• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Pest control guide
 Care and feeding of tropical...
 Propagation of tropical exotic...
 Glossary of horticultural...
 Tropical exotics
 Index






Title: Your guide to Florida landscape plants
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089520/00001
 Material Information
Title: Your guide to Florida landscape plants
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watkins, John V ( John Vertrees )
Publisher: University of Florida Press,
University of Florida Press
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1961
Copyright Date: 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Ornamental -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tropical plants -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Landscape gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: John V. Watkins.
General Note: Includes indexes.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089520
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06691099
lccn - 61017591

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page vii
    Pest control guide
        Page viii
    Care and feeding of tropical exotics
        Page ix
        Page x
    Propagation of tropical exotics
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Glossary of horticultural terms
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
    Tropical exotics
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
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    Index
        Page 135
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        Page 137
        Page 138
Full Text


JOHN V. WATKINS


vyor fide
to

florida aHdscape Plants, II


THE
TROPICAL
EXOTICS








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PRESS
GAINESVILLE, 1963




















DEDICATED
TO ALL FLORIDIANS WHO GROW PLANTS



vouwr uidl
to
glorida ladscape Plants, II

































BOOKS BY JOHN V. WATKINS

ABC of Orchid Growing
Your Florida Garden (co-author)
500 Answers to
Your Florida Garden Questions (co-author)
1001 Answers to
Your Florida Garden Questions (co-author)
Gardens of the Antilles
Your Guide to
Florida Landscape Plants, I-PALMS, TREES, SHRUBS, VINES
Your Guide to
Florida Landscape Plants, II-THE TROPICAL EXOTICS


A University of Florida Press Book
COPYRIGHT, 1963, BY THE BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS
OF STATE INSTITUTIONS OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGUE CARD NO. 61-17591
PRINTED BY ROSE PRINTING COMPANY, INC.
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
BOUND BY UNIVERSAL DIXIE BINDERY
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA








Contexts









INTRODUCTION VII
PEST CONTROL GUIDE VIII
CARE AND FEEDING
OF TROPICAL EXOTICS- IX
PROPAGATION OF TROPICAL EXOTICS- XI
GLOSSARY OF HORTICULTURAL TERMS XIII
111 TROPICAL EXOTICS 1-133
INDEX 135











JhtroductioH











PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF Your Guide to Florida Landscape Plants has been
gratifying, yet gardeners declare that there is a great need for a book
dealing with exotic house plants. In an effort to meet this need, the pres-
ent volume has been prepared as a companion to the original Guide.
Tropical exotics, or foliage plants as most Floridians call them, are ex-
tremely popular in the Sunshine State where millions of attractive speci-
mens are used annually in landscaping and in indoor decoration. Now, in
this second volume of the Guide, homeowners have a source of detailed
information on kinds, cultivation, and approved homeground uses of these
decorative subjects.
Some popular exotics are epiphytic, and for these tree-dwellers, ap-
proved growing media and planting procedures are clearly described.
Full-page illustrations have been prepared to help gardeners identify
by leaf or growth habit, varieties of tropical exotics that interest them.
For these excellent illustrations I am grateful to Mrs. Marion R. Sheehan
(R) and to Mr. Timothy E. Anderson (TEA), and to the University of
Florida Press and to the Florida Extension Service for lending certain of
their cuts.
Manual of Cultivated Plants (L. H. Bailey, Macmillan, New York, rev.
ed., 1949) is authority for plant names, their pronunciation, and their der-
ivation. Systematic arrangement used here, as in the first volume, for
your convenience and for orderly presentation, follows phylogeny from
that great work.
Exotica (A. B. Graf, Rhoers Co., Rutherford, N. J., 1963) contains
the best illustrations of tropical exotics. To all plant lovers this peerless
tome is most highly commended.

JoHN V. WATKINS
Gainesville, Florida






ViI



Pest Comtrof 1Vmide


ANTS
APHIDS
BEETLES
CATERPILLARS
CHLOROSIS
CRICKETS
EARTHWORMS
GRASSHOPPERS
LACE BUGS
LEAF-SPOT FUNGI
MEALY-BUGS
MILDEW
MITES
MOLE-CRICKETS
MOLES
MUSHROOM ROOT-ROT
NEMATODES
PITH BORERS
POCKET GOPHERS
RED SPIDERS
ROACHES
SCALES
SLUGS AND SNAILS
SOOTY-MOLD
SPIrrLEBUGS
THRmPS
WarrE-FLIES


Chlordane dust, Aldrin or Dieldrin.o
Phosdrin, malathion, or nicotine sulphate.
Chlordane or DDT.
DDT, chlordane dust, or toxaphene.
Correct faulty growing medium, supply trace elements.
Poison bran bait.
DDT suspension as a soil drench.
Chlordane dust, toxaphene, or Aldrin.
Malathion, BHC, toxaphene, or white summer oil.
Captan, ferbam, or copper compounds.
Malathion.t
Acti-dione PM, Karathane, or sulfur dust.
Kelthane, Dimite, or Tedion.
Poison bran bait.
Steel mole trap.
Dispose of plant, drench area with formalin.
Fumigate soil, keep organic mulch over root zones.
There is no feasible control.
Steel gopher trap.
Kelthane, Dimite, or Tedion.
Diazinon spray.
White summer oil.t
Metaldehyde dust, spray, or bait.
White summer oil.t
Lindane or malathion.
Lindane, malathion, or BHC.
Lindane, malathion, or white summer oil.*


PEST


SUGGESTED CONTROL


* Consult your garden center manager; use only by directions printed on labels.
t Malathion may injure ferns.
t Oil sprays injure bromeliads; for this group, use soap suds.








Care and feeding

of tropical Exotics






ALMOST ALL Of the plants discussed in this second volume of Your Guide
are tropical, and because most will not endure freezing, they should be
planted outdoors only in most nearly frost-free locations.
A favorite place to cultivate tropical exotics is the Florida room. This
large room, on the garden side of the house, has one or more glass walls
sheltered by broad eaves. Preferable is southern exposure, so that winter
sun will strike the glass, but summer sun will not. Plant bins, or planters,
are integral furnishing for Florida rooms. Sometimes these plant boxes
run through plate glass walls to relate the dwelling to the out-of-doors;
they may occupy substantial portions of wall space; they can be dramatic
room dividers. All plants need sunlight to manufacture food, so try to
arrange planters near the glass, group lamps and furniture against solid
walls. Masonry planters are usually preferred, but if these be impractical,
mobile ones of redwood or metal can be had in infinite variety.
To make certain that media in planters will drain promptly, place a
couple of inches of gravel in the bottom, then fill them with moist, fibrous
peat moss. There are advantages in leaving tropical exotics in their origi-
nal containers, so just plunge these to their rims in the moist peat. After
you have completed the arrangement, finish with the level of the peat
about an inch below the planter edge and soak thoroughly to insure good
contact between the plunging medium and the pots.
If terrestrial species are to be knocked out of their vessels and grown
permanently in bins, the growing medium can be composted hammock
soil and rotted manure or sludge; if you prefer, you can depend upon a
half-and-half mixture of peat and perlite. If the latter be chosen, liquid
fertilizer should be applied, exactly by directions printed on the label,
once during each of the warm months; if a manure-compost is decided
upon, one fertilization in early spring and another in midsummer should
be enough.
Thorough soaking once each week will usually be sufficient, yet, at
some seasons, watering may be more frequent. Once each day, foliage








and totem poles should be fogged with water from an atomizer. This will
help to maintain needed high humidity, and it will discourage mites,
thrips, and mealy-bugs.
Regular inspection is needed so that these pests and scales will be
noted while their numbers are small and their control easy. Keep ants
away by dusting chlordane lightly over the surface occasionally.
Smooth-leaved foliage plants look smart when they are groomed with
polish. Several oily preparations are for sale at your garden center; or, if
you prefer, you can use skim milk. Carefully mop the upper leaf surfaces
with a soft cloth or applicator soaked in the polish, but do not cover the
bottoms of the leaves with the oily film.
House plants benefit when placed in the rain. Dust is washed from the
leaves; soluble salts, which accumulate in growing media, are leached
away.
Even under the best conditions, plants indoors will eventually need to
be taken outside for a period of rejuvenation. Then planters can be reset,
possibly with different species, to gain totally new effects.
Epiphytic orchids, bromeliads, and cacti usually thrive in osmundine,
the dried, aerial roots of Osmunda ferns. This wiry material is moistened
and packed firmly around roots with a sharpened stick to assure a tight
substratum. Some homeowners like tree fern planks or cut tree fern fibers
for their epiphytes, yet many pot with chipped bark from lumber trees.
Advantage of this forest product is ease of handling; you simply dump
the chips into the pot around the roots. All of these potting materials are
for sale at your garden center.
Strap vandas (78) and certain dendrobes (80) grow in sunny beds of
charcoal or volcanic rock, with frequent fertilization, while terete vandas
(79) and reed epidendrums (74) thrive in rich garden soil in full sun.
Additional information on soils, fertilizers, temperature, pest control,
and propagation will be found in Your Florida Garden, 4th ed., 1961,
University of Florida Press, Gainesville.








Propagation of

tropical &otics






DIVISION IS THE PRINCIPAL METHOD Of increasing these popular plants. In
this simple, old-fashioned gardening practice, matted clumps are lifted
from the earth or knocked out of their containers and shaken vigorously
or washed forcefully with the hose. It will be apparent, then, that aged
specimens are made up of many small units, each with stem, roots, and
leaves. These units are cut apart and planted separately, at the same
level, or slightly deeper, as new individuals.
Marcottage is possibly second in importance. A stem is wounded by an
upward, diagonal knife cut, the region is packed round with a double
handful of moist sphagnum moss, and this rooting medium is then en-
closed in aluminum foil.
Cuttage is widely employed to reproduce plants everywhere. Leafy
shoots, about 4" long, are placed in unused, sharp, moist sand or a mixture
of new peat and perlite in equal proportions. One of these rooting media
is placed in a pot or a box that has been fitted with a glass or plastic-
cover. For tropical exotics mist propagation is not essential to success.
Some plants in this book are grown from single leaves or fragments of
them, others from root pieces.
Grafting is not customarily practiced with tropical exotics, yet some
fancy cacti (102 and 105) and crested euphorbes (96) are so increased.
For your understock, select an established, healthy pot plant; in its tip,
make a downward, vertical cut with a razor blade, trim the scion piece to
fit snugly into this slot, and fix it firmly in place. For cacti, drive two long
cactus thorns through to hold the components in place; for euphorbes, se-
cure with a strip of vinyl or pressure-sensitive tape. It is not necessary to
place grafted succulents in moist chambers, yet newly-grafted plants
should be protected from brightest sunlight and strongest winds until un-
ions are made. Then, these plants usually occupy open, sunny locations.
Seedage is nature's own reliable way of increasing plants. Some tropi-
cal exotics form seeds readily, others never do. If and when seeds ripen
on your plants, you might sow them thinly on a 3" blanket of screened






XII

sphagnum moss that has been soaked, cover lightly with more screened
moss, protect with a sheet of glass, and place in a warm, lightly shaded
location. As soon as seedlings are large enough to handle, pot them in
sterilized compost or in a mixture of new peat and perlite. Keep moder-
ately moist and protect from ants, grasshoppers, bright sunlight, and
strong drafts. Monthly applications of dilute liquid fertilizer are indicated.
For more details see Chapter 3, Your Florida Garden, 4th ed. 1961,
University of Florida Press, Gainesville.






XIII


Glossary











AcIm. Having an excess of free hydrogen ions; sour.
ACUTE. Sharp; ending in a point, sides straight or slightly convex.
ADvENTITOUS (ad-ven-TISH-us). Arising unpredictably, out of the usual place.
AERIAL (AmR-ree-al). In the air; borne above the surface.
Am-LAYERING. A method of vegetative propagation in which a rooting medium is
placed in aerial position. Now commonly done with moist sphagnum moss and
aluminum foil.
ALKALINE (AL-ku-line). Having an excess of free hydroxyl ions and so a deficiency of
free hydrogen ions; basic; sweet.
ALTERNATE (oL-ter-nat). Arrangement of leaves contrasted to opposite or whorled.
ANNUAL. A plant that completes its growth in a single year or season.
ANTHER (AN-ther). The enlarged tip of the stamen in which pollen is developed.
ANTHESIS (AN-the-sis). Flowering.
APICAL (AP-ik-al). At the apex or tip of a plant organ.
ARMATURE. Occurrence of spines, barbs, or hooks.
ARMED. Provided with thorns, spines, prickles, or barbs.
ARom (Am-oyd). A plant which belongs to the family Araceae.
ASCENDING. Rising up; produced somewhat obliquely or indirectly upward.
ASEXUAL. Sexless; without sex.
AxIL (ACKS-ill). The angle formed by a petiole with the stem.
Axis (ACKS-is). The main line of development of a plant; the main stem.
BARBED. With bristles that are hooked.
BASAL. At the base of a plant or plant organ.
BASIC. See Alkaline.
BIGENERIC (bi-gen-ERR-ic). Resulting from crossing two genera of plants.
BLADE. The expanded part of a leaf.
BRACT. A modified leaf intermediate between sepals and vegetative leaves.
BROMEL. Same as Bromeliad.
BROMELIAD (bro-MEAL-ee-ad). A plant which belongs to the family Bromeliaceae.
BUD. An undeveloped shoot or stem.
BuLB. A bud consisting of a short, thick stem with scale-like leaves.
CALCAREOUS (cal-CARE-e-us). Having a high content of lime or limestone.
CALYX (KAY-licks). The sepals collectively; the outer of the two series of modified
leaves in most flowers.
CAPSULE. A dry fruit containing many seeds, usually splitting at maturity along lines.
CATERPILLAR. A worm-like larva of a butterfly or moth that may despoil foliage.
CHELATE (KEY-late). An organic compound which combines with iron or other heavy
metals to release them slowly in the soil for plant use and yet prevents their being
tied up in unavailable form by other soil chemicals.
CHLOROSIS (klor-o-sis). Loss of the green color from leaves. It may be due to lack
of needed nutrient elements, to inability to absorb those elements because of excess
water or root disease, or to action of insects, viruses, or fungi.






XIV

CILIATE (snLL-ee-ate). Provided with hair-like processes.
CLASPING. Leaf partly or wholly surrounding stem.
CLONE. A group of plants, increased vegetatively, from a single bud.
COMPOST. Partially decomposed plant residues.
CORDATE (coRE-date). Heart-shaped in outline.
Co M. A short, fleshy underground stem.
COROLLA (ko-ROLL-a). The petals of a flower collectively.
CULTIGEN (cuLT-e-jen). Plant or group known only in cultivation; contrast with indi-
gen.
CULTIVAR (CULT-e-var). A cultivated plant not known in nature.
CUTrAGE. That method of vegetative propagation in which cut plant parts are used.
DEcIDUOUs (dee-sm-you-us). Shedding periodically.
DIoEcIOus (dye-E-shus). Staminate and pistillate flowers on different plants; a term
properly applied to plants, not to flowers.
DISTAL (DIs-tal). Farthest from the point of attachment or reference.
DISTICHOUS (DIS-tick-us). Arranged in two vertical rows.
DIVISION. Cutting, tearing, or breaking a plant into independent units.
ELLIPTIC (e-LIu-tick). Oval, narrowed to rounded ends, widest near the middle.
EPHEMERAL (ee-FEM-er-al). Lasting for only one day.
EPIDERMIs (ep-e-DER-mis). The skin or outermost layer of cells of a plant.
EUPHORBE. A plant which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae.
Exonc. Foreign; from another land.
Fmnous. Composed of, or resembling fibers; a root system, consisting of slender
roots.
FILAMENT. Thread, here threads on some leaves.
FLORIDA ROOM. A room for informal living, usually with glass walls, overlooking the
garden.
FOLIAGE. Leaves taken collectively.
FOUNDATION PLANTING. Plants placed close around a building to soften the abrupt
transition from the horizontal ground to the vertical wall.
FREEZE. A condition where plant temperatures below 32"F. result from the inflow
of masses of air below this temperature, so that the air is colder than plants or
ground.
FROST. A condition where plant temperatures below 32"F. result from radiation of
heat from plants and ground, occurring only on still, cloudless nights. The air is
coldest next to the ground and may be several degrees above 32* at a few feet
above the ground.
FUNGICIDE (FUN-gee-side). A chemical which kills fungi.
FUNGUS. A leafless plant that may parasitize. Mildews, rusts, and molds are fungi.
GENUS (JEAN-US). A closely related group of species; the first and always capitalized
word in a scientific name. Plural is genera.
GESNERIAD (guess-NER-ee-ad). A plant belonging to the Gesneriaceae.
GLABROUS (GLAY-brus). Without hairs or scaly outgrowth.
GLAUCOUS (GLAU-cuss). Covered with a whitish substance that rubs off.
GROUND COVER. A plant, other than a grass, used to cover the earth.
HABIT. The general appearance of a plant.
HABITAT (HAB-e-tat). The particular place in which a plant grows.
HAMMOCK. A slightly elevated island of hardwoods in a sea of pines or marsh grass.
HERB. A nonwoody plant.
HERBACEOUS. Like an herb; nonwoody.
HUMIDrrY. Water vapor in the air. Relative humidity is expressed as the percentage
of what would saturate the air at a given temperature.
HUMUs. Decomposed remnants of living things.
HYBRID. A plant obtained by using pollen of one species on the stigma of another; or,
more loosely, the product of crossing two dissimilar plants.
INDIGENOUS (in-DIDGE-en-uS). Native to a given area; not introduced.
INFLORESCENCE (in-flor-Ess-ence). A specialized flowering shoot.









INSECT. A six-legged organism that may attack and despoil plants.
INSECTICIDE. A chemical which kills insects.
LEAFLET. One part of a compound leaf.
LrrrRAL (Lrr-o-ral). Belonging to or growing along the shores of a sea or lake.
LOAM. A soil composed of clay, silt, sand, and organic matter.
MARCOTTAGE (mar-cot-TAZH). The same as air-layering.
MEDIUM. The material in which plants grow.
MmRIB. The main rib of a leaf, a continuation of its petiole.
MINOR ELEMENT. A mineral element needed by plants only in very small amounts.
Copper, zinc, iron, manganese, boron, molybdenum, chlorine, and perhaps sodium
for some plants, are in this group.
MrrE. An eight-legged organism that sucks plant juices from leaves.
MONOCARPIC. Fruiting once, then dying.
MONOECIOUS (mon-EE-shus). Having separate male and female flowers on the same
plant.
MULCH. A porous material such as a layer of leaves over root areas of plants.
NEUTRAL. Of soil or water, being neither acid nor alkaline.
NODE. The part of a stem from which arises a leaf or branch.
NuTmENT (Noo-tree-ent). A material supplying a chemical element needed by
plants.
OBOVATE (oB-o-vate). The reverse of ovate; tip broader than base.
OOLTrE (o-o-lite). Porous limestone composed of shells cemented together; found in
southern Florida and adjacent islands.
ORGAN. One of the parts of a plant such as stem, root, or flower.
ORGANIC. In gardening, material derived from the bodies of plants or animals.
OSMUNDINE (oz-mun-deen). Aerial roots of ferns of the genus Osmunda used in
potting epiphytes.
OVATE. Egg-shaped in outline; broadened in the basal half.
PALMATE. With leaf lobes or leaflet radiating from a common point.
PANICLE (PAN-i-cal). A branched inflorescence.
PATIO (PAH-te-o). A courtyard or outdoor living room with enclosing walls.
PEAT. Fibrous, brown organic material formed by partial decomposition of plants
under water.
PEDICEL. A flower stalk.
PEDUNCLE (PEA-dunk-al). A flower stalk.
PERENNIAL. A plant that continues to live year after year.
PERFECT-FLowERED. A plant that bears flowers that contain functional stamens and
pistils.
PERLrrT (PUR-lite). Volcanic glass with concentric shelly structure.
PEST. An organism which may injure plants.
PESTICIDE. A chemical which kills pests.
PETAL (PET-al). One of the separate parts of the corolla.
PETIOLE (PET-ee-ole). The stalk of a leaf.
PH (pee-aitch). A number expressing the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a soil or
solution. 7.0 is the neutral point. Numbers decreasing from 7 indicate acidity;
numbers higher than 7 indicate alkalinity.
PrTH. The soft spongy central cylinder of a stem.
PHOTosYNTHESIS (photo-sYN-the-sis). The formation of carbohydrates from carbon
dioxide and water in green plant cells using light energy.
PINNATE. Feather-like; a leaf which has leaflets arranged on both sides of a rachis.
PISTIL. The female organ of the flower, consisting of ovary, style, and stigma.
PISTILLATE (Pis-till-ate). With pistil but no stamen; therefore a female flower or
plant.
PLANT FOOD. Properly, organic compounds which green plants make.
PLANTER OR PLANTER-BIN. A masonry box, raised above the grade, in which plants are
grown.
PLICATE (PLY-cate). Folded, as in a fan, or approaching this condition.






XVI


PLUMOSE (PLUME-ose). Plumy; feather-like.
POD. A dry fruit which splits open at maturity.
POLLEN. The yellow dust contained in the anthers which must be deposited on the
stigma for fertilization to take place. Pollen grains germinate on the stigma, pro-
ducing a tube which carries male sex cells spermss) down to unite with egg cells
(female) in the ovule.
PROXIMAL. Nearest to the point of attachment.
PUBESCENT (pew-BESs-ent). Covered with hairs or fuzz.
RACEME (ray-SEAM). An elongate inflorescence with stalked flowers.
RECURVED. Bent or curved downward or backward.
RHIZOME (RYE-zome). An underground, root-like stem, distinguished from a true
root by the presence of nodes, buds, or scale-like leaves.
ROCK-'N'-SAND GARDEN. A landscape arrangement of boulders and beds of sand or
gravel in which succulent exotic plants are cultured.
ROSETTE. A cluster of leaves in circular pattern.
SCALE. An insect, resembling a tiny bump, that sucks juice from plant tissues.
SCALECIDE (SCALE-i-side). A chemical which kills scale insects.
SCAPE. A flower stem, usually leafless, but sometimes furnished with bracts.
SCURF. Tiny bran-like scales adhering to the epidermis.
SEEDLING. A plant which has been grown from seed.
SEGMENT. One of the parts of a leaf that is divided but not truly compound.
SEPAL (sEE-pal). One of the parts of the calyx.
SERRATE (sER-ate). Saw-toothed; herein used to describe leaf margins.
SESSILE (SES-ill). Without a stalk or stem.
SPADIX (SPAY-dicks). A thick flower spike, subtended by a spathe.
SPATHE. A bract subtending a flower cluster.
SPATULATE (SPAT-you-late). Like a spatula blade in outline.
SPECIES (sPEE-shees). A distinct kind of plant which reproduces its characteristics
when self-pollinated. The second (usually uncapitalized) word in a scientific name.
SPHAGNUM (sFAG-num). A bog moss useful in air-layering and in seed sowing be-
cause of its excellent moisture holding capacity, good aeration, and freedom from
disease.
SPIKE. An elongate flower cluster.
SPINULOSE (SPIN-you-los). Furnished with minute spines.
SPRAY. To apply a pesticide in water dispersion under pressure.
STACHYS (STAY-kiss). In Greek compounds, signifying a spike.
STAMEN (STAY-men). The male organ in the flower, consisting of anther (containing
pollen) and filament.
STAMINATE (STAM-in-ate). Flowers or plants having stamens but no pistils; male.
STIGMA. The tip of the pistil which receives pollen.
STOLON. A horizontal stem at or below the earth's surface.
STOMATA (STOH-ma-ta). Openings through epidermal layers which allow passage of
air.
STRAND. A shore, especially of the sea.
SUCCULENT (suCK-you-lent). A plant that stores large amounts of water in stems,
branches, and leaves.
SUCKER. A shoot from the lower part (stem or root) of a plant.
SYRINGE (sEER-inge). To water plant foliage with a fine, misty spray.
TAXONOMY (tacks-ON-omy). The study of plant classification and relationship.
TERETE (tee-aEET). Cylindrical and tapering; round in cross section.
TERMINAL. At the tip or apex.
TERRACE. A raised platform of earth, preferably paved with masonry.
TERRESTRIAL (ter-Es-tree-al). Earth-dwelling.
THRIPS. A tiny insect that may seriously injure plants by sucking their juices.
TOMENTOSE (TOE-men-tose). Densely woolly or pubescent; with matted soft hairs.
TOTEM. Used in horticulture to designate a wooden stake for a vine to climb upon.
TRIGENEBIC (tri-gen-ER-ic). A plant resulting from crosses involving three genera.








TUBE. A short, thickened, underground stem containing buds and roots.
UBIQUITOUS (you-BicK-wit-us). Found everywhere.
UNISEXUAL. Of one sex; staminate only or pistillate only.
VAREGATED (vERY-e-gay-ted). Irregularly colored in patches; blotched.
VARIETY. A plant differing in minor characters from the type species.
VEGETATIVE. The portions of a plant other than the flowers and fruits, i.e., stem,
leaves, and roots. Vegetative reproduction must involve plant parts other than
seeds.
VIABLE. Alive; said of seeds capable of germinating.
WEED. A useless, undesired, or troublesome plant.
WHORL. The arrangement of three or more leaves, branches, or flowers at one node.
XERoPHYrT (zAE-o-fite). A plant adapted to dry conditions; a desert plant




















Staghorn-Fern


Platycerium


'Veitchii'









Stafjor-ll An*rt






Platycerium (platty-SEAR-ee-um): Greek for broad horn.
SPP.: several species grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Polypodiaceae. RELATIVES: Holly-fern and maidenhair-fern.
HABITAT: Eastern tropics.
TYPE OF PLANT: Epiphytic perennial. HEIGHT: 3'.
How TO IDENTIFY: These spectacular tree-dwelling ferns have leaves of 2
types-the flat, rounded, brown sterile fronds, that contrast with the
outward-thrusting antler-forked, green, fertile fronds.
VARIETES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Portrayed opposite, are staghorns
grown in Florida. As the botany is imperfectly understood, labeling
may not be consistent in Florida collections. Above right, is a drawing
of popular Platycerium alcicorne.
FOLIAGE: Of two sorts-parchment-like, round, flat, barren fronds lie flat
to the substratum, while freestanding, forked, green, reproductive
leaves thrust outward.
FLOwERs: Absent.
FRUrrs: Sori, in dense pads, are produced near the tips of fertile fronds.
LANDSCAPE USES: To cast the spell of the tropics and to add interest to a
patio wall, nothing surpasses staghorn-fern. In frostless areas, speci-
mens thrive on palm trunks or on branches of woody trees. These great
epiphytes are now quite fashionable.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light is optimum, staghorns will not en-
dure the Florida sun.
GROwING MEDIUM: Osmundine, sphagnum moss, tree fern, or combina-
tions of these.
CULTURE: Fasten to a slab of pecky cypress, redwood, or tree fern with a
blanket of one or more of the media mentioned above; keep constantly
moist and shaded; supply liquid fertilizer once a month during warm
weather.
PROPAGATION: Division; or sowing spores on moist, sterile peat.
PESTs: Mites and chewing insects.


















ern







3

jiAaidenhair- cm'









Adiantum (ay-de-ANN-tum): Greek for unwetted, alluding to rain-shedding.
SPP.: several species grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Polypodiaceae. RELATIVES: Leather-leaf fern and staghorn-fern.
HABITAT: Warm parts of both hemispheres.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGIT: 18".
How TO IDENTIFY: These are small, thin-leaved, delicate ferns, with fine,
wiry stems that resemble human hair. Sori at leaf-tips are covered by
their reflexed margins.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Depicted opposite are some Florida
favorites, while above is popular Adiantum cuneatum.
FOLIAGE: Fine-textured, delicate, most graceful and charming.
FLOWERS: Absent.
FRUITS: Sori under rolled leaf-margins.
LANDSCAPE USES: For indoor rockeries and water features, for protected
planters, and for pots and urns, maidenhair-ferns are unsurpassed for
grace and beauty.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light, freedom from strong winds, and
heavy rains are essential to success with these ferns.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, acid, coarse woods mold that drains quickly is
recommended.
CULTURE: Plant carefully in containers; protect from sun, wind, summer
downpours, and frost. Water frequently, and lay a light fog over the
foliage each day.
PROPAGATION: Division of pot-bound plants.
PESTS: Mites, scales, and caterpillars.





















Pteris







5

Pteris 7era






Pteris (Tm-is): Greek for wing, alluding to the feathery foliage.
sPP.: several species are grown in Florida.

FAMILY: Polypodiaceae. RELATVES: Maidenhair-fern and staghorn-fern.
HABITAT: Warm parts of the globe.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 2'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Pteris ferns are extremely variable in cultivation, as
numerous cultivars have arisen in greenhouses during the many years
that ornamental plants have been grown by man.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Numerous cultivars are grown under
name, some of the most beautiful of which are portrayed on the oppo-
site page. Above right is Pteris cretica 'Wimsettii.
FOLIAGE: Extremely variable.
FLOWERS: Absent.
FRurrs: Sori under revolute edges of fronds.
LANDSCAPE USES: Since the dawn of horticulture, fancy pteris ferns have
been popular greenhouse subjects. Now they are useful in Florida
rooms and in protected patios, as potted specimens.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light and freedom from strong winds.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, acid, organic, coarse woods soil is recom-
mended.
CULTURE: Plant carefully in a container; protect from sun, wind, and
frost; water frequently so as to keep the growing medium moist; and
lay a light fog over the foliage each day.
PROPAGATION: Division of established old plants.
PESTS: Mites, scales, and caterpillars.









Mouse

-Holljy- r




Cyrtomium (sir-ToE-me-um): Greek word for bow.
falcatum (fal-KAY-tum): sickle-shaped, alluding to the form of the pinnae.

FAMILY: Polypodiaceae. RELATIVES: Maidenhair-fern and staghorn-fern.
HABITAT: Warm parts of eastern Asia.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 24".
How To IDENTIFY: Upright, very shaggy stems bear dark, heavy pinnae
that resemble holly leaves.
VARETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Several cultivars of this species are
seen in Florida.
FOLIAGE: Dark, heavy, remotely resembling holly foliage.
FLOWERS: Absent.
FRurrs: Large sori scattered over the undersides of fertile fronds.
LANDSCAPE USES: As a ground cover for very shady locations, and for
planters under eaves, house holly-fern has long been a favorite in Flor-
ida. As a porch plant, it has served generations of Floridians.
LIGHT REQUIEMENT: Shady locations are necessary.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, acid, organic, coarse woods mold is recom-
mended.
CULTURE: Plant in a shaded location; protect from frost; water moder-
ately during periods of drought.
PROPAGATION: Division of matted clumps.
PESTS: Mites, caterpillars, grasshoppers, and a leaf-spotting disease.









4Ceatter-Xea/



r lr


Polystichum (pol-is-tee-cum): Greek for many rows, alluding to sori.
adiantiforme (aye-dee-ant-ee-FomR-ee): resembling adiantum.

FAMILY: Polypodiaceae. RELATIVES: Boston-fern and holly-fern.
HABITAT: World tropics.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEITrr: 3'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Triangular fronds, which may grow as much as a yard
high, are made up of stiff, leathery, coarse-toothed, heavy-textured
pinnules.
VARIETES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Several variants of the leather-leaf
may be seen in Florida. Related P. tsu-simense, with more delicate
fronds, grows here too.
FOLIAGE: Bold, heavy, leathery, sometimes 3' high, of excellent keeping
quality when cut.
FLOWERS: Absent.
FRvrrs: Spores are borne in prominent sori midway between the edges
and the midribs of the pinnules.
LANDSCAPE USES: For many years leather-leaf fern has been popular as a
pot plant for porches, and it is often planted, too, in earth of shaded
garden spots and patios. Grown commercially for florists, cut leather-
leaf fern is sometimes used instead of the old stand-by Asparagus
plumosus.
LIGrr REQUIREMENT: Broken shade of hammocks, or constant shade of
porches.
GROWING MEDIUM: Fibrous and gritty, quick-draining soil of moderate
fertility, is widely employed in Florida for growing leather-leaf ferns.
CULTURE: Plant divisions slightly deeper than the plant grew originally;
water periodically when there is little rain; fertilize with balanced fer-
tilizer in water solution during warm months.
PROPAGATION: Division or sowing spores on sterilized, moist peat.
PESTS: Mealy-bugs and leaf-hoppers.







S

Screw-Pille






Pandanus (pan-DAY-nus): Latinized Malayan name.
SPP.: several species are grown in Florida.

FAMILY: Pandanaceae. RELATIVES: The genus stands alone.
HABITAT: South Sea Islands.
TYPE OF PLANT: Tree or shrub. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Stiff, yard-long leaves, often with spines, grow from
the stem in spiral- or tight clump-arrangement. The ribbon-like leaves
may be green or striped with bands of white.
VAIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Perhaps a dozen kinds of screw-pine
grow in Florida, labeling of which may be variable.
FOLIAGE: Ribbon-like, stiff, yard-long, green, often white-striped.
FLOWERS: Ball-like, hanging from cord-like peduncles.
FRurrs: Round, rough, compound fruits may be borne on pistillate plants.
LANDSCAPE USES: To create the atmosphere of the tropics, screw-pines are
employed in frostless locations. For terrace, patio, or Florida room,
potted individuals are in favor.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or partial shade.
GROWING MEDIUM: Tolerant of many different soil types.
CULTrRE: Plant slightly deeper than the plant formerly grew; water pe-
riodically until well established, thereafter during dry times. Keep grass
away from the root zone; fertilize twice each year.
PROPAGATION: Division or seedage.
PESTS: Scales.







9 If' m








Cyperus (si-PEAn-us): ancient Greek name for these plants.
SPP.: several species are grown in Florida.

FAMILY: Cyperaceae. RELATIVES: Bulrushes and sedges.
HABITAT: World-wide tropics.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGIr: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Triangular stems bear tufts of leaves atop. Strong
clumps of many stems are formed under good conditions.
SPECIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Umbrella-plant (Cyperus alternifolius),
with many long, flat, spreading leaves, the most common species, is
pictured above. There is a clone with mottled foliage. Papyrus (C.
papyrus), with many long, wire-like clustered leaves is preferred for
water gardens. Papyrus grows two or three times the height of um-
brella-plant. For tiny water-garden arrangements, there is C. haspan
'Viviparus', the smaller, right-hand sketch. Dwarf, broad-leaved Cype-
rus diffusus makes an attractive pot plant for pool or Florida room.
FOLIAGE: Leaves round or flat, clustered at the tips of the triangular
stems somewhat like the ribs of umbrellas.
FLOWERS: Inconspicuous, in spikelets covered by subtending bracts.
FRUrrs: Tiny achenes of sedges.
LANDSCAPE USES: In conjunction with water gardens, lily pools, or basins
in Florida rooms, the galingales are very useful in helping to create the
feeling of tropical living. Actually, these plants grow in garden soil as
well.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or reduced light.
GROWING MEDIUM: Fertile, moist earth, perhaps with a few inches of
water permanently, or for a part of the year.
CULTURE: Plant in a boggy place and forget.
PROPAGATION: Division of matted clumps. Small plants arise from leaf
axils if foliage heads are placed in moist sand. These are potted sepa-
rately.
PESTS: Mites.








V, A.


'Panduraeorme' i



'Squamiferum



Vining
'Lanceanum' Philodendr




\ "' .,.' .. ",. , -,
4-


j Hastat'un P. ndreanufn s






'Anisotomum'











Philadeldro



Philodendron (fil-oh-DEN-dron): Greek for tree-loving.
SPP.: many species and countless varieties grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Araceae. RELATVES: Caladium and ivy-arum.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Vine. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Vigorous tropical lianas, with leaves in infinite variety
of shapes, sizes, and colors. Strong, brown, twine-like roots hold tena-
ciously to supporting trees or walls.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: The genus Philodendron contains 200
species; with these, countless hybrids have been produced. On the op-
posite page are leaf drawings of popular vine-type philodendrons.
Naming is not always consistent. On this page is shown Philodendron
verrucosum.
FOLIAGE: Highly variable in size, shape, and color; usually bold and
showy.
FLOWERS: Spadices within thick, persistent, boat-like spathes.
FRurrs: Fleshy, densely-packed ripened ovaries.
LANDSCAPE USES: To soften, and to add interest to palm trunks and large
expanses of masonry walls, vining philodendrons excel. They find wide
use as urn subjects for Florida rooms and terraces. Plants of this group
must have support, of course, and pieces of wood or tree fern, stuck in
urns for the vines to climb upon, are called "totem poles."
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Variable: some thrive in sunlight, others in shade.
GROWING MEDIUM: A fertile, well-drained, organic soil, slightly acid in
reaction, is always best, yet many philodendrons are grown in a half-
and-half mixture of peat and perlite.
CULTURE: After establishment in nearly frostless locations, philodendrons
require reasonable attention in the matter of watering and fertilization.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage.
PESTS: Mites and scales.











sellout


Seedling


AL)
da---2


J '--'x3 N -1~~)

-~
Evnrn
d"






13

Sedf -eading

Phcildeadro d t



Philodendron (fil-oh-DEN-dron): Greek for tree-loving.
SPP.: many species and countless varieties grow in Florida.
FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Caladium and ivy-arum.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHr: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Arborescent herbaceous perennials with leaves in in-
finite variety of shapes, sizes, and colors.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: The genus Philodendron contains 200
species; with these, countless hybrids have been produced. On the op-
posite page are leaf drawings of self-headers. Naming is not always
consistent. Above is the popular Philodendron cannaefolium.
FOLIAGE: Highly variable in size, shape, and color; usually bold and
showy.
FLOwEms: Spadices within thick, persistent, boat-like spathes.
FRurrs: Fleshy, densely-packed ripened ovaries.
LANDSCAPE USEs: Landscape planners and homeowners use philoden-
drons in every conceivable landscape application. They excel as sub-
jects for planters in Florida rooms and for urns on terraces.
LIGHT REQuREMENT: Variable: some thrive in sunlight, others in shade.
GROWING MEDIUM: A fertile, well-drained, organic soil, slightly acid in
reaction, is always best, yet many philodendrons are grown in a half-
and-half mixture of peat and perlite.
CULTURE: After establishment in nearly frostless locations, philodendrons
require reasonable attention in the matter of watering and fertilization.
PROPAGATION: Self-heading philodendrons are propagated by seedage.
PESTS: Mites and scales.




















'...\.;

e 1>


A.~bo-caricga urni\


j \\ *r$\ '

\;" ;:


Aglaonema


'Pseudo-bracteatum'











A. modestum
'ER


( r




I. s









SAflaoama






Aglaonema (ag-low-NEE-ma): Greek for bright thread, referring to the stamens.
SPP.: several species grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Monstera and philodendron.
HABITAT: Malaysia.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGTrr: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Round, thumb-sized stems bear attractive leaves by
ensheathing petioles that are equal to, or shorter than, the blades. Tiny
spadices are protected by little green or yellow spathes which soon
wither to reveal attractive red or yellow fruits.
SPECIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema modes-
tur), illustrated above, is the most popular of the several species
grown in Florida. Other well-known aglaonemas are portrayed on the
facing page.
FOLIAGE: Bold and attractive, held horizontally by ensheathing petioles
shorter than blades. Patterns of white markings vary with the species
or variety.
FLOWERS: Little spadices with tiny spathes resemble diminutive callas.
FRurrs: Conspicuous, bright red or yellow, in little clusters, held on slen-
der stalks.
LANDSCAPE USES: For locations with reduced light, aglaonemas are out-
standing. Use them in planter bins, urns, pots or, in frostless areas, in
north-side arrangements in the foundation scheme.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Tolerant of reduced light that would be unsuitable
for many tropical exotics.
GROWING MEDIUM: Fertile, nematode-free compost is highly suitable, yet
aglaonemas will survive in peat and perlite, in sand, or in water if ferti-
lizer salts (in small amounts) are added regularly.
CULTURE: These plants should not be subjected to low temperatures, nor
should they be planted in media that might contain nematodes. Regu-
lar applications of dilute fertilizers should be made during growing
weather.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage and marcottage.
PESTS: Nematodes, pythium root-rot under some conditions, and mites.







16

2ef/fewbaia






Dieffenbachia (deef-en-BocK-ee-a): for J. Dieffenbach, German physician.
SPP.: several species, and many varieties are grown in Florida.
FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Aglaonema and schismatoglottis.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 8'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Ringed, hose-like stems, with many prominent root
initials and bold, variegated leaves with long petioles which clasp or
ensheath stems. A common name is dumb-cane; as plant parts, if
chewed, will render the victim speechless for a time.
VARETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Perhaps a score or more clones are
cultivated in the Sunshine State; distinguishing these is sometimes dif-
ficult for casual gardeners, and naming may not be consistent. Above is
Dieffenbachia amoena, popular, fast-growing, king-size dumb-cane.
FOLIAGE: Large, bold, usually variegated in striking patterns.
FLOWERS: Spadices within thick, persistent, boat-like spathes.
FRUITS: Fleshy, densely-packed, ripened ovaries.
LANDSCAPE USES: Landscape planners and homeowners have made great
use of dieffenbachias as accent plants in outdoor arrangements and as
urn subjects for Florida rooms, patios, and terraces in recent years. The
choice of markings in the leaves is broad, as there are so many clones
available in garden centers and nurseries.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Very tolerant of shade, yet grows in the sun.
GRowING MEDIUM: Tolerant of many soil types and reactions, but grows
best with moderate moisture and freedom from nematodes.
CULTURE: Plant in moderately fertile soil of acid reaction; water with
moderation; fertilize lightly each month during growing weather; con-
trol mealy-bugs.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage of stem pieces, and marcottage.
PESTS: Mealy-bugs, mites, scales, nematodes, and root-rot.







17

Schisimatoglottis





Schismatoglottis (skis-mat-o-GLoT-is): Greek for falling tongue, referring to the
shedding spathe.
picta (PICK-ta): painted.

FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Aglaonema and dumb-cane.
HABrrAT: Malaya.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGTr: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Very closely allied to dumb-cane, schismatoglottis is
most difficult to distinguish by the casual gardener. The leaves are held
in much the same fashion, the variegation is similar to some forms of
dumb-cane, and growth habits are much alike.
FOLIAGE: Bold and attractively marked with white, sometimes with trans-
lucent spots. The sheathing petiole is longer than the blade.
FLOWERS: Unisexual flowers in spadices like others in the family, the sta-
mens are free, the ovaries 1-celled, the spathe falls entire.
FRUrrs: Oblong, green or yellowish.
LANDSCAPE USES: Schismatoglottis enjoys the same popularity for indoor
uses as do its close relatives dieffenbachia, aglaonema, and monstera.
For urns and planters, particularly in somewhat reduced light, this
aroid serves very well.
LIGrr REQUIEMENT: Reduced light of Florida rooms or patios is satis-
factory.
GRowING MEDIUM: A fertile, well-drained, organic soil, slightly acid in
reaction, is always best, yet peat and perlite mixtures are frequently
used for schismatoglottis.
CULTURE: Regular attention to watering and fertilization by weak solu-
tion during warm months will keep plants growing satisfactorily.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage and marcottage.
PESTS: Mites, nematodes, and scales.









Moestera






Monstera (mon-sTER-a): name unexplained.
deliciosa (de-lis-ee-oH-sa): delicious.

FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Dieffenbachia and philodendron.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Vine. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Yard-long, thick leaves are pinnately cut with elliptic
spaces, many running out as deep sinuses to break the margins.
VAIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Within this popular species are found
a rare clone with strikingly variegated foliage, and a juvenile form,
grown as a pot plant, and erroneously called "Philodendron pertusum."
This latter, with its smaller, infrequently perforated leaves, is offered
very widely in chain stores.
FOLIAGE: Huge, deeply, frequently cut, of tropical appearance, and deep-
green color in the type.
FLOWERS: Thick, densely-flowered spadix about a foot long, the largest
aroid fruit in Florida.
FRUrrs: Thick, densely-packed fruits cohering into a cone-like body.
LANDSCAPE USEs: For creating a tropical atmosphere, outdoors or in the
house, nothing can surpass monstera, and it is widely employed in our
state. To soften palm or oak trunks and to add interest to masonry
walls, monstera is a certain attention-getter. Within doors it is an urn
subject without superior.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Shade of forests is optimum, therefore reduced
light is quite acceptable; exposure to full sunlight will result in yel-
lowed foliage.
GRowING MEDIUM: Rich, organic soils are best.
CULTURE: In a nearly frostless location, plant pieces of stem, or a plant
from a container; water faithfully during dry times; fertilize thrice an-
nually; protect from scale insects and from frost.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage of pieces of the stem.
PESTS: Scales, mites, mealy-bugs.









Swiss-Cheese '>- f I T'






Monstera (mon-sTER-a): name unexplained.
friedrichstahlii (freed-rick-sTALL-ee-eye): for a man named Friedrich Stahl.

FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Dieffenbachia and philodendron.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Vine. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Foot-long leaves bear many elliptical holes, all or most
of which are enclosed, and do not penetrate the margins to make deep
lobes as in the preceding species.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Usually the plants seen in Florida
landscaping belong to the one species; there are no horticultural
variants reported as yet, but, as so many tropical exotics appear in varie-
gated forms, it is quite likely that a Swiss-cheese plant with white-
marked leaves will be discovered, described, and named as a clone.
FOLIAGE: Elliptical, 10"-12" long, perforated with many holes; few, or
none of which break the margins to form lobes.
FLOWERS: Typical spadices of the Araceae.
FRTrrs: Typical cone-like bodies of this family.
LANDSCAPE USES: As an urn subject, if vertical support such as redwood
or tree fern is supplied, this tropical liana is well liked. For adding in-
terest to palm or oak trunks, it is useful as well.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light of forests is optimum, full sunshine is
not recommended.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, organic soils are best.
CULTuRE: In nearly frostless locations, plant pieces of stem, or a plant
from a container; water faithfully during dry times; fertilize thrice an-
nually.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage of pieces of the stem.
PESTS: Mites, scales, mealy-bugs.







20








Scdndapsis (sin-DAP-sis): Greek name for some kind of vine.
sPP.: 2 species and a number of varieties grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Calla and spathiphyllum.
HABITAT: Tropical islands of the Pacific.
TYPE OF PLANT: Vine. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Huge, variegated, ovoid leaves with 1 or more deep
clefts are produced by wrist-thick, vigorous climbing vines.
VARETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: At least 2 species, and a number of
named varieties are widely propagated, sold, and employed in Florida
landscaping.
FOLIAGE: Gigantic, bizarre, mottled leaves, often with clefts, are charac-
teristic of vines growing vigorously on vertical supports in the open. In-
doors, and on earth-bound individuals, leaves may be heart-shaped,
about 6" long.
FLowERs: Densely-packed spadices within white, deciduous spathes,
when present. As noted below, first Florida flowers appeared in 1962.
FRUrrs: Typical, cone-like aroid fruits, if present.
LANDSCAPE USES: To highlight palm trunks, ivy-arums are in great favor
in most nearly frost-free sections. As ground cover, earth-bound vines
are excellent for shady spots. For indoor decoration, these plants are
popular as pot items, planter-bin subjects, and for growing in bowls of
water.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light is acceptable, though vines grow
splendidly in full sun.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, organic soils are best, but ivy-arums will thrive
in light sands with fertilization, or in bowls of water for indoor decora-
tion.
CULTURE: Plant slightly deeper than formerly; water faithfully during
dry times; fertilize during warm months.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage of stem joints.
PESTS: Scales, mites, and mealy-bugs.
NOTE: For the first record, ivy-arum vines flowered in Fairchild Tropical
Garden near Miami in 1962. Following taxonomic study, it is held that
the proper designation is Rhapidophora area (Linden. et Andre)
Birdsey, 1962.







21

Spatkiphyllum






Spathiphylum (spath-i-Fr-um): Greek for leaf-spathe.
sPp.: 2 species and several hybrids grow in Florida gardens.

FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Elephant-ear and ivy-arum.
HABITAT: American tropics.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 2'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Thin, lanceolate, sharp-acuminate, plantain-like leaves
are held gracefully by long petioles; flowers with persistent white (or
greenish-white) spathes are produced freely during warm months.
Usually spathiphyllums in Florida grow as clusters of leaves, without
an above-ground stem.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Numbers of hybrids from two species
are seen in Florida gardens; among these, naming may be variable,
identity not always clear-cut.
FOLIAGE: Foot-long, lanceolate, sharp-acuminate, dark-green leaves are
held by petioles of about their same length.
FLOWERS: Bisexual, fertile flowers are packed on little spadices which are
backed by attractive white or greenish spathes.
FRIrrs: Fleshy, berry-like.
LANDSCAPE USES: As ground cover for shady spots, as pot plants, or as
components of planter arrangements, spathiphyllums are good for those
who would like to have easy-to-grow white anthuriums.
LIGHTC REQUIREMENT: Reduced light is optimum.
CRowING MEDIUM: Rich, organic earth is best.
CULTURE: Turn a specimen out of its container; plant at the same level at
which it grew formerly; water during periods of drought; and fertilize
each month during the summer.
PROPAGATION: Division of matted clumps.
PESTS: Mites, scales, and mealy-bugs.























cordatum


bogotense


Anthurium


A. warocqueanum







23 t.. ...








Anthurium (an-Too-ree-um): Greek for flower and tail.
sPP.: several species and many hybrids are found in Florida.

FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Alocasia and colocasia.
HABITAT: American tropics.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGI T: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Many anthuriums are grown for their very showy,
highly decorative spathes, the most colorful in the aroid family. These
are called "flamingo-flowers." Others are cultured for their decorative
leaves (the rat-tail anthuriums).
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Possibly a dozen of the 500 species in
Anthurium have been used to make the present-day hybrids. Both wild
types, and hybrids of complex lineage are popular in Florida, and some
of each are illustrated on the facing page. Above is a sketch of a fla-
mingo-flower, a hybrid of Anthurium andreanum.
FOLIAGE: Extremely variable, usually decorative, bold and persistent.
FLOWERS: Extremely variable; flamingo-flowers are most beautiful; rat-
tail types are considerably less attractive.
FRurrs: Fleshy berries.
LANDSCAPE USES: As specimens in frostless, shady spots outdoors, or in
pots, anthuriums are greatly admired. Flamingo-flowers, noted for their
beautiful clear colors and amazing keeping-quality, are popular corsage
subjects.
LIGHT REQUIEMENT: Reduced light is optimum.
GROWING MEDIUM : Organic potting compost, sawdust, peat, osmundine,
and tree fern fragments, or combinations of these, are used as a grow-
ing media for anthuriums.
CULTURE: Plant slightly deeper than the plant grew formerly; water care-
fully; fog the foliage daily; and fertilize once each month during the
summer.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage and seedage.
PESTS: Mites, nematodes, scales, mealy-bugs, and grasshoppers.






24

Devils- roIgue






Hydrosme (hi-DRos-me): Latin, referring to aquatic habitat of the plant
rivieri (re-vmEE-eye): for A. Riviere, a French nurseryman.

FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Caladium and calla.
HABITAT: Indochina.
TYPE OF PLANT: Tuberous perennial. HEIGHT: 4'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Cultivated for its bizarre effect, devils-tongue has de-
ciduous, palmately decompound leaves 4' across, mottled brown and
white, on mottled petioles. The leaflets, which expand during the rainy
season, are elliptic and sharp-pointed. During the dry season, a large,
reddish spadix, subtended by a flaring, variously-colored, calla-like
spathe appears.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: There may be some confusion in nam-
ing, yet our authority, Bailey's Manual, leaves no doubt that the pres-
ent designation is correct.
FOLIAGE: Huge, dramatic, much-divided, deciduous leaves are held atop
stout, mottled petioles. These are sent up during the rainy season.
FLOWEBS: A spectacular, carrion-scented, single blossom is sent out from
the large tuber during the dry season. The spadix is reddish, the calla-
like spathe is blotched.
FRUrrs: Infrequently formed in Florida.
LANDSCAPE USES: For the curiosity of the bizarre, fetid blossoms, devils-
tongue could be planted as a specimen at the far end of the grounds.
During the rainy season, the king-size foliage could add to the tropical
effect.
LIGHrr REQUREMENT: Broken, shifting shade from high-headed trees is
best.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, wet, organic soil is optimum for vegetative
growth, yet dry conditions are necessary during flowering.
CULTURE: For foliage, during the wet season, plant in a rich, boggy, en-
vironment; after the rains, dry the tuber, and allow it to remain in a
dry medium for flowering.
PROPAGATION: Division of offsets.
PESTS: One or more soil-borne fungus diseases can cause the loss of devils-
tongue in gardens.







25
Saqcy-1eea'ed

Cealadiiut



Caladium (cal-AYE-dee-um): name of East Indian origin.
SPP.: at least 2 species have been used to make the many hybrids.
FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Devils-tongue and golden-club.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Tuberous perennial. HEIGHT: 2'.
How TO IDENTIFY: The strikingly beautiful fancy-leaved caladiums are so
well known that description should be unnecessary. There is remark-
able variety in form and color of leaf.
VAIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Scores of named varieties are widely
planted by Florida homeowners. To describe and enumerate even a
portion of these would require a great deal of space. Naming may not
be consistent.
FOLIAGE: Deciduous, variously heart-shaped or of lance-form, in a multi-
tude of color combinations.
FLOWERS: Boat-shaped, persistent spathes enclose somewhat shorter spa-
dices.
FRrTrs: Fleshy berries may mature after pollination.
LANDSCAPE USES: For bright spots of summertime color before green
shrubbery, or in planters, fancy-leaved caladiums have long been great
favorites. Best effects are attained when many plants of a single clone
are bedded together, but some homeowners prefer to mass mixed foli-
age for a great riot of color.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or high, shifting shade.
GRowING MEDIUM: Rich, organic earth is best.
CULTURE: Plant tubers when days lengthen in springtime; water during
dry times; and fertilize lightly once each month. As days shorten (Octo-
ber-November), the leaves may be cut away. In northern Florida,
where freezes are the rule, tubers should be dug at this time.
PROPAGATION: Division of offsets from old tubers.
PEsTs: Soil-borne fungus diseases, mites, and grasshoppers.















A. longilobR


'I



nIprea. 'Charnrterin

Elephant-Ear /
Alocasia







27

/lephant- ar





Alocasia (al-o-cAz-ee-a): name made from Colocasia.
Colocasia (col-o-cAz-ee-a): old Greek name.
Xanthosoma (zan-tho-soME-a): Greek for yellow body, referring to the stigma.
SPP.: many species and innumerable varieties belong in this great complex.
FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Aglaonema and dieffenbachia.
HABITAT: The tropics the world around.
TYPE OF PLANT: Tuberous or rhizomatous perennial. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Bold, shield-like leaves peltatee or sagittate) are held
by fleshy petioles. Leaf colors, sizes, shapes, and ornamentation beggar
description.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Uncounted numbers of aroids in this
huge complex are grown in Florida for garden ornament; yet, in tropi-
cal lands, the world around, these are important sources of dietary
starch. On the facing page are depicted some of Florida's favorites in
the genus Alocasia. Naming may not always be in perfect agreement in
different garden centers.
FOLIAGE: Bold, decorative, variable in size, color, form, and ornamenta-
tion.
FLOWERS: Spadices are protected by boat-like spathes.
FRrITS: Fleshy berries, if present.
LANDSCAPE USES: To enhance the feeling of the tropics, elephant-ears
may be grouped at the far end, or a low corner, of the out-of-door liv-
ing area. The outsize foliage does not combine well with that of most
woody shrubs. As pot plants, the diminutive, fancy-leaved types (see
opposite page) are very popular. For planters, medium-sized clones
can be selected.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or broken, shifting shade, depending
upon the kind.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, organic, moisture-retentive earth is best.
CULTURE: Once they are established, the large elephant-ears growing in
the earth receive little attention. The miniature, pot-plant types, on the
other hand, require reasonable care in the matter of watering and ferti-
lization.
PROPAGATION: Division of underground storage organs.
PESTS: Soil-borne fungus diseases.

















Syngonium







29

Syngonititti






Syngonium (sin-co-nee-um): Greek, referring to cohesion of the ovaries.
SPP.: several species and many cultigens are in Florida.

FAMILY: Araceae. RELATIVES: Elephant-ear and devils-tongue.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: These creeping plants bear small, delicate, more or
less lance-shaped leaves while young; then, huge, peltate, deeply-lobed
foliage on long petioles at maturity. The rooting stems yield milky sap
when wounded. Juvenile leaves remotely resemble those of fancy-
leaved caladiums.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED N FLORIDA: Named varieties in Florida are many,
some of the choicest being illustrated on the opposite page. Juveniles
are delicate, little, variegated-leaved pot plants; old vines on palm
trunks become jungle giants with wrist-thick stems that hold huge, fin-
gered, outsize leaves. Above right is shown Syngonium wendlandii.
FOLIAGE: More or less lance-shaped or 3-pointed; marbled with white
while young; giant, lobed, nearly-green leaves are borne by old vines.
FLOWERS: Yellowish or greenish spathes surround shorter spadices.
FRurrs: Black seeds may mature after pollination.
LANDSCAPE USES: For Florida room urns, juvenile syngoniums are very
popular, as they grow well and are most attractive, delicate, little
aroids. Yard syngoniums assume mammoth sizes as they adorn palm
trunks to enhance the tropical effect.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light of dwellings is acceptable, as is the
high, shifting shade from palms.
GROWING MEDIUM: Moderately fertile, fibrous, slightly acid compost is
good.
CULTURE: Be cautious in watering and fertilization in order that compact,
nonclimbing, juvenile form with bright variegation may be maintained.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage.
PESTS: Nematodes, mites, and soil-borne diseases.


















Vriesia







31








Vrlesia (vREE-see-a): for W. de Vriese, Dutch botanist.
SPP.: several species and numerous hybrids grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Bromeliaceae. RELATIVE: Pineapple and Spanish-moss.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Epiphytic perennial. HEIGHT: 2'.
How To IDENTFY: Plants are made up of stout rosettes of scurfy or
smooth, not spinose leaves, that may be spotted, barred, or striped.
Spectacular bracteate spikes are sent up by mature specimens. Plants
die after their seeds mature.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Illustrated opposite are popular vrie-
sias. This group, together with others in the Bromeliaceae, has been the
lifetime specialty of M. B. Foster, recognized as world authority on
this great family of tropical exotics. Your Guide salutes this able plants-
man for the contributions he has made to gardening through the intro-
duction of many fine bromeliads.
FOLIAGE: Stiff rosettes of smooth-edged leaves.
FLOWERS: Spikes hold aloft dramatic clusters of varicolored, decorative
bracts. The tiny flowers nestle within these protective leaves.
FRUrrs: Little capsules mature within the bracts.
LANDSCAPE USES: For adding interest to trees and for helping to create a
feeling of the tropics within doors, vriesias, like so many bromeliads,
are very popular. These are leading plants for hobbyists.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light is acceptable; direct sun not recom-
mended.
GROWING MEDIUM: Osmundine, or a mixture of peat, leaf-mold, and sand.
Some hobbyists use chipped tree bark; others use shredded tree fern.
CULTURE: Fasten to limbs of rough-barked trees with aluminum wire, or
pot in your chosen medium. Keep vriesia cups full of water during
warm months; apply dilute liquid fertilizer to the growing medium
once each summer month.
PROPAGATION: Division of offsets and seedage.
PESTS: Scales.














C. zoiiatt



Lacera.%''Diversifolito


Cryptanthus



C. acauli.









'ar nosus'




C. beuck






'Trw'o







33

Cryptantklus






Cryptanthus (crip-TAN-thus): Greek for hidden flower.
SPP.: several species and a number of hybrids grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Bromeliaceae. RELATIVES: Aechmea and billbergia.
HABITrrAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Epiphytic perennial. HEIGHT: 2"-10".
How TO IDENTIFY: These are the pygmies of the Bromeliaceae. Tiny, flat
rosettes of smooth or scurfy, spine-edged leaves are typical. Flowers
are hidden in the hearts of the rosettes, and mature specimens usually
produce offsets in abundance.
VAIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: On the facing sheet are drawings of
cryptanthus widely-grown in Florida.
FOLIAGE: Diminutive rosettes are formed by little, undulate, prickly
leaves. These may be all green, all red, or variously striped, banded, or
spotted.
FLowERs: Inconspicuous white flowers hide in the hearts of the rosettes.
FRurrs: Tiny, dry berries.
LANDSCAPE USES: For little indoor planters and dish gardens, these minia-
ture bromels are much admired. Outdoors as ground cover or for deco-
rating limbs of rough-barked trees, they are used, too.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Broken patterns of sun and shade outdoors or re-
duced light of living quarters are satisfactory.
GROWING MEDIUM: Osmundine, sawdust, tree fern shreds, or a mixture of
leaf-mold, peat, and sand, will all grow good cryptanthus.
CULTURE: Fasten to limbs of rough-barked trees or pot in your chosen me-
dium. Keep cups full of water and the medium moist. Set potted plants
out in the rain in warm weather. Apply dilute liquid fertilizer to the
growing medium once each summer month.
PROPAGATION: Division of offsets.
PESTS: Scales.







34 ^ N
ri?-- "
id/ dar--,- 2..T






Nidularium (nid-you-LAY-ree-um): Latin for nest, for the habit of the plant.
sPP.: several species and numerous hybrids are cultured in Florida.

FAMILY: Bromeliaceae. RELATIVES: Pineapple and pinguin.
HABITAT: Brazil.
TYPE OF PLANT: Epiphytic perennial. HEIGIT: 18".
How TO IDENTIFY: Coarse, broad-leaved rosettes have flat inflorescences
nestled down in their centers. These are often covered with water. Ni-
dularium leaves are sharply armed with spines, the inner, short ones,
developing vivid colors at flowering season.
VARIETIES CLTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Many, the names for which may not
be consistent.
FOLIAGE: Coarse, broad, heavily-armed along margins. Short leaves
around tanks develop gay colors during flowering time.
FLOwERS: Inconspicuous, nestled down in the tanks, often covered with
water, with the individual flowers themselves standing above the wa-
ter level.
FRIrrs: Many-seeded berries.
LANDSCAPE USEs: For adding interest to trees, these coarse-leaved bro-
mels are useful. Single plants may occupy decorative containers in
Florida rooms, or groups can be arranged in large planters.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Shifting sun-and-shade or reduced light of dwell-
ings.
GRowING MEDIUM: Osmundine, or a mixture of peat, leaf-mold, and sand.
CULTURE: Fasten to limbs of rough-barked trees with aluminum wire, or
pot in your chosen medium. Keep tanks full of water and the medium
moist, and set potted plants out in the rain during warm weather. Ap-
ply dilute liquid fertilizer to the growing medium once each summer
month.
PROPAGATION: Division of offsets.
PESTS: Scales; possibly mosquitoes might breed in the tanks of outdoor
plants.







35









Neoregelia (nee-o-re-JEEL-ee-a): for E. von Regel, German botanist.
SPP.: several species and hybrids are cultured in Florida.

FAMILY: Bromeliaceae. RELATIVES: Aechmea and billbergia.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Epiphytic rosette-type perennial. HEIGHT: 18".
How TO IDENTIFY: This group of neat, symmetrical bromels is very closely
allied to Nidularium and was formerly included in that genus. The
coarse, broad-leaved rosettes are armed with spines, and the flowers
are held in tight little bunches within the inner, short leaves. Often
bright leaf-tips give the name "painted fingernail plant."
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Definitive study in this, and allied
genera in the pineapple family is long overdue, and designations may
not always be accurate.
FOLIAGE: Coarse, broad, profuse, armed; often leaf-tips are brightly col-
ored.
FLowERS: Tight little clusters nestled within the short leaves.
FRIrrs: Many-seeded berries.
LANDSCAPE USES: For adding interest to trees and for helping to create a
tropical feeling within doors, these coarse-leaved, neat bromels are use-
ful. Single plants may occupy decorative containers in Florida rooms,
and groups can be used in large planters.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Broken, shifting shade, to almost bright light, but
not direct burning sun for an entire day.
GROWING MEDIUM: Osmundine; a mixture of peat, leaf-mold, and sand; or
rotted leaves worked into the earth beneath live oak trees for garden
culture.
CULTURE: Fasten to limbs of rough-barked trees with copper or aluminum
wire; pot in your chosen medium or plant in rotted leaf-mulch be-
neath live oak trees. Keep cups full of water, and medium moist, and
apply dilute liquid fertilizer to the growing medium once each summer
month.
PROPAGATION: Division of offsets or seedage.
PESTS: Scales; possibly mosquitoes may breed in cups of outdoor plants.

















B. n~~4~ ~



iorrid4a 'Fusciata'







Billbergia


EELeptopodak 4/Ii
~"p~"~hi~ .`zebrina






V\


'Euphemc ineliand






: pyramidalia
.eTM






37

/i//ber9Ja






BiUbergia (bill-BsuR-jee-a): for J. Billberg, Swedish botanist.
sPP.: several species and numerous hybrids grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Bromeliaceae. RELATIVES: Aechmea and vriesia.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLAN: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 3'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Plants composed of stout rosettes of scurfy or smooth,
usually spine-edged, leaves, that may be spotted or blotched. Some are
epiphytic, others terrestrial.
VAIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: This genus is among the most popular
and widely grown of the bromels, and hybridization has been extensive
herein. Shown opposite are some of Florida's favorites, while above is
the hybrid called 'Fantasia'.
FOLIAGE: Stiff rosettes of mostly spine-edged leaves in varying color pat-
terns.
FLOWERS: Usually spectacular spikes contain bright, showy bracts be-
neath the true flowers.
FRarrs: Many-seeded berries.
LANDSCAPE USES: For adding interest to trees, for planters, urns, and for
earth-culture in warm locations, billbergias, like so many bromeliads,
are very popular. These are leading plants for hobby collections.
LIGHT REQUIEMENT: Ordinarily billbergias thrive in fairly bright light.
Intensity of coloration may be lost inside some homes.
GROWING MEDrIM: Osmundine; a mixture of peat, leaf-mold, and sand;
or rotted leaves worked into the earth beneath oak trees.
CULTURE: Fasten to limbs of rough-barked trees with copper or alumi-
num wire, or pot in your chosen medium. Keep cups full of water and
apply dilute liquid fertilizer to the growing medium once each summer
month.
PROPAGATION: Division of offsets or seedage.
PESTS: Scales; mosquitoes may breed in the water held in cups of outdoor
billbergias.







38

Variegated

Pineapple



Ananas (an-NAN-as): from the aboriginal name.
comosus (com-MoE-sus): with long hair.
'Variegatus': variegated.

FAMILY: Bromeliaceae. RELATIVES: Ball-moss and Spanish-moss.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 4'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Rosettes of long, spine-edged, striped leaves; fruits
growing out of the centers of maturing rosettes; underground ratoons
growing out to form large clumps.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Variegatus' is but one of the striped-
leaved pineapples grown in Florida for ornament. A dozen or so clones
with all-green leaves are cultivated for their delectable fruits and for
their curiosity in backyard landscapes.
FOLIAGE: Rosettes of spine-edged, variegated leaves.
FLOWERS: Central spikes of inconspicuous complete flowers.
FRIrrs: The world-famous, delicious tropical fruits.
LANDSCAPE USES: Variegated pineapples are planted for the tropical ef-
fect that they create, and for horticultural curiosity. Use in rock-'n'-
sand gardens, in planters, alone in redwood tubs, or along garden paths
in protected locations. The foliage is the thing, yet home-grown pine-
apples are worth-while dividends for southern Floridians.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun for fruiting, yet container-grown plants,
kept for foliage effect, will survive in reduced light.
GROWING MEDIUM: Moderately fertile, open, gritty, fast-draining soil is
suitable.
CULTURE: After establishment, moderate watering and thrice annual fer-
tilization should assure adequate growth. Mealy-bugs are certain to in-
fest pineapples, so spray often with malathion.
PROPAGATION: Divide suckers from the bases of mature fruits, and divide
ratoons from around established plants.
PESTS: Mealy-bugs, nematodes, and mites.







39









Aechmea (eke-ME-a): Greek, referring to the pointed sepals.
SPP.: several species and numerous hybrids grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Bromeliaceae. RELATIVES: Pineapple and Spanish-moss.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 3'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Stiff rosettes of scurfy or smooth, usually spine-edged,
variously-colored leaves make up the plants that hold aloft spikes of
usually bright-colored bracts in winter and springtime. Some are epi-
phytic, others terrestrial.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Hybridization has been extensive
within this very large genus (140 species) and with other genera, with
the result that many hybrid forms are seen in Florida landscape ar-
rangements. It must be realized that definitive study in the Bromelia-
ceae is badly needed, as the botany is now incompletely understood.
FOLIAGE: Stiff rosettes of leaves of varying widths and colors.
FLOWERS: Usually spectacular spikes of varying bright bract coloration.
FRurrs: Many-seeded berries.
LANDSCAPE USES: For adding interest to trees, for planters, urns, and for
earth-culture in warm locations, aechmeas, like so many bromeliads,
are very popular. These are indicated for general landscapes and are
much admired by hobbyists.
LIGrr REQUIREMENT: Shifting light-and-shade is acceptable; some highly-
colored varieties may become paler in the reduced light of homes.
GROWING MEDIUM: Osmundine; a mixture of peat, leaf-mold, and sand;
or rotted leaves worked into the earth beneath oak trees.
CULTURE: Fasten to branches of rough-barked trees with copper or alu-
minum wire; pot in your chosen medium in containers or plant in the
rotted leaf-mold beneath live oak trees. Keep the cups full of water
and apply dilute liquid fertilizer to the growing medium once each
summer month.
PROPAGATION: Division of offsets or seedage.
PESTS: Scales; mosquitoes may breed in the water standing in the cups of
outdoor aechmeas.







40

Wanderi9g- ew






Tradescantta (trad-es-cArr-ee-a): for J. Tradescant, English gardener; and
Zebrina (zee-BINE-a): referring to the striped leaves.
SPP.: several species of both genera grow in Florida.
FAMILY: Commelinaceae. RELATIVES: Oyster-plant and spiderwort.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 10".
How TO IDENTIFY: Wandering-Jew is grown by homeowners so widely
that description here seems unnecessary.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: There are many attractive forms of
variegation in wandering-Jews seen in Florida, and naming of these is
likely to be inconsistent.
FOIAGE: Succulent, soft, furnished with long, sparse hairs; leaf-bases en-
sheath their stems.
FLOWERS: Tiny, nestling within protective leaf-like bracts. Tones may
vary with the variety.
FRIrrs: Tiny, inconspicuous.
LANDSCAPE USES: As ground cover for shady, frostless locations, wander-
ing-Jew has long been a favorite with Floridians. To cover the soil in
planters and to soften their top lines, these perennials serve. Very often
single pots of fancy-leaved types are featured porch plants.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light is optimum.
GRowING MEDIUM: Tolerant of widely-varying growing media.
CULTIRE: Simply stick pieces of stems where plants are wanted; water
carefully until established, thereafter moderately during times when
rains are infrequent; fertilize lightly at the onset of warm weather.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage.
PESTS: Mites, but these plants are notably pest-free.







41








Cyanotis (sigh-an-oH-tis): Greek, referring to the blue petals.
kewensis (kew-EN-sis): of Kew, the Royal Botanic Gardens in England.

FAMILY: Commelinaceae. RELATIVES: Rhoeo and Spironema.
HABITAT: East Indies.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGrr: 8".
How TO IDENTIFY: Woolly, brown stems bear woolly, triangular leaves, all
covered with woolly, brown hair.
SPECIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: In addition to this species, which is illus-
trated above, C. somaliensis, called pussy-ears, is also seen in Florida.
In this one, the green leaves are covered with soft, white hair, and the
flowers are purple and orange. In collections of rare exotics, other spe-
cies can be viewed as well.
FOLIAGE: Small, triangular, wholly covered with woolly brown hair. The
leaves are sessile and amplexicaul.
FLOWEns: Small, violet-blue, typical of this family.
FRUrrS: Small pods.
LANDSCAPE USES: These hairy little relatives of wandering-Jew are prized
as pot plants for their distinctive foliage. To edge planter-bins, they are
useful, as well.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Shade is essential for success in Florida.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, fibrous, organic mixtures that drain readily are
suitable for these little succulents.
CULTURE: Pot stem pieces in your chosen medium; water moderately;
and fertilize lightly once during each summer month.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage and division.
PESTS: Mites and grasshoppers.







42

Sctcreasea






Setcreasea (set-cREAsE-ee-a): derivation unclear.
sPP.: several types are cultured in Florida.

FAMILY: Commelinaceae. RELATIVES: Spiderwort and wandering-Jew.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 14".
How TO IDENTIFY: Fleshy, hairy leaves grow oppositely from erect or
trailing stems. Three-petaled, ephemeral blossoms nestle in leaf-like
bracts in terminal positions. Ubiquitous Turple Queen' has rich, purple
foliage, other types have green leaves or ones striped with white.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Most popular is Turple Queen' (large
drawing in center). Cultivated here are all-green 'Pallida' (right-hand
sketch) and striped 'Striata' (left-hand sketch). Botanical status in
Setcreasea is unclear.
FOLIAGE: Succulent, fleshy, with many, long, fine hairs; leaf-bases en-
sheath their stems.
FLowERs: 3 flaring pink petals, highlighted by golden anthers, character-
ize the flowers that nestle within their large, protective, leaf-life bracts
during warm months.
FRUrrS: Tiny, inconspicuous.
LANDSCAPE USES: As ground cover for frostless locations, setcreaseas are
in high favor. For sunny, exposed rock-'n'-gravel gardens, in shady
planters, beneath pines and palms, these creeping perennials serve
with distinction.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or partial shade.
GROWING MEDIUM: Tolerant of widely-varying media.
CULTURE: Simply stick pieces of stem where plants are wanted; water
carefully until established, thereafter moderately when rains are infre-
quent; fertilize lightly once each summer month.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage.
PESTS: Mites, but these plants are notably pest-free.







43

Seersucker-Plamt





Dichorisandra (dye-core-i-sAND-ra): referring
to 2 series of stamens or 2-valved anthers.
mosaica (mo-sAY-ee-ca): parti-colored.
'Undata' (un-DAY-ta): waved.

FAMILY: Commelinaceae. RELATIVES: Setcreasea and tradescantia.
HABITAT: South America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 12".
How TO IDENTIFY: Broadly elliptic leaves with rounded bases and sheath-
ing petioles are striped longitudinally with white, and puckered like
seersucker, between stripes.
VAIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Though there is some confusion in
naming, evidence seems to indicate that the above designation is cor-
rect for seersucker-plant. Other species of Dichorisandra, with nar-
rower, lanceolate leaves, variously striped or banded, are seen in our
state, and may be known as giant wandering-Jew.
FOLIAGE: Evergreen, succulent, 8" long, broadly elliptic, rounded at bases,
ensheathing their stems at nodes, puckered to resemble seersucker.
FLowERS: Flower parts in 3's, typical for the family, are white and blue.
FRUrrS: Little 3-angled capsules.
LANDSCAPE USES: As a curious pot plant and bin subject, seersucker-plant
is popular on account of its striped and puckered leaves.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light is required.
GROWING MEDIUM: Moderately fertile, reasonably fast-draining soil is
acceptable.
CULTURE: Plant stem pieces in shady situations; water periodically until
established, thereafter only during periods of drought.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage.
PESTS: Mites and leaf chewers.







44

Striped

Oyster-Pialft



Rhoeo (RE-o): name obscure.
discolor (DIs-col-or): of two colors.
'Vittata': striped.
FAMILY: Commelinaceae. RELATIVES: Dichorisandra and zebrina.
HABrrAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGrr: 2'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Broad, tender, succulent leaves, green-striped-white
above and purple beneath, grow in little clumps; conspicuous boat-
shaped bracts enclose little white flowers.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: There may be more than one striped
oyster-plant cultivated in Florida, but all may go under this designa-
tion.
FOLIAGE: Evergreen, long-lanceolate, green with longitudinal white
stripes above, purple beneath.
FLOWERs: Inconspicuous white blossoms are held within boat-shaped
bracts.
FRUIrs: Little capsules mature within the bracts.
LANDSCAPE USES: As a pot plant or planter subject, striped oyster-plant
may serve. If in sufficient supply, it could serve as a ground cover just
as well as the type.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or deep shade is acceptable, but variega-
tion may be more pronounced in bright light.
GROWING MEDIUM: Almost any growing medium will support striped
oyster-plant.
CULTURE: This plant thrives with a minimum of attention.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage and division.
PESTS: Caterpillars and mites.







45

Spirolnca






Spironema (spy-roe-NzE-ma): Greek for spiral thread for winding filaments.
fragrans (FRAY-grans): fragrant.

FAMILY: Commelinaceae. RELATIVES: Dichorisandra and setcreasea
HABITAT: Mexico.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 4'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Broad, foot-long leaves encircle their stems in rosette
form; stolons are readily sent out, many twine-like roots grow from
these, and maturing individuals send up yard-long spikes of tiny, very
fragrant flowers.
VARETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Usually the type is grown in the Sun-
shine State; yet, as with so many tropical exotics, variegated forms are
known.
FOLIAGE: Lush, bold, succulent, 4" x 12", green with purple shadings, held
in rosette form to make a symmetrical plant.
FLOwERS: Yard-long spikes bear little, white, fragrant blossoms in sum-
mer.
FRurrs: Small pods.
LANDSCAPE USES: Spironema usually serves as a pot plant or hanging-
basket subject, yet it can be used in planters, and as a ground cover
under large-leaved trees where coarse texture is not objectionable. The
summertime flower spikes make for an untidy effect. In years past,
botanists used Spironema to study transport of fluids.
LIGHT REQUREMENT: Full sun or partial shade of porches.
GROWING MEDIUM: Tolerant of a wide range of soil types.
CULTURE: Minimum care keeps spironema in growing condition. Like so
many members of the Commelinaceae, this plant demands little from
its owner.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage and division.
PESTS: Mites, but this plant is notably pest-free.






























SAloe



a.














A. aristta. .. I


A. virens







47

Aloe






Aloe (AL-oh): ancient Arabic name.
sPP.: several species are grown in Florida.

FAMILY: Liliaceae. RELATIVES: Lily, daylily, and asparagus.
HABITrrAT: Old World tropics and warm temperate regions.
TYPE OF PLANT: Succulent perennial. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Stiff rosettes of thick, succulent, spike-edged, or
smooth leaves, usually mottled; erect scapes with red, orange, or yel-
low tubular flowers.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Most widely grown is Barbados aloe
(Aloe barbadensis) illustrated above. Leaves are spiny-toothed, 1" yel-
low flowers are produced on 4' escapes in summer.
Coral aloe (Aloe striata) (right opposite) may form a 2' trunk that
bears leaves 4" x 20", striate, with entire white margins and spikes of
coral-red flowers.
Tree aloe (Aloe arborescens) develops a trunk that bears spreading
leaves 2" x 24" with prickly, wavy margins, and red flowers that are
1%" long. This one is widely-grown in the type and is the parent
of some hybrids.
Other aloes grown in Florida appear on the opposite page.
FOLIAGE: Succulent, usually mottled with purple or white.
FLOWERS: Showy spikes of tubular blossoms in tones of red, orange, or
yellow produced during warm months.
FRUrrs: 3-angled capsules.
LANDSCAPE USES: TO help create the feeling of the tropics, aloes are in
vogue. For rock-'n'-sand gardens, urns, and sunny planter-bins, they are
in demand. For seaside arrangements, aloes excel.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or partial shade.
GROWING MEDIUM: Light, gritty, open, well-drained soil of moderate or
low fertility is recommended. Basic reaction and dry conditions are tol-
erated.
CULTURE: After establishment, water moderately during periods of ex-
treme drought. Fertilize once at the beginning of the rainy season.
PROPAGATION: Division of offsets from around old plants; seedage.
PESTS: Caterpillars may chew holes in young, tender leaves.







48

Spider-Plant






Chlorophytum (clor-orr-it-um): Greek for green plant.
capense (cape-EN-see): of the Cape of Good Hope.

FAMILY: Liliaceae. RELATIVE: Dwarf lily-turf and lily-turf.
HABITAT: South Africa.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 1'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Neat rosettes of gaily variegated smooth leaves form
the main plants, and bunches of little rooting plantlets are produced at
the ends of stolons. These hang for many months.
VAwIETrES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Usually striped-leaved varieties are
seen in Florida, often under the designation "Anthericum."
FOLIAGE: Linear, bright, smooth, usually lined with white bands.
FLowERS: Whitish, in racemes %" across.
FRrrTS: Little pods.
LANDSCAPE USES: For pots and hanging baskets spider-plant has been
popular since earliest times. Usually passed along from one homemaker
to another, this dependable lily-relative is as much a part of porch-
gardening as are begonias and ferns. A modern adaptation is the use of
spider-plant for covering the soil in planters, where the hanging stolons,
with their clusters of offsets, soften top lines.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Partial shade is excellent.
GROWING MEDIUM: Moderately fertile, somewhat fibrous soil is accept-
able.
CULTURE: Plant offsets from stolon-ends in pots containing fibrous soil;
water moderately; and shift to larger containers as necessary.
PROPAGATION: Division of offsets from stolon-ends.
PESTS: Mites.







49

Cast-Jrona Plant






Aspidistra (as-pi-Dis-tra): Greek for small, round shield, describing the stigma.
elatdor (ee-LAY-tee-or): taller.

FAMILY: Liliaceae. RELATIVES: Daylily and Easter lily.
HABITAT: China.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 3'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Clusters of tall, broad, evergreen leaves are sent up
from strong, persistent rhizomes. These tough leaves, either all green or
striped with white, endure low light intensities and low atmospheric
humidity which would be unsuitable to many foliage plants.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: All-green types, as well as clones with
striped foliage are cultured in our state.
FOLIAGE: Yard-long by 6" broad, atop erect petioles, produced in dense
clusters from tough rootstocks.
FLOWERS: Inconspicuous at the earth line.
FRUITS: Inconspicuous, little 1-seeded berries.
LANDSCAPE USES: Like 45, this has been a dependable porch plant since
earliest times, always noted for its ability to endure in spite of adverse
growing conditions. During the 1960's this old parlor favorite regained
some of its former popularity as contemporary designers approved its
use in planters.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light is optimum; full sunlight cannot be
tolerated.
GROWING MEDIUM: Moderately fertile, fibrous soil is best, yet cast-iron
plant shows tolerance for widely-varying growing media.
CULTURE: Plant slightly deeper than former growing depth in shady loca-
tions; water during periods of drought; fertilize once each summer
month.
PROPAGATION: Division.
PESTS: Leaf-spotting disease.




















miradorensis


Plant


A. angustifolia







51

Dwarf Cettury

PlaHt



Agave (a-GAVE-ee): Greek for admirable.
SPP.: several species and clones are popular in Florida gardens.
FAMILY: Agavaceae. RELATIVES: Dracena and yucca.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 2'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Neat, little mounds of stylized, highly decorative
leaves, often marbled with white, characterize these miniature agaves.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: A. angustifolia 'Woodrowii' with its
rosettes of spine-edged white-margined daggers 3" x 2'. This one is
highly approved for landscape compositions.
A. miradorensis is a dwarf with broad leaves edged with sharp
spines. Here is another very popular landscape subject for frostless
locations.
A. ferdinandi-regis forms a little ball by its triangular leaves that are
only half a foot in length. These have white pencil markings and black
tips.
A. victoriae-reginae is a miniature characterized by leaves 6" x 2"
that are margined and penciled with white.
A. filifera produces foliage 1%" x 18" that is furnished with threads.
These are portrayed across.
FOLIAGE: Evergreen, in tight rosettes; form and color vary with species.
FLOWERS: Little, man-high, century plant masts.
FRUrrs: Pods.
LANDSCAPE USES: Mounds formed by miniature century plants are highly
approved for landscaping in southern Florida. For urns, planters, foun-
dation arrangements, and for rock-'n'-gravel compositions, they are
often seen and much admired.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Intense light of sunny gardens is ideal, yet plants
do well in patios and on terraces, even though they may receive some
shade during part of each day.
GROWING MEDIUM: Open, well-drained, sandy soil of moderate fertility is
recommended.
CULTURE: After establishment, water very moderately during periods of
extreme drought; fertilize lightly at the beginning of the rainy season.
Sometimes plastic roofs over these plants may be beneficial during very
wet times.
PROPAGATION: Division and seedage.
PESTS: Caterpillars may chew holes in young, tender leaves.







Sanaevierta trifaciata


S1/ Bowstring-Hemp













Sanseoveria clindrica


'Golden







53

/owstrik-q-Jkemp






Sansevieria (san-see-vEP -ee-a): for an Italian prince.
SPP.: many kinds grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Agavaceae. RELATIVES: Dracena and ti.
HABITAT: Tropical Africa.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: Variable with the type.
How TO IDENTIFY: Stiff, mottled, blotched or striped leaves, succulent,
and fiber-bearing, characterize this great group of tropical exotics.
Scapes support white, tubular, very fragrant flowers.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLOmIDA: Many clones are widely grown in our
state. Pictured opposite are popular kinds with their Florida names.
As the botany is imperfectly understood, naming is subject to question.
Since mid-century new kinds have arisen in horticultural establish-
ments, and acceptance by the public has been quite marked. Above is
popular birds-nest sansevieria.
FOLIAGE: Stiff, succulent, mottled, blotched or lined, of many shapes and
sizes.
FLOWERS: White, tubular, fragrant, held by scapes that are usually taller
than the leaf mass.
FRUrrs: Green pods may follow pollination.
LANDSCAPE USEs: Sansevierias are planted in every conceivable land-
scape application in Florida. As accent plants in foundation arrange-
ments, in planters, for Florida room urns, as porch plants, even for tiny
dish gardens, these African tropicals are in high favor.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or reduced light of dwellings is acceptable.
GROWING MEDIUM: Tolerance of widely-varying soils is notable.
CuLTURE: Simply plant, water, and forget.
PROPAGATION: Division or leaf cuttage.
PESTS: Caterpillars may chew tender foliage.







54

Alew Zealand 7laz






Phormium (FOR-me-um): Greek for basket, referring to uses of the fiber.
tenax (TEE-nax): strong.

FAMILY: Agavaceae. RELATIVES: Century plant and bowstring-hemp.
HABITAT: New Zealand.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 6'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Tall, sword-shaped, equitant, keeled leaves rise to
man-height from fleshy rhizomes. Tubular red or yellow flowers may be
produced on 15' scapes under good conditions.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Ordinarily the type (depicted above)
is displayed in Florida landscape plantings, but the clone "Variegatum'
has striped leaves, and at least one nursery propagates a selection with
leaves that display a rich, reddish cast.
FOLIAGE: Man-high, 5" broad, sword-shaped, equitant, bordered with
orange-red lines at the keeled midrib and at the margins. Old leaves
will split at their apexes.
FLOWERS: Tubular, red or yellow, borne in 15' scapes under favorable
conditions.
FRurrs: Capsules 2"-4" long if present.
LANDSCAPE USES: For the strong tropical character of the tall, dusky
leaves, New Zealand flax is in high favor with garden designers. An
established clump may be used near a doorway, gate, or passage, par-
ticularly with structures of contemporary design. A clump is effective
near a water feature as well.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or broken, shifting shade.
GROWING MEDIUM: Moist, rich soil high in organic matter is recom-
mended.
CULTURE: Once established in good, moist soil, little care is required by
this tough fiber-bearing relative of the century plant.
PROPAGATION: Division or seedage.
PESTS: Usually none of major importance.







55

Spilfdss 1/cca






Yucca (YUCK-a): modification of an aboriginal name.
elephantipes (el-e-FAN-ti-peez): elephant foot.

FAMILY: Agavaceae. RELATIVES: Spanish bayonet and tuberose.
HABITAT: Central America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Succulent shrub. HEIGIT: 25'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Spanish bayonet-like, but with pliable leaves termi-
nated by harmless tips. Seedlings vary considerably in foliage charac-
ter, vigor of growth, and mature size.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: All the landscape plants of this species
are seedlings of the type. In 1 or more nurseries, types with striped foli-
age have been selected, these to be named and increased vegetatively
as clones. Wide distribution of these new named varieties will not
occur for some years.
FOLIAGE: Evergreen, dagger-like, coarse in texture, with blunt ends. The
color is usually light-green.
FLOWERS: White, cup-like, hanging from erect panicles. The petals are
edible.
FRUrrs: Purple-black capsules in summertime.
LANDSCAPE USES: To enhance the tropical effect wherever Spanish bayo-
nets have been used, this related species may be preferred because of
the harmless leaf-tips. As accents in foundation arrangements and for
large planters, spineless yucca is highly regarded. In succulent groups
by antique brick walls and in rock-'n'-gravel gardens it is almost an
essential component.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or partial shade.
GROWING MEDIUM: Any well-drained soil appears to be suitable.
CULTURE: Plant in well-drained site that is protected from frost; water
and fertilize with moderation.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage, using pieces of any size.
PESTS: Probably the yucca moth is harmful to this species.



























Dracena


Dracaena sande*ial


Beauty'







57

SZracma






Dracaena (dray-EEN-a : Greek for female dragon; and
Cordyline (core-dee-LINE-ee): Greek for club, referring to the thickened roots.
sPP.: several species and hybrids of both genera grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Agavaceae. RELATIVES: Century plant and Adam's needle.
HABITAT: Warm regions of the world.
TYPE OF PLANT: Shrubs or trees. HEIGIr: Variable.
How TO IDENTFY: Diminutive iris-like plants produce leaf-like scapes
sizes, and colors. These stems are roughened by old leaf scars. Panicles
of small flowers appear during warm months.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Landscape dracenas in Florida are
many, botanical status unclear, and labeling inconsistent. Portrayed
across are Florida favorites under names that may be at variance with
those in use in your community. On this page is delicate, little 'Mar-
ginata'.
FOLIAGE: Highly decorative, persistent, their places marked by deep, en-
circling scars when they absciss. Color, size, and shape variable.
FLOWERS: Panicles, either terminal or axillary, usually small, those of the
genus Dracaena releasing an unpleasant odor.
FRUIrs: Globose berries produced by some varieties in Florida, not at all
by others.
LANDSCAPE USES: For the attractive tropical aspect, landscape dracenas
are popular in garden compositions in southern Florida. Tender to
cold, these tropical exotics must be kept in Florida rooms or in green-
houses in more northerly locations.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Tolerant of considerable shade.
GROWING MEDIUM: Fertile, moisture-retentive soils are requisite for good-
looking foliage.
CULTURE: Plant in reasonably fertile soil that has been made free of
nematodes; fertilize about 3 times each year; water moderately during
periods of drought. Some varieties must be protected against leaf-spot.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage and marcottage.
PESTS: Anthracnose leaf-spot, nematodes, and mites.







58

Devil-l lower






Tacca (TACK-a): Malayan name.
chantrieri (chan-tree-ERE-eye): for M. Chantrier.

FAMILY: Taccaceae. RELATIVES: Two small genera comprise this
little plant family.
HABITAT: Malaya.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 3'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Large basal leaves 3' long x 10" wide are attractively
ribbed and held by reddish petioles of about the same length. The bi-
zarre flowers with purple bracts and long, sterile pedicels are the out-
standing features of the genus.
VARETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: While naming may not be consistent,
the above designation seems to apply to devil-flowers seen in Florida.
FOLIAGE: Huge, bold, conspicuously ribbed, held by long, reddish peti-
oles.
FLOWERS: Spectacular, bizarre organs involving purple bracts and flow-
ing filaments suggest such names as devil-flower and bat-flower.
FRurrs: Purple, 2" capsules cause the stems to bend to the earth as they
mature.
LANDSCAPE USES: For the curiosity of the bizarre inflorescences, devil-
flower can be grown as a pot plant.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Partial shade is best.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, open, fibrous, well-drained soil is recommended.
CULTURE: Pot new plants in the above mixture and place the receptacle
in partially shaded location. Water regularly and fertilize once each
summer month. Dry the tubers during the winter.
PROPAGATION: Division and seedage.
PESTS: Grasshoppers and mites.







59

Walk in-Jris






Neomarica (nee-o-MAR-i-ca): Latin for new nymph.
gracilis (GRASs-ill-is): graceful.

FAMILY: Iridaceae. RELATIVES: Iris and ixia.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 18".
How TO IDENTIFY: Diminutive iris-like plants produce leaf-like scapes
which bear a few ephemeral flowers, then small offsets that root and
spread the cultures vegetatively.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: For the most part, the walking-irises
seen in Florida belong to the species noted above. Selection and nam-
ing of clones has not been marked.
FOLIAGE: Iris-like, forming fans from short rootstocks.
FLOWERS: Iris-like, 2" across, 3 larger petals are white and yellow; 3
smaller ones are blue. Around the flowers, small plantlets arise.
FRurrs: Pods if present.
LANDSCAPE USES: Along with begonias, spider-plants and ferns, walking-
irises have been popular porch plants since earliest times in Florida.
Usually grown in pots, they may serve also in planters and in mass
plantings in frost-free areas.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Light to moderate shade is acceptable.
GROWING MEDaUM: Fertile, fibrous, well-drained potting compost is best.
CULTURE: Plant small offsets taken from leaf-like flower scapes, and shift
these to larger containers as necessary to allow adequate root space.
PROPAGATION: Division of offsets that form near the ends of flower scapes.
PESTS: Mites and caterpillars.







60

Variegated






Musa (MEw-sa): for A. Musa, physician to the first Roman emperor.
siP.: several species and their hybrids and clones grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Musaceae. RELATIVES: Commercial banana and heliconia.
HABITAT: Tropics around the world.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Banana-like, but with foliage variously mottled,
blotched, or heavily pigmented with red.
VARIETIES CULTIVATE IN FLORIDA: Many variegated bananas are grown
for ornament in warmer parts of Florida. Naming will likely vary from
one locality to another.
FOLIAGE: Banana-like, but mottled, blotched, or deeply pigmented with
red.
FLOWERS: Terminal hanging inflorescences borne under protective pur-
plish bracts.
FRTrrs: Long, berry-like bodies with thick, shining rinds hanging in clus-
ters.
LANDSCAPE USES: As highlights in tropical compositions, variegated ba-
nanas are most attractive, and they are certain to evoke favorable com-
ment.
LIGTI REQUIREMENT: Full sun for best coloration, although very high,
light shade would not be undesirable.
GROWING MEDIUM: Fertile, moist soil makes for best growth.
CULTURE: Plant, water, and continuously protect the foliage against Cer-
cospora and Helminthosporum leaf-spots.
PROPAGATION: Division of matted clumps.
PESTS: Cercospora and Helminthosporum leaf-spots and Panama disease.






61

/'ird-of-Paradisc

Amower



Streltzia (strel-rr-zee-a): for the wife of King George III.
reginae (ree-JNE-ee): of the queen.

FAMILY: Musaceae. RELATIVES: Banana and travelers-tree.
HABITAT: South Africa.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGrr: 5'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Trunkless, with 2-ranked, evergreen, waxy leaves, 6"
x 18", that are held by stout channeled petioles. Spectacular bird-like
blossoms top leafless scapes as tall as, or taller than, the foliage.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Improved strains produce flower
scapes that hold birds well above the leaves. Although this plant ap-
pears in the original Guide, it felt that it must also be included in
this book on tropical exotics.
FOLIAGE: Evergreen, waxy, bold in form, and dark-green in color.
FLOWERS: Spectacular orange-and-blue floral parts emerge from horizon-
tal, boat-shaped bracts atop leafless scapes.
FRUIrs: 3-angled capsules split to release edible seeds. Hand-pollination
may be required for seed setting.
LANDSCAPE USES: For the curiosity of the flying birds, strelitzia is much
admired. In urns, planters, or in front of shrubbery, clumps are fea-
tured for their exotic effect.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: High, shifting shade is recommended.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, moisture-retentive, acid soil is acceptable. Free-
dom from nematodes is most desirable.
CULTURE: Plant in rich, acid sites that are protected from frost; water
during dry times; protect the foliage against scales. Bird-of-paradise
flower does not always bloom as freely here as it does in some other
localities.
PROPAGATION: Seedage and division.
PESTS: Nematodes and scales.







62

Ieldicouda






Heliconia (hell-i-coNE-ee-a): for Mt. Helicon.
SPP.: several species and variants are cultured in Florida.

FAMILY: Musaceae. RELATIVES: Banana and travelers-tree.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Plants resemble slender or dwarf bananas and pro-
duce inflorescences with highly decorative bracts. The plants, their foli-
age, and their bracts are variable with the species or the variety.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Shown above are some Florida favor-
ites. Common names are many-wild plantain, balisier, flowering ba-
nana, and lobster-claw are some of those most frequently heard.
FOLIAGE: Banana-like and highly decorative.
FLOWERS: Inconspicuous, held within various kinds of highly-colored,
very beautiful bracts, for which these plants are cultivated.
FRurrs: Blue capsules which break into berry-like parts.
LANDSCAPE USES: For the beautiful, colorful bracts, balisiers are in high
favor in frostless locations. While these inflorescences are usually cut
for indoor decoration, if left in place they become sure-fire conversa-
tion starters.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or partial shade.
GRowING MEDIUM: Fertile, moist soil makes for best growth and flower-
ing.
CULTURE: Plant, water, and continuously protect the foliage against Cer-
cospora and Helminthosporum leaf-spots. Fertilize once during each
summer month.
PROPAGATION: Division of matted clumps.
PESTS: Cercospora and Helminthosporum leaf-spots, scales, and nema-
todes.







63

Variegated i1g9er





Zingiber (zIN-gy-burr): classical name.
zerumbet (zur-RUM-bet): aboriginal name.
'Darceyi': name of the best-known variegated clone.

FAMILY: Zingiberaceae. RELATIVES: Shell-flower and torch-ginger.
HABITAT: Tropics; of horticultural origin.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 4'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Bright, variegated foliage is sent up from aromatic
rootstocks in summertime.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: This is the usual striped ginger seen
in Florida. Some writers give this plant specific status. Gardeners may
call some of the striped-leaves calatheas "variegated ginger."
FOLIAGE: Alternate, about 8" x 3", somewhat pubescent, glistening white
and green. Leaf bases ensheath the erect stems. Above-ground parts
die in wintertime.
FLOWERS: Bracted, cone-like bodies contain inconspicuous, little, yellow
blossoms.
FRurrs: Capsules.
LANDSCAPE USES: For the beauty of the glistening white-and-green striped
foliage, this ginger has been a garden favorite since earliest times. It
can help to make up a herbaceous border or it can be grown as a pot
plant. The aromatic roots could be candied as can those of the true
ginger (Zingiber officinale).
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Shaded locations are best.
GROWING MEDIUM: Fertile, moist soil makes for best growth.
CULTURE: Plant rootstocks in springtime just below the surface of the
earth; water moderately; and fertilize once each summer month. In
autumn, as foliage dies, allow the earth to become dry, or lift root-
stocks and store them over winter in dry sand.
PROPAGATION: Division of resting rootstocks.
PESTS: Mites; nematodes in light, sandy soil.






64

Pine Co e-,Cly






Zingiber (zi-gy-burr): classical name.
zerumbet (zur-Rnu-bet): aboriginal name.

FAMILY: Zingiberaceae. RELATIVES: Ginger and shell-flower.
HABITAT: South Sea Islands.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 4'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Leafy stems of ginger-like foliage are sent up in
springtime, to be followed in the autumn by short bracted inflores-
cences which resemble pine cones. These flower heads, which become
bright red at maturity, are much admired for indoor decoration.
VAIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Pine cone-lilies in Florida are thought
to belong to the above species.
FOLIAGE: Alternate, long, narrow leaves like ginger foliage are held al-
most horizontally by the 4' stems. Plants die down during short days
of autumn.
FLOWERS: Bracted heads form red, pine cone-like bodies on short stems
after the rainy season.
FRurrs: Capsules.
LANDSCAPE USES: Because they are so popular for indoor arrangements,
Floridians cultivate pine cone-lilies as separate plantings in the out-of-
door living area or the service area. During the cold months there is
nothing above ground.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or shifting, broken shade.
GROWING MEDIUM: Fertile, moist soil makes for best growth and flower-
ing.
CULTURE: Plant rootstocks in springtime just below the surface of the
earth; water moderately; and fertilize lightly once during each summer
month.
PROPAGATION: Division of matted clumps.
PESTS: Mites.







65

Corch-pi4ger






Phaeomeria (fee-o-ME-ree-a): Greek for dark and part.
speciosa (spee-see-oH-sa): showy.

FAMILY: Zingiberaceae. RELATVES: Ginger-lily and shell-flower.
HABITAT: South Sea Islands.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 12'.
How TO IDENTIFY: One of the most vigorous plants in its family, torch-
ginger will form huge clumps of tall, heavily-foliated stems under good
conditions. Spectacular reddish flower heads stand terminally on sepa-
rate yard-tall, leafless scapes.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Usually torch-gingers in Florida are
placed in the above designation; formerly in Amomum, Phaeomeria is
now a distinct genus.
FLOWERS: Spectacular reddish or pinkish heads of waxy bracts terminate
FLOWERs: Spectacular reddish or pinkish heads of waxy bracts terminate
separate, leafless scapes.
FRurrs: Berries massed together somewhat resembling a small pine-
apple.
LANDSCAPE USES: For the lush, tropical effect of the vigorous foliage and
the very handsome, waxy inflorescences, torch-ginger enjoys popular-
ity in warm sections of the state. Bold clumps standing by bodies of
water are striking.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Partial shade is recommended.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, acid, wet soil is needed for best growth.
CULTURE: Plant divisions of old matted clumps in springtime; water un-
til established; after that, little care is needed. Fertilize once at the be-
ginning of the rainy season.
PROPAGATION: Division of old clumps; seedage.
PESTS: Mites, possibly nematodes on light, open, sandy soils.







66

Shello-;Vwer






Alpinia (al-pI-ee-a): for P. Alpinus, early Italian botanist.
SPP.: several species and clones are seen in Florida.

FAMILY: Zingiberaceae. RELATIVES: Ginger and pine cone-lily.
HABITAT: South Sea Islands.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Bold clumps of heavily-foliated stems become estab-
lished from vigorous rootstocks. The persistent leaves may measure a
foot in length by half this width. In this genus, the flowers appear at
the ends of the leafy stems, not on separate peduncles near the earth.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Most popular shell-flower is Alpinia
speciosa, above right. Its clone, 'Vittata' has foliage attractively
splotched with white. A. mutica, uncertain in botanical position, has a
smaller erect inflorescence, which produces attractive, open flowers
that are followed by persistent, felty, red fruits, (lower left). Red-
ginger, A. purpurata, is characterized by terminal, vivid red bracts
which subtend tiny white flowers, later, little plantlets, which are sepa-
rated for increase. This appears at the upper left.
FOLIAGE: Persistent; evergreen; bright, deep-green in color, except for
'Vittata', which has leaves brightly marked with white.
FLOWERS: Shell-like, in drooping clusters at the ends of tall, leafy stems
appear in summertime. These fragrant blossoms are much admired.
FRvrrs: Capsules.
LANDSCAPE USES: For the lush effect of the huge clumps and the interest
of the attractive summertime blossoms, shell-flowers have long been
Florida favorites. In warm locations, stems will persist; in cold sections,
they will be cut to the earth each winter but will reappear with the
spring.
LIGHT REQUImEMENT: Full sun or high, shifting shade.
GROWING MEDIUM: Fertile, moist soil makes for best growth; so shell-
flowers often stand on low land near ponds, streams, or canals.
CULTURE: Plant rootstocks in springtime just below the surface of the
earth; water periodically until established; and fertilize once at the be-
ginning of the rainy season.
PROPAGATION: Division of matted clumps.
PESTs: Mites, yet these are usually not of major concern to gardeners.







67









Curcuma (cun-coo-ma): from a native name.
sPP.: several species are seen in Florida gardens.

FAMILY: Zingiberaceae. RELATIVES: Ginger and ginger-lily.
HABITAT: Tropics of the Eastern Hemisphere.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Striking leaves on stem-like petioles arise from root-
stocks with the coming of spring, to die back in the autumn. The spec-
tacular inflorescences are held atop short, bracted scapes. The colorful
bracts, which encase the flowers, are the reasons for growing queen-
lilies.
SPECIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Of the 50 species known to science, less
than a half-dozen are popular in Florida. Curcuma zedoaria, illus-
trated, has brown stripes down the midribs of leaves that appear dur-
ing warm months, and decorative spikes of lilac bracts that mature in
May-June. Similar, but larger, is C. latifolia, with man-high foliage and
foot-tall spikes of rose-lavender in springtime. C. petiolata has pleated
foliage without darker stripes, and pink spikes appear on the main stem
in midsummer. C. roscoeana bears pretty copper-colored spikes in the
autumn.
FOLIAGE: Beautiful, exotic-looking, of fine keeping-quality for arrange-
ments. Broad blades, 1 or 2 feet in length, are held by ensheathing pet-
ioles about a foot in length.
FLOWERS: Small, inconspicuous, within dramatically beautiful bracts.
FRUITS: Small pods, if present.
LANDSCAPE USES: To enhance the tropical effect, queen-lilies can be
grown as container subjects or as members of a tender tropical plant-
ing in shady, protected positions. The handsome bracted spikes are
popular for cutting, as are the leaves of variegated types.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Shade appears to be necessary in Florida.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, moisture-retentive soil, slightly acid in reaction
is recommended.
CULTURE: Plant rootstocks 2" below the surface of the soil in springtime;
water with moderation periodically and apply liquid fertilizer once
during each summer month. After flowering, foliage will die back, so
withhold water at that time.
PROPAGATION: Division.
PESTS: Mites and grasshoppers.









Iifger-,Ci4






Hedychium (he-DicK-ee-um): Greek for sweet snow, referring to the flowers.
SPP.: several species and hybrids grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Zingiberaceae. RELATIES: Ginger and shell-flower.
HABITAT: Eastern Asia.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHTr: 6'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Like 64, this genus produces heavy clumps of leafy
stems from strong rhizomes, and terminal inflorescences. In Hedych-
ium the fragrant, long-tubed flowers have large, flaring lips. White in
the most popular species, yellow or pinkish blooms are borne by lesser-
known kinds.
VARIETES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Most widely-grown ginger-lily is
white-flowered Hedychium coronarium, illustrated above. H. flavum
has yellow blooms, and H. gardnerianum has light yellow blossoms.
There are hybrids among these species.
FOLIAGE: Evergreen, alternate, 24" x 6", held attractively by man-high
stems. Ginger-lily foliage is killed in northern Florida, but may persist
in warmer sections.
FLOWERS: Fragrant, long-tubed flowers with lobed lips extend from ter-
minal, bracted heads.
FRUITS: Capsules which split to reveal red seeds.
LANDSCAPE USES: In common with other gingerworts, hedychiums have
long been popular with Floridians for the beauty of the lush foliage
and for the interesting inflorescences. Clumps can form parts of herba-
ceous borders, or they may stand near bodies of water. Travelers to
Hawaii have seen leis made of these attractive, scented blossoms.
LIGcT REQUIREMENT: Full sun or broken, shifting shade.
GROWING MEDIUM: Fertile, moist soil makes for best growth and flower-
ing.
CULTURE: In springtime, plant rootstocks just below the surface of the
earth; water moderately; and fertilize once at the beginning of each
rainy season.
PROPAGATION: Division of matted clumps.
PESTS: Mites, possibly nematodes in light, open, sandy soils.






69

Spiral- 7lag






Costus (COST-US): old classical name.
sPP.: perhaps a half-dozen species may be found in Florida gardens.

FAMILY: Zingiberaceae. RELATIVES: Shell-flower and queen-lily.
HABITAT: Tropics of both hemispheres.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Large, lush leaves are spirally arranged around stems
that arise from underground rootstocks. Terminating these may appear
bracted, cone-like inflorescences, from which emerge colorful flowers
in season.
SPECIES CULTVATED IN FLOBIDA: Of the hundred or more species re-
corded, no more than a half-dozen are likely to be seen in Florida.
Costus speciosus (left-hand sketch), has foot-long green leaves that are
downy beneath. The 10-foot stems are topped by bracted cones from
which appear white, papery flowers. Costus igneus (right-hand sketch),
orange-spiral-flag, grows a foot in height, and bears 6" leaves that are
purple beneath. The 2" orange flowers appear one at a time at the ends
of the little shoots. Costus maltorieanus produces velvety foliage banded
longitudinally with zebra stripes.
FOLIAGE: Evergreen, abundant, spirally arranged; the color varies with
the species.
FLOWERS: Conspicuous, colorful, in terminal positions, arising from cone-
like, bracted heads.
FRurrs: Seeds may form between bracts.
LANDSCAPE USES: For the interest of the spirally-arranged foliage and the
cone-like flower heads, spiral-flags are rather widely planted in Florida.
Clumps may stand in moist locations near watercourses, or they may
be featured against masonry walls if the soil there is rich and retentive
of moisture.
LIGrr REQUIREMNT: Full sun or high, shifting shade.
GROWING MEDIUM: Fertile, moist soil makes for best growth; therefore
spiral-flags are often planted near water.
CULTURE: Plant rootstocks or offsets in springtime; water moderately until
established; fertilize once at the beginning of the rainy season; and
keep grasses back from the root zone.
PROPAGATION: Division of matted clumps, separation of offsets that form
below flower heads, and cuttage of stems.
PESTS: Mites, possibly nematodes in light, open, sandy soils.


















Calathea


S C. medio-pic







71

Calatkea






Calathea (cal-a-THE-a): Greek for basket, referring to the setting of the flowers.
sPP.: many kinds are cultured in our state.

FAMILY: Marantaceae. RELATIVES: Arrowroot and thalia.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Sheathing leaves noted for their appealing markings
grow during warm, moist months to delight gardeners. To distinguish
varieties and species and to be certain that a plant in question is a cala-
thea and not a maranta, is a most difficult assignment.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Above is C. vandenheckei 'Wendlin-
ger'; illustrated on the opposite page are some of Florida's most popu-
lar calatheas. Clear-cut distinction between these many kinds is hard to
define. All of these are called marantas in Florida.
FOLIAGE: Very appealing, because of the beautiful patterns of lines,
blotches, and spots.
FLOWERS: Little spikes, not particularly showy.
FRurrs: Little berries or capsules.
LANDSCAPE USES: As pot plants, these are very popular because of their
attractively marked foliage. Protection from cold is essential.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light is optimum, bright sunlight is not
recommended.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, moisture-retentive, but fast-draining soil is
needed for good growth and bright coloration.
CULTURE: Plant at the same level as the plant grew formerly, in a pot that
has an abundance of coarse material in the bottom to assure good
drainage and aeration. Supply high humidity and high temperature
continuously, and light fertilization once in each summer month.
PROPAGATION: Division.
PESTS: Mites.







72

Arrowroot






Maranta (ma-RAN-ta): for B. Maranta, Italian botanist.
SPP.: many kinds grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Marantaceae. RELATIVES: Calathea and Thalia.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Rhizomatous perennial. HEIGrT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Sheathing leaves, noted for their appealing markings
grow during warm, moist months to delight gardeners.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Clear-cut distinction between arrow-
root varieties and calatheas is impossible; in fact, they are all called
marantas. Great confusion in naming exists in Florida, unfortunately.
FOLIAGE: Very appealing, because of the beautiful patterns of lines,
blotches, and spots.
FLOWERS: Little spikes of white flowers, spotted with purple, are pro-
duced among the leaves.
FRUITS: Little berries or capsules.
LANDSCAPE USES: As pot plants, these are very popular because of their
attractively marked foliage. Protection from cold is essential.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light is optimum, bright sunlight is not
recommended.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, moisture-retentive, but fast-draining soil is
needed for good growth and bright coloration.
CULTURE: Plant at the same level as the plant grew formerly, in a pot
that has an abundance of coarse material in the bottom to assure good
drainage and aeration. Supply high humidity and high temperature
continuously, and light fertilization once in each summer month.
PROPAGATION: Division.
PESTS: Mites.









73

epipyttic

Epideudnmui



Epidendrum (ep-ee-DEN-drum): Greek for on trees.
SPP.: numerous species and their hybrids flourish in Florida.
FAMILY: Orchidaceae. RELATIVES: Cattleya and laelia.
HABITAT: Tropical America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Epiphytic perennial. HEIGrr: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Pseudobulbous little orchids that bear many attractive
small flowers, usually in springtime and in summer.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Of the 500 species in Epidendrum,
comparatively few exotics are cultivated in our state. Nonetheless,
these easy-to-grow, dependable epiphytes are greatly beloved by all
amateur orchidists. Pictured above is universal favorite, Epidendrum
fragrans.
FOLIAGE: Evergreen, variable in size, shape, and color.
FLOWERS: Variable, but usually small, clustered; brightly, attractively
colored. Some are deliciously fragrant.
FRUrrs: Angled pods, rather freely formed in some species.
LANDSCAPE USES: To adorn lawn trees in nearly frostless locations, epi-
phytic epis have long been popular. Potted specimens make up a frac-
tion of every amateur collection. These are moved from the greenhouse
to the terrace or Florida room when in flower.
LIcrr REQUIREMENT: Light shade is optimum.
GROWING MEDIUM: Fasten to branches of rough-barked trees with small
sheets of screen wire padded inside with thin slabs of osmundine. Pot
specimens, after blooming, in osmundine, tree fern fragments, or
chipped bark.
CULTURE: Soak about once a week; fertilize with dilute liquid fertilizer
once each summer month; and protect from attacks of scale insects.
Repot greenhouse specimens when growing medium decomposes.
PROPAGATION: Division and seedage.
PESTS: Scales and mites.








74

Reed Spidedrmm






Epidendrum (ep-ee-DEN-drum): Greek for on trees.
radicans (rad-EYE-cans): rooting.

FAMILY: Orchidaceae. RELATIVES: Cattleya and laelia.
HABITAT: Central America.
TYPE OF PLANT: Herbaceous perennial. HEIGHT: 6'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Leafy, vine-like stems, with many aerial roots, grow
thickly to make a jumbled mass. Many-flowered racemes terminate
new growths in winter and spring. Flowers are in tones of orange-
scarlet, yellow, cream, pink, and terra-cotta.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Hybrid reed epis have become very
popular with homeowners in nearly frostless locations. There are many
named varieties.
FOLIAGE: Evergreen, alternate, 4" long, persistent, interspersed with
many twine-like aerial roots.
FLOWERS: Showy, colorful, in racemes atop the tall stems. Usually 1%"
across, in tones of red, orange, yellow, and cream.
FRarrs: Angled pods.
LANDSCAPE USES: For bright color in sunny spots, hybrid reed epiden-
drums are featured by many homeowners in warm locations. These
orchids reward their owners with countless cheerful blossoms in return
for very little attention.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun is requisite for good growth and heavy
flowering.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, fibrous, composted soil.
CULTURE: Plant stem pieces in fertile earth; furnish trellises of heart cy-
press or redwood; soak the bed each week that there is no rain; and
apply dilute fertilizer once each summer month.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage and division.
PESTS: Mites and scales.







75

Cattl/a orelrchid






Cattleya (cAT-lee-a): for W. Cattley, English horticulturist.
SPP.: numerous species and many hybrids are cultured in Florida.

FAMILY: Orchidaceae. RELATIVES: Epidendrum and laelia.
HABITAT: Tropical American mainland.
TYPE OF PLANT: Epiphytic perennial. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: This is the genus that connotes "orchid" to most peo-
ple. From this, the queen of orchids, most corsage types are derived.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Innumerable named cattleyas, brasso-
cattleyas, and laelio-cattleyas are cultivated in the Sunshine State.
FOLIAGE: Evergreen, heavy, waxy; but variable in size and shape.
FLOWERS: The queen of flowers.
FRurrs: Large, angled pods.
LANDSCAPE USES: To add interest to lawn trees, cattleya orchids are
placed on branches in nearly frost-free sections of the state. In other
areas, pot culture in greenhouses is standard. Orchids in flower are
used in living quarters for distinctive accessories of decoration.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Light, shifting shade is acceptable; dense shade is
unsuitable.
GROWING MEDIUM: Osmundine, shredded tree fern, or shredded lumber-
tree bark can be used to grow cattleyas and their hybrids.
CULTURE: Secure landscape cattleyas to branches of rough-barked yard
trees with bits of screen wire and tacks, with little blankets of osmun-
dine beneath. Pot greenhouse cattleyas after flowering, in one of the
media mentioned just above. Soak weekly, syringe lightly each day.
PROPAGATION: Division and seedage.
PESTS: Scales and mites.







76

Veiled ,uV Orchid






Phaius (FAY-us): Greek for swarthy, for the color of the flowers.
grandifolius (grand-i-FoL-ee-us): large-leaved.

FAMILY: Orchidaceae. RELATIVES: Calanthe and sobralia.
HABITAT: China.
TYPE OF PLANT: Terrestrial perennial. HEIGHT: 4'.
How TO IDENTIFY: Large, pleated, palm-like leaves arise from earth-
growing pseudobulbs, and then, leafless scapes, bearing many silver-
and-tan orchids push out in early springtime.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Although hybrid forms have begun to
appear in Florida gardens, it is unlikely that any of these will supplant
the type species, Phaius grandifolius, which has been a prime favorite
with Floridians for generations.
FOLIAGE: Nearly evergreen, huge, pleated leaves grow luxuriantly in
Florida.
FLOWERS: Striking silver-and-tan orchids are held on yard-high, leafless
escapes during springtime. These attractive orchids are very long-lived.
FRurrs: Angular pods may result from hand-pollination.
LANDSCAPE USES: In a shaded, rich, moist garden bed, veiled nun orchids
can be featured for the beauty of their hardy, durable blossoms. Gar-
den culture must be restricted to warm locations. In colder parts,
greenhouse-growing is practiced.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Broken shade from high-headed trees is recom-
mended.
GROWING MEDIUM: Rich, fibrous, moisture-retentive, yet well-drained
garden soil is ideal. Standing water can be fatal.
CuLTURE: Plant 3-bulb divisions from matted clumps at their former
level; water periodically, laying fine mist over the foliage. Apply dilute
liquid fertilizer once each month after scapes show.
PROPAGATION: Division, also cuttage using spent flower scapes.
PESTS: Mites and scales; root-rot disease if plants are grown in dense
shade and kept too wet.









77

i oth Orchid






Phalaenopsis (fal-ee-NoP-sis): Greek for moth-like.
SPP.: several species and their hybrids thrive in Florida.

FAMILY: Orchidaceae. RELATIVES: Oncidium and vanda.
HABITAT: Tropics of the Old World.
TYPE OF PLANT: Epiphytic perennial. HEIGHT: 18".
How TO IDENTIFY: Huge, netted-and-veined, strap-like, evergreen foliage
lies over the edges of the container, and yard-long scapes of fantasti-
cally beautiful moth-like orchids are produced each year, usually in
spring and summer. Long silvery roots are sent out into the air.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Complex lineage characterizes the
moth orchids that are fashionable with homeowners in Florida today.
Of these, there are half-a-hundred kinds.
FOLIAGE: Most attractive in the Orchidaceae, broad, leathery, strap-like,
netted-and-veined, often with a purple cast.
FLOWERS: Ethereally beautiful, moth-like, white, pink, or softest yellow.
FRTrrs: Large, grenade-like pods.
LANDSCAPE USES: In most nearly tropical locations, moth orchids can be
attached to trees with a bit of screen wire and some osmundine. In
most parts of Florida, these tropical epiphytes must be grown in warm
greenhouses, and taken into the dwelling when in flower.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Reduced light is correct for moth orchids.
GROWING MEDIUM: Osmundine is best, tree fern is good, yet many hob-
byists employ shredded bark from lumber trees.
CULTURE: Secure to tree branches with wire and blankets of osmundine.
For greenhouse-growing, pack osmundine around root systems, using
6" pots for flowering-size individuals.
PROPAGATION: Seedage or special stem-cuttage.
PESTS: Scales and mites.








78

strap Vauda






Vanda (vAN-da): Sanskrit name.
SPP.: clones of complex lineage are preferred in Florida.

FAMILY: Orchidaceae. RELATIVES: Moth orchid and pansy orchid.
HABITAT: Tropical Asia and offshore islands.
TYPE OF PLANT: Epiphytic perennial. HEIGHr: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Husky, erect stems send out foot-long, strap leaves in
2 ranks, twine-like roots in abundance, and axillary racemes of most
beautiful veined, spotted, or netted blossoms.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Innumerable named varieties of com-
plex lineage are fashionable with orchid hobbyists in Florida, as great
strides have been made by plant breeders working for large, flat flow-
ers of circular outline with subtle colorings in tones of tan, terra cotta,
and pink.
FOLIAGE: Evergreen, foot-long, strap-shaped, in two ranks along erect
stems.
FLOWERS: Axillary racemes of showy flowers in tones of blue, buff, and
pink; often netted, and blotched. Bold, round blossoms are now the
rage.
FRurrs: Capsules may follow hand-pollination.
LANDSCAPE USES: Homeowners in most nearly frost-free locations may
grow strap vandas in special cribs of charcoal and lava rock with trel-
lises to support the monopodial, upright growths. In colder areas, these
tropical exotics must be cultured in warm greenhouses.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Full sun.
GROWING MEDIUM: Charcoal and lava rock for outdoor growing; osmun-
dine or tree fern for potted vandas.
CULTURE: Syringe with water daily; apply liquid fertilizer once each sum-
mer month; protect from frost.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage or marcottage.
PESTS: Scales.







79

zerete Vada






Vanda (vAN-da): Sanskrit name.
SPP.: 2 or more species have gone into the lineage of terete vandas.

FAMILY: Orchidaceae. RELATIVES: Strap vanda and renanthera.
HABITAT: Tropical Asia and offshore islands.
TYPE OF PLANT: Epiphytic perennial. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: Vigorous, upright-growing round stems produce many
terete (circular in cross section) pencil-like leaves interspersed with
numerous twine-like roots that fasten to available substrata. Showy,
white-and-variegated blossoms are held in foot-long, 6-flowered ra-
cemes.
VA rETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: In addition to most famous 'Agnes
Joaquim', the corsage orchids of giveaway programs, a dozen or so
terete vandas are seen.
FOLIAGE: Pencil-like, circular in cross section.
FLOWERs: Showy, often white-and-variegated, with broad, lobed lip.
FRUrrs: Pods may follow hand-pollination.
LANDSCAPE USEs: Like reed epidendrums, terete vandas are featured as
color high lights in sunny spots in frost-free gardens. The plants must
have trellises of some sort to which their aerial roots may be affixed.
LIGHr REQUIREMENT: Full sun.
GRowING MEDIUM: Although terete vandas are epiphytic in nature, man
sets these plants in the earth near vertical wooden supports. The nu-
merous twine-like roots affix themselves to the wood.
CULTURE: When plants are growing as indicated above, protect from frost
and from scales and apply dilute liquid fertilizer over all once during
each summer month. Stiffly upright growth is rapid, usually.
PROPAGATION: Cuttage.
PESTS: Scales.







so
Deldrobium Orchid






Dendrobium (den-DRo-bee-um): Greek for tree and life.
SPP.: many species and hybrids grow in Florida.

FAMILY: Orchidaceae. RELATIVES: Stanhopea and Zygopetalum.
HABITAT: Eastern tropics.
TYPE OF PLANT: Epiphytic perennial. HEIGHT: Variable
How TO IDENTIFY: This extremely diverse genus of 600 species and in-
numerable hybrids is difficult to describe in a few words. Always popu-
lar with Florida hobbyists, the diverse plants bear sprays of lilac, pink,
yellow, or white flowers in profusion.
VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Dendrobes are seen in all collections
of Florida orchid growers.
FOLIAGE: Variable; evergreen in some types, deciduous in others.
FLOWERS: Variable, lilac, pink, white, or yellow, usually in sprays.
FRUrrs: Pods may follow hand-pollination.
LANDSCAPE USES: To adorn yard trees in frostless locations, dendrobes
have been popular for many years. In this great and variable genus, the
kinds that are so grown are almost without number. For cold parts of
our state, greenhouse-culture is required.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: Bright, partial shade from high-headed trees is
ideal.
GROWING MEDIUM: Harsh, black osmundine and tree fern wood are ex-
cellent; chipped barks are also used for growing dendrobes.
CULTURE: Fasten to branches of rough-barked trees with pieces of screen
wire with little blankets of osmundine beneath, or pot very tight in
small containers. Apply dilute liquid fertilizer once each summer
month.
PROPAGATION: Division, stem cuttage, and seedage.
PESTS: Scales.







81

Shower-of-iold

Orchid




Oncidium (on-so-ee-um): Greek for tubercle, for lobed labellum.
SPP.: many kinds are seen in Florida.

FAMILY: Orchidaceae. RELATIES: Moth orchid and pansy orchid.
HABITAT: Western tropics.
TYPE OF PLANT: Epiphytic perennial. HEIGHT: Variable.
How TO IDENTIFY: The diversity within this genus of 300 species makes
description difficult. For the most part, these are pseudobulbous, ever-
green epiphytes that produce springtime sprays of golden butterflies.
Probing this rule are the few species that are noted for their delicate
pink blooms.
SPECIES CULTIVATED IN FLORIDA: Many kinds of oncidiums appear in col-
lections of Floridians, some are native near the peninsula's tip. Hybrid-
ization has not proceeded in this genus as in many others.
FOLIAGE: Evergreen, extremely variable in size and color.
FLowERS: Most attractive, butterfly-like, usually yellow and brown, some-
times pink.
FRurrs: Pods may result from hand-pollination.
LANDSCAPE USES: As bright accessories for lawn trees, shower-of-gold or-
chids have been long-time standbys in frostless gardens. In almost all
collections of greenhouse orchids, members of this large genus are to
be seen. Plants in full bloom may be taken from greenhouses and hung
in brackets on patio walls for the several weeks that the flowers will
remain attractive.
LIGHT REQUIREMENT: High, shifting, light shade is quite satisfactory.
GROWING MEDIUM: Black osmundine, tree fern planks, or chipped bark
are used.
CULTURE: Tack bits of screen wire around roots and blankets of osmun-
dine to hold plants on rough-barked yard trees. Pot tight and small in
black osmundine or wire to tree fern planks for greenhouse culture.
PROPAGATION: Division and seedage.
PESTS: Scales.













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