Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Creating new plans, by Ludd M....
 Education for peace, by Ray V....
 America's place in the postwar...
 The South at its best, the South...
 The South at its best, the South...
 Florida's problems today, by Dewey...
 Florida's human resources, by Doak...
 Horse sense about moving forward...
 Administrative levels of social...
 Report on education, by Colin...
 Report on religion, by Charles...
 Report on social work, by Leland...
 Report on government, by Walter...
 The conference personnel

Title: Marshaling Florida's resources
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089518/00001
 Material Information
Title: Marshaling Florida's resources
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: The Florida Southern College Press,
Copyright Date: 1945
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089518
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: 01655295 - OCLC

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Half Title
        Half Title
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Table of Contents
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Creating new plans, by Ludd M. Spivey
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Education for peace, by Ray V. Sowers
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    America's place in the postwar world, by Walter J. Matherly
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    The South at its best, the South at work: Part I, by Howard W. Odum
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    The South at its best, the South at work: Part II, by Howard W. Odum
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Florida's problems today, by Dewey B. Hooten
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Florida's human resources, by Doak S. Campbell
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Horse sense about moving forward together in Florida, by Robert MacGowan
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Administrative levels of social planning agencies in American democracy, by Howard W. Odum
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Report on education, by Colin English
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Report on religion, by Charles T. Thrift, Jr.
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Report on social work, by Leland W. Hiatt
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Report on government, by Walter J. Matherly
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    The conference personnel
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text

4* C)

Lakeland, Florida




Edited by Charles T. Thrift, Jr.



Lakeland, Florida








IT IS A PLEASURE to present in published form the formal
addresses and the reports of the several sectional meetings
which were presented at the Florida Southern College Plan-
ning Conference, October 25-26, 1944. The general theme, "Mar-
shaling Our Human Resources for Florida's Development," and
the plan of organization of the conference were significant within
themselves. The theme served to focus attention on Florida's
problems as well as potentialities, while the organization empha-
sized the necessity of integrating Florida's planning and action
with similar regional and national activity. Not only was the
need for united action in education, religion, government, and
social work made apparent, but the necessity for united effort in
all endeavor was urged. Each section of the conference realized
that it was considering specific parts of a common undertaking
and that in no sense were its deliberations isolated from each
other section. The final session was devoted to unifying the work
of the sections.
Entirely apart from the value of the papers themselves and
of the discussions which followed, the opportunity for leaders in
the several fields to meet together in such a conference as this was
These assembled papers indicate clearly that the conference
made a broad approach to the problems of the present and the
future. While the conference was,by no means confined to the
questions of readjustment to accompany the withdrawal of mil-
lions of Americans and thousands of Floridians from the armed
services and from employment in industries directly connected
with the war effort, this gigantic problem was constantly in the
background and not infrequently in the foreground.
Not only was the conference colored by the problems of an
approaching postwar era, but likewise by the individuality of
many of Florida's problems. This is not the familiar cry of
"peculiar problems" by which each state always claims to be
beset, but, rather, the realization of a situation that is too little
understood. Florida is in many ways in the South, but not of the
South. Too old to belong to the Old South, and to new to belong
to the New South, Florida's connections with each is far more


geographical than historical or cultural. Florida alone, of all the
Southern states, celebrates a centennial of statehood as late as
1945. This is highly significant, for most of the Southern states
are more than a century and a half of age, while the newest of
them, Alabama and Mississippi, were states before Florida even
became a territory of the United States.
The speeches that follow are presented in the order in which
they were delivered, with the exception of the second of Professor
Howard W. Odum's which came near the close. Professor Odum's
outline on "Administrative Levels of Social Planning Agencies in
American Democracy" was not presented but he has very kindly
made it available for inclusion. Mr. Ray V. Sower's speech was
made to the students and faculty of Florida Southern College on
the day prior to the formal opening of the conference.
Governor Millard F. Caldwell was to have spoken at one of the
sessions on the subject "Florida Looks Ahead." When Mr. Caldwell
found himself unable to attend, President Doak S. Campbell of
the Florida State College for Women generously agreed to speak.
The College is indebted to many who contributed to the success
of the conference, those who presented papers and participated in
the discussions, those who gave unsparingly of their time and
energies in working out the details of the arrangements, and those
numerous state and college groups officially represented and par-
ticipating. Especial thanks are due to Mr. John Z. Fletcher, whose
generosity made the conference possible, and to Mr. Ray V. Sowers,
who served as the general co-ordinator of the preparations and
realization of the conference.



P REFACE ....................................... ...... 7

1. CREATING NEW PLANS, by Ludd M. Spivey. ............... 11

2. EDUCATION FOR PEACE, by Ray V. Sowers................. 14

by Walter J. Matherly.............................. 18

by Howard W. Odum, Part I..................... 30

by Howard W. Odum, Part II .................... 38

6. FLORIDA'S PROBLEMS TODAY, by Dewey B. Hooten......... 46

7. FLORIDA'S HUMAN RESOURCES, by Doak S. Caihpbell...... 56

by Robert MacGowan.............................. 61

AMERICAN DEMOCRACY, by Howard W. Odum......... 65

10. REPORT ON EDUCATION, by Colin English................. 69

11. REPORT ON RELIGION, by Charles T. Thrift, Jr............ 72

12. REPORT ON SOCIAL WORK, by Leland W. Hiatt............ 76

13. REPORT ON GOVERNMENT, by Walter J. Matherly. ......... 84

14. THE CONFERENCE PERSONNEL ........................... 91



What is the problem?
Unless there is a problem there is no need for a plan. A plan is
a suggested way out of a difficulty. It is a blueprint for building
something that is now lacking. Our educational, economic, social,
and religious troubles are calling us to create plans.
What are the resources for creating plans?
All -plans should be made in the light of, first, the needs, and
secondly, the materials. A plan that does not arise out of the
actual materials will be futile. It would be senseless to make plans
for erecting a building out of brick if no brick are available.
After carefully and religiously observing the resources, what plans
suggest themselves? No matter how simple the problem is, more
than one way out will be suggested. Man does not merely have
preference, he has preferences.
What plan is to be finally chosen? The one that seems to be able
to get rid of the difficulty more easily, more efficiently, and more
permanently. The other suggested plans will be discarded and
the chosen plan will become THE plan.
How can the selected plan be realized? Unless it is carried out it
remains useless. The plan is the theory and will remain theoretical
until it becomes actual. The plan is the ideal. When it is ful-
filled, it becomes real.



W E HAVE COME together to create new plans. Many of
our old plans are out of date. They functioned tolerably
well for their day, but new difficulties, new problems
call for new plans.
To speak more exactly, we have come to make plans for the
first time for the solving of some of our problems. Many of us
have had no plans. We have been using the ancient trial and error
method. We do before we think, hoping that by mere chance our
doing will prove successful. If we do succeed, well and good. If
not we try again. Unfortunately, however, we soon find ourselves
so entangled in the meshes of our own blind doings that all our
tries are errors. Blind action will inevitably hit upon the thing
that needs to be done now and then but in the long run it fails. It
fails because it places the cart before the horse. Instead of doing
and then finding out that it was the wrong thing to do, we need to
think clearly and then do.
All of us realize that time is running short. The time for action
is upon us. We cannot long wait. Unless we do our planning
quickly, we will be forced to act without a plan. We must be pre-
pared to knock at the door of opportunity and report that we are
ready with an intelligent plan for action.
We can easily delude ourselves about being ready. We are
always in great danger when we are overly anxious. We feel secure.
We substitute will for means. There is a way that seemeth right.
But seeming is not knowing. When our feelings are high and seri-
ous perils beset us we find it difficult to impede our actions until
we have created for ourselves a plan by which we can attack our
difficulties intelligently and effectively.
Instead of overt action we need to use this urgent energy for
finding the facts concerning the problem that is so vital to us. A


plan that is not made out of the hard facts of the situation that
needs to be dealt with, is worthless. Because facts are so tough,
as James said, and our wishes so urgent, we can quite easily per-
suade ourselves that our behavior is planned action when it is
nothing more than our unlearned desires having their way.
Our danger of being deluded is at an end when we are in
possession of the true facts. We may be so excited over finding the
facts that we stop there. They may become ends in themselves.
We can easily get the habit of becoming mere collectors of facts.
We store them away for safe-keeping and too frequently they are
kept there. Think of the facts gathered by the church and com-
munity surveys filed away in closets and desks. They are not too
tough, but old routine habits are too fixed to use them for the
purpose of creating new plans. But the danger for those who have
the mind and courage to use the facts for the purpose of creating
new plans for future action, is ever present. We are liable to accept
the first plan that suggests itself instead of continuing our thinking
for a better plan. A thorough understanding of any of our diffi-
culties will create in us more than one way out. One preference on
our part means shallow thinking. We need preferences or else
there is no freedom for choice. Freedom only occurs when we are
face to face with more than one way out. Good judgment means
the opportunity for selecting. Ill-conceived plans may be due to
lack of facts but.they may also be due to slurring over the facts.
Genuinely good plans and ideals are created out of facts that have
been wrestled with courageously and intelligently. Even then we
must have the good sense to choose the plan that will best free our-
selves of our difficulties.
Right here, however, comes another peril to overwhelm us. Our
plans are so costly. So exciting when they are finally born that
we are in danger of believing that they are too precious to use in
dealing with a mundane world. We become misers of ideals. We
hoard them like money. They become ends in themselves. They
are too valuable to be mere tools. Besides, they might get besmirch-
ed by coming in contact with the cruel worldly affairs. This is the
sin of so-called educated people. Somehow they persuade them-
selves that the task is accomplished when they have created the
plans by which to do it. How many of us have attended meetings
where plans were created and voted on unanimously only to have


the meeting break up and everyone to go to his home and forget the
whole matter.
But when the plan is used to make it an actuality even a greater
danger comes to overwhelm us. The plan must be worked. Like
any other tool it will do nothing of itself. Only when the plan is
in the hands of those who know what they are about will it work
effectively. They must have knowledge of the situation in which
the plan is to work. In fact no effective plan can be devised with-
out detail knowledge of the problem involved. An architectural
plan for a house apart from its location and the people who are
going to live in it, may be attractive to the eye, but it may not fit
into a particular climate, city, or lot. The house plan should be
drawn for the particular location. It is not enough to have knowl-
edge of what the eye can see. What about the foundation? What
is the nature of the earth beneath the proposed house?
Finally, there must be a test for the plan. Will it function?
What does it get done? What happens when it works? What are
the consequences ? Does it rid us of the difficulty which suggested
the plan in the first place? By their fruits we shall know them.




OUR FLAG WAS designed as an emblem of peace. To be
sure it never shines so brightly as when flung to the breeze
above embattled champions of freedom-but essentially it
is the symbol of "liberty, equality and fraternity."
Its horizontal stripes have no bars at either side but flow out
to the right and left like the horizon, beckoning its people freely to
explore the earth's surface in their search of opportunity, in their
quest for security and in their "pursuit of happiness."
Any education adequate for peaceful living under this flag
therefore must be expansive, flexible and dynamic.
It must be expansive enough to include the main currents and
cross-currents of influence which impinge upon our personal and
social lives. What happens in the classroom from nine to four,
five days a week involving children six to sixteen; or what happens
in three semester hours on a college campus is only a very small
part of it. A classroom is simply a place where learners may study
the nature and meaning of their own selfhood and the world in
which they live to the end that a happy and effective adjustment
may be achieved. The so-called fundamentals (the three R's) are
important, as are many other aptitudes-but we must remember
that in human society attitudes are just as important as aptitudes.
With education directed toward a method of adjustment and not
simply a code of conduct, great flexibility is required; flexibility
enough at least to build its frame work out of the life situations
and experiences of the people. It must deal not only with the per-
sistence of the past, and the pressure of the present but always with
the pull of the future. Life flows forever forward. The reality
of possibility is always greater than the reality of actuality, hence
our education for life in this highly complex, rapidly changing
world must be dynamic in character.


This means that not only must there be freedom of movement
from place to place but an increasing freedom in the exchange of
goods and services within the state, the nation and the world. The
right to a high degree of horizontal social mobility is essential for
peaceful living, and it is the responsibility of education to equip
every individual with such a knowledge of his world that he may
find a peaceful and productive place in it.
Just as the stripes in our flag symbolize horizontal freedom so
the stars in their field of heavenly blue suggest man's right to rise
to the highest possible level of cultural attainment of which he is
capable. By cultural attainment we mean the elements of good
living. The only aristocracy democratic education recognizes is the
aristocracy of merit, of achievement, of service.
If we are to pursue the ways of peace in the development of
our culture there are certain areas in which we shall have to do
some courageous and clear-cut thinking:
1. We must have a better understanding of our natural re-
sources-First, what they are ? Then, how they may be more ade-
quately developed and conserved? And equally important, how
they may be more equitably distributed?
2. Harnessing our technology to peaceful pursuits. We have
wrought out for ourselves a technology that is the marvel of our
allies and the consternation of our enemies. We have learned how
to produce in abundance; now we must learn how to distribute more
equitably the goods and services our technology has made possible.
Indeed if the great teacher were offering the "Lord's prayer" to
the modern world I think he might, instead of saying, Give us this
day our daily bread," pray as follows: "We thank Thee, Lord,
for the bread we have learned how to produce in abundance, now
give us the character and courage to distribute it so that every one
may have at least a little."
3. We need also to see in a new world setting the meaning and
use of the prodigious artificial wealth (working capital) we are
able to create by the application of our technological processes to
the conversion of our natural resources. Here again this wealth is
not an end in itself but a means of increasing the satisfaction of
human needs; the achievement of a more adequate life for all.
4. Equally important is the constant reappraisal of our institu-
tions to see to it that they also fulfill the functions they were created
to perform. Because man is an experiencing animal he has a multi-


plicity of wants and he has designed for himself a variety of social
tools (institutions) for the satisfaction of these wants. But our
institutions like all other tools tend to become dull or even obsolete
and have to be sharpened, revised and replaced with tools more ade-
quate to meet the needs of a changing society. In the beginning our
institutions are simple in structure and rather definite in their
function. But with time the structure tends to overshadow the
function-thus the church with its accretion of ecclesiastical foliage
and theological dogma has at some periods lost sight of its origi-
nal function, interested mostly in meticulously manicuring its
minor morals.
The school with its curricular requirements, its credits, its pro-
gram and procedures has often lost sight of personality develop-
ment, its central function.
The state with its complex structure of departments, its aggre-
gation of agencies, its maze of bureaus, its laws upon laws becomes
a political monstrosity. Someone has said the Washington directory
of federal agencies looks like a bowl of alphabet soup!
In keeping our institutions functioning effectively we must
subject them to constant revision and adaptation-no institution
is sacred in and of itself. It gets its sanctity from the way it
liberates and enriches the lives of people.
5. Finally, since the true wealth of a nation is to be found in
the quality and character of its citizens-the people and what hap-
pens to them is the focal point of our concern. Every community
is a workshop of democracy. If we cannot fashion the life of our
own community so that it produces intelligent, sturdy, courageous
character then what hope is there that democracy can survive?
We call this an all out-war, a people's war, and by the same
token the peace must be a people's peace-unless we are concerned
with the surging awareness of the masses in Russia, China, India
and the world around; unless we get our overall perspective in focus
and realize that humanity is on the upward march we will miss the
meaning of our time. Particularly poignant is the prophecy of
our own Battle Hymn of the Republic,
In the beauty of the lilies Christ was born across the sea,
With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me;
As He died to make men holy, let us live to make men free,
While God is marching on!
In education for peace, then, there must be maintained the maxi-


mum opportunity for social mobility, both horizontal and vertical
for all mankind.
Another principle of extreme urgency is that of balance-peace
like war doesn't just happen-its achievement is possible only when
opposing social forces are kept in some kind of working balance.
We need, and must have, a better balance between the past and the
present, between the old and the young, the races, the nations, the
sexes; between agriculture and industry, labor and capital, money
and men; between technological possibility and human capacity,
centralization and local autonomy, individuation and socialization.
It is the imbalance between such opposing forces in this complex
societal structure of modern man which leads to economic and polit-
ical strife and ultimately to military conflict. We must, therefore,
make a more diligent study of these social, political and economic
forces with a view to maintaining a working equilibrium. More-
over, what constitutes balance today may not work at all tomorrow.
This cultural balance is not static like a teeter-totter, but moving
like a man riding a bicycle. Hence the necessity of learning how
to maintain this moving equilibrium. But all our strategy, all our
ingenuity and ability to manipulate forces will never succeed in
this task unless we can develop a will to peace based upon the social
solidarity of the human family, respect for human life, and regard
for human rights.
Since this conference at its various sessions on the marshaling
of our human resources will further expand these issues, permit me
to close with a story which must be familiar to many.
A father seated in his easy chair to read the evening paper was
being interrupted by his inquisitive eight-year-old son. Since the
boy was fond of jig saw puzzles the father picked up a map of the
world and cut it into a variety of sharp and jagged pieces. Then
turning to his son he said, "See how long it takes to put this map
The boy went to work and in a surprisingly short time brought
the world map back intact. The father, amazed at the feat, asked
how it had been done so soon. The boy replied "There was a man
on the other side, I just put the man together and the world was
all right!"
This then is the task of education if we are to have peace, put-
ting the mind of man together so that he becomes a responsive and
responsible citizen of his community, his nation and his world.




THE UNITED STATES today, which is increasingly con-
cerned with the postwar economy of the world, is not the
same nation as that which existed a hundred and fifty years
ago. Neither is it the same nation as that which existed fifty years
ago or even twenty-five years ago. It has undergone a series of
fundamental changes--changes that are political, social and cul-
tural as well as economic. No longer are we an infant country of
self-sufficing farmers, of small isolated towns and cities, of forty-
eight separate and independent states. We have grown up; we
have achieved adulthood; we have developed into a mature country
of interrelated metropolitan communities; of interconnected re-
gional economies, of forty-eight interdependent united states. We
have become, especially since but even before the Japs dropped
their bombs upon Pearl Harbor, the most powerful nation in the
world-a nation which, by the wisdom we display and by the
moves we make, will determine the destiny of many generations
to come not only among peoples of the Atlantic, but also among
the peoples of the Pacific.

To present America's position in the postwar world, it is nec-
essary to start with the past, gather up the present and carry the
results into the future. The past is the present of yesterday--a
million yesterdays. Man in his quest for a better order of things
has travelled a long, long road; a rough road; a winding road.
What he has achieved, particularly in earlier centuries, he has
achieved by trial and error. He reacted slowly; he backed up at
times and started all over again; he moved forward by what some-
one has called the law of unequal advance, pushing the realm of
knowledge a little further here and a little further there, but always


moving-moving from where he was to somewhere else. He did
not arrive at the position which he occupied today by one big jump.
He experimented with things; he adapted himself to his surround-
ings; he turned losses into gains. When new and better adjust-
ments were made, they were used as stepping stones for further
adjustments. As the workings of raw nature were discovered, they
were converted to human use. While the process which was fol-
lowed was usually slow, generally painful and frequently very
costly, generation after generation persisted, each gathering a lit-
tle more acquaintanceship with its environment, each contributing
its quota of accomplishments, each getting a little nearer to the
good things to which we are accustomed at present. Through all
of these readjustments, these meanderings, these back-washes and
these surges to and fro, civilization emerged, knowledge was ac-
quired, the human race learned, and the heritage of the past was
While the history of the past supplies us with many valuable
lessons which each of us must learn, we cannot afford to worship
the past. To live wholly in the past is to live blindly, aimlessly,
ineffectively. We must accept the world as it is, not as it once was.
We must do what is required of us today, not what was required
of us yesterday. The French statesman, Briand, once speaking of
another French statesman, remarked: "The trouble with that
statesman is he knows history. He lives in a cemetery. He takes
himself for Danton one day, Robespierre the next and Mirabeau
the next. He governs in the past. And the result is he neglects
the present even though it is right in front of his nose.'
We cannot afford to imitate that French statesman. Neither
can we afford to imitate the notorious flu-flu bird which old Paul
Bunyan described and which he alleged always flew backward. It
flew backward for three reasons: first, it did not want to get dust
in its eyes; second, it did not give a damn where it was going; and
third, it was interested only in where it had been. Wise men judge
the future by the lights of the past, but they do not dwell in the
past. They dwell in the present. They merely utilize the past to
interpret the present and to forecast the future. In the recent
language of Winston Churchill: "If the past continues to quarrel
with the present, there is no hope for the future."
In the United States the past has more and more ceased to quar-
rel with the present and the present has more and more ceased to


quarrel with the past. What has been done has been done. The
record is made, set, fixed. It cannot be altered.
The moving finger writes, and having writ,
Moves on, nor all your piety and wit
Can lure it back to cancel half a line
Nor all your tears wash out a word of it.
The verdict of Omar Khayyam is final. We accept it without a
murmur. Even if we could do so, we would not turn back. We
are ready to proceed, to go forward, to let the moving finger turn
to the next page, to substitute prospect for retrospect, to look toward
the shape of things to come.
To fashion the shape of things to come, we need an ever-increas-
ing number of liberals. Liberals occupy a position midway between
conservatives on the right and radicals on the left. Conservatives,
on the one hand, believe in things as they are or as they have been;
they resist change; they oppose progress; they are content with the
past and desire to see the past repeated. Radicals, on the other
hand, want to break with the past. They reject the old-all of
the old; they do not see progress as a continuous process; they see
it as something which comes in jerks or in a series of revolutions.
Liberals, however, recognize the element of change; they hold that
the new grows out of the old and adds itself to the old, but that
it does not sever its connections with the old. The persistence of
the old is just as ineluctable as the influx of the new. In the peace-
time economy of the world, therefore, an ever-increasing number
of liberals will be required-liberals who want to add the best of
what we have to the best of what we have had and thereupon erect
a finer superstructure than anything that exists in the present or
than anything that has existed in the past.

America's place in the postwar world will be determined not
only by the extent to which the past and the present are gathered
up and projected on into the future, but also by the extent to which
the economic problems of postwar reconstruction are correctly
solved. These problems are or will be of several separate but
closely related types:
1. Maintenance of government controls for a considerable
period of time after the close of war. When peace comes, we will
not be able to remove at once all restrictions on the operations of


the economic system. To permit the laws of supply and demand
immediately to operate, particularly with respect to durable con-
sumer goods such as automobiles, radios, electrical appliances and
other articles, would lead to price inflation undreamed of in the
past and would result in the inequitable distribution of scarce com-
modities which it would be extremely difficult to justify. A regu-
lated economy cannot immediately become unregulated without
dislocations which might destroy many of the very things which
we have sought so desperately to preserve.
2. Reabsorption of the armed forces and war workers into
civilian occupations. It is estimated that in 1943 we had and to the
end of the war we will continue to have 63,000,000 persons employed
in our national economy. Of this number, 8,000,000 will be in
agriculture, 5,000,000 will be self-employed or in domestic service,
20,000,000 will be civilian workers, 20,000,000 will be war workers,
and 10,000,000 will be in the army, navy or air force. After the
war, at least from 15,000,000 to 18,000,000 of these people will be
released to re-enter civilian occupations. To release them immedi-
ately or all at once would precipitate a situation dangerous in the
extreme. The release will have to be gradual or only as rapid as
we have the capacity to reabsorb them. If private industry cannot
absorb them or if it is not ready to supply them with peacetime
jobs-all of them who want peacetime jobs-the vicious cycle of
charity, doles and made work will reappear. The returned soldiers,
sailors and airmen will not stand for any such hard times as those
which prevailed in the depressed mid-thirties.
3. Conversion of war industries to peacetime production. This
will be difficult. Much plant and equipment will have to be scrap-
ped. While many war enterprises may be able to shift without a
great deal of trouble to the manufacture of consumers goods, many
others will have to close down and quit altogether. What is accom-
plished will depend upon the plans that are made in advance and
the readiness with which these plans are put into effect. If private
enterprise is not prepared to act promptly and effectively and to do
things which need to be done, there will be more not less government
in business, there will be more not less regimentation, there will be
more not less directive orders issued by bureaus and regulator-
4. Increased output of civilian goods. These goods will consist
of capital goods required for repairs and replacements and for de-


ferred non-war public works; durable consumers goods required to
meet deficits which have accumulated during the war; and im-
mediate consumption goods required to feed and clothe our own
as well as other peoples of the world.
5. Financing of postwar reconstruction both at home and
abroad. This involves two fundamental issues: First, some sort
of participation in an international stabilization fund and the ope-
ration of an international bank for reconstruction and development
as agreed to by the United Nations at Bretton Woods, and second,
the disposition of our national debt. To raise the sums required
for reconstruction, it may be necessary to increase our national in-
debtedness another $50,000,000,000 or run it up to $300,000,000,000.
How to dispose of this indebtedness will become of paramount im-
portance. We could, of course, repudiate it, which would be about
the worst thing we could do; we could remove it by hyperinflation,
which would be equally bad; we could take care of it by a capital
levy, which would partly, if not completely, disrupt the system of
private capitalism; or we could pay it off gradually out of tax
revenues, provided we are able to keep our national income at a
level equal to or only slightly below that of the present. How these
issues will be settled, will, of course, have to be determined by
6. Settlement of lend-lease debts and payment of reparations,
if any. These debts and payments will be difficult to handle. What
to do with them will create a furore. We may have to cancel them
after offsetting lend-lease contributions by other countries just as
we had to cancel, or virtually cancel, inter-allied debts and repara-
tions after the first World War.
All of these problems and others of less importance will require
immediate answers once the war is over, and unless the answers
we have are correct we may lose the peace even after we have won
the war.
America's place in the postwar world will be determined not
only by the extent to which the economic problems of peace are
correctly solved, but also by the extent to which the economy of
private capitalism is preserved. When the founding fathers of
this country settled upon the Atlantic seaboard and set out to con-
quer a virgin continent, they readily accepted what Adam Smith


in his Wealth of Nations called "the obvious and simple system of
natural liberty." As they cut, slashed, burned, dug, fenced and
plowed their way into the interior; as they crossed the Appalachian
Mountains into the Mississippi Valley; as they spread out over the
western plains; as they poured through the Rockies and rushed on
to the edges of the Pacific, they perfected that system. They ex-
panded their concepts of freedom, their ideas of open competition
and their notions of the applicability of the laws of supply and
demand. Whether they tilled the soil or cut the forests, whether
they constructed railways or built manufacturing plants, whether
they engaged in finance or became merchants, they adhered to and
made full use of the system of private capitalism.
But the system of private capitalism to which they subscribed
was not unalterable. It did not remain intact. It changed-changed
greatly with the passing of the years. To begin with, it changed
as a result of the disappearance of the frontier. It changed also,
and more particularly, as a result of the passage of the Interstate
Commerce Act of 1887, of the Sherman Anti-trust Act of 1890, of
the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, of the Clayton Act and the Fed-
eral Trade Commission Act of 1914, of the National Warehousing
Act of 1916, of the Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921, of the
Grain Futures Act of 1922 and of the various New Deal Acts from
1933 to 1938. Furthermore, it has changed even more radically as
a result of tle acts passed to take care of the emergency demands
of the Second World War. Consequently, the economy of private
capitalism-private capitalism under wartime conditions-is no
longer an economy based on "the obvious and simple system of
natural liberty"; it is an economy based largely on directive orders
issued by the President or by agencies authorized under the emer-
gency powers which have been extended to the President.
While wartime controls will be greatly relaxed once the war is
over; while many of the laws which have been placed on the statute
books by the New Deal were not perfect and were placed there too
hurriedly; and while these laws require, as a result of experience
with their workings, careful scrutiny, revamping and overhauling,
they will not, regardless of the party in power, be repealed. Private
business will not be allowed to return to laissez-faire, to conditions
of either monopoly or of unrestrained competition, to the roaring
days of 1929 or to any other earlier era in American economic
history. Even if we wanted to return to the "good old days,"


we could not do so. Times have changed. The balance of power in
the economic world has shifted. Whether individual owners and
managers like it or not, the open range of business is closed--closed,
even many non-New Dealers are inclined to feel, forever. While
the drive for private gain will continue, individual profit seekers
will no longer be allowed to roam at will, to ignore the common
welfare or to enrich themselves at the expense of the general public.
But unless the system of private capitalism, after the war, is
given room in which to operate and to expand its activities, unless
it is able to provide an adequate supply of peacetime jobs for those
who are released from the armed forces and from war industry,
and unless it is "able to produce and distribute better goods in
larger quantities to more people at lower prices," as pledged by
the National Association of Manufacturers at its annual meeting
last December, it may be supplanted by other systems-systems
which are alien to America. These systems which are political as
well as economic in character are of three kinds, any one of which
may at any time receive considerable support as a result of group
pressures: first, socialism; second, communism; and, third, totali-
tarianism. Socialism is a species of middle-ground collectivism. It
demands state ownership and operation of all the means of pro-
ducing and distributing economic goods. It may permit consider-
able individual freedom and even may allow private property in
consumption goods or goods held for use for the owne himself. It
would be inaugurated, its advocates claim, not by revolution, but
by evolution or by a process of gradual adoption through the regu-
lar legislative channels of government. The government would do
most of the things now done by private enterprise. Profit in the
main would cease to exist. Almost everyone would be a government
employee. The entire economic system would become a huge state-
owned and state-operated enterprise.
Communism, which was tried and found wanting in the early
period of the Bolshevik regime in Russia and which has in later
years in Russia become state socialism under a dictatorship, is
complete collectivism. Under it individual freedom in economic
affairs would entirely disappear. No private property of any kind
would exist. Each would be expected to produce according to his
ability and to consume or to receive according to his needs. The
right to use goods would be a right equally enjoyed by all. Some
communists take the position that collectivism would be applied


in other realms. If so, the family and the individual home would
disappear; the people would dwell in public barracks; children
would be reared in public nurseries; and food would be served in
public eating places. Above everything and permeating everything
would be the state or government. Unlike state socialism, com-
munism is based upon direct action and would be inaugurated by
revolution rather than evolution.
Totalitarianism came into existence with the rise of the Fascist
state in Italy and the Nazi state in Germany. It is an old concept.
It was familiar to Plato and Aristotle, and from time to time has
received wide acceptance. Under totalitarianism the individual,
apart from society, has no meaning; he is not a human being at
all. He has no rights or will of his own, or against society. The
state, which is society in action, is supreme. It does not exist for
individuals; individuals exist for the state. It is a corporate being
through which the total will of society is expressed. The head of
the state -Der Fuehrer on the one hand and II Duce on the other
-had absolute authority both legally and ethically. His policies
are not his own; they are state policies-policies of the state, by
the state and for the state. They need no other justification.
Unless genuine economic statesmanship is displayed by business
as well as by political leaders now and in the years immediately
ahead, one of these systems may be adopted and the economy of
private capitalism may disappear altogether. Reverend Gerald L.
K. Smith has already ranted publicly that these leaders will fail;
that they will get nowhere; and that they will have demonstrated
by 1948 that they can do nothing. Then he shouts that he and
his Hitler-minded party of rabble-rousers-the America First Party
or that party under some other name-will take over.

Finally, America's place in the postwar world will be determin-
ed by the extent to which the American Republic participates
directly and vigorously in a world organization of free nations.
The United States after the war could or might readily move in
any one of four different directions:
1. Toward enlarged American imperialism a policy which
would be strictly American and followed by America alone and
without allies. This would mean a huge standing army, navy and
air force; air bases at various points in the Atlantic as well as the


Pacific as advocated by Senator McKellar of Tennessee, Senator
Reynolds of North Carolina and Senator Chandler of Kentucky;
absorption, purchase or seizure of the Dutch East Indies, of foreign
possessions in the West Indies and of other colonial islands and
areas; and establishment of an American imperialistic system
which would be unrivaled by any other system and which would
undertake alone to preserve the peace of the world.
2. Toward an Anglo-American alliance. This alliance would
be composed of the United States and Great Britain. These coun-
tries are already bound together by the tie of language, culture and
traditions. They would have unlimited sea power and together
with their other armed forces would be able to curb aggression by
other countries, and thereby maintain a balance of power in favor
of peace.
3. Toward an Anglo-American-Russian-Chinese Alliance. This
alliance would be composed of the United Nations and would be
in a position after the war to dominate all other nations, large and
small, and to dictate and force compliance with the terms of perma-
nent peace. They would constitute the big four policemen of the
world. The plan submitted by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference
has already been attacked as essentially a four-power alliance com-
posed of the United States, Great Britain, Russia and China
(France possibly to be added later) and as nothing more than
a species of power politics.
4. Toward direct American participation in a world organiza-
tion of free nations united for the single purpose of providing
collective security.
If we move in any one of the first three directions, we will
merely reproduce the past-the failures of the past. History will
repeat itself. We will get precisely nowhere. Each of the first
three policies, if adopted, would be based upon the theory of power
politics-the notion that peace can be secured only by alliances
balancing one group of nations against other groups of nations.
In the past, such alliances have always sooner or later broken up
and have been unable to prevent the recurrence of war. The bal-
ance of power is too easily shifted. Hence, any such policies
followed by the United States are almost sure to be short-lived;
they are at best makeshifts, not permanent substitutes for war;
they will not lead to lasting peace. The only policy that will con-
tribute to this end and that will safeguard future generations


against war is a policy of direct participation by America in a
world organization looking toward collective security.
Since the peoples of the world, including our own, are ready
to accept some sort of an internationally organized order-a league,
council or federation of free nations of one kind or another, we
must be prepared to move in that direction-prepared to move
perhaps sooner than we now think. Time is short-entirely too
short. Planning for peace should have begun in earnest long ago
-immediately after the tide of war turned definitely in our favor
in North Africa and Russia and in the Pacific. We may not even
yet be sufficiently advanced to make actual blueprints of what
should be done or to specify exact details of organization, but we
are sufficiently advanced to lay down certain principles-prin-
ciples to which we might give direct attention and upon which
we might arrive at some common agreement. These principles, if
I may be permitted to present the results of my own thinking, may
be reduced to nine in number. Some of these principles are in-
cluded directly in the plan submitted by the Dumbarton Oaks
Conference, some are included therein indirectly or in modified
form, and some are wholly foreign thereto.
1. Begin with the United Nations as members of the world
organization. In the interim between the end of the war and the
actual beginning of the organization, let the high commands of
the United Nations, in cooperation with other committees, councils
and administrative agencies which have been set up to prosecute
the war and to make peace plans, carry on and function as an
ad interim world organization.
2. Guarantee membership in the world organization to all other
nations or regional combination of nations, white or black, large
or small, Oriental or Occidental, not qualified to join at the incep-
tion of the organization, when and if they meet the requirement of
admission. That means that a definite period of apprenticeship or
preparation will have to be required of some nations before they
assume the obligations of membership.
3. Let the world organization establish and maintain an army,
navy and air force large enough to compel not only its members, but
also non-members to keep the peace of the world and to curb any
possible moves that may be made toward aggression. This means
that in the early years of the organization the United Nations will


be compelled not only to supply most of the armed forces, but also
to maintain individually large standing armies and navies.
4. Require all members, once the world organization is a going
concern and has had sufficient time to demonstrate its capacity to
enforce the peace of the world, to disband their own armies and
navies, except those necessary to police their own affairs and to
protect their own people.
5. Permit each member or applicant for membership in the
world organization to have its own form of government, regardless
of what that form of government may be.
6. Authorize the world organization to hold and to govern the
colonial territories of the world not yet ready for statehood. Once
these territories and their peoples are ready, grant them inde-
pendence and admit them to full membership in the organization.
7. Provide within the world organization, ultimately if not
immediately, for the free flow of goods and services, for the free
movement of peoples and for the operation of either a common or
coordinated system of currency, credit and capital investment.
8. Place responsibility for the government of the world organi-
zation in the hands of a council and an assembly, the council to
execute policies and to administer the affairs of the organization
and to be composed of all sovereign states with an equal voice,
regardless of population, wealth or economic productiveness; and
the assembly to serve as the policy-forming, agency of the organiza-
tion and to be composed of states represented on the basis of popu-
lation, economic position and state of industrial advancement. The
organization of the assembly would prevent China and India,
because of the sheer size of their populations, from being give
too much representation and give the United States, Great Britain
and the Soviet Union larger representation because of their indus-
trial standing and advancement in technology. When the nations,
by the progress they make, change their respective positions, changes
might be made in their representations.
9. Finally, set up a world court as an integral part of the
world organization. Give it the power to adjudicate disputes be-
tween nations in the same way that the Supreme Court of the
United States adjudicates disputes between individual citizens.
Unless the American people accept these principles or modifi-
cations thereof and weave them into the fabric of their thinking
prior to the meeting of the peace-makers, agreement on blueprints


or detailed features of world organization will be difficult, if not
impossible to attain. The same conflicts may develop as those which
developed in connection with the League of Nations after the first
World War. What the United States does and the attitude which
it takes will depend ultimately, not upon the President and the
Senate, but upon the masses of the people-the masses of the
people located in hundreds of local communities. The nation is,
after all, primarily an abstraction-a political abstraction; it is
not a physical entity, except geographically; it does not function
as a material thing; it functions as a social thing; it has meaning
only as the sum total of individual citizens living together in
particular neighborhoods, organized into particular groups and
bound together by common interests of one kind or another. Unless
these citizens are not only ready but also eager to share in a world
organization, the attempts of the peacemakers to organize, such
an organization, no matter how serious, will come to naught.

To shape America's place in the postwar world, then, it is
necessary to add the best of what we have to the best of what
we have had and thereupon erect a finer superstructure than any-
thing that prevails in the present or than anything that has pre-
vailed in the past. America's place in a peaceful world will be
determined by the extent to which we do three things: First, by
the extent to which we solve, correctly the economic problems
of reconstruction and peace; second, by the extent to which we
are able to preserve the system of private capitalism; and, third,
by the extent to which we participate directly and vigorously in
world union of free nations looking toward collective security. Will
we be able to accomplish these results? If we are not able to
accomplish them, the right of free peoples to govern themselves
and to live peaceably together under the law may disappear; the
ways of democracy may cease to exist; and the civilization we have
known, we may know no more. The world may return to another
era of the dark ages-an era of darkness unsurpassed by any other
era in the history of mankind.



LONG TIME AGO, as the years of an individual's pilgrim-
age are measured, when we were boys down in Georgia, my
brother and I, working in the cotton and the corn, played
a great deal with shadows. And since that time shadows have
played a great deal with us.
Our shadows were of many sorts and shapes. There in the
field were the fleeting shadows of the clouds as sometimes they
shielded us from the sun and sometimes they afforded us enter-
tainment as they seemed to reflect, symbol like, something of the
spiritual world that we liked. Sometimes we would watch the
shadow of a cloud sweeping across the hills before we noticed even
that there was a cloud in the sky. And we watched the multiple
shadings of color and relief in the varying reflections from earth
and water and sky.
Then there were the shadows of trees, shade to us and to the
cattle, in the heat of the day and toward sunset and evening star,
lengthening shadows that stretched unbelievably far and away to
tell us that quitting time and home and supper and rest were not
far away.
And then there were the shadows of ourselves, what time we
hoed or plowed the cotton and the corn, with those grotesque shapes
and quick, funny moving apparitions before us. There was a
symbol game, sometimes almost serious, of trying to catch our own
shadows, or of stamping on them with mock ferocity to make them
stop moving and behave themselves. But they never would stop
and we never caught completely up with our shadows nor could
we ever get away from them.
And there were the shadows of the landscape cast across the
smooth waters of a little pond and the shadows of ourselves that,


as we came nearer, were reflected in the mirror-like water as images
that somehow always seemed peaceful and sometimes awe-inspiring
in the sweeping picture of what appeared at once to be sky and
earth and water and image into the water. And it was more peace-
ful, and beautiful, and satisfying to abide there in the shadows than
it was to work in the heat of the day in the fields.
And at nighttime there were certain shadow symbols, as if there
were shadows of sound, only the sound shadows always ran behind
us in the dark or nearing dark as if some quick moving invisible
but audible something was pursuing us. And we would run with
all our might and main, knowing there was nothing there to hurt
us but feeling there was surely something there to scare us.
And maybe this was the symbol basis for the saying which grew
up around us about folks who were afraid of their shadows or
afraid of voices. Or, maybe the symbol arose from the behavior
of certain of our mule colts who often got so frightened at their
shadows as to break into a run. And we thought that a person who
was afraid of his shadow must be sort of like a mule-precursor to
our contemporary song about the mule being some sort of a funny
animal and maybe you'd rather be something better than a mule.
And then there were shadow-sounds, that we called echoes,
across the hills. The shadow of a voice was sometimes thrilling or
maybe fearsome according to the situation in which we found
In due process of time and experience there was shadow boxing
and perhaps the shadow boxer wasn't much higher in the scale than
a mule. But shadow games were better-forerunners of the great
art of projecting pictures on a screen.
And there were still other symbol shadows as when we thought
of dark, shadowy forms slipping through the trees and around the
dark places about the house at night and we were afraid. And
because the Negro represented a dark form, we sometimes were
terribly unjust in likening these imaginary, sinister, shadowy
forms to the black men. And, that symbol has been all too enduring
in the minds of the folk.
Yet there were still other symbol shadows. One was as of the
shape of things to come as when it came to be said that events cast
their shadows before them, such that we began to look more to the
shadows than the reality or sometimes more wisely to look ahead
and plan for what was to come.


We heard, too, of shadows that reflected something not quite
just or clear in the life and character of a person or in a record,
something "shady." Sometimes the shadow loomed up as symbol
of fear or hazard or dread as something dark and dismal as when
it was said perhaps that there was a shadow over the South and
we felt something was wrong and wanted to do something about it;
or when it was said that the South was scarcely more than the
shadow of its former self.
And on Sunday we heard the preacher, with great unction and
conviction give the biblical symbols of shadows and their turning.
There was the shadow of death and the Psalmist's prelude to dark-
ness and gloom. And there was the character symbol of "no
variableness neither shadow of turning." And there was then the
brighter symbol of the shadow of a great rock.
Now all of these shadow recollections seem somehow welcome
symbols for the South, with its rich backgrounds in a Nature that
never turns back and where fields and crops and shadows continue
even as they did in the yesteryears. They symbolize the ever-
moving processes of a great Nature with her rich resources and
her laws of growth and development and her ever constant change
and flexibility of season and mood and creative power. For the
laws of nature are ours to use or to neglect, as inescapable as ever
were the shadows by sunlight and by moonlight. The nature that
was round about us yonder in Walton County by Bethlehem is
still nature, generously yet ruthlessly at work, paying and taking
the price, symbolic again of the Georgia poet's brook, echoing the
lilting sentiment that "men may come and men may go, but I go
on forever."
There is another way in which these shadow symbols give a
certain lightness, along with seriousness, to the most important task
that faces the people of the United States and the South in their
postwar domestic planning. Wherever we work or worship, by day
and by night, in field or in factory, in town or in country, there
looms a great shadow over all the wonderful things we may do if
only we set our hands to the plow and never turn back, if we work
more and fight less.
Insofar as all these shadows, symbol and reality, are nature's
own processes, we want to take them in their stride and see them
in their true perspective, perhaps being a bit hardboiled in getting
them out of our way when they do impede our progress. In other


words, we want to fall in with nature's great processes of growth
and development, realizing that the foundation of the Good Society
is somehow based upon the wise development, use, and conservation
of nature's bountiful wealth attuned to the human institutions
that make man a little lower than the angels. And we want to
take all these shadows seriously, but none of them too seriously in
our search for a South at its best which must surely be a South
at work.
It seems clear that this South at work, this South at its best,
facing undoubtedly both its greatest opportunity and its greatest
dilemma since a hundred years ago, will find its greatest achieve-
ments in the successful attainment of two major purposes.
One is to develop itself and the other is to get along with the
rest of the country.
The first of these is symbolized by the normal shadows and
restful shades of a great agriculture and industry in which the
new skill and science and technology help us translate our natural
wealth into capital wealth which we then devote to our institutional
wealth to the enrichment and happiness of our people.
The other great purpose is symbolized by the heavier shadows
which reflect an unbelievable recrudescence of our American sec-
tional conflict, and ignorance, one region of another, with the
consequent transfer to American organic democracy and the bal-
anced culture and economy vouchsafed in the American Dream.
Within each of these two desired attainments there are things to
do, things that can be done, measured. And it is in the way of
a certain irony and sadness that the tragedies of the South have
stemmed from our failure in these two great areas. That is, our
prevailing deficiencies have grown up as a powerful cumulative
result of our failure to develop our region in the adequate conser-
vation, development and wise use of our resources-all of this
again cumulative because of our conflict with the rest of the nation
and the congenial war of hating, stranger than all the fiction that
might be fabricated from-war through the ages.
Now our purpose at this conference is primarily to discuss the
first of these themes, namely the South's development of itself
through the enrichment of its own regional resources in the setting
of the great American nation which in turn many of us still think
will represent the best that human society has achieved.
We come back again, then, to our academic and practical


proposition as to what if we had the power given us to plan and
achieve it, what it is that we want of, for, and by the South, as a
great integral region of America. Can we state the specifications
of such a South, in which of course each state becomes a major
unit? I think we can. And, first, today we will look at the more
general specifications and elevations of our picture and tomorrow
more of the specific details to be blue printed in planned action.
We have already discussed the nature of the maturing South
as basic to the next great period of regional and American devel-
opment. We now come to explore the name and nature of "The
South at Its Best" as it will grow out of this basic maturity. The
answer here again is a threefold one. First, the South at its best
will be in terms of attainable standards of the total South set in
terms of general, flexible, enduring growth which is of, for, and
by all the people and their institutions rather than in terms of any
specific religious, economic, political, or narrow objective. In the
second place, attainable standards of culture and economy must
be measurable in terms of the total regional resources and their
use and application to the desired ends. And, in the third place,
the South at its best must be set in the framework of whatever
adjustments and ideals the new world of culture and democracy
may make articulate in America as it is symbol of the best that
human society can achieve.
With reference to the first aspect of our threefold answer, it
must be clear that the statement of desirable and attainable ends
for southern regional development must be in terms that are flex-
ible, comprehensive, enduring, and commensurate with the cultural,
economic, and social framework of our American democracy. At-
tainable standards must be stated in terms of capacities for growth,
of development of natural resources and people, of the devotion
of the people and their wealth to institutional services through
which we seek a balance and equilibrium between the people and
wealth, between men and technology, between culture and civili-
zation. We do not, therefore, say "The South at Its Best" is a
wealthy South or an industrial South or an agrarian South or
that it is a Protestant South or a Catholic South; or that it is a
democratic South or a republican South, or that it is a white South
or a black South. What we do say is that "The South at Its Best"
is a growing South, developing, conserving, and utilizing wisely all
of its resources in a balanced economy and culture of, for, and by


the people and of, for, and by all of the institutions. And it is an
American South whose specific objectives and specific needs will
then be worked out in relation to each diversified phase of life,
each changing situation, and in the combined and cooperative work
of all acting together.
Our second answer to the question as to what constitutes the
South at its best is in terms of the resources and institutions of
the maturing South as we have pictured it in the previous section.
In functional terms, susceptible of practical planning and realistic
attainment, the answer may be over-simplified through a series of
questions and answers. These questions are asked as reflecting an
analysis that, while first of all is directed toward the South itself,
nevertheless looks also to the enrichment of the Nation through the
excellence of regional attainment. These questions are:
What is it that the South now has?
What is it that it wants at its best ?
What is the difference between what it has and what it wants?
What will it take to bridge the distance between what it has
and what it wants?
How can it get what it takes to bridge this distance?
And what is the best way to get what it takes?
Now to answer these questions. First, the best answer to the
question as to what we have is in terms of total resources and their
use. We have pointed out that there are five major types of
resources or wealth which go into the making of a society. These
are natural wealth, technological wealth, capital wealth, human
wealth, and institutional wealth. These are the basic resources of
any great society. The first three relate to natural wealth and the
other two relate to human wealth. The answer as to what we have,
then, is in relative terms of abundance or excellence, of use or de-
velopment, of deficiency or waste, and of the resulting degree of
balance or imbalance of culture and economy.
Now, it so happens, as many years of study and research have
shown, that the South excels in one type of resource in each of
the two divisions, natural and human. That is, the South has a
superabundance of natural resources, but has a deficiency in
technological resources, namely, research, skills, technology, man-
agement, leadership which would translate this natural wealth into
capital wealth. The South, therefore, is poor and has a deficiency
in the third type, namely, money and capital wealth. On the other


hand, the South has a superabundance of people and, to this extent,
excels in its human resources. Because, however, it is limited in
wealth it has not developed its institutional resources to anything
like the adequacy which would enrich and use.wisely this human
wealth, the people. Our first answer, therefore, as to what we
now have in the South is that we have a superabundance of natural
wealth and human wealth, but that we lag in the other three types,
namely, technological wealth, capital wealth, and institutional
The second answer as to what we have is also derived from
many studies, and that is that the South has not conserved nor
used its resources wisely. This is reflected in a number of ways.
First of all, the South reflects a larger measure of waste in re-
sources, both natural and human, than is wholesome for any society
and in many instances a larger measure of waste than in other
regions of the United States. In the second place, in line with a
certain deficiency in skills, science, education, and training, the
South has not educated and trained its youth to that degree nec-
essary for their fullest employment and wisest adaptation to the
development of our great resources. This results, therefore, in the
third place, in an economy that has not been so well balanced as
would contribute to a culture that would fully enrich the people,
the region, and the Nation. Finally, the South also has had an
abundance of certain handicaps and a certain cultural excellence
which we shall presently enumerate.
These answers to our first inquiry as to what the South has
appear to be adequate for the purpose of practical appraisal and
planning and for the purpose of comparisons with the highest de-
veloped culture or with other regions of the Nation. There is the
very clear picture of the South excelling in two and lagging in
three of the basic resources necessary for the development of a
rich culture, with at the same time deficiencies in the wise use of
what it has, and, consequently, an unbalanced culture and economy
which does not realize adequately upon the cultural heritage of
the region. Manifestly, therefore, the answer to our next question
as to what the South wants may well be framed in the same general
reference to the total picture of resources and use. What is wanted,
therefore, is relatively easy to state in technical terms of achieve-
ment. The South at its best would very clearly be a South excelling,
not in two, but in all five resources. But more than this, it would


be a South eliminating its waste, seeking a well balanced economy
and culture, overcoming its hazards, and seeking successfully to
realize on the assets of southern culture and developing a leader-
ship adequate for .new tasks.
This is a large undertaking simply stated, yet it is possible, for
the purpose of emphasis and vividness, to over simplify the problem
even more by estimating that if the South would attain excellence
in one more of these deficient levels of resources, it would then
inevitably be able to excel in the other two. That is, if the South
would develop its science, research, invention, skills, organization,
management-or its technological resources-to the extent ade-
quate to translate its natural wealth into capital wealth, it could
henceforth utilize this increased capital wealth in the support of
its institutions and forthwith it would be able to excel in all five
levels of its basic wealth. The experience of the Southern states
in their devotion to public education, for instance, such that they
have contributed a larger ratio of public funds to this public service
than have the wealthier states of the Middle states and Northeast,
indicates that the South would allocate a liberal use of funds to
the development of its institutional wealth. How this might be
done and what the total picture of resources to be conserved and
developed is and how their use might apply to the South at its
best is the theme of our planning program.




IN OUR FIRST discussion we presented the challenge of
the South to team up with Nature and natural resources and
through the development of our human and institutional re-
sources to take stock of what is needed and wanted to the end that
our planning may be realistically successful. It was urged that be-
fore we start planning we ought to know what it is that we want to
plan for. To this end we undertook to get the basis of our future
standards at a high level of achievement and we stated the goal
partly in comparison with what we now have.
That is, we pointed out that in measures of fundamental re-
sources we excelled in two great divisions and we lagged in three.
We excel in natural resources and we lag in technological resources,
capital wealth, and institutional resources. Besides this we have
a large measure of waste and an unbalanced economy as well as a
cultural heritage that needs to be pointed forward instead of
Now what we want was stated in positive terms. That is, we
want to excel in all five of the major resources; we want to elim-
inate both physical and human waste; we want to attain a balanced
economy and culture, and we want to develop a leadership that
can realize well on the past in pointing to the future.
Now we come to ask a little more specifically what is to be done
to attain these ends. And, first, we ventured the assertion- that
if we could attain excellence in the development and wise use of
our technological resources-science-skills-technology-leader-
ship-organization-management-to the extent of translating our
natural wealth into capital wealth, we could then achieve excellence
in all aspects of our resource development and use.


We must come, however, more specifically to ask what it is
then that it will take to do this particular task of attaining excel-
lence in technological wealth and, therefore, providing leadership
and adequacy in these inseparable processes of transferring skill
to natural resources and natural resources to wealth. There are
four specific tasks which it will take to do this. First is the problem
of creating in the new generation of the South a new sense of the
meaning of natural wealth and its relation to the living realities
of the people and their welfare. Second is the task of giving youth
in the South a new sense of the value of work and high standards
of achievement. Third, then, is the problem of widening the range
of occupational opportunity, through new developments, to the
end that the superabundance of southern youth may have an equal
chance to work. The fourth task is, then, actually to train and
equip these youth so that they may function adequately and in
competition with workers everywhere.
There are, however, certain specific essentials to begin with,
manifestly, more capital wealth is necessary for the undertaking
of these tasks. This wealth must come from several sources: from
the South's own economic gains in line with the extraordinary
progress that has been made in the last few years; from the invest-
ment of wealth owned by southerners who are joining in the new
frontiers of southern development; from investments of those who
live outside the region, but who see in it an opportunity for regional
and national development; contributions from national foundations
whose monies in research and experimentation can give leverage to
regional support; and from the Federal Government in equaliza-
tion programs-agriculture, roads, health, education, public safety,
and the like.
These four objectives are susceptible to a very vivid and com-
prehensive enlargement of considerations. It is sufficient here,
however, to note briefly some of the corollaries that center around
them. First, what of the education and motivation of the young
people of the South, and, at the same time, the adult population
of the region in the meaning and significance and importance of
work, of high standards of living, of housing, of skill; in the mean-
ing of the nature and value of natural resources, of land and water,


and flora and fauna, and all that long catalogue of natural wealth
in which the South excels ? This is a field in which, strangely and
unbelievably, there is almost an absence of major programs of
education and practice, thus leaving millions of youth without
any sense of the power and glory of a great region whose wealth
may be developed and made synonymous with welfare. While this
is to some degree a plain problem of ignorance and incompetence,
it is apparently the result of neglect and default rather than inten-
tion. This is a problem primarily for the common and secondary
schools, but one in which the universities and colleges and State
departments of education must cooperate.
The next problem is one perhaps more difficult, and one that
must be developed at the same time and in coordination with the
first. This is the problem of setting up a new and expanded frame-
work of occupational opportunity in the South and the insuring
of provisions for industry, commerce, agriculture, professions, social
and distributive services, adequate to support the education and
motivation of the schools towards a new realism of work and stand-
ards, of wealth and welfare. The chief emphasis and value are
found in the fact that this widening range of occupational oppor-
tunity is found in the utilization of resources in the South. We
have enumerated types of such expanding opportunities in new
large industries, such as may come from the development of for-
estry, paper pulp industries, in new reaches in home building
programs, new industries in air-cooling techniques, development
of steel industries competent to give the South its millions of rods
of adequate fencing, the expansion of the South's special industries
in food and feed processes, refrigeration, development of farm and
commercial products from fibers, a partial supplementing of its
millions of units of deficit in dairy and poultry products, and the
whole extraordinary developing field of science in the service of
The range of the practical possibilities here could be illustrated
in hundreds of ways. One is to recall Secretary Wallace's state-
ment that he had driven many hundreds of miles throughout most
of the Southern States, and rarely, if ever, had he seen a decent
fence; or again to envisage the astronomical figures necessary for
even an approximation to the building and reconstruction of south-
ern rural homes; or of the almost astronomical number of units of
cotton manufacture needed to give the millions of farms and farm


tenants adequate margin in living and comfort with clothes and
home equipment; as well as similar unmet needs for equipment on
the farm and in village through rural electrification, various types
of cooperative endeavor, and the extension and expansion of better
management and practices. And here may be found new oppor-
tunities in the inventiveness of the South in realizing on the great
discoveries of science in the areas of plastics, proteins, oils.
It is a matured conclusion from years and years of study and
social research that the development of such expanded programs
of opportunity is the first essential if the South is to reward the
quest of its youth for bread with bread instead of stones; with fish,
instead of a serpent. This is a task of the upper brackets of educa-
tion and science, of the universities and colleges and research
agencies; of the State and city educational departments, of coope-
rative industrial and commercial research, and above all, of a
certain boldness and adventure in the investment of capital, in
faith in the outcome, and in cooperative regional planning.
The next task follows naturally in the wake of these others,
namely, the actual training of the youth of the South in terms of
skills, of vocational education, of guidance; the increase and realis-
tic application of science and scientific laboratories of social science
and educational leadership and, above all, in a revivification of
the development of agrarian culture in the South. This is a joint
program between and among all institutions of education and
leadership, beginning with the public schools and extending through
the higher brackets of universities, technical schools, agricultural
colleges, and of State, county, and city administrative systems.
We may go a little more into the details of acquiring resources
and capacities for such achievement as we have indicated, the first
of which is more wealth. Five sources from which this wealth may
be available are apparent. This first, of course, is through an im-
proved agriculture and industry, such as are seen now emerging;
through increased income, better lands and greater values, new and
old industries working more effectively. This is the normal, gradu-
ally evolving task of the South. A second source is the increasing
investment of Southerners of their funds in southern projects and
industry in contradistinction to the prevailing procedure of outside
investments. This implies, of course, the obligation of the South to
make such investments secure and profitable. A third source may
be in the similar inducement of northern and western capital to


invest in the South. This implies a twofold obligation. One is the
same as for southern capital, namely, making of the South a culture
and an economy calculated to insure stability and safety of invest-
ments. The other has to do with the hazards of absentee ownership
and control of farms, industries, and workers.
A fourth source of great importance is found in federal funds
for cooperative public works and public services and for equalizing
opportunity and for seeking parity in agriculture. It should be
emphasized, of course, that the issue of federal equalization is a
national one, applying to all regions and by no means to the South
alone, although the South would apparently be a large beneficiary.
And further, that the issue is not a new one, since the practice is
well established in such avenues as agriculture, road building,
public health, social security, federal relief, public works adminis-
tration, works progress administration, and many other activities
of the Federal Government.
Let us look at this fourth source from the national viewpoint.
The South sends most of its money elsewhere and the surplus
wealth of the nation is in nowise available within the home border
of the Southern States. The South is poor and partly for this
reason. But the South does contribute millions of dollars to the
rest of the nation, not only in its trade but also in its internal
revenue payments to the Federal Government, one single State,
for instance, paying more than twenty times what it gets back.
But more than this, the South furnishes to the nation millions of
workers and replacement people for the cities and for industry and
commerce and the professions. The South must educate these
people, and even with their inadequate education it is an expensive
proposition, so that the total cost and value of these people reaches
into billions of dollars.
The South has contributed since 1900 nearly four million people
to the other regions of the Nation, and these people have not only
carried with them their education and some of their heritage, but
they have worked for the rest of the nation during the time of their
highest productivity. Thus, the cost is not only in their equipment,
but in what they take away from the South and what they might
contribute to the development of the region had they remained.
The Nation, therefore, from any point of view, owes something
more to the region.


From still another viewpoint, the problem is preeminently a
national one. It is generally agreed among all population experts
that the South will continue to be the seed bed of the nation's
population and will provide the surplus people for many years to
come. To this extent, therefore, the character of the people of the
nation will depend upon the character of the people of the South.
In the present economy it is not possible for the South to provide
facilities equal to that of the rest of the nation, and, therefore, to
give equal educational opportunity to all of its children. This
problem, therefore, is not only one of democracy and equal oppor-
tunity as a national philosophy, but such an equal opportunity
penalizes the whole nation through the media of these interstate
The fifth source of additional wealth is found in the grants and
endowments which the national foundations may make to scientific
research, to university leadership, and to experimental efforts
within the areas basic to the balanced economy. This must be con-
sidered in close relationship to the stated objective of developing
our technological wealth. Now the most important contributions
here would appear to be in the strengthening of university and
research centers, which is our next task, since the evidence seems
overwhelming that there can be no adequate culture in the South
without the reconstruction of its agriculture and that, if the regions
would support adequately the institutions and tools of science and
learning, the future of its economics and government would be
safe. This assumes a trained leadership and research programs
adequate to evolve policies for such fundamentals as population
and social-industrial relationships.

We come next to the task of appraising our needs and planning
in terms of still more specific levels of work. These levels may
perhaps best be stated in terms of a sort of face sheet or framework
of work topically outlined for the purpose of vividness and brevity.
Our first level reviews somewhat the needs of our technological
resources with special emphasis upon research and invention. The
second level seeks to inventory resources; the third level has to do
with financing the job; the fourth level has to do with administra-
tive problems and levels of planning; the fifth applies more spe-


cifically to education; and the sixth features our regional relation-
ship to the total nation.
Research and Invention is perhaps a first must in the planning
for regional development. The challenge is for research to do for
southern development a job comparable to what it has done for
the phenomenal winning of the war. The conclusion is immediately
justified, then, that it will cost the South a great deal more not to
do this job than it will to do it. The fields of research cover both
needs and ways of doing the job-research into resolirces, industry,
agriculture, and organized research in universities and technical
institutions, in industrial concerns, and in governmental agencies.
The problem then reduces itself to the questions: Can we do it?
Or can't we? Will we do it or won't we? It is, therefore, a chal-
lenge to our capacity for strategy and work.
Inventory of Resources. The second level is to insure that we
have a relatively adequate inventory of our resources. We must
know what we have before we can plan what to do. The mere
presentation of the picture of the richness and range of resources
itself is of great importance as information and as stimulating
influence upon the people to work and the specialists to plan. Then.
always, back of the inventory is the major fact that resource use
is the main objective, alongside conservation and planning for
increased resources. Next, then is the big item of seeking new
resources and of making available those not now in use. And
finally, a special planning to prevent waste of resources must go
hand in hand with our programs of special utilization.
Financing Our Programs. We have already discussed several
levels of financing a regional development. The further specific
financing of planning programs is implied in the governmental
administration arrangements.
Administration and Functional Levels of Planning. One of the
essential meanings of planning is to get something done. In order
to get things done we have to have orderly ways of doing them.
In the field of planning we must now assume the great American
principle of cooperation between voluntaristic and governmental
agencies. But also we must recognize that the government in its
total sources must be the key institution to most planning. We,
therefore, assume governmental cooperation on all levels-Federal,
State, regional, city, county, with none of them left out. This whole
program is indicated in the outline starting on page 65. We assume


also functional levels of physical planning, economic planning and
cultural social planning and we assume that the South must have
the help of the nation and must help the nation.
Education. We assume also that education will have a large
part in the program of planning but also planning will focus largely
upon matters of education. We have already referred to the upper
brackets of university education and technological institutions. We
have also commended highly the leadership of education which is
featuring resource education and use, and we have recommended
that a course in "The Elements of Life" be given in all schools to
the end that youth may understand how things grow, how things
are made, how man and nature work together, how people partici-
pate in life and planning.
Regional National Emphasis. We come finally to the mention
of the second great task of the South, namely "getting along with
the rest of the country." This means that in all our planning we
do not want to be sectional, isolationists, or separatists but that
we propose to contribute our part to this thing we have called
"The regional quality and balance of America." In this frame-
work we shall find our planning at best and the South at its best.



N TALKING ABOUT Florida, there is a very strong tempta-
tion to speak in superlatives. Our climate is the balmiest, our
oranges the sweetest, our girls the prettiest. And conversely,
our problems are the biggest and the toughest. In speaking of
Florida's problems tonight I hope I can avoid that temptation.
I may give the impression that I have not been very successful in
resisting this temptation because I shall confine my discussion, as
far as possible, to problems peculiar to Florida. Everybody knows
that the state, the nation, and the entire world face situations of
grave importance. We are all concerned about them, and the suc-
cess with which they are met and handled will influence very
significantly the affairs of our own state. But I think we here
tonight are principally interested in those matters which are unique
in Florida, with the problems about which we, as citizens of one
state, can take effective action.
In one sense my talk tonight might be considered a summing-up.
Our sectional meetings today discussed in some detail the problems
existing in several separate fields. President Doak S. Campbell
will shortly point the way for our treatment of these matters. So,
as a kind of curtain-raiser, perhaps it would be well if we try to
see the relationship of these diverse factors.
The general theme of our conference-Marshaling our Human
Resources for Florida's Development-gives us a clue, for the
phenomenal increase in our population and the character of that
increase poses our basic problem. Florida has grown by leaps and
bounds since the turn of the century. The war has brought a tre-
mendous gain and there is every indication that the trend will
continue upwards after the war. One aspect of the problem is
this-while it is always difficult to plan for a people as dynamic
as Americans, it becomes trebly difficult when you can never be


sure of how many people you are planning for. And that is the
situation in Florida.
All planning, however, has to start with the number and char-
acteristics of the people. Making the best estimates possible, the
picture looks something like this: Between 1940 and 1943, the
civilian population of the state increased about 175,000, despite
selective service withdrawals of about the same number. Most of
that growth came from two sources: immigrant workers attracted to
war production centers, and the families of service men stationed or
in training in the state. Nobody knows, of course, how many war
workers can, or will, remain in Florida. Surveys made for other
areas indicate that something like 86 per cent of such immigrants
will stay if possible.
After the war a resumption of what might be called "normal
migration" is to be expected. On the basis of past experience we
can predict that the number will fluctuate according to economic
conditions but will probably average an annual growth of about
three per cent. Parenthetically, it is interesting to note that be-
tween 1915 and 1940 more than 79 per cent of our population
increase of approximately a million persons was due to net immi-
gration, that is, the excess of new in-migration over out-migration
of all kinds.
men. Some 206,000 men and women have gone from Florida into
the services, and approximately 15,000 have been released to date.
The most uncertain factor is the number of returning service
We hope they will all return home. And, in addition, we expect
a large number of men and women from other states who have had
part of their training here to make their post-war homes in Florida.
Any observer who has had contact with service people in the state
knows of their interest, though the important question of how many
will return can only be guessed at. One federal official, working
with veterans affairs estimates that as high as ten per cent of those
trained in the state will desire to return for settlement. I think
that figure is too high, but I do anticipate an impressive number.
Following the Spanish-American and First World War, there was
a sharp acceleration in our rate of growth. It seems to be true
that in any period of national unsettlement and change people will
migrate, and much of that migration has been to the two areas still
possessing some of the characteristics of the frontier-Florida and
the far west.


Taking all of these factors into account, we can anticipate within
a few years after the war's end an increase of some 500,000 persons
over our 1940 population. This tremendous increase and what we
do about it is, I suggest, our basic post-war problem. At the same
time, it is also the greatest opportunity in our history. These new
residents will not be on the march because they have been defeated
by life somewhere else. They are not Okies or migratory labor but,
predominantly vigorous young adults, educated and trained else-
where, who can be a tremendous stimulant to the state's growth
and development.
We have not defined the situation sufficiently, however, when
we say that our underlying problem is the utilization of the human
resources we have or may expect to have. We must examine the
ways in which they can be utilized. We must break the big prob-
lem down into smaller ones, consider the implications of this or
that use. And, since the economic aspect is the one of most popular
concern, suppose we begin there. Considering for a moment, the
consequences of the war.
December, 1943, was probably the peak in the state's economic
contribution to the war. Some 530,000 wage-earners were then
employed in non-agricultural establishments, a gain of 47 per cent
over the 1939 average. In January of this year there came the
first decline in manufacturing employment since the summer of
1939. Personnel in training camps was and still is being cut.
Florida's reconversion, then, might be said to have begun in Janu-
ary, 1944.
To foresee the exact course of post-war reconversion, of course,
is impossible. The war's effects upon Florida are, in the first
place, probably unique among the states. We can best measure it,
perhaps, by analyzing war contracts and allocations. The total
awarded to Florida through 1943, $1,238,457,000, is large by any
standard, but almost 45 per cent of that went to non-industrial
facilities-into camps, bases, airports, et cetera. Nationally, only
eight per cent of war expenditures was so used. Practically all of
this is unproductive economically and even much of that part of
it likely to have some post-war utility, such as housing, community
centers, et cetera, has not been ideally located or constructed for
long, useful life. Of the amount of contracts awarded for actual
production, some 85 per cent was for ships, compared with the
national ratio of 16 per cent. About 10 per cent of all awards in


the country were for industrial facilities-new plants; less than
five per cent of Florida's total was for this purpose, and almost
all of that went into shipyards which, by common agreement, have
little or no post-war future. Detroit will have an industrial recon-
version problem, to be sure, but in the same building and with the
same machines that are now building aircraft engines, automobiles
can be made. But shipyards do not readily lend themselves to
conversion for peacetime use.
Florida has not been a highly industrialized state. But in the
pre-war years it was making sound and steady progress in indus-
trial development. It increased its share of national manufactur-
ing production by 25 per cent from 1929 to 1939. What the war
has done, in effect, is to superimpose a tremendous shipbuilding
industry upon our economy and bring to a halt our natural growth.
Our industrial payroll has trebled, but almost all of the gain has
been from shipyards. With the end of the war and the closing of
the yards we may be left with several impressive holes in the ground
and some 50,000 unemployed workmen.
From all of this, one thing stands out clear-we shall have a
surplus, large by Florida standards, in the labor force. As to the
size of the surplus no one, of course, knows. Too many factors are
involved-the size and distribution of the national income, agri-
cultural prices, the number and character of post-war armed estab-
lishments, et cetera. The final determinant will be the ability of
Florida industry and agriculture to expand fast enough to take
up the slack. And that brings up a host of sub-problems and
corrollary questions.
For example, the room for expansion of agricultural output
and therefore, agricultural employment, is necessarily limited-
there is surprisingly small variation, in good times and bad, in the
physical quantity of foods and fibers that the nation can utilize.
Further, some two-thirds of Florida's agricultural output moves in
the national market and returns therefrom are determined more
by national conditions than by anything that Florida farmers can
do. By this I do not mean that the state's agriculture will not
expand. A report to the state planning board, made by a special
committee of agricultural authorities as a part of our overall post-
war planning program, points the way for desirable changes and
diversification. But it is clear that agriculture can usefully employ
only a fraction of the persons seeking opportunity in the state.


In this connection we have, I believe, a danger that many of our
returning servicemen will enter agriculture and not be able to
make a success of it. Many will lack the necessary training and
experience in Florida methods. Many, I fear, will invest their sav-
ings and government loans in poor lands. It is no secret that we
have some land in the state which will not support farming of any
kind. We owe it as a duty to aid and assist these of our service men
seeking opportunity in agriculture. The obvious reaction to all this
is-well, if we can't absorb these people in agriculture, let's develop
industry and trade and commerce. But some problems arise there.
With respect to manufacturing, for example, there are economic
factors that very definitely limit what we can do. Florida has no
important metal deposits or cheap fuel or power sources (unless
we strike oil), both of which are necessary for the establishment
of heavy industry. Our geographic position militates against large
scale manufacturing of standardized goods to move in national
markets, with the exception of a few lines oriented toward raw
material sources-lumber, citrus canning, et cetera.
Again, I want to say that this is not a counsel of despair-our
manufacturing industries can and will expand. The state planning
board has made a study of manufacturing potentialities in the
state, and they do exist. But all the manufacturing that we can
economically support would not absorb our labor surplus.
That leaves us with the service industries-banks, railroads,
doctors, beauty parlors, moving pictures-these can be expanded
almost indefinitely. A family can only eat so much food and use
so much soap and linens and furniture, but there is practically no
limit to the number of times it can go to the movies, take trips,
and patronize lawyers, dentists, museums, turkish baths and beauty
At this juncture you may wonder-what has all this economic
theory to do with Florida's problems. Just this. The proportion
of the total population engaged in agriculture will drop fairly
regularly, both nationally and in Florida. Much development
work remains to be done in the state's agriculture, but it will largely
be in the nature of more diversification and higher efficiency, neither
of which yields employment increases. Considerable new agricul-
tural employment may be anticipated in the southern part of the
state, but it will be mostly at the expense of other areas of the
state and country. The effective limit in manufacturing employ-


ment nationally may be reached much sooner than expected. This
is not true for Florida and the south, where manufacturing expan-
sion is the first order of the day. Again, however, some of this
expansion must come at the expense of other areas, which will not
help the market for our export commodities and at the highest
peak cannot solve our problem. Any development program we
prepare to solve our employment problem must bear heavily upon
the service industries.
Because of our tourist trade, development of the trade and
service industries ought to be a fairly simple proposition. Florida
has been in the tourist business a long time; it has a long history of
promotion and development in the field. There are two considera-
tions to be kept in mind, however. In the first place, we shall be
faced after the war with a considerable competition for tourist
favor. There has been a general awakening, during the past decade,
to the profit in the trade and almost every state in the union has
already entered the field, or plans to enter it, with organized pro-
motion. Foreign countries are increasingly interested, and air
transportation will make possible more direct competition from
Latin America. A higher national income will increase the poten-
tial market but there will be many more bidders in that market.
Another thing is this. While almost everybody agrees that the
tourist industry is the most important in the state, nobody has any
authoritative information on the extent of the industry or its exact
role in our economy. So we are faced with this problem-before
we can take any intelligent action in developing the industry, we
have got to have a measure of it. I think it is shameful that we
know so little about such a vital part of our economic life. The
state planning board, from its study of the question, has come to
the conclusion that we must determine five things:
1. The number, origins, and movement of tourists nationally
and to and in Florida;
2. The effect of the tourist on the state's economy;
3. The facilities now in the state and those needed for handling
the traffic, with some comparisons with other states;
4. The best promotion methods, making comparisons of those
used elsewhere and their effectiveness;
5. A standard index or formula, based on existing statistical
series or series that can readily be developed, for measuring the
tourist traffic and industry in future years.


By this time it may appear that we have exhausted every pos-
sible difficulty, and that the answer lies in the planning of a definite,
fast-moving program of industrial development. But there is one
last question, or perhaps warning would be the better term. A
definite, all-embracive program is probably impossible of either
planning or execution. Most industrial growth, considered from
the viewpoint of geographic area, has always been and probably
always will be largely circumstantial, the result of a variety of
causes which ultimately and usually unselectively bring together
the necessary components: an economic opportunity, labor, capital,
and an enterpriser. The administrative requirements, both in
personnel and cost, of a total program would be prohibitive and
would probably develop opposition as being in violation of the
spirit of free enterprise. This does not mean that a planned pro-
gram is undesirable or impossible, but that our planning in this
field must be kept in strict relation to the means available and the
action program must be flexible enough to adjust itself to changes
brought about by factors outside the control of planners.
If we turn now from the economic to the social field, we find a
mixed picture. As a state we have made great strides since the
turn of the century. We have improved our educational system
to the point that we are now spending more money per pupil than
any other southeastern state and, though we are still below the
national average, our teachers are better paid than those of our
neighboring states.
With respect to another continuing social problem- public
health-we have not done so well. In 1940, the number of deaths
in Florida caused by tuberculosis, malaria, influenza and pneu-
monia, pellagra, and syphilis was at a much higher rate than in
the country as a whole, and was higher in malaria and syphilis
even than the average for the southeastern states. In the same
year the maternal death rate per 10,000 live births was 65.27 in
Florida, much higher than for any other southeastern state and
more than 60 per cent higher than the 40.39 national rate. Later
figures are much better but in this whole field of public health we
have yet far to go to meet even the comparatively low national
standards. There are other continuing social problems but perhaps
we should concentrate our attention on those newer ones arising
out of the war. The most important of these is the big, complex
question of the social readjustment of the returned servicemen.


The job of making them functioning, satisfied members of civilian
society is being attacked now from all angles-we have a consider-
able body of federal legislation and a whole corps of federal and
state agencies mobilized to assist them. Local communities are
setting up machinery, also. The point I want to stress is that a
major share of the responsibility for the job rests right at home
with the individual community, a much larger share than is usually
In this connection I believe that the experience of the First
World War should be a warning. In 1919, a matter of national
concern was the slowness with which veterans were reabsorbed into
their home communities-many congregated in the big eastern
cities; forming pools of unemployment and dissatisfaction. Al-
though a great deal of comment appeared in the press regarding the
difficulty that the returned servicemen were experiencing in adapt-
ing themselves to their former environment, little was said re-
garding the obligation of the smaller communities to attract the
men home. The Y.M.C.A. made a survey which covered this aspect
of the problem and I want to read to you, briefly, from their report
issued late in 1919:
The investigation conducted during the past two months by
traveling secretaries of the Y.M.C.A. demobilization service has
convinced us that the fault lies almost entirely with the com-
munities from which the men have gone. They are not in tune
with the true spirit of American energy; there is little, if any,
civic community development in the majority of small towns. It
is notable that the desire to return to their home towns varies
among ex-servicemen almost proportionately to the enterprise
and "get-up" of these towns. A really live town is likely to
get back the greater part of its servicemen, while the other
kind will eventually lose them all ... Much has been said about
the soldier coming back with new ideas of life and affairs. The
statement is unqualifiedly true. But the trouble is that, while
this is accepted as a fact, no visible effort has heretofore been
made to adjust the community to his changed ideas.
If that situation was true in 1919, it may be many times more true
in 1945. Thousands of communities will do nothing about it, which
is the principal reason why there will be hundreds of thousands of
veterans who will migrate. We hope in Florida to benefit from
that migration but in order to do so, our own communities must
do their part.
In one other field we also find a major problem-in the field


of government. I shall not attempt tonight to discuss all the short-
comings in this field-since I believe we can all pretty well agree
that no one is ever satisfied with any government-but I should
like to highlight a few of the difficulties facing our municipalities.
Municipal governments throughout the country suffer from a
variety of ills. Our Florida cities and towns are not immune and,
in addition, they have one or two rather special diseases. They
have escaped some of the slums and blight characteristic of other
cities, though they are by no means free from them. This is not
because we have done anything consciously to prevent that but
simply because our cities are younger and continue to grow whereas
most American cities have stopped growing. But they do suffer
with all other municipalities from chronic and endemic financial
strain. Chaotic, unplanned growth has resulted in costly con-
gestion; much of the tax base has moved just out of reach of the
tax collector; municipal utilities and services are constantly ex-
panding in scope and cost; legal limitations on the cities, dating
from the time when they were only wide places in the road, restrict
their ability to adjust to modern conditions. They are largely
dependent upon the property tax for their revenues, but their
experience with delinquency during the Thirties proves very defi-
nitely that they can no longer meet constantly rising service costs
from this source.
Let's consider now some of our special problems-many of our
cities and towns are, essentially, by-products of the tourist industry
and at least their immediate future depends almost entirely upon
that industry. As a consequence they are called upon for heavy
expenditures for advertising, promotion, recreation, et cetera, to
maintain the community economy. The late Florida boom left
them saddled with a crushing debt burden, the highest in the coun-
try. And during the past three years their tourist plant has been
converted to the use of the military. Playgrounds and recrea-
tional areas have become assembly plants and shipyards. Swanky
tourist hotels have been turned into barracks. As a consequence
these cities have a reconversion problem as surely as do the automo-
bile manufacturers of Detroit. They have to re-establish contact
with their market; they must modernize and refurbish their plant.
We may condemn high governmental expenditures for public
works, but it is an absolute economic necessity for many Florida


communities. Their facilities today could not service the tourist
crop of even 1940, much less meet the greater needs of 1945 or 1946.
I may have over-stressed the community aspects of our prob-
lems. But I am convinced that they are vital. We are currently
hearing a great deal said against centralization; we expect a reversal
of the trends of the last two decades; we want to keep our affairs
in our own hands, or at least in hands directly under our eyes.
But in order to do this we have got to make our local governments
function more effectively. I think we, all of us, want less direction
and supervision from Washington and Tallahassee, but in the long
run the only way we can avoid it is for each city and community
to shoulder the burden. Some communities may have to assume
responsibilities they have never dreamed of before; certainly all
of them will have to operate more efficiently; most of them will
need aid and assistance, and a way will have to be found to provide
it without, at the same time, destroying local self government.
In order to see our problems in their entirety, we should have
to describe the whole tightly woven pattern of our society. I have
not attempted this impossible task but have tried to trace some of
the major strands. I may have given the impression that Florida
is just one mass of problems, all of them insoluble-if I did, I want
to correct that impression here and now. For every question I
have raised there is an answer; for every facet of our state's life
in which a major problem exists, there are a dozen that are prob-
lem-free. We are, I believe, in a much better position to solve our
problems today than we were five or ten or twenty years ago for,
as little as the fact is appreciated, there have been tremendous
advances in social, political, and economic knowledge.
I am convinced that Florida today has before it the period of
its greatest growth and development. The problems I have enume-
rated will not prevent it; they can only be a stimulus to our aware-
ness, a spur to our thinking and a challenge to our ingenuity.



I AM SURE THAT all of us wish that the original program for
this evening could have been carried out. A message looking
to the future development of our great State, coming from the
able and distinguished Governor-elect would have come as a fit-
ting climax to the deliberations of this conference. I am sure that
Mr. Millard Caldwell deeply regrets his inability to participate in
the program. It would be presumptuous for me to endeavor to
deal with the subject originally scheduled for him at this hour.
Consequently, I shall confine my remarks to that portion of the
general topic of the conference in which lies my chief interest.
Not having had the benefit of the deliberations of the con-
ference up to this time, I suppose I possess the usual qualifications
of last-minute speakers for presenting a summary of your discus-
sions. However, we shall assume that, so long as we deal in the
same general area, our purposes will have been served.
As we approach the consideration of the marshaling and con-
servation of these human and material resources we sometimes err
by assuming that we may treat them separately. And so, we en-
counter a troublesome paradox: If we would improve and con-
serve our material resources, we must do so by bringing about
changes in people-their attitudes, their abilities, their desires.
If we would conserve our human resources we must rely largely
on those processes which involve material things. At least, we
must begin with them. The moment we set about "improving
people," the people are inclined to resist the process. We seem
to achieve our ends by a process of indirection.
This phenomenon is well illustrated by a recent statement
under the title, "Even A. B.'s Must Eat," by Earnest. Speak-
ing of the relation of "culture" to practical and vocational educa-
tion he says:


But what happens to culture in all this ? Does it mean that
we forget all about the permanently true and beautiful? My
answer is that "culture" is always a by-product of something
else. Shakespeare's plays are now studied chiefly for their
cultural value; they were written to attract patrons to the box
office. Architects have always designed their buildings for
specific utilitarian purposes. Stiegal produced his famous glass
for a market; he went bankrupt when he overestimated the
market. The arts have always been closely linked with the
business of living. It is only when they become art for art's
sake that they wither.
In the complex and complicated business of planning, and of
marshaling our human resources for Florida's development, I
assume that you have considered also a number of aspects of our
social and material resources in their relation to those of the
region of which our state is a part. Certainly, we have many prob-
lems, and also many resources in common. We must not overlook,
therefore, the points at which we may work jointly in marshaling
our resources. One of the distinguished guests of this conference
has done us a great favor in recent years by bringing us to a
consciousness of our regional existence.
Regardless of how "regional-minded" we may be, however, we
must not make the fatal assumption that all our problems are
regional in nature or can be solved on a regional basis. We of
the South have rested in the spotlight of investigation so much in
recent years that we have acquired a heavy coat of tan. I fear that
we may even develop in the glare of that accustomed spotlight a
spiritual epidermis that is impervious to health-giving light. It
seems that if one wants to achieve ready publicity, one needs but
to turn the light on a "Southern problem."
To some people, the South is that geographic area that lies be-
low the Mason and Dixon line, or some other line less specifically
designated. To many, the South is a collection of social and eco-
nomic pathologies-the happy hunting ground for researchers,
uplifters, and seekers after materials for sordid novels based on
the appetites of those who thrive on that sort of diet. To multi-
tudes, the South is a colonial possession whose resources exist for
the exploitation of those who possess the means for controlling
them. To many, the South is merely a state of mind.
Cooperative planning with other states within our common
region is, without doubt, imperative if we are to utilize our re-
sources effectively and at the same time economically. The ramifi-


cations of this concept are almost endless. I mention one type of
cooperative effort by way of illustration. The idea is far from
original. I have heard it mentioned for the past two decades at
least. But, strangely, little has been done about it. I refer to
possible cooperation among the higher institutions of the region in
providing certain facilities for education and research in a single
institution instead of attempting to provide a complete program in
each and every state. Probably one of the best examples is one
that has occurred more or less negatively rather than by cooper-
ative design. I refer to schools for veterinary medicine. No south-
ern state provides a sufficient number of candidates for veterinary
medicine to warrant the expense of equipping and maintaining a
full scale school in this field. Common sense would seem to dictate
that some one institution within the region be encouraged to de-
velop a strong institution in the particular field, and then for the
work in that institution to be made available to candidates in all
the participating states. What has happened with respect to this
one professional field might well be so planned that the entire
service to candidates for various professions might be allocated to
some one institution by mutual agreement.
This leads me to the main point of this discussion. If we are
to marshal our human resources-resources which Mr. Hooten has
already indicated are to be found in abundance, we must do two
things: 1. We must do a thoroughgoing job of stock-taking of
these resources. 2. We must provide for participation by large
numbers of people in the total process of cooperative study and
On the first of these points I call attention to an important
phase of the complex business which we call "the democratic proc-
ess." It is of the greatest importance that persons trained in re-
search and investigation provide a constant stream of facts-tested
data so organized as to have meaning. It is essential that such
facts be given currency so as to reach effectively the largest possi-
ble number of persons to whom they may convey meaning. Essence
of the process, however, is the final use that is made of them for
the human benefit-their use as a liquid resource, as it were, is
the simple interpretation of significant facts to the largest possible
number of our people.
One needs but to look around to the evidences of the powerful
effect of interpretations of facts or alleged facts upon the human


race. Every patented nostrum that is sold for its curative qualities
either for physical or social ills attests the propensity of human
beings, in high places and low, to apply, even in the most vital
processes of their lives, things that have been interpreted to them
as reliable facts. On the contrary, scientific inventions and dis-
coveries often have tough going until some one comes forth with
interpretations that have meaning to citizen John Doe and his
Witness, if you please, the epic story of an early adventure of
a young entomologist by the name of Harcourt Morgan. A whole
region was infested with the cattle fever tick. Year by year the
infestation grew worse. The young entomologist went to work on
the problem of control or possible eradication. Having found a
fairly simple and direct method for the eradication of the pest he
set about to organize the whole region for tick eradication. Dipping
vats were constructed in almost every township. Dipping mixtures
were provided in quanity. Orders were secured whereby non-
conformists would be punished. The program was on.
But the story does not have such a precipitate nor such a happy
ending. Citizen John Doe didn't understand. His rights were
being infringed upon. His father had never been bothered with
these upstarts who went up and down the land making people dip
their cattle in the vile mixture. Furthermore, the stuff was in-
jurious to his cattle. He heard that it had killed some in the next
county. For several years, in many sections of the infested region,
the destruction of a dipping vat was a sort of heroic Saturday
night pastime.
In due course of time, John's neighbors in an adjacent tick-
free county seemed to be getting along very well in the cattle
business. John began to put two and two together-an absolutely
essential process if John Doe is to be a happy and useful citizen.
The answer-John's children may chance to read in some book or
old report about some sort of silly plague among cattle a long time
ago. John indulges in the pleasant reminiscence upon the sub-
ject: "How we got rid of the cattle tick."
The successful eradication of the cattle tick was a long and
expensive process-probably much longer and more expensive
because John Doe was not in on the whole matter more effectively
from the beginning of the enterprise. Clumsy and difficult as
the process may be, a thoroughgoing job of taking stock will be


much more effective if large numbers of persons participate in
the process.
Necessarily, it follows, then, that if the stock-taking involve
both researcher and layman, the planning of the proper use of the
resources discovered on a wide enough scale to be effective will be
much more likely to ensue.
This brings us to a practical consideration which has meaning
for all of us who have an interest in the fullest development of our
human and material resources in Florida. For some months there
have been suggestions that some sort of overall study be made of
the conditions that affect the education of our people in Florida-
some appraisal of our present resources and our present program
-some inventory of our resources. Such suggestions have come
from teachers, from parents, from interested citizens in various
walks of life. Evidence of interest in improving our educational
system was shown by the fact that the subject was of major interest
in the state primaries last spring. This is a most wholesome sign.
It augurs well for the conservation and improvement of our vast
Shall we call on the experts to canvass the situation, evaluate
our schools, and provide us with a blueprint for the future? By
all means, yes. This process will, doubtless, provide us with the
necessary information to effect great improvements. But what
about John Doe? What about the program that must be put into
effect? The children are John Doe's. He pays the taxes. Shall
he merely supply the children and the taxes?
Anyone who has ever experienced the satisfaction of directing
or even participating in a wholesome community project knows
that the success of the project in the last analysis depends upon
the intelligent, wholesome, voluntary cooperation of the large
majority of those who make up the community. This is the soft
of thing we mean, at least in one phase, by marshaling our human
resources. The extent to which we can carry forward such a
process, whether in a small community, a large community, a state,
or a region, determines in large measure the success of our efforts
to improve the resources which have been laid at our door.



A N ODD THING happened here on the campus last week. A

horse ran loose. You can see the marks of his hoofs yet. It
was a weird spectacle. There has not been a horse on this
campus since the days of the Spanish grandees. I felt as if I were
in the midst of a nightmare. While I rubbed my eyes, my brain
threw out a suggestion that was a life-saver. I heard the tallyho
above Loch Lomond. It was the coach-and-four with crack-of-whip
and tang-of-wheel on white gravel.
Forward with Florida on horseback? No, it cannot be done.
We are living in a scientific age. A new power has entered into
civilization, and if Florida is to help in her own evolution, it must
be in co-operation with the new energy harnessed by science.
The horse found himself in a worried world. Nobody knew just
what to do with him. We guileless professors disappeared as rap-
idly as our heels could carry us. All our advances upon this bold
intruder proclaimed our utter lack of preparation for such emer-
gency. Nevertheless, our popeyed attitude had a genuine respect
for the high-spirited monster. This was no sway-backed movie
clown. He was the proud possessor of a pair of heels as fast and
furious as any might wish to see. I looked and longed for our Flor-
ida cowboys to take charge of the situation.
Then I thought of the new day. Have we the same respect for
our machines? No! Why? Simply because we are not scientific
minded enough. We are driving monsters that we do not under-
stand. Let us create a generation endowed with scientific experience
that will know how to handle the machine age. The modern ma-
chine needs a friend just as the old horse did. We must domesticate
the motor.
The poor horse was just as much worried as we were. You could


see by the wild look in his eye that he felt entirely out of place. The
reason is simple. He had been educated in a good school and knew
his business, but there was nothing here to indicate that he was of
any more use in the world. If a horse could weep, this forgotten
plug might have given us an unrivaled liquid demonstration of
disillusionment and disappointment.
Everything in nature wants to function purposefully. Here
was a horse without a job, with nothing to do to earn an honest
living. This conference has recorded its fear that many humans
may find themselves in the same predicament in the not-too-distant
future. They would be well advised to prepare for such an emer-
gency. A horse can go to grass. Man and his brood are slightly
more expensive. Is our counsel of thrift of any use? It should be
to the wary. Boom days are doom days.
Above all, let us look out for new ways of building into the life
of Florida the labor that will be available after the war. No hurri-
cane is more tragic than home without a pay envelope. Dobbin
needs a job or his stored up energy will destroy our beautiful cam-
pus. He tried to tell me where the work should begin. "Do you
know why I am here ? Just because so many Florida highways are
hard on my hoofs." The idea is good. Florida needs highways
just as it needs skyways. There will be plenty of room for labor
in taking care of both projects. Let business take heed. Safe roads
are short cuts to success.
The old horse was a reminder that nature is still with us. Right
in the middle of the campus, just within sight of the biology class-
room, he lifted up his head and gave a loud neigh. It seemed as if
he were laughing to scorn the whole shebang. After all the poor
fellow was neither snob nor cynic, he was only advertising his cause.
Did he not represent the fundamental industry of Florida? I
saw a thousand farmers rise up around him with cattle, swine,
chickens and horses by the thousands. The future of Florida is in
the land, and I wish with all my heart that the lads and lassies on
the campus could have heard his challenging cry, as I heard it, and
that he could have kicked in the door of some bureau in Tallahassee
to let the lords of the law know his claim upon their resources.
Florida will only be as rich, as healthy, and as happy as its basic
industry will allow her to be. Therefore I swore to sing the praises
of the horses and the cattle like Virgil in the days of old. The
bucolics of Florida are a ringing challenge to the poets of tomorrow.


Old Whitey was also a reminder of what happens when we forget
the harness. Horses have no right to run wild in a world like our
own. Civilization demands more appropriate conduct. Life needs
the reins of discipline, the bit of knowledge, and the blinders of
concentration. Harness is organized happiness.
But why blame the horse? Someone had carelessly left the gate
ajar. Loose gates make lost horses. This is really a round-about
way of saying that authority is one of the essentials of a maturing
world. Where is this authority? Some of us are prepared to say
it is in education. Untaught man is a barbarian. Thank God for
the influence of trained professors and teachers on community life.
Delinquency is due to the fact that someone left a gate open.
The public is too careless about the principle, the plans, and the
policies of the educator. Closer cooperation between home and
school will put an end to the record of life wasted through lack
of supervision. Life needs authority. At this point we include
religion because the bond between church and school should be
close and kindly. They work for the same general end, and the
pattern is not complete if either is left out.
The old horse saddened me for a moment, when I saw him in
this strange environment, for I thought of the genius of youth
wandering without direction or sympathy. Young people left to
their own wild impulses become a danger to themselves and a men-
ace to their generation. Youth needs the classroom as the horse
needs harness. There is nothing derogatory in this similitude, for
a good horse is happiest when he is fulfilling his destiny. The des-
tiny of youth is to be intelligent, and this is the purpose of educa-
tion. The school must keep ahead of the public.
But was he a symbol too? Was he not a stranger? The horse
was definitely a newcomer and it was plainly evident that he knew
not his way around the sacred halls of learning. What then? We
only wished him a good time, now that he was out for a holiday,
and if he had given us time our kindhearted young ladies would
have provided tidbits for his sweet tooth just as the sun did for
his hoofs. He is the symbol of the tourist. We were a little scared
lest he take possession of the whole landscape, but we were rapidly
adjusting ourselves to his picture as he nibbled the grass. Give
the tourist a chance. He is just as lonely very often as our visitor
from the stable. The tourist needs a friend. Let him have your


The gallant steed was trying to tell me that he only left his nar-
row quarters to see and enjoy the wonders and beauties of his native
state. Who wants to live in a paddock when he can range through
paradise. He seemed to say as he stamped his hoof, "Appreciate
what you have around you." There will be multitudes of like-
minded people after the war on the lookout for health and happi-
ness. Give them a welcome to Florida, the land of fruit, flower
and fable.
I might have asked the old horse if his stable was uncomfortable
that he should have left it so unceremoniously. Maybe I would have
learned something. Anyway the point is: house the people well,
don't overcharge them, and above all give them an incentive to
remain. Build houses that can be enjoyed summer and winter and
Florida will draw to its heart people who will say, "What a privi-
lege to live in Florida." Share your beautiful state gladly with
the big changing world that will soon strike its tents and that
sorely needs renewal through good homes and happy surroundings.
May I suggest that we were very proud of that old horse? Do
you ask why ? That horse had the good sense to come to college. It
was a compliment that I deeply appreciated. One cannot be long
around the sanctum sanctorum without imbibing some of the knowl-
edge and understanding that fill the atmosphere. The right envi-
ronment is a powerful asset for the growing mind. I saw in my
strange friend a vision of the forgotten lads and lassies who longed
to be here but who had no chance to realize their ambition. It has
been argued as the fundamental issue in this conference that the
youth of the South must acquire the skills to utilize the resources
of the land. How can we plan to bring to college the youth of the
Florida hinterlands? Who will endow their way to higher educa-
The potential leaders are there waiting for us, Florida's own
leaders who will put back into the state their own lives enriched
with the treasures of education. Who will give them a vision of
their possibilities?
Two words have been used in this conference-inform and
inspire. Within these two words lie all the resources that Florida
needs to fulfill her destiny. Awake then! The new day is dawn-
ing. Education is your sunrise. Forward to the grand new world
that is yours for the making!
Now that I think of it, we may go forward on horseback after all!




Constitution. Authorized by Congress as a regular constitu-
tional form of procedure. Appropriations from Congress to include
cooperative arrangements with state and regional agencies on the
basis of precedents of federal services to agriculture, highways,
public health, social security. A major agency implying the high-
est prestige and most distinguished service. Members nominated
by the President and approved by Congress.
Personnel. Nine members whose qualifications correspond to
members of the Supreme Court, heads of major commissions or
members of the Cabinet. In general, major parties represented
and one member from each of the regions and one or more at large.
A central office with a staff of research and planning experts and
adequate administrative and secretarial service.
Function. 1. To insure a continuous scientific inventory of
the state of the nation and to provide essential information for the
President, the Supreme Court, and especial needs; to co-ordinate
research and approximate a clearing house; to reduce overlapping
and economize on congressional committee investigations.
2. To act as a buffer between the President and the other
branches of government and to provide a safeguard against over-
centralization and power through government by persons.
3. To act as buffer between the national government and the
states and regions, and provide the necessary federal centralization
necessary to effective decentralization.


Constitution. Authorized by the state legislature as a regular
constitutional form of procedure. State legislation to provide for
cooperative arrangements with national, regional, and local plan-
ning agencies. A major agency implying the highest standards of
public service. Members appointed by the governor.
Personnel. Nine members constituting a board large enough to
insure a working quorum and adequate representation of the state;
small enough to guard against promiscuous council. Not.more than
four to be heads of state departments. A central office with small
staff of research experts and planning technicians.
Function. 1. To provide information for the governor and
different divisions of state government; to coordinate research and
approximate a clearing house; to reduce overlapping and economize
on state legislative committee investigations.
2. To act as buffer between the governor and house of repre-
sentatives and other branches of government and to provide a safe-
guard against over-centralization and power through government
by persons.
3. To act as buffer between the governor, counties, cities, and
local government; and to co-operate with the regional, national, and
local agencies.

Constitution. Authorized by the national and state legislation
creating their planning agencies. A major regional agency with
membership composed of ex-officio members of each state planning
agency in the region.
Personnel. One ex-officio member from each state and planning
agency; one ex-officio member from each regional planning or inter-
state compact group already functioning, such as Tennessee Valley
Authority; one member ex-officio from the United States Planning
Agency; one member at large. A central office with an executive
officer and secretarial and administrative assistance.
Function. 1. To provide a clearing house of conferences and
procedures, enabling the states within the region to keep mutually
informed and to avoid conflicting procedures.


2. To act as a buffer between the states, on the one hand, mini-
mizing the trends toward extreme state rights and interstate bar-
riers, but, on the other hand, also advising and protecting individual
states in fundamental matters.
3. To act as a buffer between the federal, centralized govern-
ment and the individual states; to avoid conflict between states and
federal authorities and to create wholesome understanding and
relationships between the states and the federal government.
4. To co-operate with the United States Planning Agency in
special planning and development involved in river valleys, water
resources, and other areas overlapping state boundaries.

Constitution. Authorized by the state legislature as a regular
constitutional form of procedure. Board created through an en-
abling act from the state and elected by the county commissioners,
county board, or other county governing body. A major agency in
the public services, implying in personnel and services the highest
standards of all department divisions.
Personnel. Nine members constituting a board large enough to
insure a working quorum and adequate representation of the coun-
ty; small enough to guard against promiscuous council. Not more
than four should be ex-officio members of the county board, with
the recommendation that the heads of the county public health,
public welfare, and public education be members. A central office
with secretarial and technical assistance.
Function. 1. To provide essential information for the different
county divisions of services; to co-ordinate research and approxi-
mate a clearing house; to reduce overlapping and economize on
state legislative committee investigations.
2. To provide mutual co-operation of the county with state,
district, city, or other county planning agencies.
3. To co-operate with the regional, national, state, and district
agencies on problems of intra-state concern.

Constitution. Authorized by the state legislature as a regular
constitutional form of procedure. Optional appropriations from


the state legislature to include co-operative arrangements with
county and city planning agencies. A major agency in the public
services, implying in personnel and services the highest standards
of all other departmental divisions.
Personnel. One ex-officio member from each participating
county or city (as defined) within the district. A central office
with secretarial assistance.
Function. 1. A procedure enabling the counties within the dis-
trict to co-operate and to avoid conflicting procedures.
2. To provide mutual co-operation of the district with state,
county, city, and other planning agencies.
3. To co-operate with the regional, national, state, district,
county, and city planning agencies on problems of intra-state

Constitution. Authorized by the city council, board of alder-
men, or other local governing board, as a regular legislative form
of procedure, in accordance with the constitutional procedure set
up by the state legislature. Legislation to include co-operative
arrangements with county and state planning boards. A major
agency in the public services, implying in personnel and services
the highest standards of all other departmental divisions.
Personnel. Nine members appointed by the mayor, consti-
tuting a board large enough to insure a working quorum and ade-
quate representation of the city. Not more than four members
should be heads of city departments, the other members should be
drawn from the city leaders at large. A central office with secre-
tarial and technical assistance.
Function. 1. To provide essential information for the mayor
and different divisions of the city government; to co-ordinate re-
search and approximate a clearing house; to reduce overlapping
and economize on state and county committee investigations.
2. To provide mutual co-operation of the city with state, dis-
trict, county, and other city planning agencies.
3. To co-operate with the regional, national, state, county, and
district agencies on problems of intra-state concern.



I. Statement of the Problem
1. The problem briefly stated was: How can education con-
tribute to building a greater Florida through marshaling its human
and natural resources in the direction of enriched living for all its
2. Broken into its major parts the problem, more specifically
stated, involved three questions:
a. What kind of educational program is needed?
b. What steps should be taken to make possible such a
c. How can the plan, once it is satisfactorily developed, be
put into effect and further adjusted as need warrants?

II. Discussion of Problem
Discussion on the questions raised at the beginning of the
group conference brought out the following points:
1. There is a definite need for an educational program to
meet the need of all age groups and economic levels.
2. To achieve this, it is necessary first to develop an educa-
tional program designed to promote functional learning and
growth and a feeling of the importance of education in the further
development of all the resources of the State.
3. Such an educational program must establish the knowledge,
skills and understandings necessary to a satisfactory way of life
for all ages and groups. This would involve pre-school education,
adult education, and an expanded vocational education as well as
education for individuals of elementary and secondary school age.
4. Scholarly attainments can and should contribute to an
enriched type of living in which the resources are wisely used and
shared for the good of all the people.


5. It is not practical or possible for schools to establish with
the child standards and patterns which are not generally con-
sistent with the patterns. of home and community life in which the
child lives. Illustrations were given regarding the handicaps as
well as the encouragement given by the public as schools attempt
to orient youth to an improved way of life on a local, state, na-
tional and international basis.
6. It was emphasized that a satisfactory way of life involves:
a. An understanding of and willingness to use the scientific
method and approach.
b. Historical perspective in which one set of events and
problems is seen in proper relationship to other events and
c. Satisfactory habits within individuals and groups which
will lead to further development and understandings necessary
to meeting individual and social needs.
7. Schools of today have an obligation to emphasize attitudes
and knowledge essential to a satisfactory home life and to eco-
nomic competency.
8. There is a definite need for working with parents and
adult groups in order that in the older as well as in the younger
generations the "lag" between social action of people and the
technological advance of civilization may be reduced to a mini-
9. In order to accomplish this, there is a need for develop-
ment of educational programs at all levels to give proper appre-
ciations and skills in the technological and industrial areas of
living as well as in the social areas, particularly as these apply to
the resources of Florida and to the Southern region.
10. Satisfactory planning in education (as in all other fields)
must be in terms of a broad perspective and must involve partici-
pation at each unit of society: the home, the community, the
state, the nation, the world. Particularly is such planning needed
in the home and at the community level.
11. In order to gear schools to the challenges presented at this
conference, we are dependent especially upon the teaching force
and upon the institutions which give direction to their thinking.
12. A plan for resources education in Florida, presented by
the coordinator of the project, Dr. M. W. Carothers, involves most
of the features suggested by the group as being desirable in plan-


ning for reorientation of education at the state and local levels.
However, in addition to translation of materials as planned in
this project, special research needs to be done.
13. As communities plan for the postwar world it is impor-
tant that they think of more than the material goals to be accom-
plished, such as improved highways, better courthouses and the
like. Planning must include the expansion of the vision of future
citizens who can and will devote their energies to furthering
resources development -both human and natural--in health,
human welfare, leisure time activities, etc.
14. It was the consensus of the group that the problems facing
education are as broad as those of life itself. There is a great need
for a proper interpretation of and an agreement with respect to
the goals which education should seek to achieve.
15. Such an understanding must be reached through par-
ticipation of the lay public as well as through the advice and help
of specialists, be these in the field of education or in any other
field. Unless the people plan at the local and state levels, national
planners may take over the entire work for us-a thing which
would certainly be fraught with grave danger to local initiative
and to the well-being of our State.

III. Suggested Program of Action
1. We should begin immediately to: review our present sit-
uation, evaluate it carefully, determine strengths as well as weak-
2. Formulate a set of guiding principles which can guide our
educational planning in the direction of improved utilization of
human and natural resources for the improved living of all people.
3. Make a definite plan for securing necessary personnel and
facilities which the schools must have in order to carry out the
obligation placed upon them.



NO APPRAISAL of culture in Florida or the South-or any-
where for that matter-would be complete without a con-
sideration of religious resources. Religion has a curious
way of affecting nearly everything in life, though much of its
impact is oblique and disguised. From totem pole to mausoleum,"'
one recent essayist wrote, "religion affects life both corporate
and individual." Historically, many differences can be observed
between religion in the South and religion elsewhere. Florida
shares the South's individuality in this regard. Many of the
differences are contemporary as well as historic.
No attempt is made to offer a definition of religion. The dif-
ficulty is obvious in trying to secure a definition mutually accep-
table in the brief time the section met. Unhappily religion suggests
only sectarianism, obscurantism, or even pathological phenomena
to many moderns. While religious aspirations have survived the
ebb and flow or civilization, the major difficulty with the myriad
definitions of religion is that the reality continually overflows
all the thought forms designed to explain it. Religion is greater
than the institutions that foster it. To some, religion is dogma,
to some merely "church," to some "the value of civilization,"
to others confrontation with Ultimate Reality. However definitions
may go, religion is constantly yielding ethical insights and
impulses toward social betterment.
The place of religion in education, especially higher education;
personal and institutional adjustments dictated by reason of
military dislocations; church cooperation and union; .and the
need for greater emphasis on the religious nature of life's
experiences were among the chief items discussed in the section
dealing with religion. Since the major attention was devoted to


religion and education, so it is in this report. The amount of
space allocated to each topic is in no sense indicative of any
relative value thereby assigned to each; rather, it was the unani-
mous wish of the group that as much attention might have been
given to ten or twelve topics, as was devoted to the first.
1. Religion and education are inseparably linked. Religion
without education soon becomes superstition; education that
neglects religion binds artificial restrictions upon its rightful
endeavors. Unfortunately, the fundamental and distinct nature
of both education and religion is obscured rather than illuminated
by much of the discussion of recent decades. Debate has often
been confined to comment on the danger of sectarianism or the
need for the separation of church and state. The diversity of
religious faiths in our democracy has been feared as a source of
possible dissension, whereas contributions of differing faiths might
have been claimed for the enrichment of our culture.
So-called higher education and the institutions in which it
flourished were products of the dynamic inner nature of religion
itself. Religious faith stimulated the intellect and encouraged
the life of reason, and it is within these institutions and among
these devotees that one finds the birth of scientific inquiry as
we know it today. Religious faith has again and again given
rise to universities and colleges and will yet give rise to even
higher educational achievements.
In the United States religious faith was a very prominent,
if not the primary, factor in the rise of institutions of higher
learning. The charters of practically every one of these insti-
tutions affirms the religious motivation, the spiritual and moral
intentions, of the founding fathers. These pioneers of American
education, whether establishing privately-endowed or state-sup-
ported institutions, were positive in their appraisal of religion.
The breadth of view of these founders, which was intended to
enhance rather than restrict the development of spiritual and
ethical religion, has been interpreted by many subsequent edu-
cational commentators as religious neutrality. All who are con-
cerned with the purposes of higher education may profit much
by close study of the early records, especially as they reflect the
intention of the founders.
Religion needs the closest association with intellectual dis-
cipline and liberating insight, if its driving force is to make for


humane life. It needs the repeated test of comparison with the
ranges of known fact, to keep its drives relevant to the actual
requirements of human well-being in the actual world. It needs
the critical temper of fine-edged minds constantly at work to
keep its perspective clear, to make impossible its mistaking some
partial thing for transcendent reality. Thus religion needs for
its own good health a place in the enterprise of higher education,
just as it is needed to give vitality to education.
Much of what has been said about higher education could
be repeated in regard to secondary education. Indeed, several of
the members thought that in secondary rather than higher educa-
tion lies the area in which religion and education can be most
mutually beneficial. Where the area of greatest effectiveness lies
may be in doubt, but there is no doubt that religion and in-
tellectual enterprise belong together. Each gains from close
association with the other.
2. One of the most serious problems confronting organized
religion at the present time is brought about by the complexity of
military demands. This problem is many-sided, relating as it
does to institutional dislocations brought about by the concentra-
tion of vast numbers in a few areas and personal dislocations
occasioned by entering and leaving the military service. The
group devoted most of its attention to this subject on the specific
problems involved in helping returning servicemen and women
readjust themselves to civilian life, especially civilian religious
life. With sectarian lines being minimized by the military chap-
lains, cognizance was taken of the fact that many groups might
find difficulties in justifying existing divisions. The returning
service personnel may give an unexpected impetus to interchurch
cooperation and union.
3. Cooperation and union received considerable attention apart
from their relationship to the problems just noted. There are
more than two hundred and fifty different religious groups in
the United States. The number of groups increased rather sharply
during the last decade, though during the same time several of the
larger groups united. Florida is a haven for many of the newer
groups, and sectarian lines are rather sharply drawn. So-called
religious heresy in other sections of the country may be regarded
as enlightment or liberalism, but in Florida, as in the South
generally, heresy is still heresy with the vast majority of people.


Fidelity both to group and special conviction results in amazing
duplication of work, particularly in small towns. It is the rule to
see from three to six denominations struggling desperately to live
and work in a town of from four to seven hundred population.
There is only slight evidence of a desire to confederate and com-
bine churches. Only a score of the four hundred federated churches
in the United States are found in the South.
4. A relative decline in church membership coupled with a
much greater decline in vital religious experience on the part of
the members led the group to feel that religion has failed to give
proper emphasis to the religious nature of many life experiences.
Loyalty to institutions has not infrequently blinded the devotee
to the religious nature of many things not commonly associated
with any institution. In this connection, one member of the group
related the story of an individual who felt that she was extremely
irreligious because she was prevented from attending an organized
service of worship by her duties as a mother, apparently having
never associated religion and motherhood.
The fact that a spurious distinction exists in the common
mind between some things called secular and other things called
sacred not only prejudices the prospects of many successful dis-
cussions of religion but tends to narrow the contribution of
religion to life.



TO THE SECTIONAL meeting on social work, Florida South-
ern College invited persons interested in the fields of wel-
fare, health, recreation, and education representing local,
county and State (public as,well as private) agencies and organiza-
tions. Limited time did not permit the group to complete its study
and make proper recommendations for the development of a more
adequate plan of marshaling human resources looking toward the
prevention of human ills caused by economic conditions and more
efficient service for those persons who for some reason find them-
selves in need of special service or care.
It was brought out that "we have in our American philosophy
a rugged individualism today. As we started to learn more about
various sciences of helping people, our philosophy as to what
welfare was, public and private, changed. The state recognized
that it was dependent upon the welfare of the people, and the
people recognized that the state, as its servant, should assist them
in these circumstances. The purpose of social welfare is to provide
a better way of life for everyone by prevention and relief of
suffering which is brought about by social and economic causes.
As we grew in our knowledge of mental health and behavior the
great and hopeful conviction came to people that the human mind
and character was capable of developing. People could be assisted
toward realizing their full and adequate existence. Social welfare
is just a part of our democratic effort to give people an equal
opportunity for self-development. The home is recognized as a
small unit of democracy. It is in that home that a child learns a
certain give and take with people. He learns his rights. He learns
his own obligations, and the state, as a matter of enlightened
self-interest, certainly recognizes the home as soil in which the


seed of democracy may grow. The welfare of the community,
whether it is a local community, the state or nation, is dependent
completely upon the individual in that community. It is recognized
that through social welfare programs Florida today has an op-
portunity of strengthening the fabric of our state."
Before discussing the wide range of programs covered in the
field of social work with the idea of giving a brief analysis of
what is being done in Florida in rendering services to Florida
citizens, it seemed necessary to discuss some of the problems which
we are facing today and others with which we will be faced at
the termination of the war.
It was brought out that one of the most serious problems
arising after the war will undoubtedly be the loss of employment
for many groups who have been employed at high wages during
the war. Some of these groups would be unemployable during
normal conditions and other groups who have been trained during
this war period to become more or less skilled workers, will con-
tinue in industry adding to the labor pool after the men in the
armed services return to their jobs. Included in these groups who
will be facing loss of employment will be the aged and the handi-
capped who were employed only because of the manpower shortage
during the war. Most of these people will not be absorbed in
private industry and in many instances they will have to rely on
some form of public assistance for their maintenance. Another
group who will face unemployment will be the unskilled and
semi-skilled laborers. Many of these workers will be thrown out
of employment completely by the return of the skilled workers
from the armed forces. Some of this group even if they do not
lose their jobs will be faced with a definite change in economic
status. During the war while there was such a scarcity of skilled
workers many unskilled laborers were placed in jobs which ordi-
narily the better trained workers would do. Since they received
pay comparable to skilled workers it would be very difficult for
them to be able to adjust to a return to the salary scale of common
laboring jobs. Many in these groups will undoubtedly take ad-
vantage of any vocational training which is offered and many
will also need guidance and counseling from employment and
welfare agencies.
One of the most difficult adjustments which the country may
have to face will be the problem of women who have gone into


industry for the first time during the war. Many of these women
have become highly skilled workers and many have found that
they prefer employment to keeping house. Since the majority of
women were employed only to replace a man in service, they will,
for the most part, be out of employment when the men return.
Private industry will undoubtedly give preference for em-
ployment to servicemen. However, it is quite likely that it will
be impossible for industry to absorb all servicemen returning and
who are in need of employment. This may be because of lack of
enough jobs to absorb them or because they cannot fit into the
type of skill required. In this connection, it will be necessary
for employment and welfare agencies to be able to help in planning
for these men in the problems of their return to industry and
by counseling those who may not be able to return.
The migrating of new persons to Florida undoubtedly has
and will bring many benefits to the state. Along with the benefits
the state and local communities must also accept the problems of
family displacements. There has undoubtedly been more migration
of workers from one place to another during the war than ever
before in this nation. Many workers both skilled and unskilled
have come to Florida where there are defense factories and
military installations. Many of these workers have brought their
families and all their possessions with them and have severed all
home ties. Some of them have lived in the state long enough to
establish residence so that if they are out of work they will be
dependent upon the state and will have no place else to go. Another
problem may be created by the fact that some of the more skilled
workers will continue in their jobs, thus throwing out of work
some of the more unskilled workers who have longer residence
in the state. Another group who may present a problem of
residence is the military personnel. Many men in the Army and
Navy have expressed an interest in making their home in the
state where they have received their training. A good many of
the younger men have never had any established home. They
have gone from school into the armed services and if they have
married have had their wives going with them from camp to camp
during their training period. This group will undoubtedly create
some problems both in regard to employment and housing facilities.
The whole question of inadequate housing facilities is a question
which will have to be faced soon. Although the problem existed


before the war, it is intensified during the war and will undoubted-
ly cause serious difficulties later.
Welfare agencies have already had some experience as to
psychological effects of servicemen adjusting to home life and
this will undoubtedly be intensified after the war. Men who have
suffered wounds or combat fatigue may have a particularly difficult
time adjusting to civilian life. It is true that even men returning
in good health who have been living in foreign countries so long
are going to find it difficult and probably need help in adjusting
to the every day existence of home life.
After the war there will be considerable unrest among the ex-
servicemen and some may not return to their homes. These will
include the battle casualties and also men who for one reason or
another cannot face the adjustment and just do not return home.
The families of these men are going to need help, some financially
and many through casework services of welfare agencies.
Experience has revealed that any national upheaval such as a
war and decided changes in economic conditions leave in their wake
more broken homes. During the war period there have been many
hasty marriages of young persons in military service who have
not previously assumed family responsibilities and who may not
desire to do so after the war is over. This will be particularly
true if adequate employment possibilities are not easily available.
Despite whatever federal plan may be evolved for the care of
veterans' children, experience indicates that there may be antici-
pated a sizeable group of families whose federal income will need
to be supplemented if their minimum needs are to be met.
The additional broken homes situation will increase considerably
the number of mothers who will apply for aid to dependent
Already during this war we have seen the cost of living in-
crease, even though great efforts to curb it have been made.
Experience from the last war tends to indicate that the increase
in cost of living may not end with the cessation of this war.
Should the cost of living increase as it did after the last war, it
would cause much hardship for persons dependent upon assistance
as well as those persons in the low income group.
From .the report presented by the State Welfare Board on
services to the aged, blind, and dependent children as provided
by law, it would be found that today the financial needs of these


three groups of persons are being met more adequately than ever
before. However, the maximum amount which an aged or blind
person may receive is $40.00. Aged persons often become ill and
are unable to care for themselves. Blind persons, particularly those
who become blind after reaching adulthood have to have special
care. Living conditions which provide comfort and health cannot
be secured for $40.00 per month. The aid to dependent children's
program, which was designed to prevent the breaking up of homes
for financial reasons when a parent dies, or becomes incapacited, or
is out of the home, is affected likewise by maximum grants. Uider
the present plan a mother with one child to support may receive
no more than $18.00. While it is possible to provide $12.00 for
each additional child it may be seen very easily that a mother
would be unable to care for her children on the amount which may
now be provided for her. Case illustrations of children leaving
school to work and of mothers having to secure employment even
though they were needed in the home to care for their children,
indicated clearly the need for Florida citizens to realize the
inadequacies in what is being done for their most valuable human
In its provisions for persons who are in need of financial help
it was further brought out that for an aged or blind person to
receive assistance he must have resided in the state for five years.
This works an extreme hardship on many persons who have to
come to the state to be with members of their family. Many other
states have revised their laws so that only one year of residence
is required before receiving assistance.
When the question was raised as to what a person in need would
do if he were not aged, blind or a child who had been deprived
of parental care, it was found that there is no state provision
for this group. Responsibility for the sick, physically or mentally
handicapped is placed on each county. The report showed that
counties often do not assume this responsibility because county
funds are insufficient. At the present time the average amount of
assistance received by persons dependent upon county help is
$3.66 per month. Naturally, pellagra, malnutrition, anemia and
other types of illness exist with this group of persons.
Reports were also given from agencies rendering services to
special groups such as the blind, physically handicapped and
crippled children.


The Council for the Blind explained its three point program
of sight conservation which includes medical care and treatment,
training and employment rehabilitation, and services such as the
home teacher project, distribution of talking books, white canes,
and other equipment all of which assist the blind person to be
able to lead a more normal life. It was reported that inasmuch
as a blind person may receive assistance from the State Welfare
Board when he is in need and all employable blind persons may
secure training for employment through the Council, making it no
longer necessary for a blind person to solicit alms in order to
maintain himself, that law should prevent such solicitation. A
summary was also given of laws which would go far in preventing
blindness among Florida citizens. These included laws pertaining
to case finding, control of communicable disease, safety measures
in industry, conservation of vision, and special services for the
visually handicapped but not totally blind.
In discussing treatment, and training of the physically handi-
capped adult or child, it was brought out that the Vocational
Rehabilitation Division of the Department of Education has an
extensive program for serving this group of persons. During the
past two years 1750 physically handicapped persons have been
rehabilitated through medical treatment and employment training.
At the present time their average earnings are approximately
$29.00 per week.
The report from the Crippled Children's Commission pointed
out their efforts to locate every crippled child so that none would
go without treatment necessary to correct or entirely alleviate the
child's condition. As with all agencies and organizations repre-
sented, it was found that the securing of adequate and qualified
staff during these war times presented a real problem in carrying
out its. planned program.
In discussing special services for children, the State Welfare
Board reported that the best service we can give a child is to
make his own home one in which he can remain and grow up to
be healthy. If this is true, the basic thing to do for children is
to see that our public assistance programs have adequate coverage
so all children can remain in their own home. Florida has neyer
had the kind of public services for her children that she needs.
Services for children who are handicapped, who have no parents
of their own, children who have only one parent, or parents who


do not get along with each other, children who are misunderstood,
or mistreated, or neglected. For those children we have not done
very much. We do not even know what the need is in Florida.
Certain private agencies have done a good job as far as they can
go. The county and city welfare departments and the district
welfare boards have done the best they could in providing some
kind of guidance. But we have only scratched the surface. We
have not had funds, or staff, to handle the situation. Last spring
the State Welfare Board tried to do a very hasty study of what
the needs of the children in Florida were. The method of study
left a great deal to be desired. OAA, ADC, and AB cases were
analyzed to determine the number of children who were in need
of different kinds of services. More than 19,000 children were
found whose needs were not being met by any other resource in
the community. Those children were our abandoned, neglected,
children in homes of economic need, unmarried mothers, behavior
problems, mentally ill children, and delinquent children. Private
agencies, both local and state, have tried to give the best service
they could to those people who came to them for help. The
Legislature gave the State Welfare Board certain legal respon-
sibility for the care and guidance and supervision of some of these
children, particularly children neglected and mistreated. The
State Welfare Board has never been able to assume that legal
responsibility. Within the past year there has been more interest
and planning to approach some kind of state-wide uniform service
for children, and quite recently, the State Welfare Board has out-
lined very tentative simplified plans which would be only the
beginning of trying to get wider coverage for service to children
in their own homes, services to children who need foster care
away from their own homes and funds with which to provide
some of the other services they need.
While it was the consensus of opinion of the group that further
study in the field of social work should be made before definite
recommendations would be in order, the following points were
generally agreed upon:
1. The major postwar problem will be that of the conversion
of industry to provide the maximum employment. All possible
support should be given to private industry so that this is possible.
At any conversion time, however, there is usually a necessity for
facilities to help in such a transition. If private industry can not
assimilate the problem fairly quickly, it will be necessary to plan


for a general public work program which would provide employ-
ment and benefits to the various communities. In order to place
every available and able person in employment, there will need
to be very close cooperation between employment and welfare
2. Maximum grant limitations should be removed in the
categories of OAA, ADC, and AB.
A study should be made regarding the needs of persons who
do not fit into one of the three categories and that some plan be
developed whereby these persons can be assured of receiving
assistance which is needed. Along with adequate assistance there
must be constructive services to public assistance recipients if the
aim of welfare work is to be obtained; that is, to help people
become self-sufficient. In order to do this there must be adequate
health facilities for medical treatment and there must be adequate
welfare personnel in number and ability to do the job.
3. The possibility of extension of private agency responsibility
in relation to services to children should be explored. Along with
the private agency extension there would need to be a definite
expansion of the state's responsibility to children. The present
Act gives the State Welfare Board broad responsibility in regard
to children, but no funds have ever been appropriated for this
purpose. The present serious problems among children and
youth demand the necessity of greater spread of services.
It was urged that. study be given to the laws relating to
illegitimacy in the light of the protection it offers the mother,
alleged father and child. Study also needs to be made for the
licensing statutes and regulations in regard to wards who are
placed for foster care. Plans should also be made to provide for
licensing all homes providing maternity care for unmarried mothers.
4. There should be extension of services and facilities for
white feebleminded children. Provision should be made for the
care of Negro feebleminded children. Institutional facilities should
also be provided for delinquent Negro girls.
5. There should be enforcement of school attendance and
child labor laws. Along with this there is the need for employment
and vocational training services. The unsettledness of youth will
require more personal attention in the way of counselling service
and vocational guidance.
6. Study should be given to the necessity of the establishment
of a state mental hygiene program in which would be included
psychiatric and psychological diagnostic and treatment services
for adults and youths.




A PANEL discussion on state, local, and municipal govern-
mental problems was arranged by Mr. Dewey B. Hooten,
executive secretary of the State Planning Board. The
agenda and experts from the statements of several members of the
panel follow.
1. Is the continued trend toward centralization of function
in state government desirable? If so, what additional function
should be centralized? If not, should any present function be
returned to the local units of government?
2. What is the effect of centralization in the local areas-both
as units of government and as communities?
3. What are the problems of efficient and economical ad-
ministration of state government within our present framework of
(a) elected officials, (b) appointive officials, (c) appointive boards,
(d) ex-officio boards? Has this led to spreading of functions over
many different agencies?
4. What is the area of study of The Committee on Govern-
mental Research concerning these problems?
5. What are the financial problems present in this situation
and how can they be solved?
6. What are the problems of overlapping of city, county and
special district units? Does this overlapping create problems of
duplication of activity and function? Are there duplication of
officials? What may be done about combining some of these units ?


7. What are the problems of municipal finance? Causes of
this? Consequences for the future? Do cities need help?
8. What is the role of the state in providing help?
9. What is the need for state supervision of municipal finance
Why is it needed? What will be its benefits?

Relative to the first question proposed in the agenda, Mr.
Dewey B. Hooten wrote, in part: At the outset, I think we can
all agree that the ideal we want is government as close to the
people as possible. Nobody wants to destroy local government;
home-rule, insofar as it can be made effective, is what we all want.
Keeping this in mind, we can make these points about central-
1. It must be remembered that in almost no instance do you
get complete centralization; what you do get is a division of
function. In education, for example, the state department and
board of education have assumed some functions formerly carried
on by local boards of public instruction, but the local boards still
do the lion's share of the job. The same is true, in varying degrees,
with respect to welfare, roads, etc. In some instances a new local
agency has been set up to assist in administration, as in the case
of the district welfare boards.
2. Debating about the desirability of the trend is perhaps a
little academic; the trend is here, under modern conditions probably
inevitable. It is the result of a variety of factors and influences,
but basically is due to the inability (whether because of economic,
administrative, political, or legal reasons) of the lowest govern-
mental level to provide a required public service to the satisfaction
of the people. There is a good deal of loose talk about "power-
grabbing" and "usurpation" by central governments, both state
and federal, but this talk is mostly uninformed, perhaps deliberately
so to serve partisan ends, and ignores the history of the movement.
No government surrenders power willingly-that is axiomatic;
local governments did not surrender any functions to the state
that they were able to discharge adequately. There were jobs to
be done; some of them were not being done at all, some were being
poorly done by counties and cities. The people demand that they


be done, swiftly and well, and the state was forced to take the
initiative. The question is not so much one of centralized control
versus home rule as it is of coordination of activities to obtain
the greatest good.
It is undoubtedly true that, in some fields, a few localities were
doing a good job on their own before the state moved in, perhaps
even a better job than the state-local centralization has done. But
if the job is not being done well enough by a majority of the
localities, and it is a job considered important enough by a majority
of the people, the whole field is likely to be handed over to the
state for administration.
3. The important thing for study and consideration is not so
much the fact of centralization or its desirability, but rather the
mechanics of it, the way it is done. We want to retain just as
much local control and direction as possible, and whatever ad-
ministrative machinery is set up must be designed and operated
with this ideal in mind.
Since this centralizing process is a matter of dividing function
between state and local governments, the desired result is a system
or systems which allocates specific functions to the governmental
level best fitted to carry them out. The great advantage of state
government is perspective-it is not so subject to local pressures,
myopia and temporary aberrations. The great advantage of the
local government is detailed knowledge, knowledge that no central
administrator could ever obtain. A proper division of functions
will be determined by these varying advantages. As a general
proposition the natural division is this: policy making, over-all
control, setting and enforcement of standards, will be done by the
state; detailed administration will remain in the hands of the
cities and counties.
4. I suspect that a good deal of administrative centralization
is more apparent than real. There is a tremendous difference
between law and practice. In this connection I was interested in
a study of centralization in Minnesota reported in a recent issue
of Public Administration Review. The author came to these
conclusions, which are in accord with my own observations: "There
is much less administrative supervision of local governments . .
than a mere examination of statues and administrative regulations
would indicate. Some of the statutory supervisory powers given
state agencies are not exercised at all . In many other cases,


only the less effective devices of administrative supervision are
employed although the state agency theoretically has more power
than is exercised."
The author also concludes that effective state supervision is
obtained only in those fields where it is a prerequisite to grants-
in-aid. This is perhaps to be expected, since the most powerful
drive for centralization has been the need to raise more money
than local governments were able to, for the support of some
specific public purpose. A local governmental official will make
out a report to the state department if his agency's getting some
state or state-federal money is dependent upon that report; he
may or may not make out that report if there is only a penalty
(probably never invoked) for doing it. If there is no grant-in-aid
involved, direct and indirect political pressures brought by local
agencies and officials, and the usually inadequate enforcement staff
and budget of the state agency, will bring about a considerable
hiatus between what the statutes and regulations say and what
is actually done in the way of regulation and control.
What additional function should be centralized?
Two functions immediately leap to mind: general relief and
municipal government. The state and district welfare boards are
almost exclusively concerned with the several categories established
by the federal social security act. General relief remains an ex-
clusive responsibility of local governments, city and county, and
is a joke in Florida. In only one or two urban areas is there
any kind of general relief program worthy of the name.
Municipal governments everywhere suffer from a variety of ills,
mostly financial. In Florida some special causes add to the trouble
-the need for tourist promotional expenditures and the crushing
debt burden left by the boom. Florida is one of the few states
which exercises no financial control over cities, which is one of the
reasons they are in their present poor shape. The Florida system,
or lack of it, has been characterized by one student as "anarchy
and insanity rampant."
In describing the advantages of state supervision of municipal
finance as proposed in the ninth item of the agenda, Mr. Bryan
Willis, auditor of the State of Florida, wrote at much greater
length than it is possible to present here. Among other things


Mr. Willis wrote: The supervisory relationship can exist only
when the primary responsibility for administration rests on local
officials. If the state is actually the authority responsible for the
service, the control that state officers may exercise over their local
agents is quite different in nature from that which is implied
under supervision. It is not so much the purpose of state super-
vision to manage the finances of local governments as to see that
the finances are properly managed.
The purpose and objectives of supervision, in the sense intended
here, are the following: first, to establish, or to aid in establishing,
standards of service, rules of procedure, and the goals to be achieved
through the performance of the activity or operation; second, to
guide, educate, and otherwise assist local officials in complying
with the standards established; third, to inspect the results and
to take such steps as may be necessary in order to assure proper
observance of the standards, regulations, or procedure.
The collection by the state of comprehensive, scientifically
classified, uniform financial statistics, is fundamental to any sound
system of public administration. Reports constitute the only
means through which financial information can be translated into
usable form, and inasmuch as democratic government depends for
its continuation on an active, well-informed citizenry, it is the
responsibility of the state to see that a comprehensive reporting
system is devised.
There can be little doubt that the cities of Florida are in bad
shape from the fiscal standpoint. They had never gotten over the
boom when the depression caught them ill-prepared for an
emergency. Many were obliged to borrow heavily for current ex-
penses, and also for refunding of maturing obligations was common.
Most cities have been living from hand to mouth in the hope that
something would turn up. The average per capital debt of Florida
cities is still the highest in the United States, and the average
interest paid is higher than the national average, being over four
per cent. More than 35 per cent of the total expenditure of cities
and towns in Florida is for debt services.
With debt service payments absorbing such a large portion of
their revenue, many communities face the future with difficult
problems of financial administration. In a number of instances
the problems have reached the point where they exceed the
capacity of local officials to deal with them wisely. Skillful ad-


ministration as well as wise legislation is needed. To secure wise
legislation, the legislature and the governor must be able at all
times to know with definiteness and certainty the facts relative
to the general conditions of local administration in each com-
munity, and more particularly the exact financial situation of
each and all of them. Otherwise the relief so urgently needed
may not be forthcoming.
No doubt much of the blame for these predicaments can be
placed at the door of the cities themselves. In some instances,
they have their own mis-management to blame for part or all of
their financial troubles. According to the 1940 Federal census
there were 272 incorporated places in Florida. Only 35 of them
with a population in excess of five thousand, and 143 with a
population of less than one thousand; that leaves 94 in between.
The great majority of these places prepare no budget, many of
them have no systematic method of assessing property or prepar-
ing tax rolls. A record of delinquent taxes in many cases does
not exist. In addition, they keep no systematic records of account,
and fail either to prepare or file annual financial reports as re-
quired by law. An independent audit by qualified public account-
ants is seldom made, except in the larger places. As a consequence
of the lack of these rudimentary principles of financial administra-
tion, there is not available comprehensive, scientifically classified,
uniform financial statistics on municipal finance.
The form of state regulation may vary widely in scope. It may
embrace any or all of the following broad aspects of the subject:
taxation, indebtedness, budgeting, accounting and auditing, and
financial reporting. The legislature may enact laws prescribing the
procedure for assessing property and collecting taxes within all
jurisdictions and allow the individual local officers to construe and
apply them according to their own ability, or the legislature may
provide for state supervision to assure uniform application of the
laws in all jurisdictions and to give expert assistance and advice to
local assessors and collectors in the performance of their duties.'
Within the limits established by the legislature the supervisory
agency may also prescribe rules and regulations for the assessment
and collection of taxes and for the review and equalization of local
This latter procedure is important, particular with state aid
playing such a prominent role in financing local governmental fune-


tions. This fiscal aid is a medium for the redistribution of the re-
sources of the state among local units to prevent a breakdown in
governmental activities in the poorer communities and to promote
minimum standards of service in all communities. To make sure
that each community is paying its fair share of the costs, and to
make sure that there is a fair allocation of the tax burden among the
taxpayers of all communities, the legislature must arrange for cen-
tral supervision of the assessment and collection of local property
Relative to local debt, the legislature may regulate and limit the
purposes, amounts, terms, forms, and methods of retiring debts
through constitutional and statutory provisions; or supplement
statutory provisions with administrative supervision. Supervision
of local borrowing may vary from merely regulating the debt pro-
cedure and forms to complete control of the borrowing process.
Regulating the debt procedure may include the recording and re-
porting of debt, review of the legality of bonds and notes, and the
adjustment of debt terms, types, and methods of retirement; while
complete debt control may include approval and rejection of bond
issues and control of the purposes, amounts, and marketing of bonds.
Concerning budgeting, accounting and auditing, and financial
reporting, control by the legislature may take the form of a legal
requirement that the various levels of local government adopt desig-
nated minimum standards of fiscal procedure to govern these tools
of financial administration. Record systems devised by state-local
cooperation keyed to a uniform classification of accounts and ac-
counting terminology, rather than a narrow concentration on stand-
ard forms, may be the prescription; with budgets following the
same uniform classification and terminology. The procedures should
be promulgated by a central supervising agency rather than by
direct statutory regulation, for this phase of financial administra-
tion must necessarily be of dual nature, partly legislative and partly



John Z. Fletcher, Jacksonville, Florida; Honorary Chancellor,
Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Ludd M. Spivey, President, Florida Southern College, Lakeland,
Ray V. Sowers, General Supervisor, Duval County Schools, Jack-
sonville, Florida.
Colin English, Superintendent, State Department of Education,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Dewey B. Hooten, Executive Secretary, State Planning Board,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Walter J. Matherly, Dean, College of Business Administration,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Leland W. Hiatt, Commissioner, State Welfare Board, Jackson-
ville, Florida.

Ludd M. Spivey, President, Florida Southern College, Lakeland,
Ray V. Sowers, General Supervisor, Duval County Schools, Jack-
sonville, Florida.
Walter J. Matherly, Dean, College of Business Administration,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Howard W. Odum, Director of the Institute for Research in So-
cial Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill,
North Carolina.
Dewey B. Hooten, Executive Secretary, State Planning Board,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Doak S. Campbell, President, Florida State College for Women,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Robert MacGowan, Dean, Annie Pfeiffer Chapel, Florida Southern
College, Lakeland, Florida.


Social Work-Leland W. Hiatt, Commissioner, State Welfare
Board, Jacksonville, Florida.
Education-Colin English, Superintendent, State Department
of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.
Government-Walter J. Matherly, Dean, College of Business
Administration, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Religion-Charles T. Thrift, Jr., Professor, Florida Southern
College, Lakeland, Florida.
Adrian Glenn Allen, Florida Southern College, Lakeland,
Manuel Alvarez, Jr., University of Tampa, Tampa, Florida.
A. N. Anderson, County Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion, De Funiak Springs, Florida.
Marie Anderson, District Welfare Board, Miami, Florida.
Claud M. Andrews, State Director, Vocational Rehabilitation,
Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.
Edyth L. Bainter, Assistant Professor of Art, Florida South-
ern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Josef Baker, Assistant Professor of Music, University of
Tampa, Tampa, Florida.
Mary Lou Baker, State Legislator, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Clifford C. Beasley, State Supervisor, Vocational Rehabilita-
tion, Department of Education, Gainesville, Florida.
Hester Rice Boyd, Florida Southern College, Lakeland,
Floyd Bourke, Assistant Attorney General, State Representa-
tive, Tallahassee, Florida.
Jeanette Bozeman, Florida Southern College, Lakeland,
Theresa Bratley, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Leila E. Broughton, Assistant Dean of Women, Florida
Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Mary Byles, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
M. W. Carothers, Registrar, Florida State College for Women,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Mrs. Ernestine McNabb Case, Florida Southern College, Lake-
land, Florida.


Charles Val Clear, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Ruth Clegg, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. Dana G. Coe, Lakeland, Florida.
S. G. Coe, Professor, Florida Southern College, Lakeland,
J. T. Coulliette, Pastor, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. J. T. Coulliette, Lakeland, Florida.
Carl S. Cox, Supervising Principal, Lakeland, Florida.
Frances Cox, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. Stephen R. Crawford, Miami, Florida.
Frances Davis, Field Representative, State Welfare Board,
Jacksonville, Florida.
Martha Duke, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
M. E. Edson, Seffner, Florida.
W. T. Edwards, Acting Director of Instruction, State De-
partment of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.
Margie R. Fritz, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. Edna G. Fuller, Orlando, Florida.
J. L. Graham, Supervisor Schoolhouse Planning, State De-
partment of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.
Juanita Hadden, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Julia Hayman, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
John M. Haynes, Athletic Director, Lakeland, Florida.
Helen Heath, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Charles Hendrix, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
George P. Hoffman, Associate Professor, Florida Southern
College, Lakeland, Florida.
E. L. Hollady, Pastor First Methodist Church, Plant City,
Evelyn Holland, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. Elizabeth Skinner Jackson, Assistant Professor, Florida
Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
R. Henry P. Johnson, Executive Director, Florida Council
for Blind, Tampa, Florida.
Mrs. Allie C. Jones, Director, Orange County Welfare Depart-
ment, Orlando, Florida.
Joann Jones, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Mollie Kelly, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. Rachel S. Kent, Assistant Director, Social Welfare De-
partment, Orlando, Florida.


Jackie Key, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Joel Kicklighter, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Helen Hope King, Orlando, Florida.
Wanetta Koestline, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Fla.
Donald Beane Lackie, Florida Southern College, Lakeland,
B. M. Latham, Training Officer, Rehabilitation, U. S. V. A.,
Bay Pines, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Betty Lawrence, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Laura Leenhouts, Associate Professor, Florida Southern Col-
lege, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. Anna Maynard Lovell, Director, Orlando Welfare Depart-
ment, Orlando, Florida.
Grace W. Lusk, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. Robert MacGowan, Lakeland, Florida.
J. Boyd McLean, Realtor, Lakeland, Florida.
J. L. McMullen, Clerk Circuit Court, Live Oak, Florida.
William H. Malick, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Fla.
Rosalie Mathis, University of Tampa, Tampa, Florida.
Eva June Mattox, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Emma A. Maurer, Field Representative, State Welfare Board,
Jacksonville, Florida.
William Melcher, Professor, Rollins College, Winter Park,
Roberta Moore, Supervisor of Special Services, Florida Coun-
cil Tor the Blind, Tampa, Florida.
Thomas N. Morgan, State Department of Education, Talla-
hassee, Florida.
Edgar L. Morphet, State Department of Education, Tallahas-
see, Florida.
Neva Morqus, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Louis A. Nava, Chairman Spanish Department, University of
Tampa, Tampa, Florida.
Albert Nelson, Publishers Representative, Lakeland, Florida.
Martha Nelson, Supervisor of Public Assistance, State Welfare
Board, Jacksonville, Florida.
Mary Northup, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
James Gordon Ogden, Jr., Associate Professor, Florida
Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Bess O'Neill, District Welfare Board, Lakeland, Florida.


Irma L. Packard, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. Virginia E. Painter, Supervisor, Extended School Serv-
ices, Orlando, Florida.
James C. Peel, Dean, Florida Southern College, Lakeland,
T. J. Poppell, Principal, Lakeland High School, Lakeland, Fla.
Mrs. Leslie Harper Purcell, Assistant Professor, Florida
Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
W. H. Purcell, Supervising Principal, Mulberry, Florida.
Anita Quintana, State Welfare Board, Tampa, Florida.
Theresa Redd, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Paul Redfearn, Minister, Lakeland, Florida.
Wallace Reimold, Lakeland, Florida.
M. C. Rhodes, Acting President, University of Tampa, Tampa,
Carolyn Richardson, Supervisor, District Welfare Board,
Tampa, Florida.
Richard V. Rickenbach, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Rena Riddle, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. Hollis Rinehart, Jr., State Welfare Board, Coral Gables,
William Rion, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Catherine Ritchey, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Louise Robbins, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Katheryn Roux, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Merrill Shaw, District Welfare Board, Ocala, Florida.
Mrs. Dora Skipper, Florida State College for Women, Talla-
hassee, Florida.
Mary Skipper, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. R. W. Simpson, District Welfare Board, Tampa, Florida.
Ann Smith, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. Susan Smith, Supervisor, District Welfare Board, Wau-
chula, Florida.
Virginia Smith, University of Tampa, Tampa, Florida.
Julia W. Snook, Supervisor of Instruction, Bartow, Florida.
Mrs. Ray Sowers, Jacksonville, Florida.
P. P. Speer, City Recorder, Arcadia, Florida.
George C. Staley, Instructor, Florida Southern College, Lake-
land, Florida.


Daphne Stanaland, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Fla.
William Steitz, Lakeland, Florida.
Gordon Strickland, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Fla.
Frank Susslex, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida.
Mildred E. Swearingen, Supervisor of Instruction, State De-
partment of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.
Arthur Swinnerton, Florida Southern College, Lakeland,
Mrs. Mina E. Taylor, Supervisor, District Welfare Board,
Bradenton, Florida.
Charles T. Thrift, Jr., Professor, Florida Southern College,
Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. Charles T. Thrift, Jr., Lakeland, Florida.
Joe A. Tolle, Minister, Sanford, Florida.
C. B. Treadway, Chairman, State Planning Board, Orlando,
Jean Treadwell, District Director, Ft. Myers, Florida.
Mrs. C. A. Vannoy, Lakeland, Florida.
Jacquin Van Wagner, Florida Southern College, Lakeland,
A. L. Vergason, Supervising Principal of School, Winter
Haven, Florida.
Roland A. Wakefield, Vice-President, St. Petersburg Jr. Col-
lege, St. Petersburg, Florida.
T. George Walker, State Department of Education, Tallahassee,
John G. Wallenburg, Minister, Winter Haven, Florida.
Homer E. Wark, Professor, Florida Southern College, Lake-
land, Florida.
Mrs. P. K. Weaver, District Welfare Board, Kissimmee, Fla.
Wilma Witt, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.
Mrs. Cecil L. Woodall, Florida Southern College, Lakeland,
Robbins Woodell, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Fla.
M. W. Woolsey, Lakeland, Florida.
James W. Worrall, Chief, Education and Training Subdivi-
sion, Bay Pines, Florida.
Mrs. J. W. Worrall, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Daisy Jean Wyatt, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida.

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