POLITICS 82680 1, 1976-77
* SOLDIERS AS PRESIDENTSs POLITICS OF THE MILITARY -
For a long timae particularly in atin America, military interven-
tion in politics was considered one of the chief causes of backward-
ness, instability and arI upt;in in political systems. The "eoure,-
Sit ms ag was "prfeeasenalisation," so that military aun would
bease expert In their wn speialties and stop meddlin in civilian
coneens. This view was eari ly challenged n the 1960'a when "nw"
highly wrofeelaanal militaries. oae to power in several -oummtries
these s* was aserteds ied pre bec e they were the
only 4aiaed, educated and disciplined group w t possible ex-
ception of the churwvch their "role expanm on" (going ell beyond poli-
tical intervention) ras not the au but the treult of the chaetit;
political and econoamie conditions. e civiiaF poLiltical leaders
and strategies had failed utterly, it was argued, the military had a
positive obligation to take power as the last hope of bringing about
the coaditiens of stability and order upon which modernization depended.
Which Of these two *elassia1 views is correct? Are there any alternative
-explanations of the propensity of the military to intervene -- psycho-
S-logica, l, soial, econoe political ? What are the policy outcomes of
-i litar rule, i.e., bh.at difference does it make i.f military men re-
place civiliann leaders? If military men consider themselves leftist-
populist (Peru) or rightit-authorit arian (Brasil)? These and related
questions will b a ddess in this course, c6paring. and contrasting
the polities of the ai3ltary in Latin America (notes not the military
Sin polities which is a much 'ore restricted concept) to that of mili-
tary Lo other world regions.
g Aselection of paperbacks
Fidel, Kenneth, ed. MRitarisa in Davlopin Countris. New Bruns-
wick, N.J.I Transction Books, 1976.
Furte, Celso. Th EBeonomic Growh of Brasils A 9uv1rey frao
S Colonial TJme. to Gern Times. Berceleyl University of
Ulifarnia Preos, 1963.
Janowits, Morris The M in the Political Do epnt of
S W pAN at Ana^i, cieage Ueniver-
SLewenthal, Abraham F., ed. he PrAn 9xerimentt G2ninui and
Change under Mil.tary Rule. Pieem Princeton Universi-y
Stepan, Alfr~d. The Military in Politioes Changing Patterns in
Srasil. ePrnacetona Princeton University Press, 1971.
ARTICIS &s SELECTIONS FRO4 BOOKS ON RESERVE
Nibte I Books available at Fordham Book Exchange. Webster Ave.
POLITICS 82680 Page 2
ek 1 to0ies and readings
1. A IQORWICAL OVERyVIEW THE POLITICS OF THE MILITARY /,MILITARY
INTERVENTION IN POLITICS & GOVERNMENT
-Alternative explanations for military intervention;
--Soeiooconmie, demographic, g graphic setting for
military rule in the Tird WorldS general considerations
Readings Fidel and gLIg in FIDEL (retrospective) also
2. THE CIASSIC ROLE MILITARY IN LATIN AMERICA: THE HISTORICAL
a-ohnson, John J. The Military and SocietinLtin Ape"ca
s (Stanford, Calif. Stanford niverasity Press, 1.9) 3-89
;i. euwen, n, dwn Ars nd Politics in Latin America (New Yorks
I Praeger. 1964). 1.58.
See also Liisa North, Civil-Mila Re Jhn in Ar
SChile and Per. Berkeley t iversi- of Califo ia Institute
of International Studies, 1966.
3. SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF THI MILITARY SOCIAL CLASS OR "POSITIONAL
"Johnsons .99-134+. Lieuwens 122-72
Stepan, Alfred. The Militry in Politiesy Changing .atterns
in B,~ rail. Princetont Ftnceton University Press, 1971)t
See also Jose Nun, "A latin American Phenomenont The Middle-
S.- lasa Military Coup," in James Petras and Mvaruoie Zeitlin,
Seeds latin America, Reform or Revolution? (Greenwuch, Conn
Faweett, 1968)s 145-85, or Nun, Latin America: The Hegemonic
Crisis and.the -Military Cou (Berkeley: University of Calif-
ornia Institute of International Studies, 1969), and Jos.
Luis de Imas, Los que manden, trans. by Carlos A. Astiz (Al-
bany, N,Y. State University of New York Press, 1970) chapters
an military. Note~ English translation retains Spanish title.
4. SOCIALIZATION OF THE MILITARYs THE BARRACKS OFFICER VS. THE
"SCHOOL GENERALS. AND THE YOUNG TURKS OF THE "LABORATORIO"
Stepan, chapter 8 Fidel And.Adams in FIDELg see also Einaudi
S:.in 9DEL: 28L4-91.
5. PSYCHOLOGLAS ASPECTS OF MILITARY INTERVENTIONs T' "MILITARY
rIND" (if there is any such thing?)
Huntington, Samuel P., The Soldier and the State (Cambridge
Mtass. Harvard Universiy Pess, 1957) 1-59, Also readings..-
from Week 4 carry over.
POLITIOS 82680 Page 3
6. THE MILITARY AND "MODERNIZATION'" HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Johnson, 134-52, LLeuwen, 59-100. Fidel in FIDEL (introduction)
7. THU MILITARY AND "MODERNIZATION*t POLICY OUTCOMES & CIVIL-MILITARY
Horowits in FIDELs Stepans 57-84.
See also 2v in FIDEL (a case study of Guatemala); and two
articles usnb g agregate data to assess pOliy outcomes a Eric
Nordlinger, "Seldiers in Mufti: The Impac of Military Rule
upon eenemic and So ial. Change in Non-Western States," Amr
ean Plitil Scie evi 6 (1970) and R. DI
MereAy and AS. Cohan, "A CompSarai e AMalysia of the Poli-
ti al and Eoenomie Peaormance of Military and Civilian Regimes,
_Ca~ raWtve Politijsa 8 1 (Octpber 1975) 1-30.
8, ROU.E OF THE MILITARY IN MODERNIZATION/CASE STUDIES I BRASIL
During Week 8, we will discuss background of situation in
Brasilj read Furtado book. For Week 9, we will take rest
of Stepan book.
10, ROQE OF THE MILITARY IN MODERNIZATION/CASE STUDIES II- PERU
during Week 10, we will divide readings in LOWENTHAL BOOk on
Perut during Week 11 we will read specifically military
Selections in Lowenthal and Fidel.
12. UlS*. MILITARY IN THE THIRD WORlDs AID, ASSISTANCE, ADVICE,
Weolpin, in Fidel.
Schmitter, Philippe C., Military Rule in Igtin Americas Punc-
tion. Clmns .eeand Perspectives. (BeVerly Hills, Calif'.
Sage Publications, 1973), chapters by Weaver, Seilitter
and, if time permits, Kurth.
Powell, John Duncan, "Military Assistance sad Militarism in
latin America," Western Political gua rterl 18 (June, 1965),
13.. MILITARY IN COMPARATIVE. PERSPECTIVE
SHuntington Samuel P., "Praeterianim anmd Political Decay"
in Politial 0 dar in C angig Seetie (New Havent Yale
IniveaeaiV Press, 1968.
Zolberg, Aristide. "The Military Decade in Africa," review
S article in d Peli gs 25, 2 (January, 1973)a 309-31.
IMasrui, Ali A., "Soldiers as -Traditionaliers i military Rule
and the Re-Africanization of Africa," World Politios 27, 2
(January, 1976)t 246-72.