PUBLISHED AS A COMMUNITY SERVICE
FLORIDA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY
Copyright, 1957, FLORIDA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY
This map appeared in a London magazine in 1765.
FOREWORD .................. .... .3
CHAPTER I- A Great State Springs to Life . . . . . 5
CHAPTER II The Real Florida Begins to Evolve . .. . 20
CHAPTER III The Sea's Promise for Tomorrow . . . .42
CHAPTER IV There's a Future for You in South Florida's Agriculture 56
CHAPTER V The Sky Is Not a Limit . . . .... 72
CHAPTER VI South Florida's Fabulous Climate . . . . 83
CHAPTER VII South Florida Industry Is on the March . . 95
CHAPTER VIII Building a Better Tomorrow for South Florida . 108
CHAPTER IX Vacationland, U. S. A. . . . . .124
CHAPTER X South Florida's Educational Challenge . . . 138
FOR FURTHER STUDY . . . . . . . . . 154
INDEX . . . . . .. . . 156
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . .162
To All the Readers of SOUTH FLORIDA FRONTIERS:
I hope each of you enjoys and learns as much as I have from
Here is the story, briefly told and easily read, of our past,
present, and future frontiers in South Florida. Mrs. Mike
Smith, the author, has delved into the documents of the past,
explored the records of the present, and done some shrewd
guessing about the future. A lifelong resident who has been
writing about Florida for 25 years, Mrs. Smith has described
the most important aspects of living, working, and playing in
South Florida. She shows how each came to be and gives the
reader a glimpse into future possibilities.
This book will give the junior high school boys and girls
of South Florida, as well as other readers, a greater understand-
ing of life in this area. Also, all of us are sure to catch the
author's contagious enthusiasm about the opportunities ahead
for South Florida residents.
Chapters I and II tell in part the story of South Florida's
settlement-the opening up of this frontier land. However,
frequent reference to historical backgrounds of present fron-
tiers is made in the other eight chapters. These latter chapters
deal with the facts and possibilities of South Florida life and
work in relation to the sea, agriculture, aviation, climate, con-
struction, industry, tourism, and education.
For the benefit of pupils and teachers, a list of questions and
a list of suggestions for further study appear at the end of each
of the ten chapters. Also to help in the schools, lists of audiovis-
ual aids and books to give more information about South
Florida are included at the end of the book. These various lists
have been ably prepared by Mrs. Leona Goldweber, a teacher
in the Kinloch Park Junior High School, Miami.
We can be grateful to the Florida Power & Light Com-
pany for having this volume prepared, published, and given
to schools. Along with the officials of this company, and with
school representatives who have advised in the preparation of
the material, I firmly hope and expect that this publication will
make for an even better South Florida.
WILLIAM M. ALEXANDER
Professor of Education
University of Miami
Coral Gables, Florida
A mighty missile, the Matador, rolls
onto a launcher, nose up-pointed to-
wards Florida's blue skies.
Ponce de Leon . pirates . pioneering . progress!
The challenge is here as . .
A Great State Springs to Life
In South Florida the land, sea, and sky hold exciting new
opportunities. They challenge you to create careers in fabu-
lous fields ranging from sea mining to the launching of satel-
lites, or small man-made moons, into outer space. They dare
you to think, act, and live in new ways, even to coin new words
for new activities.
It's The Climate
South Florida's opportunities and living advantages stem,
basically, from climate. All South Florida is nearer the true
tropics than any other region in the United States. But south-
eastern Florida has a unique climate moderated by cooling
winds and the Gulf Stream. This different climate is the magic
creating new frontiers.
Consider, for instance, the mysterious sea which warms Flor-
ida's long coast in winter and cools it in summer. This sea holds
vast riches yet to be explored.
In Florida's sea waters are stores of little known treasures.
You may be among those who make them useful and available
The deep-flowing currents, the mountains, the valleys, and
the floors of the sea hold vast amounts of mineral riches. The
tropical sea also abounds in vegetable and animal life. There
is the small plant and animal life called "plankton" that forms
the well of all the sea's food supply. Food supplies and miner-
als may be vanishing from the earth, but the sea remains a new
and immensely rich frontier challenging not only the scientific
fisherman but also the explorer, the petroleum geologist, the
electronics expert, and even the farmer.
The sea may be your frontier!
But you do not have to fish or dive to find a frontier in
South Florida. You find it all around you on land. Agricul-
ture offers a varied opportunity, not only to the farmer but
also to the chemist, machinist, inventor, horticulturist, vet-
erinarian, food technologist, engineer, builder, and to ex-
perts in the fields of nutrition, advertising, marketing, trans-
portation, and refrigeration. Gone from South Florida is the
old-fashioned "hayseed" farmer. Today's farmer tills the soil
with science. In fact, he may not till the soil at all. He may
be a hydroponic farmer, growing plants in water.
But there's more to Florida than sea or land. The launching
of a space satellite from a Florida base opens a new frontier so
infinite that no one can say truly, "The sky is the limit." To-
day Florida's frontiers extend into outer space. Important civil-
ian and military work such as the testing of missiles and weap-
ons in Florida is creating an increasing opportunity for en-
gineers and for experts in the widening field of electronics.
Thus the sky may be your new frontier.
The ever-spreading horizons of commercial aviation have
made Miami and all South Florida a focus of the world's ac-
tivities. Aviation now is entering its most fabulous era. In
South Florida it is continually opening new frontiers, especi-
ally to those who speak and write Spanish, Portuguese, French,
or other languages.
Miami's International Airport is one of the largest, busiest,
and most modern in the world. Millions of persons and tons
of air mail and cargo stream through this air-gate annually.
The number of passengers using the airport in 1955 was four
times the population of Miami. That year 3,059,142 passengers
Hub of the Americas, Miami's million-dollar air passenger terminal
landed or took off at this 3,000-acre airport, while 11,783,905
pounds of mail and 137,015,607 pounds of cargo were handled.
More than 17,000 persons worked at the airport and the pay-
roll totalled more than $70,000,000.
With its new $10,000,000 passenger terminal built to the
needs of the jet age, Miami's airport opens a door to the world.
Today this great international airport is also the center of
rapidly expanding light industry offering work to many per-
sons and a challenge to inventors. South Florida, and in fact
all Florida, is feeling a tremendous stir of new life through
industry connected with aircraft.
Pirates To Pioneers!
Blessed with a mild but invigorating climate, the nearest-
to-ideal living conditions in the country, and the brightest out-
look of any of the states, Florida also possesses the richest of
traditions. The colorful Indian, the fearless Spaniard, the gal-
lant Frenchman, the English planter, the American soldier-
pirates, priests, and pioneers-they all walk through the pages
of Florida history.
The recorded history of Florida begins in 1513 when Juan
Ponce de Leon landed on the east coast near the present city
of St. Augustine, but we know from a map made in 1502 that
Europeans visited Florida before that historic date. However,
to Ponce de Leon goes credit for the naming of Florida. The
impression the new land made upon the fearless, middle-aged
Spaniard is recorded in the very word, Florida "land of
Other explorers, too, were impressed with Florida's climate.
The Frenchman, Jean Ribaut, who claimed Florida for
the King of France in 1562, wrote of the new land as, "Fairest,
frutefulest, and pleasantest in all the Worlde." Ribaut landed
near the mouth of the St. John's River and he found the In-
dians there peaceful, handsome, and intelligent.
But the first lasting settlement in Florida was made at St.
Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. Worried and angered by
the French occupation of the new land, the Spanish king has-
tened Pedro Menendez de Aviles to Florida to wipe out the
French. This he did.
After establishing the settlement in St. Augustine in 1565,
the Spanish explored and made settlements in regions along
the St. Lucie and Miami Rivers and along the shores of Char-
lotte Harbor on the west coast. A fort was built at Pensacola
in 1698, and missions were established in the Apalachee coun-
try, near present-day Tallahassee.
By 1700, the Spanish had ringed the vast wilderness of Flor-
ida with far-apart settlements, forts and missions. If this seems
slow to you, consider the unknown distances, the unheralded
hurricanes, the mosquitoes, the wolves and other wild animals,
the surging rivers alive with alligators, the almost impenetrable
swamps and jungles. Add to this the constant wrangling among
the Spanish, French, English, Americans, and Indians and you
will understand why the settlement of Florida moved slowly.
Gates of St. Augustine, oldest city in the U. S.
Staunch, grim and
moated, the Castillo
de San Marcos in St.
Augustine is storied
The walls of the oldest
house in St. Augustine,"
shown here, still hold a
cannonball from the
Wars And Warriors
The three hundred years-from 1513 when Ponce de Leon
took possession of Florida in the name of the King of Spain
to 1819 when the United States of America loosed the last
desperate clasp of Spain-were centuries of intermittent war.
At times, the flames of conflict burned low but they never
died out, and often blazed into bloody battles and massacres.
Florida was not then a rich land. To the bitter dismay of
the Spaniards, who had found enormous amounts of treasure
in Peru and Mexico, it held no gold, no pearls. But it was,
nonetheless, a prize, a finger of land stretching southward to-
ward Havana and the rich isles of the Caribbean and guarding
the sea-route to Mexico, land of abundant treasure.
To understand the conflict of those formative years, con-
sider that boundaries laid down by popes and kings were no
more than imaginary lines shifting with the tides of on-the-
spot war. In the time of Ponce de Leon, the land of Florida
stretched from the Arctic to the Mississippi, at least in Spanish
minds. But gradually, as the English claimed the Atlantic sea-
board and the French moved down the Mississippi valley,
Florida was sliced away until it became the size it is today.
The original Spanish claim to Florida, strengthened by the
ousting of the French in 1565, tantalized the English adven-
turers who roamed the Florida coast, waiting like hungry sea-
hawks to pounce upon the treasure-laden Spanish galleons
bound from Mexico to Spain. Sir Francis Drake, daring Eng-
lish adventurer, attacked and almost destroyed the infant city
of St. Augustine in the 1580's.
The Spanish met the threats of the English by rebuilding
the wooden fort at St. Augustine into an impregnable fortress
of coquina rock surrounded by a moat.
This strong fort, the Castillo de San Marcos, useless in mod-
ern warfare, served the Spanish well in their war with Eng-
land. In 1702, the English Governor of Carolina moved against
St. Augustine and captured the town. But he failed to storm
the fortress in which more than 1500 townspeople huddled.
The fort was then manned by less than 100 able men and
scantily provisioned with corn snatched from the countryside
and cattle driven into the moat.
Again, in the mid-1700's, James Oglethorpe moved down
from Georgia to lay siege to St. Augustine. Again, the towns-
people crowded into the fort with the soldiers, and again the
Castillo de San Marcos held. It stands today, a story in stone,
telling of Spain's gallant but losing struggle to hold Florida.
In 1763, Spain was forced to ransom Havana from the Brit-
ish by giving up Florida to England. This was a bitter blow
England promptly and logically divided Florida into two
colonies-East Florida, with St. Augustine as its capital, and
West Florida, with Pensacola as the capital city. The English
began at once to colonize their new possession and to develop
trade with the mother country.
Dr. Andrew Turnbull, a Scotch physician who had married
a beautiful girl from the city of Smyrna, brought a colony
of Minorcans, Greeks, and Italians to an area south of St.
Augustine which he named New Smyrna.
There these uneasy new citizens set about the work of con-
quering a strange wilderness. The Minorcans cleared a few
acres, planted grapes, and tilled the soil. Theirs was an un-
ending struggle against disease, hunger, mosquitoes, home-
sickness, hostile Indians, and legal red tape that prevented
them from owning land.
But by 1776, the year the American colonies to the north
declared their independence from England, the English
colonists in Florida were shipping oranges, indigo, skins, tim-
ber, and naval stores.
Back To Spain
Florida took no part in the Revolutionary War. But in
1781, emboldened by the American war, Spain took Pensacola.
And in 1783, all Florida was returned to Spain by the English
in exchange for the Bahamas.
Spain again held Florida, but it was an uneasy possession.
The lusty, growing, and unfriendly United States of America
looked down from the north upon this desirable land. Con-
stant border fighting nagged the Spanish captains. Cities like
Fernandina reeked of slave trade and became a nest for pi-
rates, smugglers, and adventurers. A stream of runaway slaves
flowed over the border. Trouble was fomenting.
During the War of 1812, the English used the Spanish port
of Pensacola as a base of attack. This gave the United States
an excuse to send fiery, untactful Andrew Jackson storming
into Florida. In 1818, he returned again, pursuing Indians
and provoking international complications.
At Last, Americans!
By 1819, harried Spain was ready to give up the land Ponce
de Leon had claimed. Florida became a territory of the United
States of America!
The cow, Florida's legacy from Spain, today grazes on green pastures
under smiling skies.
Once traded for the city of Havana, and again, for the Ba-
hama Islands, Florida was sold, at last, for $5,000,000-not in
cash but by settling claims of American citizens against Spain.
Florida was never again to pass into Spanish hands, but Spain
left a strong imprint upon the land named by Ponce de Leon.
The early Spanish explorers, as fearless and cruel as any
men who have splashed the pages of history with blood, left a
strangely peaceful legacy in Florida. It is the cow. Florida's
range cattle today are descendants of cows brought here by
the Spanish and left to survive and toughen in a new, warm
The long, uncertain years of foreign possession ended in
1819. But Florida was now a lodestar state, calling to the ad-
venturer, the daring and piratical, as well as to the planter
and the statesman.
The First Florida Boom
Florida boomed! Trade mounted until millions of oranges
were being shipped from St. Augustine. It was a time when
men attempted the stupendous and achieved the seemingly
impossible, a time when gentlemen settled quarrels, not by
law, but by fighting duels, a time when the Florida cowboy
became so dextrous with his long cracking whip that he was
dubbed a "cracker." There was a wild contagion of enthusi-
asm, a rush to build new cities.
One of the new cities was St. Joseph, whose quick growth
and tragic end marked a milestone in Florida history.
During territorial days, the city of Apalachicola, located at
the mouth of a great North Florida river, grew rich with com-
merce. Steamers rolled down the river, with heavy cargoes of
cotton. The land upon which part of this city had been built
once had belonged to an important English trading firm and
was claimed by the firm's successors. But the busy Floridians
paid no attention to the dull and lengthy court battle. Thus,
they awoke one morning to find that their homes belonged,
not to them, but to the Apalachicola Land Company.
What they did in this stunning crisis gives you the spirit
of the times. They set to work at once to build a new city out-
side the land claimed by the hated company. This city was
not on the river. But what of that? They would build a canal
to the river and siphon off the rich trade. More than that,
they would build a railroad.
The city of St. Joseph, complete with a railroad and even
a race track, sprang up as if by magic. It died, even more
quickly, a few years later, of yellow fever, a roaring storm,
and a depression. But during its brief span of life, St. Joseph
made history. Here the first constitution of Florida was
drafted, although little remained of the boom city when Flor-
ida became a state in 1845.
War With The Seminoles
In the 1830's, Florida's prosperity collapsed. Banks closed,
and depression struck. Meanwhile a new storm cloud was
gathering-war with the Seminoles.
The Indian tribes living in Florida when the Spanish came
gradually had disappeared although a few Calusas, or "Span-
ish Indians," had sought refuge in the Florida Keys. But
remnants of other Indian tribes had pushed down into Flor-
ida from the north. These were the Seminoles.
When the United States acquired Florida, a plan was made
for removing these Indians to western lands. But many of
the proud and spirited Seminoles rebelled. This was their
home-this sunny land with its deep, clear springs, its sparkling
rivers splashing with fish, its forests filled with wild deer. It
was a bountiful land-their Florida-where corn thrived, wild
turkeys roamed the plains in great flocks, and ducks rose like
swirling clouds from the blue lakes.
Tension mounted as pressure was brought to move the
Indians. Campfires glowed deep in the forests and swamps,
and men wrangled around conference tables. Finally, the con-
flict flamed into open war.
An Indian agent at Fort King, near Ocala, was murdered,
probably by Osceola, on December 28, 1835. This murder
sounded the signal for war!
The Dade Massacre
An incident of the Seminole War, occurring almost at the
same time as the murder, gave Dade County its name, al-
Brave Seminole leader .
though it took place far to the north of this county, near the
present city of Ocala.
On the morning of December 28, Major Francis Langhorne
Dade rode at the head of a column of 108 men. They were
bound northward from Fort Brooke, near Tampa, to Fort
King, near Ocala. It was chilly and the men, breathing deep
of the frosty air, rode with their overcoats buttoned over their
cartridge boxes. But there seemed little danger. The column
had passed the dark swamps and hammocks where Indians
might be concealed. Now, the scattered pines and palmetto
thickets offered scant cover. The men sang and joked.
But Dade's company of men had been watched by Indians
from the day it left Fort Brooke. Now, the Indians lay in
planned ambush behind the trees and in palmetto thickets
awaiting the attack signal, a war whoop.
At about nine o'clock, the signal came-a wild whoop from
a young chief named Jumper. The old chief, Micanopy, fired
the first shot.
It must have seemed to Major Dade, in the moment before
he fell, that the very trees turned into Indians, whooping and
firing. The first volley of shot killed half the white men, and
within an hour it was all over. One survivor, feigning death,
crawled through the jungle in the darkness to report the story
of the Dade Massacre to Fort Brooke.
The costly Seminole War dragged on. Osceola, one of the
great Indian leaders, was captured under a flag of truce, a
treachery that stunned the Indians and many of the whites
and took the heart out of the conflict. Osceola was imprisoned,
briefly, in the historic fort at St. Augustine and then moved
to Charleston where he sickened and died at the age of 34.
When the war ended in 1842, there were about 100 warriors
left and these sought refuge in the swamps of southern Florida.
(Today there are about 1,000 Seminoles in Florida.)
The first men pouring over the Florida border naturally
settled in the northern part of the state. Settlements around
Tallahassee followed the leisurely pattern of plantation life
in other southern states. Jacksonville came into being as a city
in 1822. Tampa was established in 1823 as a military post.
(Miami came later, in 1896, a new frontier stirring man's
Warriors once but peaceful now, Florida's Seminoles live simply. Semi-
nole women create unique and colorful costumes-a craft started half
a century ago when an enterprising sewing machine salesman invaded
the Everglades. Some children attend school to add the white man's
learning to their instinctive knowledge of fields and forests.
In the early days of Florida's settling as a territory and young
state, men, women, and children traveled and transported
their goods by water. With more difficulty they traveled
overland by horse and wagon. To the settlers of North Flor-
ida, South Florida was far away, a strange land, inaccessible
except by sea.
The story of the settling of South Florida is not a tranquil
one. Many of the 2,000 pirates operating in American waters
during the ten years from 1820 to 1830 roamed the South
Florida coasts. They must have sought refuge in hidden coves
and on the lonely keys. It is likely that they came ashore to
fill their casks with fresh water from the bubbling springs
south of the Miami River. Treasure such as gold and silver
bars, emeralds and pieces-of-eight, has been recovered from
ships sunk, perhaps, by pirates.
In the 1820's, the United States of America began an active
war against these gangsters of the sea. By 1840 the pirates were
gone and their exploits were fading into a romantic legend.
Some of the pirates were killed, some were pardoned, and
some may have turned to wrecking. Wrecking, or the salvaging
of ships and their cargo, became an occupation early in South
In the 1700's and 1800's there were many wrecks on the
jagged coral rocks of the Florida Reef. The treacherous reef,
lying at some points but a few feet under the surface of the
sea, stretches along the Florida Keys, from four to eight miles
out in the Atlantic, from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas.
Roaring storms often swept ships from the narrow Bahama
channel onto the uncharted reef. Wreckers, if not actually
causing wrecks by shifting lights or conniving with masters of
the ships, did nothing to prevent them.
Hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of salvaged goods
were sold in Key West. The cry, "Wreck, Ashore," was the
"go" signal for a race by rival wrecking crews. The first crew
to reach a sinking or stranded ship took charge of the cargo
and earned, by law, the salvage payment.
In the late 1830's, while the Seminole War raged sporadically
in other parts of Florida and even on the Florida Keys, Key
West was a city set apart and supported by the legal wrecking
industry. From 300 to 400 persons lived on the remote island.
They lived well-dining on turtle, fresh fish and game, dancing
and reading, and riding about the small island in carriages
and on horseback.
But each morning, as dawn brightened the eastern sky and
colored the waters, the gleaming white cotton sails of several
dozen sloops and schooners were hoisted. The sailing race
began. Up and down the treacherous reef, the wreckers
cruised, searching for hapless ships aground on the jagged coral.
Each fast-sailing sloop carried a crew of about 14 men and
a diver. Sometimes crews went into partnership, pooling their
efforts. If no wreck was found by ten o'clock, the ships usu-
ally returned to port. But if a wreck was sighted, the race
was on. The first men to board the wrecked vessel often
employed other crews, and usually the salvaged ship was on
its way to Key West before a tide passed. There merchants
received the cargo and vessel, salvage was decreed, the sales
made and money divided among the salvors and the vessel's
An early visitor to Key West reports that it was a moral
community. Many of the residents were persons of education
and they lived in luxury, enjoying music, good books, and
sparkling dinner parties. They often danced until dawn. The
wooden homes, made of rough boards, had wide, cool piazzas,
and were well furnished. The climate was mild, frost-free, and
health-giving. Although the Indians massacred whites at In-
dian Key and Cape Florida, Key West was safe and nearer in
many ways to Cuba than to Florida. In the 1880's Key West,
home of the wreckers, was Florida's largest city.
Frontiersmen of the 1880's spill
from an excursion train of the
Jacksonville, St. Augustine &
Halifax River Railway, fore-
runner of the Florida East
Coast Railway. I
Not all the men and women who voyaged into South Florida
in the dangerous years before the coming of the railroad were
lawless adventurers. There were gentle priests and tireless
ministers. There were planters, also, peaceful men who
envisioned South Florida as a tropical paradise where fruits,
vegetables, and flowers would flourish the year around. There
were men like Audubon, who loved and studied birds.
The coming of the railroad, to the west coast in 1884 and
to the east coast in 1896, opened new and bright frontiers!
The railroad gave men their first opportunity to live in the
southern part of the land they knew as fair and fruitful. The
first men who moved into Florida are the unknown pioneers
of our history. The first man who planted an orange grove
sowed the seed of a multi-million dollar industry. The first man
who built a hotel broke ground for Florida's golden industry-
tourism. The unknown who fabricated the story about the
Fountain of Youth was Florida's first advertising expert.
Today, you can be a pioneer in myriad new fields in South
1. Why are the land, sea, and air considered Florida's new
2. How does the climate of South Florida affect the way
people earn a living? In what other ways does climate
affect everyday living in your county?
3. What part did Ponce de Leon, Jean Ribaut, and Menen-
dez play in early Florida history?
4. What is a "melting-pot"? Why is Florida called a melting
5. From 1945 to 1955, Dade County's population increased
from 315,138 to 703,777. What does this indicate?
6. What started the Seminole War? What were the results
of this conflict?
7. Why was South Florida a haven for pirates? How did the
U. S. Government deal with this menace?
1. Have a committee draw a large map of Florida for the
bulletin board. Place important historical events, where
and when they happened, on the map.
2. Have individual class members give reports on the follow-
a. Major Francis L. Dade, after whom Dade County
b. The settling of St. Augustine, the oldest city in the
c. The coming of the railroad to South Florida.
3. Send away for the pamphlet Florida, The Land of Ro-
mance by Dr. Dorothy Dodd, published by the Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida, 1956. It's free!
4. Read Major and Minor Keys of the Florida Reef by Mary
Helm Clark, published 1948, Riviera Publishing Com-
pany, Coral Gables, Florida. Consult the map at the end
of the book and find out the meaning and origin of the
names of the Keys.
5. Make a time-line showing how Florida was governed
under five flags of different nations.
6. Select one of the events mentioned in Chapter I and give
an oral report to the class.
Massacres and mosquitoes give way
to Flagler's railroad and . .
The Real Florida Begins
"Like fairyland after ice and snow."
This was how Hester Perrine, young daughter of pioneer
Dr. Henry Perrine, described South Florida upon her first
glimpse of this frontier land in 1838.
Her words reveal the fascination the new land of palms and
soft breezes held for many courageous pioneers who voyaged
into South Florida before the coming of the railroad.
But South Florida was no fairyland. The Perrine family
learned this on the tragic night of August 6, 1840.
The story of Dr. Henry Perrine and his love for South
Florida rightly began when President John Quincy Adams
SMrs. Henry Perrine,
sent a circular letter to the American consuls in all tropical
countries, asking them to collect useful plants for the new
territory of Florida.
In steaming Campeche, Mexico, young Dr. Perrine, lately
from New York, received the letter and began to obey the
instructions. Perhaps sisal would grow in Florida, he decided,
and pineapples, limes, and sapodillas. He began gathering
these and other plants and sent them to Charles Howe, a post-
master who lived on Indian Key.
In 1838, the Congress of the United States took note of Dr.
Perrine's work and granted him and his associates a township
on lower Biscayne Bay. But Dr. Perrine was advised not to
come to Florida, where the Indians were at war.
The courageous botanist-doctor did come to Florida, how-
ever, bringing his charming wife, a young son, and two small
Perrine home on Indian Key and escape tunnel to wharf
daughters to Indian Key. There Dr. Perrine watched over
his cherished plants and lived a serene and gracious life. The
Perrines enjoyed fishing. They entertained guests from passing
boats, and in the long, warm evenings listened to the singing
of the negro slaves. They knew that Indians were at war with
whites on the mainland, but on Indian Key they felt safe and
protected. The few Indians they knew were friends.
On the warm evening of August 6, 1840, Dr. Perrine walked
the upper piazza of his home, looking down upon a tiny tropic
isle, twelve acres of palms, flowers, and homes, set in a shimmer-
ing sea. In front of his home a wharf extended out into the
water. Under the wharf was a "turtle crawl" opening into the
cellar. Here his young daughters often bathed in fresh sea
water, safe from the eyes of wreckers, sailors, and a notorious
Captain Jacob Housman who lived on Indian Key.
Dr. Perrine was mildly troubled. One of his daughters was
ill. But when he climbed into his hammock in the upper hall
he fell into sound slumber. A restless sailor, however, roamed
the island with a gun, looking for ducks. Suddenly, he saw a
moving column of shadows. Indians!
His shot and wild whoop startled the island awake. Dr.
Perrine jumped from his hammock, his first thought for his
family. He heard the crack of rifle shots, smashing glass, and
wild cries as he pushed his wife and children through the door
into the cellar and placed a chest of seeds against it. Then he
fled up the stairs to the cupola atop his home, drawing the
Indians behind him.
The Perrine family, crouched under the burning wharf,
heard a scream and a rifle shot. Mrs. Perrine was as courageous
as her husband. She placed her hands over her small son's
mouth to keep him from screaming. She dug frantically in
the mud, making room for the children. She doused their
heads in water to keep them from suffocating.
At dawn, the desperate family crawled through a trap door
at the end of the wharf. A small boat floated near them and
out at sea lay the boats of wreckers and a schooner-a blessed
sight. With what was left of their strength, the Perrines
climbed into the boat and began to paddle to safety.
Why did the Indians murder the kindly physician? This
is a question to trouble historians but it may have an answer.
Two years before Perrine's death, a tall, broad-shouldered
soldier arrived on Indian Key. He was Lt. Col. William S.
Harney, survivor of a brutal Indian massacre on the Caloosa-
Col. Harney told the story of how his men were surprised
and murdered to the people on Indian Key. No doubt Dr.
Perrine and Charlie Howe, the postmaster, listened politely.
But Jacob Housman, a lusty scoundrel who ruled part of the
island like a king, did more than listen. He made a strange
proposal to the United States government. He would wipe
out the Indians, he wrote, for $200 a head!
The Indians who crept up the sandy trail on the tragic night
of August 6 may have mistaken Dr. Perrine for Housman or
have been fired with anger at all white men by Housman's
action. Ironically, Housman escaped that night, but he died a
year later, crushed between two vessels.
Col. Harney was assigned to catch the Indians who killed
Perrine and this he did by using the Indians' own tricks. Un-
der cover of night, he and his troops slipped through the swamp
to surprise the Indian chief. They hung his body from a tall
pine and after that, the Indians in South Florida had no spirit
The Perrine massacre was not the only incident of Indian
war in South Florida. John W. B. Thompson, keeper of the
Cape Florida Light, also had trouble with hostile Indians.
On a drowsy July afternoon, Thompson glimpsed Indians
creeping through the underbrush toward the lighthouse. Drag-
ging his Negro helper with him, he sprinted for the light,
slammed and locked the door just as the Indians attacked.
Oil, spilled from the lantern by a rain of bullets, ignited and
turned the lighthouse into an inferno. The stairs burned
behind them as Thompson and the Negro climbed to the top
of the light. There the Negro died, but Thompson lay on a
platform ninety feet above the earth with two rifle bullets in
each foot, until he was rescued by men from a passing ship.
Historic Cape Florida Light
Other early settlers suffered less dramatic but just as real
hardships. They had no refrigeration, no modern means of
transportation, no ways of controlling mosquitoes and sand
flies. They eked out a living by fishing, hunting, turtling,
and making starch from coontie. But the salubrious climate-
the warm winter days, the bright sunshine, the cool breezes-
overbalanced the troubles.
Our First Industry?
Today, the fern-like plant, coontie, grows in vacant lots but
few Floridians recognize it as a source of vanished industry.
Yet the manufacturing of starch from the coontie root prob-
ably was South Florida's first industry. The snow-white starch
was sold in the north as a food product. It went into biscuits,
cookies, crackers, spaghetti, and starch puddings. Sometimes
the early settlers in South Florida used it as laundry starch
as well as for food. None is manufactured today.
Cows And Cowboys
In those early days, before the coming of the railroad, there
was little communication between South Florida's east and
west coasts. The settlers in the Biscayne Bay country knew
of the city of Fort Myers, but between Fort Dallas and Fort
Myers lay the impassable watery meadows and cypress swamps
of the Everglades.
By the 1890's, Fort Myers had become the center of South
Florida's cattle industry. Great numbers of cattle were being
shipped from Punta Rassa (near Fort Myers, at the mouth
of the Caloosahatche River) to Key West and Cuba.
The people of Fort Myers grew familiar with the sight of
lean, sun-toughened cowboys driving herds of bawling, long-
horned cattle through the shell-paved streets. Cows strayed
into stores and slept in doorways. No one minded very much.
Cattle were the prosperity of Fort Myers. They were the col-
lateral upon which men borrowed money. They were often
used as money.
Aside from raising cattle and trading in cattle, the pioneers
and Indians in the Fort Myers region lived by hunting, fishing
and, sometimes, farming. They traded otter skins, alligator
hides, and egret plumes for groceries, and in summer months
gathered turtle eggs. There was little curiosity about the east
coast region of Florida.
Crossing The Everglades
But in 1892, a railroad man named J. E. Ingraham came to
Fort Myers on a challenging mission. He proposed to cross
the Everglades to Fort Dallas, at Miami!
Trail-blazer J. E. Ingraham
Julia Tuttle, pioneer
"They'll never make it," the people of Fort Myers said.
Even the Indians felt that it was impossible.
But Ingraham and the 21 men who went with him had
worked out precise plans. They carried as little baggage as
was practical-a few guns, many pistols, two portable boats,
three tents, axes, and cooking utensils.
They left Fort Myers on a sunny morning-March 14, 1892.
For several days, all went well. By March 17, the party had
made 25 miles. But by March 25, the men were abandoning
equipment. The wearying work of dragging boats across the
endless miles of sawgrass, under a broiling sun, made it neces-
sary to strip down to essentials. Five miles a day became speed.
But there was no turning back. The men dragged on
through days when they were too tired to talk, through nights
with little sleep. Luckily fish jumped into their boats, for
they were too exhausted to catch them.
The small party of men seemed lost in a wilderness of grass
and water over which arched an empty, dazzling sky. The
cook had a chill. One man collapsed. The others realized
now that theirs might be an impossible task. The dream of
reaching the Miami River was fading when they caught sight
of a paper sack floating in the muddy water. Then, they saw
an Indian! Miami was near.
Henry M. Flagler
On April 5, J. E. Ingraham, who was later to be identified
with the Florida East Coast Railway, arrived at Fort Dallas
where he was greeted by a gracious pioneer woman, Julia
Tuttle. Twenty-two men had crossed the Everglades! Now
nothing seemed impossible, even the building of a railroad.
The Railroad Opens The Frontier
The coming of the railroad to South Florida wrought the
first striking changes. Henry B. Plant, a Connecticut Yankee,
built a railroad to Tampa, and from Tampa a line extended
as far south as Punta Gorda.
Thus the west coast of Florida developed first, but more
slowly than the east coast. Tampa, however, boomed, growing
from a population of 726 in 1880 to 5,534 ten years later.
But when Henry M. Flagler pushed his railroad down
Florida's east coast, he opened a new frontier, and gave Ameri-
cans a new concept of healthful living. A man of great wealth
and immense vision, Flagler determined to make South Flor-
ida both a winter resort for the wealthy and an agricultural
As the railroad began to open the pine and palmetto wil-
derness of the east coast, a new vigor came to Florida. Pioneers
who had depended upon water transportation glimpsed Flag-
ler's vision and caught some of the fire of his enthusiasm.
By 1892, the railroad had reached Daytona, and Flagler was
eager to invade the Indian River country and its orange groves
before the winter season.
During October of that year more than 1500 men labored
at clearing, grading, track-laying, and bridge-building. The
railroad moved southward, mile by mile. The train reached
The Miami River in 1896
The Royal Palm Hotel in Miami in 1896
New Smyrna in November. In January, freight trains were
hauling fruit from Cocoa, Eau Gallie, and Melbourne.
Still Flagler was not content. The railroad moved on to
Fort Pierce, where pineapples were being gTown. Its coming
made the little town of Stuart, south of Fort Pierce, a sports
fishing center. In 1894 Flagler reached Palm Beach and began
to make that city into a millionaire's resort. But would he
push the railroad on to Miami?
In the little village of Miami lived Julia Tuttle, a woman
as lovely and determined as Flagler was rich. Mrs. Tuttle,
who owned considerable land, knew Miami must have the
railroad. She sent repeated requests to Flagler in Palm Beach
to come and look at the Biscayne Bay country. Finally after a
severe freeze in other parts of the state he did come.
One look was enough to persuade him. Mrs. Tuttle agreed
to donate 100 acres of land upon which he could build a hotel.
The Brickell family, pioneers living on the south bank of the
Miami river, also donated land to the railroad magnate.
The City Of Miami!
The railroad reached Miami in April, 1896. What a day that
was! Pioneers from the Redlands, from Coconut Grove and
from the "Indian Hunting Grounds" south of the Grove,
came to Miami in sailing boats or followed the old trail through
Brickell Hammock to see the first wood-burning locomotive
chug into Miami. In July of that year, Miami was incorporated
as a city.
Flagler's Royal Palm Hotel, a wooden structure at the mouth
of the Miami River, opened in a blaze of electric light. With
less than 20 years passed since Thomas A. Edison invented the
incandescent lamp, and scarcely more than ten years since the
country's first central generating plant was put into service,
the electric lighting of the Flagler hotel was a milestone in
South Florida's progress.
Electric Lights, Too!
Miamians, looking on in wonder, wanted electric lights, too.
So Flagler strung a pole line from the hotel to the depot of
the Florida East Coast Railway, providing erratic electric serv-
ice for private users along the way. In 1904, he went a step
further. He built a generating plant separate from the Royal
Palm Hotel installation. This was a 200-kilowatt woodburner
plant on the present site of the Florida Power & Light Com-
pany station near the mouth of the Miami River. The first
power customer of this plant was the Miami Metropolis, the
forerunner of the Miami Daily News. Electric lights were not
used, of course, on moonlight nights, nor generally by day,
until the use of electric irons became common. But electric
service, even in such feeble form, meant Miami was growing.
It was becoming the Magic City.
Fruits Of The Tropics
Americans had found a tropical paradise in their own coun-
try. Miami increased in population from 5,000 in 1910, to
29,000 in 1920, and to 110,637 in 1930.
All was changing. Gone were the pirates, the wreckers, the
hostile Indians. There remained only the plume-hunters, who
for years had slaughtered the beautiful birds of the Everglades
by the hundreds of thousands to sell their feathers as trimmings
for women's hats. Men were turning to peaceful pursuits,
learning that in southeastern Florida they could grow tropical
fruits and winter vegetables.
In 1889, Elbridge Gale of the Department of Agriculture
received a small mango tree from India and planted it in his
garden in Lake Worth. This tree bore fruit. In far-off Coco-
nut Grove a retired army officer, Captain John J. Haden,
heard of Professor Gale's mango. He made a trip to Lake
Worth by boat and brought home to Coconut Grove several
of the mango seeds. He planted them hopefully. The seedling
trees thrived and one bore unusual fruit-the Haden mango-
still a top-ranking commercial fruit. Other pioneers, too, were
proving that the avocado (then called the "Alligator pear"),
many varieties of citrus, and other rare tropical fruits would
grow in South Florida and nowhere else in the United States.
Dade County became famous for its tomato farms. The face of
the land was changing.
Plume-Hunters And Murder
In 1905, a dramatic murder ended the years of savage egret
plume-hunting and moved South Florida a long step forward
in the conservation and appreciation of its unusual bird life.
Ever since the great ornithologist, John James Audubon,
came to Key West in 1832 to study and paint the birds, there
had been those who fought the plume-hunters. One of the
most daring of these fighters was a Coconut Grove woman
who was known to snatch plumes from the hats of women and
remind them that a bird had been killed for their adornment.
But by 1900, the snowy-plumed egrets of the Everglades
were almost extinct. The State of Florida, at last, took note
of this near-disaster, and with the help of the National Audu-
bon Society employed four wardens to guard the rookeries,
or nesting grounds, of birds. One of these was Guy M. Bradley,
To 35-year old Guy Bradley, son of the postmaster of Fla-
mingo, was entrusted the dangerous work of guarding the
rookeries in the lawless Cape Sable region. He took his work
What occurred on the hot, still morning of July 8, 1905, no
one can know exactly. Bradley had had trouble with a per-
sistent poacher, Walter Smith, and his sons. On this morning,
Smith, his sons, and two other men, set out in a schooner for
a bird rookery on the keys. Bradley followed the schooner in
From the deck of the schooner, Smith saw Bradley. Not far
off, Smith's sons were returning from the island rookery with
a load of dead birds. He yelled to them, "Hurry, boys, hurry!"
Bradley neared the schooner in his small boat. He called
to Smith across the water and Smith answered him defiantly.
We do not know what the two men said. We do know that a
moment later, a shot rang through the still air, and Guy Brad-
ley slumped to the floor of his skiff. There he died. His body
was found the next day in the drifting boat.
The beauteous egret plume-hunter's prey
So slowly did news travel in those pioneer days that Bradley's
parents, sailing along the east coast on a vacation, did not learn
of their son's death until the Miami Metropolis printed the
first account of the tragedy six days later. The Rev. E. V.
Blackman, a Miami minister, called at the Bradley's boat carry-
ing the saddening news.
The story of the murder made headlines. It aroused the
nation! Five years later, the Audubon Plumage bill was passed
in the New York legislature, and the birds of the Everglades
The Frontier Expands
South Florida was growing, both in population and in ap-
preciation of its unique assets as the nation's only sub-tropical
Under the skies so clean and blue it was logical that men
should think of aviation. The first scheduled commercial air-
line in the world began operating between Tampa and St.
Petersburg on January 1, 1914. By 1920, A. B. Chalk had
established a flying base on Biscayne Bay at Miami. Seven
years later a small monoplane lumbered across a muddy field
at Key West and bravely headed across ninety miles of rough,
blue water to Havana, Cuba. Thus began this country's first
overseas air transport service.
As Miami built, other cities grew up around it. In 1913
Carl G. Fisher, a forceful millionaire, developed Miami Beach,
with the aid of John S. Collins, a South Florida pioneer. A
city of hotels, each to become almost a city itself, began to rise
where there had been mangrove swamps, tangled underbrush,
and a forgotten coconut plantation. In 1921 Glenn H. Curtiss,
airplane manufacturer, and James H. Bright began to build
Once murdered, now protected-the pink-plumed roseate spoonbill
"The City Beautiful"
Coral Gables was the dream of George Edgar Merrick, the
son of a minister who came to Florida from wintry Cape Cod.
Even as a boy George Merrick planned a city "all beautiful,"
as he drove wagonloads of tomatoes over a trail from what now
is Coral Gables to Miami. George Merrick, as a man, was a
poet-dreamer who acted to make his dreams come true. He
planned Coral Gables on paper during ten years when he
worked night and day to acquire sixteen hundred acres of sun-
warmed land and the means to finance his dream.
The first lots in Coral Gables were sold in 1921. The years
from 1921 to 1926 were an "Aladdin's Lamp" era in the com-
munity named for a house with coral gables. Buses rolled into
the new city from the snowy north loaded with prospects eager
to buy. In 1925, there was such frenzied real estate activity
that a huge board was hung at the corner of LeJeune Road
and Alhambra Circle so that would-be buyers could chalk
thereon their first, second, and third choice in lots.
at the Venetian Pool
The $10,000,000 Miami
Billmore Hotel and, to
the lell. the Coral Ga-
It was a time of fabulous building. Planned on paper, with
curving streets endowed with Spanish names, Coral Gables
became identified with a modified Spanish architecture called
"Mediterranean." It was made beautiful with tinkling foun-
tains in tiled patios planted with creamy-flowered yuccas and
gnarled sea grape trees, with pink sidewalks, with replicas of
Spain's fabled towers, with time-mellowed tiles brought from
Cuba and wrought iron from Italy.
A rockpit became the Venetian Pool, with its cascades, grot-
tos, and islands. Built at a cost of $10,000,000, the Miami
Biltmore Hotel opened in 1926 with a dazzle of diamonds,
music, and champagne. The hotel was topped with a replica
of the famed Giralda tower of the Seville Cathedral in Spain.
The tower looked down upon sparkling waterways where
gondoliers, imported from Italy, poled their colorful craft
through beautiful flower gardens and the velvety green of a
new golf course.
Masons were brought from Spain to build the city's gates
of native coral rock.
William Jennings Bryan, who conducted on Sunday "the
largest outdoor Bible class in the world," on weekdays spoke
from the Venetian Pool. Mary Garden sang opera in a tent.
Jan Garber's and Paul Whiteman's orchestras played under
the Coral Gables moon.
A University Despite Disaster
Coral Gables was to have a university. On April 8, 1925,
the State of Florida granted a charter to the University of
Miami. The new university was endowed with 160 acres of
land and millions of pledged dollars. Grandiose plans were
drawn for the buildings. The foundations of the present Mer-
rick Building were laid. Dr. Bowman Foster Ashe was brought
to Coral Gables from the University of Pittsburgh to guide
the new institution of learning.
The University of Miami was preparing to open in Septem-
ber, 1926. But in mid-September of that year a hurricane
roared up from the Caribbean to batter the surprised city
of Miami and to slap Coral Gables a desperate blow. The
bright bubble of the real estate boom had burst! The Uni-
Dr. Bowman Foster Ashe-
unafraid to build
versity of Miami, shorn of its paper millions, opened in Oc-
tober in a makeshift hotel building with wallboard partitions.
But it opened, and stayed open through years when nothing
was certain but debt. Dr. Bowman Foster Ashe was never
afraid to build for the future!
The West Coast Grows, Too
Meanwhile, during the 1920's, the west coast cities were
developing. Bradenton, Palmetto, and Manatee became tourist
havens and rich agricultural centers. By 1924-25, Manatee
County was shipping 1,500 carloads of tomatoes, almost as
many of celery and 1,300 carloads of grapefruit.
In Sarasota, John Ringling was spending money-building
causeways to connect keys, constructing elaborate villas and
gardens. His brother, Charles, was financing hotels. The
Ringling family, of circus fame, was to leave an indelible im-
print upon Sarasota.
During the same period, Punta Gorda became a commercial
A quarter of a century passed between the breaking of ground for
the University of Miami's Merrick Building and its completion in
1950. Optimistically dedicated in boom times, left, then known
as "The Skeleton," the Merrick Building today, right, is one of the
University's most beautiful and functional.
Twenty-five years wrought the changes shown in these two pictures
of the University of Miami campus. At left, the area is shown as a
wilderness marked out by curving streets. In the picture at right,
taken in 1956, the University emerges as a busy, forward-surging
fishing center, shipping annually 10,000,000 pounds of salt
water fish. Fort Myers was growing, too, developing a tropical
charm not matched by any other Florida city. Thomas Edi-
son, the great inventor, had found in this enchanting city
the peace and quiet he sought, and had made it his winter
home. Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone, dynamic indus-
trialists, also wintered in Fort Myers and called the "City of
Palms" their home.
Edison had brought the first palms to Fort Myers from
Cuba, and in 1906, the city planted an avenue of royal palms.
In the years to follow, the city planted many more palms until
long avenues of stately palms led into the business district
and gardens of homes were graced with bending, swaying coco-
nuts and feathery palms of many other varieties.
On the southern rim of Lake Okeechobee, in the 1920's,
sugar planters and developers of a wallboard made from the
"bagasse" or residual fibre of sugarcane, built a city. They
built it on the natural ridge of land surrounding the shore
of the lake and on black, fertile acres from which the water
had been sucked away by drainage canals and pumping sys-
tems. They named it Clewiston. Not far from the city, a mill
was constructed amid a green sea of sugar cane. The mill pro-
duced raw sugar.
No one in those days thought of South Florida as an in-
dustrial center but here was industry growing out of agricul-
ture. South Florida was taking another step forward. It was
not an easy step. But pioneers were proving that sugar cane
would grow, in commercial quantities, on the rich muck lands
of the Everglades, and that sugar could be manufactured in
Florida. The lake region was to weather a depression, and a
devastating storm that took the lives of several thousand per-
sons before the sugar industry became firmly established. But
Florida was growing up and these were the growing pains.
In the 1930's, the government built a dike around the shal-
low, temperamental lake so that never again could winds push
a wall of water down upon defenseless homes. The city of
Belle Glade, re-built through assistance of the Red Cross, began
to grow into a farming center.
The eradication of the cattle tick moved Florida another
long step ahead. Florida was the oldest cattle state in the na-
tion. The early Spanish explorers left cattle in Florida. By
1828, the Seminole Indians had herds of thousands of cattle
grazing on the prairies near the Georgia border. By 1870,
Cuba had become an outlet for thousands of Florida-grown
steers. (During the ten years from 1870 to 1880, 165,669 cat-
tle were exported from Florida.) Nevertheless, the develop-
ment of the cattle industry had moved slowly due to a fever
caused by the cattle tick.
In 1923 the government began a tick eradication program.
The process was slow but it was sure. Hopefully, men began
to look around them and realize that here was rich year-
around pasture land. Asia's gift to Florida, the lordly hump-
backed Brahman bull, gave the cattle industry a tremendous
push forward, too. The Brahman stock crossed with hardy
native cattle produced a breed that thrived in a warm climate.
In 1929, Florida had less than ten purebred herds, but the cat-
tlemen had caught the idea of improving their commercial
cattle. Florida was to become, within a decade, the fastest
growing cattle state in the country.
People, People, And More People!
South Florida shared the years of depression with the na-
tion, but even then there were steady population gains. Men
Asia's gift to Florida-the lordly hump-backed Brahman bull
had come to appreciate the tonic climate. With modern trans-
portation and refrigeration, population centers were moving
Many Cubans began to come to South Florida in the 1930's.
They were joined by men from other foreign countries. Miami
was becoming a melting pot.
Miami went into World War II a city more noted as a vaca-
tion land than as an industrial center. It was one of the
world's foremost resort areas. But the war did much to bal-
ance this picture. South Florida learned that it could pro-
duce ships and aircraft parts and do other defense work. Be-
fore World War II, Greater Miami had approximately 450
factories. Today, the area has thousands.
World War II also brought tens of thousands of men in
the armed services to South Florida for training. Many of
these men and their families now are Florida citizens. The
military influence on population gains in South Florida has
Before World War II, southeastern Florida was known
mainly as a winter resort. A decade later it had become a
_. __ I
summer resort as well. In July, 1956, there were few vacant
rooms and apartments in hotels and motels on Miami Beach.
At Miami's International Airport summer business in 1955
equalled that of March two years previous. The nation was
beginning to appreciate South Florida's comparatively cool
summers as well as its warm winters.
Today Miami is destined to become one of America's
great population centers. But like all South Florida, it is
much more than a dazzling summer-and-winter vacation land,
a place to live and work in year-round comfort, and to enjoy
recreation facilities not available elsewhere. It is one of Ameri-
ca's rich frontiers, beckoning young citizens to adventure,
happy living, and varied careers!
1. Start an "Expanding South Florida" scrapbook. Divide
the book into three parts: Land, Air, and Sea. Paste
newspaper articles, magazine articles, photographs, and
picture post cards in appropriate places.
2. Trace the growth of the railroad from 1892 to 1896, locat-
ing cities. This may be done on the history map.
3. Have a group of pupils take photographs of some of the
original landmarks in Coral Gables.
4. Add the historical events mentioned in Chapter II to the
5. Look up the "depression" of 1929-1933 in a history book.
Be ready to discuss why you think South Florida con-
tinued to grow during these times.
6. Get maps of South Florida from a service station. Discuss
places with which you are familiar.
7. Write a summary sentence for each heading in Chapter II.
1. What hardships did the early pioneers of Florida suffer?
2. Who are the new pioneers of Florida? Compare their way
of living with people who settled here in the early 1800's.
3. How did the following help develop Florida's frontiers?
Henry M. Flagler Dr. Henry Perrine
Julia Tuttle Henry B. Plant
Carl G. Fisher Dr. Bowman Foster Ashe
George Merrick Capt. John J. Haden
4. How did World War II change Miami from a winter re-
sort to a year-round resort and industrialized city?
5. How much do you remember? Don't forget to check back
if you have forgotten.
a. Why is the manufacturing of starch called South
Florida's first industry?
b. How was the Haden mango brought to this area?
c. How did the city of Coral Gables get started?
d. How did the hurricane of 1926 affect the opening
of the University of Miami?
6. Why does Coral Gables have the reputation of being the
7. What are some of the problems that face a growing South
8. How did the coming of the railroad to South Florida help
open new frontiers?
9. What cities on the West Coast were being developed in
the 1920's and 1930's? For what is each city famous?
10. What obstacles had to be overcome before the cattle in-
dustry really flourished?
Untold riches . untapped resources . undreamed-of
possibilities! Who but the adventurous can begin
to fathom . .
The Sea's Promise
Since the days when pirates cruised South Florida's tropil
coast, the sea has challenged man with its mysteries.
Today, men are probing the sea for its secrets with radar,
sonar, and television cameras. They listen to the "talk" of
fish. They can detect schools of fish and shrimp electronically
and learn through the camera's eye how to catch them. But
the sea still has its challenging mysteries. It is a frontier.
The sea has been a potent force in bringing people to South
Florida. The cool, foaming ocean, the warm Gulf of Mexico,
the numerous bays and lagoons entice the tourist and the
sports fishermen, and provide a livelihood for many.
There's exciting work
for the intrepid diver
.in South Florida.
Fishing For More Than Fun
Florida's coastline is longer than that of any other state, and
because of the warm climate, our sea waters are the most pro-
ductive in the country. Florida's commercial fishermen land
as many as 250,000,000 pounds of fish a year-a catch worth
more than $22,000,000. This includes non-food fish (such as
menhaden) as well as food fish, shrimp, oysters, clams, turtles,
conchs, scallops, and crabs. The marine fish landings in a
recent year totaled 255,320,516 pounds.
The State Council for the Study of Higher Education op-
timistically forecasts a fisheries production in Florida, in 1970,
in excess of $159,000,000! Such a catch would bring many
processing plants to the state.
Pink gold from South Florida's sunlit seas-shrimp, being netted off
But Fun, Too
Much of South Florida's billion-dollar-a-year tourist busi-
ness stems from the pleasure that men, women, and children
derive from the salty waters. The sea means good health for
It means fun, too. Florida's dancing sea waters and smiling
lakes are a constant source of joyful recreation. Summer and
winter, they are dotted with boats of all types from tiny sail
boats to sleek yachts. In the Miami area, alone, there are
more than 4,500 boats. In all Florida east of the Apalachicola
River, on August 31, 1956, a total of 24,999 boats were regis-
tered with the United States Coast Guard. There were many
thousands of other boats not registered either because they
were under 16 feet in length or because they were not used
on navigable waters.
Like boating, fishing is one of Florida's most popular sports.
Floridians and visitors fish from the causeways. They cast into
the foaming surf from the golden beaches. They fish from
ocean piers, and from comfortable chairs on boats drifting
over the Florida reefs. They charter cabin cruisers (35 cruisers
dock at Miami's Pier 5) and fish the Gulf Stream for sailfish,
marlin, dolphin, and other game fish.
Riding the foaming surf
Fishing from a bridge
An evening picnic
on the beach
Boats ply Ft. Lauderdale's
shimmering New River.
The popularity of deep sea fishing created a need for taxi-
dermists (taxidermy is a big business in the area from Stuart
to Miami) and has inspired men to paint fish in the glowing
colors fish lose so quickly upon being taken from the salt
Glass bottom boats give Florida tourists an opportunity to
view the ocean floor, and other boats make almost daily
cruises on many of Florida's rivers and around many islands.
South and Central Florida's sea, lake, and gulf waters, dancing
with tiny sparkles of sunshine, invite the water skier as do
no other waters in this country. Water skiing is growing
fast in popularity as a South Florida sport for young and old.
In 1956, there were a half dozen ski schools in the Miami-
South Florida's waters call to the sailor.
Fort Lauderdale area teaching approximately 100 persons a
day. These pupils range in age from four to eighty years.
Sailing races on South Florida's brilliantly colored waters
are a thrilling spectacle.
The tropical sea gives developers of tourist attractions, such
as aquariums, an unusual opportunity in South Florida. The
warm sea waters can be channeled or pumped into tanks and
there provide a natural habitat for playful porpoises, sharks,
and thousands of fishes as well as for sea anemones, coral
fans, and all the exciting animal and vegetable life of the pro-
ductive seas around us.
The coral reefs that lie off South Florida's shore from
Fort Lauderdale southward to the Keys are a dazzling sub-
marine world enticing skin divers. This submarine wonder-
land today calls as strongly to the photographer, marine sci-
entist, treasure hunter, and explorer as it does to those who
The porpoise is the "playboy" of
the sea. Here he smiles -
for his dinner. M
hunt fish with a gun or spear. These Florida waters are not
treacherous and few accidents occur.
Almost everyone living in South Florida learns to swim.
Infants all but learn to swim before they can walk. Like
boating, fishing, and water skiing, swimming is enjoyed the
year around, not just for five months as in the north, in the
foaming surf, in lakes, and in thousands of swimming pools.
In South Florida, the sea is almost as important to daily
living as is land. The seas give life a healthy zest. They even
add gourmet foods to the daily menu-shrimp, snapper, pom-
pano, dolphin, grouper, crawfish, and fresh crab meat. Flor-
ida fish are health foods, rich in minerals and vitamins.
In South Florida, shrimp
are both a gourmet food
and an industry.
Transportation By Sea
South Florida has busy, progressive seaports, providing
passenger and freight service to Latin American countries,
to the Bahama Islands, to Europe, and to other lands.
The sea means inexpensive transportation. In addition to
steamship service out of South Florida ports, today there are
"roll on, roll off" train-ferries operating between South Flor-
ida and the West Indies. This means that carloads or trailer
loads of food or merchandise can be rolled onto a ship and
rolled off at the point of destination.
The sea has a magic effect on South Florida's climate, espe-
cially on the eastern or windward shore. The water cools
the land in summer and warms it in winter.
Some of the problems created by the sea around South
Florida have encouraged new industries. The salt-laden air
rusts steel-hence Miami's great aluminum industries!
Today, chemists are working toward new marine paint
and wood preservatives. The sea serves as their testing ground
for anti-fouling paints and devices, and studies of marine
Florida's long, key-protected coast inspires boat builders and
has stimulated a multi-million dollar marine industry. South
Florida's unexcelled sports fishing provides work for thousands
Floating in South Florida's tropic waters and strewn on the
golden beaches are many materials of industry. South Florida
has a multi-million dollar sea shell business, providing work
for more than 1,000 persons. There are plants that specialize
in dyeing sea shells. Jewelry fashioned from sea shells and
fish scales in South Florida factories and home workshops, is
sold in gift shops from Key West to California.
Floridians have learned to electroplate tiny sea horses and
horseshoe crabs with gold and silver and to make them into
earrings and pins. Driftwood, usually buttonwood from the
Florida Keys and coasts, is fashioned into lamps and other
Florida seaweed, rich in minerals, is a valuable fertilizer.
Miami's busy port
Simply chopped and washed free of salt, it makes a mineral-
rich mulch. It adds much-needed nutrients to the soil. Some
enterprising South Floridian, perhaps you, will present this
seaweed fertilizer to the national market, neatly bagged and
Seaweeds also make mineral-rich stockfeed, and in time,
may become food for your table.
South Florida's seaweeds are sources of algin and agar. (Both
algin and agar are used in foods, drugs, cosmetics, and other
Florida's fishermen land a two hundred million pound
catch each year. Much of the fish, crawfish, and shrimp come
from South Florida's coral-floored seas. How to quick-freeze,
refrigerate and transport this sea food crop to the nation in
easy-to-buy and easy-to-cook form is a new industrial frontier!
Frontier Builders Of Boats!
South Florida's commercial fishermen use a fleet of boats,
and numerous nets, fish traps, lines, and other equipment.
In South Florida waters, where shrimp has been king of the
food fish since the discovery of new beds off Key West, there
is always a challenge to the boat builder to produce a better
shrimp boat. There is always work for those who supply
marine equipment and services. Even the catching of shrimp
for bait is a growing business, and a few enterprising Flori-
dians market crickets, fiddler crabs, and earthworms for the
The assembly line production of boats, with automobile-
styling, began in the Miami area. Bank financing of boats
in the same way that automobiles are financed, originated
in Miami, gives the boat manufacturer a new chance to ap-
peal to the average man.
There are many busy boat-building plants in South Florida.
The boat builders, from Titusville south to Key West, turn
out boats of many types, some of wood, some of plastic, but
all streamlined and beautiful. Some boat yards specialize in
building de luxe yachts, with mahogany decks and brass trim.
Others utilize assembly line procedures to turn out vast quan-
tities of colorful cruisers which are carried, on piggy-back
trailers, to many cities in this country.
The coral-encrusted sea floor crawls with life.
Services For Water Sports
The making of ice, electrically, ties in with fishing. Fish-
ermen will tell you, "A pound of fish means a pound of ice."
In fact, commercial fishing in Florida was not possible until
men learned how to make ice. Today ice-making offers work
to many persons in South Florida.
The servicing of pleasure craft is a big and ever increasing
business. So, too, is the manufacturing of fishing tackle.
In 1955, a half dozen Florida firms were pioneering in the
making of skin-diving equipment. The fact that men were
hunting fish underwater, the year around, with spear guns
and spears opened a South Florida market for special equip-
The marine industries of South Florida are too varied and
vast to measure in statistics. There are many marine supply
stores. There are propeller shops and anchor factories. There
are immense yacht basins, and enormous boat yards providing
covered and open protection for boats and even ships. South
Florida provides every type of boat service you can think of
and some of which you would never dream. Yachts are serv-
iced with drinking water, flowers, groceries, fuel, and mail.
There are boats to rent of the drive-it-yourself type.
If your interest is boating, then South Florida offers the
brightest frontier for you.
Riches In The Sea
But the sea holds even bolder challenges!
There is more sea than land. There is more food in the
sea than on land. The sea is a vast storehouse of minerals.
But how to make these materials useful to man? That is the
question you may answer.
A planktonic larval specimen
from the deep, less than an
The South Florida sea abounds with plankton, the small
animals and plants that drift in salt and even fresh waters.
You may never have heard about plankton, but it is the pri-
mary food of animal sea life, the pasturage of the sea. Scien-
tists believe that plankton may be a source of our future food
supply. How can it be used? That is one of the challenging
questions being studied by the Marine Laboratory of the
University of Miami. There are many others.
The sea is rich in minerals. There are several tons of
uranium and gold and about 25 tons of copper, manganese,
zinc, and lead in one cubic mile of sea water, along with
300,000 tons of bromine. Bromine, used in gasoline anti-
knock solutions, already is being extracted from sea water.
All of the magnesium used in this country comes from sea
water, and by 1970 the demand for magnesium is expected
Is it not possible, even probable, that some day we will be
mining other metals from our rich tropical sea waters? The
waters surrounding Florida may be mined for magnesium,
bromine, potassium, boron, strontium, chlorine, aluminum,
and fluorine. The need for chlorine, especially, is growing
and chlorine can be taken from our sea waters.
There is salt in the tropic sea. Why not recover it? The
sun may be used to evaporate sea water to manufacture salt,
and South Florida has a wealth of sunlight. By 1970, scientists
believe that fresh water may be obtained economically from
salt water in cities like Miami and Fort Lauderdale.
The sea, in fact, abounds in varied puzzles, challenges, and
opportunities. For example, the sea is full of marine microbes,
or bacteria, and scientists are just beginning to learn that
these bacteria are useful.
Marine bacteria are the first step in forming petroleum.
Dead fish and all the debris of the seas constantly rain down
upon the ocean floor and there they are attacked by bacteria.
The chemical changes that occur are the first steps in the
production of oil.
In time, vitamins may come from our tropic waters. These
may be more valuable than the Spanish gold, silver, and
emeralds which divers are recovering today from coral-crusted
wrecks off the Florida coast.
In addition to its sea waters, South Florida has many inland
waters, such as lakes and canals. Many of these are carpeted
with hyacinths. You, or some one, may one day replace the
hyacinth, which has become a pest, with floating islands of
useful plants, nurtured by enriched waters used to farm fish.
All this, and much more, is possible in a land where the sun
shines almost every day of the year.
A quick glance at the work under way at the Marine Labora-
tory of the University of Miami will awaken you to the vast
possibilities and challenges of our sea.
Game fish studies, important to South Floridians, extend
as far as the waters of Chile. Shrimp investigations are under
way continually. The Gulf Stream is being measured and
carefully studied. The uses of seaweed are being developed.
In fact, the Marine Laboratory of the University of Miami
is engaged in the entire field of marine science, from physical
oceanography to fisheries management. It is concerning itself
with the development of a commercial fishing course in the
Fort Myers High School. The research work of the Marine
Laboratory, some of which is detailed below, will greatly
affect your tomorrows:
For the U. S. Navy-Studies on dynamic characteristics
of the Gulf Stream; underwater sound; control of
For the Rockefeller Foundation-Basic studies on the
productivity of the sea.
For the State of Florida-Investigations on the Red
Tide; fisheries research.
For the National Geographic Society-Studies of larval
For individual endowments-Studies of tropical game
For commercial concerns-Anti-fouling paint problems.
The sea, so lavish in its good gifts to South Floridians, also
places upon us a responsibility, conservation of our sea treas-
Florida is dotted with
smiling blue lakes-
a fisherman's paradise.
Sailfishing off the Florida Coast
ures. We must be alert to protect South Florida waters against
pollution. We should learn to release fish not needed or used.
A sailfish taken for no purpose is a waste of Florida's fascinat-
ing marine life.
There are many other questions to be answered and prob-
lems to be solved. Why are the sailfish diminishing? What
ocean paths do the giant blue fin tuna follow? What can be
done for our nearly vanished South Florida sponge industry?
How can we best preserve sea life such as the turtle, the craw-
fish, or Florida lobster?
Today, men fish and explore the ocean in much the same
way the pioneers hunted and explored America. But in time,
we must stop hunting wild sea food and grow or raise it.
There will be rich fish farms and undersea plant farms in
South Florida's tropic waters. We will mine the sea, the great
storehouse of treasures.
The sea is a frontier, mysterious, challenging, rich!
1. In what ways does the sea serve the people of this area?
2. What industries have been developed due to the sea around
3. How are minerals taken from the sea used? What are
some future possibilities?
4. Why is it necessary to conserve our sea life?
5. Why will man eventually look to the sea as a main source
6. Why is plankton important?
7. How much do you recall?
What are some practical uses for seaweed?
How does the making of ice tie in with fishing?
What are the minerals found in the sea? For what are
How do marine bacteria help form petroleum?
What recreation does the sea offer?
8. What unsolved problems make the sea a challenging fron-
1. Have individual class members report on:
Answer these questions about each of the above:
What are they?
Where are they found in Florida waters?
How are they caught?
Of what use are they?
2. Collect sea shells of the area. Identify the shells, and make
a classroom museum.
3. Paint a mural showing sea life in our waters.
4. Make a bulletin board of colored postal cards showing
influences of the sea.
5. Tell about your experiences: fishing, shrimping, or craw-
6. Have class members bring in fishing and skin-diving equip-
ment to explain how to use and take care of the equip-
7. Make a seafood recipe book. Ask your mother how she
makes your favorite seafood dish. Illustrate.
Vegetables and cattle ... tropical fruits and flowers!
The Sunshine State's thriving agriculture proves that ...
There's a Future for You in
South Florida Agriculture
In South Florida there is exciting adventure and opportunity
In a mild, sunny, humid climate unlike any other climate
in the United States, the modern farmer can grow several
crops a year of almost anything from corn to chrysanthemums.
He has a golden opportunity to grow rare tropical fruits
not found elsewhere in the United States. If fruits such as
"lychee," acerolaa," and "sapote" sound strange to you today,
they may be as well known tomorrow as "orange" or "grape-
Gardening For Everybody
A South Florida home garden can produce sun-enriched
papayas, bananas, pineapples, avocados, mangoes, guavas, tan-
gelos, kumquats, and many other exotic fruits. Even tropical
varieties of raspberries and peaches thrive here.
The home gardener in South Florida learns to grow gorge-
ous roses in winter and enjoys flowering trees, such as the
royal poinciana, the shower-of-gold, and the bauhinia, or
"poor man's orchid," through many months of the year. Land-
scapers for home and public gardens can choose from an almost
bewildering variety of shrubs and plants. The South Floridian
lives outdoors amid color.
For many in South Florida, gardening is a recreation, pro-
viding a "continued story" interest in living which, in turn,
promotes glowing health. Even apartment-dwellers plant in-
door gardens of exotic tropical foliage plants.
There is little need for South Floridians to plant citrus
One of South Florida's fertile fields-beans growing near Miami
Papayas, golden tree melons,
rich in Vitamin A
trees in their home gardens. Florida leads the world in the
production of citrus fruits. There is no necessity for growing
vegetables, either, since South Florida is the nation's winter
Familiar vegetables-tomatoes, beans, potatoes, corn, cab-
bage, celery, radishes, broccoli, and dozens of others-grow
richly flavorful under the Florida sun. The South Florida
homemaker also has opportunity to add unusual home-grown
vegetables to the menu. Plants such as the chayote thrive
in home gardens. The coconut is almost always available, as
are limes for cool drinks and fruits for salad. Strawberries
ripen in December when northern fields are covered with
In South Florida, more than in any other spot in the coun-
try, the cooking and serving of food takes on the glamour of
You can cook outdoors
an adventure. Meals can be cooked out-of-doors the year
around and often are served outdoors or in patios. The Flor-
ida housewife has unusual fruits from which to choose-fruits
not grown elsewhere in the United States. She learns to
make delicacies prized by cooks in other regions, such as guava
jelly and guava shells, spiced calamondins and kumquat pre-
serves, mango chutney, lime pie, and fresh coconut cakes, pies,
South Florida, with its mild climate, has taken giant strides
in agriculture and is destined for continuing agricultural ex-
pansion. South Florida leads the nation in the production of
The rich, black,
muck lands of the
rows of many
vegetables in win-
ter. This is celery
Gladioli, a bumper
South Florida crop
rare tropical fruits and a wide variety of winter vegetables.
It is also a year-round grazing land for sleek cattle. It holds
bright promise as a poultry-producing region, with the city
of Miami one of the richest poultry and egg consuming markets
in the country.
The rich muck lands on the rim of Lake Okeechobee pro-
duce bumper crops of sugar cane, sweet corn, beans, celery,
radishes, peppers, escarole, and many other vegetables. Other
fertile lands circling Lake Okeechobee produce ramie, an
unusual fiber plant. It grows so abundantly that three cut-
tings are made a year. Florida-grown ramie now is being
woven into fine cloth.
Trainloads of watermelons roll out of the city of Immokalee,
deep in the cypress lands of Collier County. The Redlands
area, south of Miami, is famed for the production of Persian
limes, avocados, and mangoes. Dade County leads the state,
perhaps the nation, in the production of tomatoes. Lee Coun-
ty, on the west coast, annually produces a bumper crop of
Florida farms are big and the financial rewards of scientific
farming often are big, too.
Farming By Machines
South Florida's pioneer growers used hand plows, and the
wearisome work of planting and harvesting crops was done
by hand. Today enormous machines roll into vegetable fields
or through fruit groves to pick, clean, sort, and pack crops
of many types. Mobile pre-cooling plants operate in the fields
Machines and men harvest a Dade County corn field.
*-' '-- -^- W ~ r -fl
so that little of the food value of crops is lost. Even the plant-
ing of citrus and other tree crops has been streamlined and
mechanized. Airplanes sow the seed of some crops and dust,
spray, and fertilize others.
Some of the South Florida pioneers who cleared away the
original stand of pines and broke up the rocky soil of south
Dade County with pickaxes have lived to see the same farms
turned into marvels of mechanization.
Visit a modern farm-from Belle Glade to Florida City-
and you'll find it run as a big business. An executive in an
air-conditioned office will be in telephone communication
with produce buyers in the north and in touch by radio with
men in the fields. He will know, to the minute, the price his
crops will bring, and he can have them picked and packed
South Florida farming has come so far from the hand plow
that you well may ponder what new marvels the future will
hold for you. If yours is a mechanical aptitude, by all means
consider the farm with its mammoth machines. Here is op-
Science At Work On The Land
Florida farms do not "just grow." They are illustrations
of science at work. The words, "It can't be done," are a chal-
lenge to the modern South Florida grower or farmer to do it.
The land, in fact, offers South Florida's greatest and most
varied opportunity to the educated man.
Consider the vast tracts of near-swampy land not yet in use.
These challenge the drainage engineer and the bridge builder.
There is work to be done on insect and weed control, on fer-
tilizers, and on machinery. There is work for the veterinarian,
the electrician, for experts on refrigeration, marketing, pack-
aging, and advertising. South Florida farms use immense ma-
chines, airplanes, and radio communications. Florida farms
use vast quantities of supplies such as rubber bands and
plastic vegetable bags.
The control of plant diseases and blights is an ever-present
challenge. But problems have spurred progress. To grow sweet
corn in South Florida, the scientist conquered an insect. To
produce long-stemmed chrysanthemums, the flower grower
learned to lengthen the day with electric lights.
The exciting spirit of doing the impossible stems from re-
search work at Florida's great universities. For instance, the
University of Florida at its Everglades Experiment Station in
Belle Glade has done excellent work on corn, pasture grass,
ramie, kenaf, and other products.
At the sub-tropical Experiment Station of the University
of Florida near Homestead, work goes forward continually
on tropical fruits such as the guava and the mango. New
guavas have been developed that promise much-new mangoes,
Fruits Of The Frontier
The University of Miami at its South Campus is working
to develop tropical fruits and sun-enriched food products.
Here two teams work, one in the tropical foods research labo-
ratory, the other on the farm. Much of this work concerns
exotic tropical fruit-the lychee, gauva, mango, acerola (Bar-
bados cherry), sapote, avocado, and the Persian lime. When
the lychee was but little known, a ten-acre grove of young
trees was planted at the South Campus of the University of
Miami. The trees were cultivated, fertilized, and carefully
tended until they bore clusters of strawberry-red fruit. Then
fresh lychees were picked from these trees, packed and shipped.
Test sales were conducted in New York super markets. Results:
A new Florida fruit package. Lychees, also, were frozen and
a frozen product developed.
The production of tropical fruits such as the avocado, the
mango, the pineapple, lychee, papaya, sapote, guava, and lime
present a bright prospect to the educated grower. The public
is learning that the guava is rich in vitamin C and that the
Barbados cherry, or acerola, contains more vitamin C than
any other fruit known.
The Barbados cherry thrives in South Florida. It needs
little care and no special fertilizers. It "just grows" and bears
lustily in a few years. You can call the cherry itself a natural
Vitamin C capsule-so rich it is in this important vitamin!
Actually the juice of this Puerto Rican cherry is the richest
edible food source of ascorbic acid ever discovered! It has from
fifty to one hundred times the vitamin C content of orange
juice. It can be taken as a natural juice or blended with the
juices of other fruits that contain little or no vitamin C.
A Puerto Rican scientist, testing native fruits, discovered the
remarkable value of the acerola by accident. Resting from
work on other fruits, he nibbled at a bowl of the tart cherries.
Then, almost as a joke, he thought of testing the cherries.
To his amazement the vitamin C content was so high no read-
ing could be made. Before he left his laboratory that night
he had learned that the wild cherry was the world's richest
known source of Vitamin C.
The University of Miami at its South Campus has pioneered
in the commercial planting of the cherry in this country, grow-
ing the shrubs between rows of avocado trees.
The promising cherry, which is not a real cherry, has sev-
eral names. It is called acerola, Barbados cherry, or Puerto
Rican cherry. Botanically it is the Malpighia punicifolia.
But, by any name, it is a fruit with a future. New food prod-
ucts include baby foods with a small quantity of Barbados
cherry juice added to them to increase the Vitamin C content.
Opportunity Grows On Trees!
South Florida's agricultural frontiers are unlimited. You
can grow anything in South Florida from orchids to mush-
rooms. In fact, both of these are "money crops." Orchids are
grown in South Florida in glass buildings or cloth houses,
sometimes even on trees. Mushrooms, of course, are grown
in dark air-conditioned buildings and pickers work with a
miner's lamp in their caps.
Opportunity grows on trees in South Florida! In 1955 there
were 9,000 acres of avocados, 7,400 acres of Persian limes, and
2,500 acres of mangoes in Dade County alone. There is a con-
stant demand for young budded and grafted trees. But not
all opportunity concerns fruit trees. There are 4,000,000 acres
of land in South Florida, from Orlando southward, in need
of forestation and reforestation. South Florida has a monopoly
on tropical timber production in this country.
The growing of orchids is a million dollar business in South Florida.
Pictured are plants of the "Vanda Rothschildiana." The flowers are
"Vanda Mabel Mae Kamahele."
Why not join the search by tropical foresters for fast-grow-
ing trees that produce beautiful cabinet wood or solid timber?
Even the saw, or scrub, palmetto is a chemurgic challenge.
Wax can be made from the saw palmetto. The melaleuca
tree which thrives in South Florida also presents possibilities.
In Australia the beautiful bark of melaleuca trees is shredded
and used as stuffing for hospital pillows.
The production of beef and dairy cattle is one of Florida's
oldest and most interesting frontiers. But South Florida's
herds of purebred cattle today are a far cry from the long-horn
range cows left by the early Spaniards. Cattle ranchers today
also are learning how to grow new pasture grasses. South
Florida has dairy herds and milk plants comparable to any
in this country. Broward County has one of the largest dairy
herds in the world.
One of the phases of agriculture capable of great expansion
in South Florida is the poultry business. Only a small per-
centage of the eggs consumed in Dade County is produced
locally. There are but few broiler plants, yet the demand
for eggs and chickens is increasing at a fantastic rate.
Here is a business that holds great possibilities, perhaps
for you. There is an opportunity also for turkey, guinea, and
goat farms in some areas in South Florida where zoning per-
mits such activity.
South Florida cattlemen are progressive, up-breeding their beef herds.
Note "scrub" cattle, left, with Hereford blood showing in their white
faces. The pure-bred herd, at right, are Brahmans.
South Florida inspires farmers to do the unusual. In Lee
County, one enterprising farm grows a special protein-rich
"green" hay. It is eaten by circus animals, by valuable race
horses and steers.
Crops Of Flowers
At Easter time flowers go out of South Florida by the mil-
lions in planes, in refrigerated trucks, and by express. They
are shipped from Maine to California.
At South Florida's flower farms 'mums are grown in cloth-
covered houses. Natural daylight is lengthened by electric
lights so that the blooming stage is controlled at the desired
time. As one houseful of flowers is harvested, another is
brought into blossom. The assembly line operation goes on
from September to June.
Other flower farms produce roses by the hundreds of thou-
sands. Orchids are big business. South Florida has some of
the largest foliage plant nurseries in the country. There is a
future in flowers in South Florida!
Gladioli are one of Florida's big crops, too. In 1955, Flor-
ida marketed over 15,000,000 dozen of these blossom spikes.
This crop grossed South Florida growers $25,000,000. There
is still flower land available.
Farming In Water
Hydroponic gardens flourish in South Florida. Hydroponics
means growing plants in water, by feeding them a solution
containing nutrients the plants need. The plants aie sup-
Electricity lengthens natural daylight and helps control blooming time
so the flower-grower can command the highest prices.
Loading gladioli, near Fort Myers
ported by gravel and grow on trellises. Hydroponic gardens
in this area produce tomatoes, cucumbers, and many other
vegetables, as well as many kinds of flowers.
There Are Still Land Frontiers!
Agricultural frontiers in sunny Florida are as wide as you
wish to make them. There is a constant demand for preserves
and jellies made of tropical fruits and for sun-enriched health
foods made of fruits such as the papaya. While it has long
been known that the guava makes superb jelly, many of South
Florida's newer jelly factories are using unusual fruits such
as the calamondin, the kumquat, and the Barbados cherry.
The demand for mango chutney far exceeds the supply.
There's much work to be done in the field of chemical
weed control and fertilizers. Disease-resistant vegetables are
important in South Florida. The work of developing them
is a challenge.
There is a challenge also, in the medicinal plants that grow
wild or can be cultivated in South Florida. The aloe vera,
for instance, is used in ointments.
A grape that will grow and produce in South Florida is a
dream that never dies. Who can make it come true?
There are many other bright possibilities in Florida's future.
Inevitably, we will begin to make better use of bamboo, pal-
metto, cattails, and Spanish moss, all valuable materials. (Bam-
boo is used in some countries as a building material; wax can
be made from palmetto; cattails make upholstery material;
wax can be made from Spanish moss, which is an excellent
There will be increased production of "finish fed" beef in
South Florida. Resin and plastics from sugar are a possibility
by 1970, according to University of Florida scientists, and
South Florida is one of the world's great sugar-producing
regions. (Sugar is a cheap chemical.) There will be striking
improvements in vegetable and fruit processing, including
powdered citrus and tomato juices. And there is a strong
possibility that row-planted pines may be tapped for turpen-
tine by machines. Why not?
What's Ahead For Florida Farmers?
A forecast made by the Florida Council for the Study of
Higher Education gives you a hint of the future:
Returns to citrus growers and packers to increase from
$189,000,000 in 1954 to $253,000,000 in 1970.
Vegetable production from $142,000,000 in 1953 to $215,-
000,000 in 1970.
Improved pastures from 1,500,000 acres in 1950 to 3,500,000
Beef cattle from $31,000,000 in 1953 to $120,000,000 in
Poultry production to double, reaching $64,000,000.
Milk production to double, reaching $80,000,000.
Greenhouse and nursery products from $22,000,000 in 1953
to $72,000,000 in 1970.
Today, science in Florida is aiding agriculture with radio-
isotopes. This work gives new and exciting interest to agri-
culture. For instance, scientists fed slightly radioactive minerals
to hens and then followed the calcium fed to the mother hen
right to the egg shell and from the egg shell into the bone
structure of the baby chick. This was done with an adaptation
of the Geiger counter. The hatching of baby chicks and air-
shipping of chicks to Latin American countries has become a
substantial business in South Florida, and modern science may
make it even bigger.
Ramie, being harvested
near Belle Glade
William Haast, with one
of the king cobras from
which he extracts snake
venom for medicinal pur-
Cucumbers are grown hydroponically in Miami. Note the cement beds
There are many other land-related opportunities in Florida.
Crops such as ramie, woven into cloth by the Egyptians thou-
sands of years ago and used for the wrapping of mummies,
today holds a bright promise for the muck lands of the Ever-
glades. Kenaf, a substitute for jute from which burlap is
made, also has been grown successfully in the Everglades.
If war makes it necessary to grow a jute substitute in this
country, it can be grown in South Florida.
Some types of tropical fish can be grown outdoors in South
Florida. Today this is big business. South Florida tropical
fish farms now are air-shipping live fish to the nation's pet
stores. Many tropical fish breeders search the world for rare
specimens to breed in Florida.
Many pet birds are bred in South Florida and shipped to
the nation's pet stores, too. Even South Florida's wild snakes
such as the cottonmouth moccasin and diamond-back rattler
are being turned to the benefit of mankind by daring producers
of snake venom for medicinal purposes.
The production of honey already is a million dollar busi-
ness in Florida, which abounds in honey-making material-
orange blossoms, saw palmetto blossoms, mangrove, and many
other flowers. But the "hiring out" of bees to pollinate crops
may become an even bigger business. A DeLand beekeeper
is pioneering, also, in the production of royal jelly, a sub-
stance upon which the queen bee is fed when in larval state.
In 1956, this royal jelly was used in cosmetics and was selling
for a fabulous price.
There is rich opportunity in the growing of aquatic plants,
such as water lilies. These can be grown in outdoor pools in
South Florida and marketed on a national basis.
Florida's agricultural frontiers are unlimited and the re-
wards are rich. Until mankind learns how to grow a mile-
long row of radishes, a field of sugar cane, or a carload of
celery in a laboratory, South Florida will continue to be the
nation's winter market basket. Here, the land frontier is still
1. Why are the farmers of South Florida able to grow more
than one crop of vegetables and flowers in a year? What
conditions might prevent the raising of two crops?
2. How is it possible to have an increasing farm income in
Dade County when many groves and farms are now being
developed as homesites?
3. What are the important crops of South Florida? Where
are they grown?
4. How did the pioneer's way of farming differ from the way
the modern farmer grows his crops?
5. What are some big problems facing grove growers and
6. How do universities help people in agriculture?
7. What are some of the promising agricultural frontiers in
8. Where do the people who farm get their labor? How may
the large increase in population during "picking" seasons
9. Why is advertising important in selling a "new" crop such
as Barbados cherries or lychees?
10. What work other than "dirt farming" does agriculture
1. Obtain a copy of the Florida Dictionary by Jack Shoemaker
(published by the State of Florida, Department of Agri-
culture), from the Dade County Agriculture Agency, 2690
N. W. 7th Avenue, Miami. The pamphlet lists and de-
scribes fruits, vegetables, and flowers of Florida.
2. Visit the Dade County Agriculture Agency and interview
the County Agent. Find out how he helps people in agri-
culture. Ask him for publications you may use in class.
3. Have a fruit fair. Class members may bring in many dif-
ferent kinds of fruit in season. Arrange an attractive dis-
play on a table. Taste fruit with which you are unfamiliar.
4. Have a group draw a huge map of Florida on one side of
the bulletin board and a map of the world on the other
side. Use yarn from place of origin of plant on world map
to where plant now grows in South Florida. Draw or cut
out of colored construction paper plants for map.
5. Invite one of the science teachers into the room to set up
an experiment for growing tomatoes or radishes hydroponi-
cally. Keep a careful record of materials used and results
6. Take a pencil and pad with you the next time you visit
the grocery store. List the fruits and vegetables grown in
South Florida and those shipped in.
7. Tell about the fruit trees in your backyard or neighbor-
hood. Ask your parents about the care they give the trees-
amount of water, fertilizer, pruning, spraying.
Florida has seen a phenomenal growth in aviation . and
now, with the dawning of the jet age,
air-minded Floridians know that . .
The Sky is Not a Limit
The jet age is here!
No period in South Florida's amazing aviation history has
promised as much to youth as does this era of fabulous speed
and comfort in air travel.
Look up and vision opportunity! Even the sky is not a limit
today. The launching of a space satellite from an east coast
mid-Florida base extends our frontiers into outer space and
creates new opportunities and payrolls for engineers and tech-
Consider South Florida's sparkling weather and clear blue
skies plus its geographic position, and you will see why this
is one of aviation's great frontiers.
Hub Of The Americas
Miami's International Airport is literally the hub of the
Americas. Air paths stream outward in all directions from this
3,000-acre field to link South Florida to the world. An in-
creasing number of persons and tons of cargo pass through
this airport daily.
In 1955, it was estimated, that the daily average of persons
including visitors going through the terminals was over 30,000,
a small city full of people. The same year, more than 17,000
persons worked at the airport, either for various airlines or
for air-related industries and services. More than 3,000,000
passengers, 11,780,000 pounds of air mail, and over 137,000,000
pounds of air express and freight were handled in 1955 at the
Miami International Airport.
Contrast these figures with those for 1950 and you will begin
to glimpse the speed of aviation's growth. In 1950, passengers
numbered 1,387,142. Mail was but 6,603,700 pounds and
cargo, 71,871,000 pounds.
Figures for the first nine months of 1956 (see the table)
clearly indicate the increasing activity at the Miami Interna-
Traffic Report Miami International Airport*
Nine Months Total- 1956
To and From Points Outside Continental U. S. Limits
To and From Points Within Continental U. S. Limits
*Data provided by Dade County Port Authority, Miami
The Jet Age Frontier
Ushered in with an expenditure of $2,500,000,000 by United
States air carriers for new aircraft and facilities, the jet age opens
new doors to South Florida. It makes this time in which you
live one of seeming marvels.
Soon business people may be able to live in South Florida,
enjoy our marvelous climate and reap its benefits in health,
and work in New York. They will be able to fly from New
York to Miami in less time than it would take them to drive
to some parts of New York City, or to drive from Miami to
West Palm Beach.
Even without jet transportation, non-stop flights are possible
from Miami to Paris. Jet transportation will bring South Flor-
ida's climate and way of life within the reach of the world.
The new concept of air travel in which Miami has a vital
part, is costly and magnificent. The jet planes will carry up
to 145 passengers at speeds of 550 to 660 miles per hour. One
jet transport will have a range of 4,000 miles with full payload.
Wing span is 141 feet, 6 inches; fuel capacity is 21,200 gallons.
These planes will make the New York-Miami trip in little
more than two hours. Air-borne radar, detecting weather 150
miles ahead of the plane, is but one of many new safety factors.
The major airlines serving South Florida today are actively
engaged in the process of an expansion that staggers the imagi-
nation, and South Florida is meeting the challenge of changing
times with a new and functional airport passenger terminal.
Costing $10,000,000, this terminal is built in the form of fingers
radiating from a U-shaped main building. It is designed to
meet the demands of the future.
The first aircraft used by Pan
American World Airways, when it
Jets, like this one, fly 575 miles began operations in 1927, was a
per hour. tri-motor Fokker.
'~- f .E a.'
^ h ~
_^v^ ~ YI yiers^^^^
Growth Of The Airlines
The growth of the airlines using the airport tells the story
of aviation's past and predicts its future.
Until about 1928, Miami's airport was a swampy pasture.
Then Pan American World Airways built a hangar and run-
way on the Northwest 36th Street side of the present airport,
and began to land a few planes there.
Pan American World Airways was born in 1927 when a
monoplane lumbered over a muddy field at Key West and
bravely took off for Havana to establish our first international
In 1956, Pan American had 6,028 employees in Florida, with
an annual payroll of $28,606,554. Its maintenance shops at
the Miami International Airport are among the largest in the
world. Much of the work is done out of doors, in sparkling
In 22 years, National Airlines grew from a one-plane, one-
pilot, one-route carrier to a leading airline. In 1956, National
Airlines was employing more than 2,000 persons in Florida,
with a payroll of almost $18,000,000.
In 1955, Eastern Air Lines reported a total of 6,069 em-
ployees in Florida with a payroll of $28,964,025. The same
year Eastern Air Lines embarked on an expansion program
Delta Air Lines in 1956 employed 415 persons in Florida,
with 317 of them in Miami. Its total annual payroll in Florida
was almost $2,500,000.
In addition to the major United States airlines, and many
minor airlines, the airplanes of many other nations fly in and
out of the Miami International Airport carrying passengers,
mail, and cargo.
This cargo takes many forms. A part of it may be live tropi-
cal fish being flown into this country from South America,
or from South Florida's fish farms to other points in this
Air cargo may be Miami-made fashions, pressed and on
hangers, ready for sale in shops throughout the nation and
Latin America. It may be aluminum windows, furniture, or
jalousies bound for ports around the world. It may be fresh
flowers. It may be precious blood serums produced in Miami
Vast quantities of baby chicks take to the air in Miami, too,
bound for Latin America. Lions, cobras, monkeys, iguanas and
other animals have been shipped through Miami's airport.
Race horses often are flown.
Careers In Aviation
The opportunity for you to create a career or find employ-
ment in South Florida's aviation or air-connected industries
is almost unlimited.
To most of you, the airline pilot may seem to have the ideal
job. But this coveted and rewarding job in aviation is a long
climb, calling for years of study, training, and experience. It
demands physical fitness and usually a college background-
and even more. This is what Pan American World Airways
says of its ocean-spanning pilots:
"When a man gets a clipper captain's rating, he is more
than just a pilot. He's a personnel director, medic, lawyer,
linguist, mechanic, engineer, meteorologist, customs and im-
migration official and diplomat."
Still want to try for the job? Then it may be yours.
But there are other jobs concerned with the flying of planes,
the movement of air cargo, or airport administration. You
Capt. Roy E. Keeler
may become an aircraft mechanic or manufacturer of aircraft
parts. You may learn the infinitely precise techniques of test-
ing instruments. You may work at a military base or be in
the armed services.
You may join the growing ranks of engineers and technicians
required to do the important work of launching missiles and
recording their behavior in flight. The recording of data on
how these missiles perform on their 5,000-mile, down-range
sky path from Cape Canaveral to Ascension Island opens fabu-
lous new opportunities to engineers and technicians in Florida.
Graduates of Florida universities and technical high schools
today receive a special welcome at Patrick Air Force
Base, where in 1956 the RCA Service company had more than
1500 employees at the base and on the down-range stations.
The work at Air Force Missile Test Center is an immense
cooperative effort in which, if you become an engineer, you
well may play a vital part. The work, of course, concerns the
testing of missiles and weapons systems. A complete record
of all the data concerning the missiles is kept from the time
the missile leaves its launching pad until it is either destroyed
or brought back to its home base. There is other exciting
work, too, perhaps on satellites and inter-continental ballistic
missiles. Florida is forging the world's future, and if pre-
pared, you can be a part of this exciting adventure.
Aviation Makes For Ease Of Living
Aviation affects life in South Florida in many interesting
ways. The fact that Havana and the Bahama Islands are but
minutes away from the Florida coast by air gives all South
Florida a cosmopolitan outlook on life and broadens your
The air routes streaming out from Miami's International
Airport link Miami easily with far-off foreign cities-with
Santiago (Chile), Karachi, Calcutta, Hong Kong, Oslo, Mexi-
co City, and many others, as well as to all major cities of our
Floridians can travel easily to cities within their own state.
Scheduled airlines serve Miami, Jacksonville, Tampa, West
Palm Beach, Fort Lauderdale, Vero Beach, Melbourne, Day-
tona Beach, Marianna, Gainesville, Ocala, Orlando, St. Peters-
burg, Clearwater, Panama City, Tallahassee, Pensacola, Brad-
enton, Fort Myers, Lakeland, and Key West. In addition, there
are air taxi routes between some Florida cities. No Floridian
can live far from an airport or air travel facilities.
Florida is dotted with modern terminal airports used by
certificated scheduled airlines. There also are private airports
for business and executive planes. The list of terminal airports
in 1956 follows:
Bradenton (served through Sarasota)
Clearwater (served through St. Petersburg)
Fort Lauderdale, Broward County International Airport
Fort Myers, Page Field
Gainesville, Municipal Airport
Jacksonville, Thomas Cole Imeson Airport
Key West, Meacham Airport
Lakeland, Drane Field
Marianna, Municipal Airport
Melbourne-Eau Gallie Municipal Airport
Miami, International Airport
Ocala, Municipal Airport
Orlando, Municipal Airport
Panama City, Municipal Airport
Pensacola, Municipal Airport
St. Petersburg, Pinellas County International Airport
Sarasota, Sarasota-Bradenton Airport
Tallahassee, Municipal Airport
Tampa, International Airport
Vero Beach, Municipal Airport
West Palm Beach, International Airport
Air cargo service is available at many points in Florida.
Farmers can air ship flowers and plants overnight to the great
population centers of the North. Strawberries and chrysan-
themums growing one afternoon in Florida, can be on tables
in northern homes the following day. The wide-awake smaller
cities of Florida-Fort Pierce, Lakeland, Orlando, Palatka,
Sarasota, Fort Myers, and Stuart-are well served by cargo car-
riers. Tomatoes, tropical fish, flowers, and plants fly out of
these areas by the plane-loads in season.
The popularity of air travel in South Florida has given im-
petus to yet another big business-the renting of automobiles to
air travelers. Today, in Miami, thousands of cars are rented
to air passengers.
Working By Air
Aviation enters boldly into many other fields of activity in
Florida. Today insecticides are sprayed from airplanes over vast
areas of the state. Crops are dusted, fertilized, and sometimes
fields are seeded, by airplane. Maps are made and new real
estate subdivisions are plotted from the air.
Sportsmen fish from airplanes. Salesmen use airplanes to
hop from one city to another. Pilots and fliers who live within
the state often stage "air-cades," happy, friendly gatherings.
Aviation lifts Florida living completely away from the routine
and humdrum. It gives wings to everyday enterprises and
stimulates new thought.
There is a future in Florida for business pilots-men and
women who can fly planes and hold responsible positions as
This may be your field.
Consider the fact that American business owns and flies al-
most 20 times as many airplanes as the airlines, and you will
see that the business pilot has a future. The expert pilot, man
or woman, who can double as a competent business executive
can command a high salary.
A business pilot, for instance, might be a salesman, pur-
chasing agent, demonstrator, a personnel expert, or a public
relations man. As a combination pilot and an executive, he or
she would command a salary ranging from a low of $350 a
month to a high of $1,100 a month.
Aviation Has No Ceiling, Vocationally!
There is a demand for airport managers and for teachers
in aviation schools. Even the field of public relations and ad-
vertising ties in directly with our progressive aviation. Today
the airlines sell "package vacations," which include air trans-
portation, hotels, entertainment, car rental, and all expenses.
Aviation schools in Miami tend to turn the city into a "melt-
ing pot." Enrolled at the Embry Riddle International School
of Aviation are students from Spain, China, Africa, Japan,
Korea, and many other countries.
In South Florida, there are many air-related industries.
These include manufacturers of airplane seats, of survival
equipment such as life preservers and life rafts, of plastic and
metal aircraft parts, of instruments and radios. There are
firms that specialize in the testing of instruments and servic-
ing of aircraft. There are Miami firms dealing in new and
used aircraft parts on an international basis.
There is no ceiling on opportunity in South Florida's avia-
tion, especially for those of you who know the Spanish language.
Even the sky is not the limit.
Transportation to the moon from Florida may come in the
exciting era in which you live!
Aviation sparks the sales of aircraft accessories and instruments. This
factory faces the Miami airport.
1. Why is the saying "the sky is the limit" no longer appro-
2. How will the "jet age" affect aviation in South Florida?
3. Why is it more practical for the large airlines to maintain
maintenance shops in Miami rather than New York or
other northern cities?
4. Will the airlines eventually force railroads and trucks out
of business? Defend your answer.
5. How does the airplane "shrink" our world?
6. How can air travel help South Florida create better under-
standing with Latin America?
7. Why is it important for a person to know a language other
than English if he plans to work for an airline?
8. For what are airplanes used other than transportation?
9. What are the frontiers in aviation?
10. What are the vocational opportunities in aviation?
1. Compile a list of the airlines in the area, including foreign
airlines. (Look in the classified section of the telephone
book.) Find out where you can go on the various airplanes.
On a map, draw airline routes from Miami to other parts
of the United States and the world, having a different
color represent each airline.
2. Have individual class members select a vacation spot.
Gather information on the place you plan to visit, includ-
ing plane fare, clothes to take along, what to see, customs
of the people. Use an almanac for facts and figures, a ge-
ography textbook for customs of the people, and an en-
cyclopedia for general information.
3. Make an occupation's chart showing the jobs involved in
flying and maintaining a plane. Discuss aviation as a
possibility for employment.
4. Give reports on the history of aviation. Place stress on
the changes brought about by the air age.
5. Invite an airline pilot to speak to the class. Have him cover
such points as education needed for the job, what the job
involves, and how he depends on others so he can do his
6. Make a picture collection of old and new planes. Discuss
the progress made in aviation.
7. Draw a plane of the future. How would your plane be an
improvement over those now in operation?
8. Have a poetry contest on the subject Flying.
We're envied for it . we're growing because of it!
Take your place in the sun and reap the
bountiful harvest of . .
South Florida's Fabulous
Climate makes Florida different from all other states!
It is climate that makes the land produce so bountifully,
and produce rare fruits not found elsewhere in the continental
United States. Climate makes health the birthright of every
Floridian and gives you the right to expect to live longer and
with more zest than in other regions of this country. Climate
gives South Floridians an opportunity to live out-of-doors, to
enjoy sports like tennis and swimming, and hobbies like gar-
dening and landscaping the year around.
Climate Is The Magnet!
A billion dollar tourist business, most of it in southeastern
Florida, rests solidly on Florida's golden climate!
Climate adorns the South Florida landscape in rare beauty and
color and makes seascapes a thrilling sight. It brings a wealth
of rare bird life to home gardens, to the pine lands, to the
keys, and to the Everglades National Park.
In fact, climate is so threaded into the economy and life of
southeastern Florida that it may truly be called the magnet
moving populations southward and creating exciting new fron-
tiers in which you will play a part.
The climate of all South Florida is balmy and refreshing;
the days sparkle with sunshine, the nights are cool. But south-
eastern Florida's climate is unique.
Three major factors make it so-the sun, the Gulf Stream,
and the trade winds. Other factors are rain, clouds, daytime
sea breezes, the amount of moisture in the air, and the con-
tour of the coastline.
Let's consider the sun first.
South Florida is this country's southernmost point. Thus the
tilt of the earth's axis in winter has less effect on this area than
on more northern regions. South Florida's winter days are
longer and warmed with intense sparkling sunshine. You can
work and play outdoors the year around in South Florida.
In summer, when the north pole tilts toward the sun, South
Florida's days are shorter than the days of northern areas, and
consequently cooler. The sun has less time to heat the air and
cause extremely high temperatures.
The Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream-warm, northward-flowing river in the sea
-rounds the western tip of Cuba, pushes through the Florida
straits and passes closer to South Florida's eastern shores than
to any other part of the United States. It acts as a weather-
moderator, warming in winter, cooling in summer.
Of course, it is easy to see how a warm current modifies
winter's chill. But the cooling action in summer is more com-
plex and this brings us to the action of the winds.
COOL DAYS PER YEAR
Period: 32 Seasons
550 -- 26 Days
50I4 12 Days
450 M 4 Days
40 1 Day
Note: On an average of 42 days per season, the temperature drops
below 600- when home heating is considered necessary.
-Florida Home Heating Institute
Source: U.S. Weather Bureau
Clouds are an important influence on South Florida's weath-
er. In winter, Florida's clouds are light and fleecy. They beau-
tify the sky, yet permit sunshine to pass to the earth. In sum-
mer, clouds are of the heavier cumulus type-dramatic billows
moving in from the sea to march across the peninsula. These
beautiful summer clouds act as giant parasols, cutting down the
intensity of the summer sunlight. Winter or summer, sunset
glorifies the clouds with remarkable color.
The winds that sweep across South Florida have a profound
effect upon the climate. Year-round, the trade winds are a
priceless asset to southeast Florida. They carry the warmth
of the Gulf Stream to the land in winter. In summer, when
water temperatures are much less than daytime land tempera-
tures, the winds bring coolness to the shore.
In southeast Florida, too, the prevailing winds are added
to the daytime sea breeze-the wind off the water. (This is
peculiar only to the east coast.) The result is that Florida has
cooler summers than those in many northern cities.
Chicago and St. Louis, for instance, occasionally have summer
days with temperatures exceeding 100 degrees. Not so in South
Rain And Clouds
South Florida receives plentiful rain, year-round. Normally,
winters are drier than summers, when the rains are cooling,
but there are no long dry periods to parch crops or threaten
the water supply. Thus, Florida is generously endowed with
fresh water, and in South Florida several crops a year are the
rule rather than the exception.
Few tornadoes of any strength strike Florida, and South
Florida is well prepared for hurricanes. Storm warnings now
give ample time to residents to lower awnings and fasten shut-
ters over windows and store fronts. Those who live in old,
insecure homes, on keys, or in low-lying districts have time to
move to strong shelters. Boats are moored and planes fly to
A part of the research work at Florida's great universities
concerns the tracking of storms by radar, and scientists are
continually at work to solve the mysteries of the birth and
growth of storms, the "whys" of weather. Meteorology is one of
South Florida's fascinating frontiers.
Radar will play an important role in future weather pre-
dictions and flat South Florida, more than any other spot in
the country, is suited to the propagation of radar waves. The
radar science is in its infancy. You will see it grow into a valu-
able aid to meteorologists and to those who sail the seas. A
radar beam already has been bounced off the moon. Who
can measure now the uses to which radar may be put? The
tracking of storms is but one.
Builders and architects in South Florida are learning to
design roofs for minimum resistance to wind. The new home
today stands up to the fury of a tropical storm.
There is no reason to fear a hurricane in South Florida and
every reason to respect it. The intelligent person stays in-
doors, even during the lull or quiet in the center of a storm,
and waits until the hurricane is safely past before venturing
out. Then he or she avoids fallen or dangling wires and
snapped tree limbs.
Those who must work during the roaring winds-Florida
Power & Light Company linemen, for instance-are the un-
sung, often unknown, heroes of the storm's fierce drama. But
they do work for which they have been trained with special
safety precautions. In fact, at the first hint of a storm, a care-
fully worked out and often rehearsed plan goes into action at
the Florida Power & Light Company. This plan to keep
electric service flowing to vital centers, such as hospitals, and
Florida Power & Light Company I
men rehearse a plan to keep electric "
power flowing to vital centers dur- O
V Power map for
use in storms
to as many homes as possible, and speedy restoration of service
after a storm passes involves the use of a giant map upon which
each line and street is plotted. Specially trained repair crews,
augmented by linemen from neighboring states if necessary,
work 'round the clock until the central map reveals that service
is 'back to normal.'
Coastlines And Cold Snaps
A factor not to be ignored in the making of southeast Flor-
ida's mild but tonic climate is the contour of the coastline.
Look at the map and you'll see why.
Florida's coastline turns southeastward at Jacksonville. Thus
a cold wind that strikes St. Augustine, for instance, has but a
short trip over warming waters. But such a wind striking the
Jupiter-to-Miami area has passed over a stretch of water almost
certain to moderate its intensity.
The few cold snaps that do come to South Florida's tropical
eastern shores invigorate rather than chill. They are a positive
blessing. They tend to check the year-round growth of vegeta-
tion-to make mangoes bloom, to ripen oranges and flavor
vegetables. The cold strengthens tree trunks and gives some
trees and shrubs a needed rest from speedy growth. The cold
snaps keep down annoying insects.
The short periods of cold, or near-cold, give natural exuber-
ance and livability to the Florida climate. They stimulate
good health. Usually they are of short duration, perhaps two or
Health is the birthright
three days in length, so that home, office, or factory heating
costs are small. Homes are built without costly basements, and
factories are constructed without expensive insulation or central
For the few days when heat is needed, Floridians have dis-
covered the advantages of low-cost, efficient oil and gas heating.
Small and compact heaters that can be tucked away in closets,
walls, and floors, do an adequate job during Florida's cold
snaps. They have proven so practical that they have become
known as "Florida furnaces," and are being built into new
Florida homes. With air-conditioning, flame-type house heat-
ing provides the ultimate in comfort.
The state of Florida, in its entirety, provides a variation of
climates and environments. It leads all states in the variety
of its soils, trees, flowers, crops, and fishes. But there is a nar-
row windward shore in southeastern Florida where climate
approaches the ideal. It is the only energizing tropical area
in the Americas. Thus Miami is destined to become one of the
world's great population centers.
The southward trend of industry shows clearly the pull of
the sun in shifting America's population. The South Florida
manufacturer not only saves on heating costs; he also finds
that his employees lose few working days from colds or other
sickness, and that worker efficiency is up to 20% greater than
in colder regions.
The years of World War II gave America the opportunity
to test the benefits of South Florida's climate. Men in the
armed forces were trained here, by the tens of thousands. The
blue skies were filled with military planes; new factories were
set up, some without walls. It became obvious at once that
men and women worked more efficiently in this temperate
climate than in colder regions.
The fact that South Florida has so much and such strong
sunshine made it the ideal testing ground for paints, pre-
servatives, and materials used outdoors. It stimulated the
manufacturing of sun tan lotions. Sunshine also made the
area a vacation land for those who needed to relax and renew
30,000 Swimming Pools
That South Floridians enjoy outdoor recreation and the
balmy climate is shown by the fact that in 1956, there were
more than 30,00.0 swimming pools in the Broward-Dade area,
with 3,000 more being constructed. South Florida has one of
the largest concentrations of boats in the world. There are
swimming, water-skiing and skin-diving schools, fishing and
bait-casting classes in many South Florida communities.
The South Floridian pursues many outdoor hobbies-grow-
Swimming pools take many forms in Florida.
ing orchids, photography, painting, bird-watching, gathering
driftwood and sea shells. He has a wide choice of outdoor
recreation from shuffleboard to wild west rodeos. Stadiums,
such as Miami's Orange Bowl, provide the setting not only for
exciting football games but also for music fiestas.
Football in the
Orange Bowl, Miami
A Tropical Climate
You find South Florida on the map just north of the Tropic
of Cancer, the northern limits of the tropics. It is a sub-tropical
region, geographically. But the Gulf Stream and the trade
winds combine to bless this sub-tropical area and bestow upon
it a temperate tropical climate.
Tropical trees, such as the gumbo limbo and the mahog-
any, thrive in this region. (The seeds of many trees thought to
be native probably were blown to our shores on the winds of
hurricanes.) Many exotic shrubs thrive here, also. During the
years of World War II, classes to teach men how to survive in
tropical jungles were conducted at the Fairchild Tropical
Garden south of Miami, the only spot in this country where
many rare tropical plants are found.
Tropical birds live in this zone in Florida.
Florida's Bird Life
The study of Florida's wealth of bird life has intrigued man
since the time of the early Spanish explorations. The accounts
of the English and French, as well as the Spanish explorers,
abound in descriptions of birds. The great bird student and
painter, John James Audubon, wrote that the swirling clouds
of birds on a lonely Florida key almost lifted him from the
Florida's rare birds, yours to enjoy today, but a half century
ago faced extinction. Some such as the American flamingo,
have not yet made a come-back. Others are increasing steadily
in numbers. These include the roseate spoonbill, once prized
by plume-hunters, and the great American egret, whose fragile,
dainty nuptial plumes caused the "war of the feathers." The
smaller egret, whose aigrettes, or nuptial plumes, also were
prized, is increasing fast in numbers on the Florida Keys.
Upon you as upon all Floridians and visitors to Florida, rests
the responsibility for the conservation of Florida's natural,
climate-born assets-its birds, forests, game fish, and wild
Shaded area is tropical zone
in Florida inhabited by tropi-
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A Frontier For Ideas
You who live in South Florida are fortunate. Climate does
more than make you work efficiently and play happily.
Florida's temperate, relaxing, exuberant climate provides the
atmosphere in which great ideas are born. Even a skimming
of Florida's rich history tells you that the dynamic develop-
ments in Florida did not "just happen"; they developed under
the leadership of a man or men. They were climate-inspired
and the ideas were turned into facts by men and women who
worked efficiently in a moderate, energizing climate, and en-
joyed outdoor recreation year-round, who wanted these ad-
vantages for others, too.
This ideal climate which thousands of persons seek today is
yours as a birthright. You have a heritage of ambition and
enterprise from the men and women who voyaged years ago into
this sub-tropical land, drawn by climate, eager to develop
the resources and natural advantages of living here. Let it
inspire you to make the most of the wealth of opportunity and
the unique advantages of living and working in South Florida
1. How does the Gulf Stream affect the climate of South
2. What part do the winds play in creating sub-tropical climate?
3. How do Floridians prepare for hurricanes? Cold snaps?
4. How does the climate influence the types of homes built
in this part of the state?
5. What recreation is possible year-round?
6. Why are occasional cold snaps welcome?
7. What frontiers does climate open?
8. Why is it important that we conserve our resources? How
does climate make South Florida's resources "different"?
1. Consult a geography book for further information on cli-
mate. Prepare posters or charts showing the effect weather
has on daily living (food, shelter, clothing, and recreation) .
2. Collect weather reports from the daily papers. Compare
temperatures with other sections of the country.
3. Consult your textbooks and encyclopedias for information
on hurricanes. Answer these questions:
a. What causes a hurricane?
b. What areas of the United States may be "hit" by
c. What would you do if a hurricane is expected?
4. Find out what a meteorologist is. Why are the farmer, pilot,
tourist, and fisherman dependent upon him?
5. Build a "weather" vocabulary by finding out what the
following words mean:
b. cumulus clouds d. temperatures
c. exposure e. velocity (wind)
6. Discuss how the following climatic conditions affect people
in South Florida:
a. too much rain
b. too little rain c. frost
Light manufacturing . diversified manufacturing?
We're growing on solid foundations because . .
South Florida Industry
Is on the March
South Florida's young and growing "light" industry presents
a tremendous and diversified frontier crammed with oppor-
tunity-especially for you who are growing up on this industry's
As you read this, bear in mind the words "light" and "diversi-
fied." They hold the key to South Florida's balanced develop-
ment as both a golden vacation land for millions and a place
I ^ E: sIndustry is
where hundreds of thousands of people can work and live
The word "light" as applied to industry means a product
involving no smoke, smog, soot, or unpleasant odors or noises.
It has nothing to do with size. The manufacturing of plastic
swimming pools is a "light" industry.
Diversification means a variety of opportunity for all. It
means that South Florida's industry is no "all-the-eggs-in-one
From Shoes To Ships
In some American communities, one industry dominates the
local scene. It may be steel, aircraft, automobiles, or some other
product. In such cities a shortage of material or labor can
work disaster by shutting down the plants and cutting off pay-
rolls. But this is not true of South Florida where hundreds
of different products are being manufactured and sold all over
the free world. Today, the Miami area has factories turning
out products that range from shoes to ships.
South Florida factories turn out all types of wearing apparel,
for men, women, and children-dresses, shoes, shirts, skirts, swim
suits, handbags, and beach coats. They also produce numerous
items from aluminum and plastics. There are many factories
turning out electronic products. There are furniture factories,
souvenir factories, and hundreds of food processing plants.
There are mammoth box manufacturing plants and factories
that turn out cosmetics, ceramics, wallpaper, lamps, pictures,
fishing tackle, aircraft parts, and hundreds of other items. One
A fashion factory, in Miami
Miami's modern factories look like country clubs.
This one manufactures fibre glass boats.
Miami laboratory specializes in the production of more-pre-
cious-than-diamonds blood serums which are flown to many
Latin American and European countries.
In the years from 1946 to 1956, the number of factories in
greater Miami multiplied four times and still it is growing.
The number of industrial workers in Miami is growing faster
than in Tampa and Jacksonville, both older cities.
New Industries- New Careers
Miami's industry is new, and being new it is efficient, color-
ful, and inviting. It calls for the talents of the artist and de-
signer, the skills of the engineer, tool and die maker, and ma-
chinist, as well as for office and factory workers. It inspires
architects and landscapers to design the unusual factory.
Industry is growing fast and you have the rare opportunity
to grow with it. You can be a part of the exciting development
of new techniques and new products.
You can begin now to become an engineer, a tool and die
maker, a production expert, an industrial designer, or any one
of hundreds of other workers in demand by industry. The
fields of advertising, public relations, and transportation tie in
with industry, too, and present opportunity!
You will watch the building of great electronics plants in
South Florida. You will see the dawn of the nuclear era in
industry. You will see Florida processing its "Cinderella metals"
-titanium, hafnium, and zirconium. You will watch your state
make the most of its phosphate and its forests. All Florida is
being rapidly, and happily, industrialized.