in the Rice Region. East of the Great
Canal where the windmill is used, the farm unit is the amount of
land that can be irrigated by one windmill-about seven or eight
acres. The other factors showing the size of farm business to be
a little larger than the region average are the 2.3 crop acres per
man-equivalent, and the 2.2 man-equivalent per farm. There is
slightly less than one animal unit per farm, as compared with one
and one-third units for the region.
Production.-The crop yields of the Yangtze Rice-wheat
Area are about the average of the country as a whole. The yield
of wheat is slightly higher than in the Wheat Region to the north;
and the yield of rice is also high, 63 bushels per acre. The pro-
duction of grain equivalent per capital is 483 kilograms or practi-
cally the same as for the Rice-tea Area, but is somewhat greater
than for the Winter Wheat-kaoliang Area.
Frequency of crop failure.-Famines are not so frequent, or
serious, in the Yangtze Rice-wheat Area as in the Wheat Region.
The number of calamities per locality for the period of 1904 to
1929 is only 11 as compared with 24 for the Winter Wheat-kaoliang
Wages, and land values.-Farm yearly wages of 89 yuan appear
to reflect the higher production per capital in comparison with
the Wheat Region areas, but this is not supported by the land
values of 24 yuan per acre which are lower than for the Winter
Wheat-kaoliang Area.
Nutrition.-Rice is the staple food, from which 58 per cent
of the food energy is derived. Wheat is second in importance,

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