Title: Myakka
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Title: Myakka
Series Title: Myakka
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Creator: Department of Soil and Water Science. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. University of Florida.
Publisher: Department of Soil and Water Science. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. University of Florida.
Publication Date: Summer 2004
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089449
Volume ID: VID00012
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LA Sil ad Waer Siene Deartmnt Pblictio


Vo


Myakka
lume 4 Number 2 Institute of Food and Anricultural Sciences


Summer 2004


In this issue:
Suwannee
River Basin


Manure Phosphorus
P.lanagement for the
Su ', annee Ri er EBasin
" Model for Highly
Leachable Soils


"5sessment of Land
Co -er EC'namics in the
Santa Fe Ri er
Watershed


Ferennial forage nutrient -1
management
and leaching mitigation










EDITORS:
Pam Martin
Darryl Palmer
Dr. Vimala Nair


U N V RSTYO
.FLOIDA


-FROM THE CHAIR The Suwannee River Basin in Focus
The Suwannee River Basin in Focus


In this newsletter we highlight the Soil and Water
Science Department's (SWSD) research and
outreach activities in the Suwannee River Basin
(SRB). The SRB spans several Florida counties and
includes parts of Georgia as well. Our faculty has
been active in conducting research and outreach
programs associated with nutrient management in
the basin on projects related to risks associated with
nitrate and phosphate in surface and ground waters.

Agricultural activities pose a major threat of non-point
source pollution, particularly on karst landscape,
which is underlain by limestone and characterized by
good drainage and vertical water movement. These
conditions minimize denitrification, and nitrate
leaching is a risk. Environmental phosphorus risks
are related to leaching potentials rather than surface
runoff.

Our faculty is committed to a nation-wide effort
ongoing within the USDA/ Natural Resource
Conservation Service (NRCS) and land grant
colleges to establish guidelines for the management
of manure P that will protect the water resources.
The approach being taken is to develop guidance in
the form of a P-Index that will assess the risk of
phosphorus loss from agricultural lands. Existing
forms of P-Index developed on a national basis
attribute all phosphorus transport and loss to runoff
and erosion, whereas vertical transport rather than
surface runoff can govern the phosphorus fate in
soils in the SRB.

Demonstration of Best Management Practices
(BMPs) on representative farm-scale operations on a
row crop farm, poultry farm and dairy farm in the
SRB are being conducted by an interdisciplinary
team (IFAS/UF SWSD, Agricultural and Biological
Engineering and North Florida REC (Quincy and Live
Oak) and 24 partners of the Suwannee River
Partnership, also known as the Suwannee River
Basin Nutrient Management Working Group
(SRBNMWG).


This group was formed in 1998 to "assess sources of
nutrient loadings to the Suwannee River and optimize
reductions in loadings to waters of the Basin,
emphasizing voluntary, incentive-based programs for
protecting the environment and public health." Pre- and
post-BMP monitoring of groundwater and soil nitrate
concentrations is being conducted under actual
production conditions to document and verify the
effectiveness of the BMPs.

Our recent and current research and extension
activities are funded by state agencies such as the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and
federal agencies such as the USDA-IFAFS (Initiative
for Future Agricultural and Food Systems) and USDA-
NRI (National Research Initiative). Our cooperators
include agencies such as the NRCS and the
SRBNMWG.

The following are few highlights of activities during
summer 2004:

* James Bonzeck, Mary Collins, Sabine Grunwald,
and Wade Hurt taught outreach short courses to soil
and environmental professionals. A total of 50
professionals attended three courses taught by these
faculty.

* Fifth Annual Soil and Water Science Research
Forum was held on September 2, 2004, in Gainesville,
Florida. Dr. Rattan Lal, Professor, The Ohio State
University gave a key note lecture on climate change
and global food security.

* Dr. James Sickman joined the department as an
assistant professor of biogeochemistry of wetlands and
aquatic systems.

* Dr. Mary Collins was elected as President of the Soil
Science Society of America (SSSA). Her election to
this prestigious position will be recognized at the
Annual Meeting of SSSA in Seattle (October 30-Nov.
5, 2004).

* Former E. T. York Lecturer William H. Patrick, Jr.,
Boyd Professor, Louisiana State University died on
August 5, 2004. Bill Patrick was the first E. T. York
Lecturer hosted by the department.

As always we would like to welcome comments from
our alumni and friends of SWSD. If you have any
newsworthy items you would like to share, please send
it to Pam Marlin (pem@ufl.edu).


32611. T h3 5-9 18;g F 3 9 3. E al 0 /.


Vo


-1----------







TEACHING


At the 5th Annual CALS Teaching Enhancement Symposium the session "Developing Your Distance Education
Course" featured learning mechanisms, tools and techniques to teach off-campus students. Several presentations
in this session featured courses offered through the Distance Education Graduate Track
En ironmental Science ihttp ,5ioil. ifa~5 ufl edu/diltanceil including SC-S.-l44.-l f,0.: -
D STUDENTS C emiit ,it lantlc. and SC'Sl20C. GIS n Lanil Pes:uice Alanaemenr Tech-
...... ...... ...... ...... ..........-C. hCJ W.-I .. C t .,'-.J L.-I .-*t.-, C.CC-.. C *.. C..r : r... C.C. ,C't .: .-,I .C*..,t.. ., t. C:.t.


SUMMER 2004
C-mar Har,.e, MAS Ad isor R Rhue
I ladine abengi PhCD "d isor S CDarouib
Yonstantinos ilakris PhD Ad isor VV Harris
Fernando Munoz PhD l"d ior
R Mvia arapu


NEW STUDENTS


SUMMER
Keill, Hamilton PlS


2004
"CdaicO r J .., it2


V V'V41C- V O 1- a LLV V Md lu L'V C LI -C- V p V- V I L Li 1 '"4 1 V d L I V
cgflchrconOLIis and acgflchronOncQiis c01mmniCation tools and a Irtiial comP-puter 131 For
additioflna information Contact Sabine 3:riin .aid sgrLin Idii'ifjs iifl edu


NEW UNDERGRADUATE COURSE

THE WORLD OF WATER SOS 2007
Offered in Spring 2005


This general education course eplores the full
range of afterr ssiuel. including abundance and
quit, of waterr in the en ironment afterr police, and conflict For additional
information contact .ime. E.onczek at bonczek@'ifa. ufl edu


FACULTY, STAFF AND STUDENTS


NEW FACULTY MEMBER JAMES SICKMAN

Dr James Sickman '...orks in and across the fields of bio-
geochemistry aand lhmnoIog, in lakes rriers and .r.etlands
He recci ed his FPh I from the University of California in
2001 and specializes in the application of environmental
isotopes to the stud,' of terrestrial wetlandss and aquatic
ecosystems Prior to coming to iUF Dr Sicrman .k,'orked
,,ith the alifornia Department of VVater Resources on eco-
s./stem restoration ISsues in the San Francisco-E.a.-DCelta region and on coastal
restoration in the Mississippi Della ...hile an assistant professor at the LUniersily
of I le... O:rleans His research program includes studies to understand how,
disturbed and undisturbed ecosystems are affected by major en ironmental
problems such as acid rain eutrophication climate-change and surface- after
pollution Dr SicVman s field sites currently include the Sierra I le.ada of Califor-
nia the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Varst springs in northern Florida
He plans to pursue some of these research ideas in Florida s ..etlands and
aquatic systems Dr Sicrman also plans to teach 0,,.o courses En ironmental
Biogeoc chemistry and d.. anced E-ogeoc heiistry


FIFTH ANNUAL DEPARTMENT RESEARCH FORUM
The Fifth Annual Soil and Water Science Research Forum was held on Sep-
tember 2, 2004, in Gainesville, Florida. The forum was attended by faculty and
graduate students of the department, and representatives from state and fed-
eral agencies, and private industry. The forum provided an opportunity for stu-
dents and faculty to interact with representatives from state and federal agen-
cies, and private industry. Dr. Jimmy Cheek, Dean for the Academic Programs
addressed the group on the role of SWSD in overall educational programs of
College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. Dr. Rattan Lal, Professor, The Ohio
State University gave a key note lecture on climate change and global food
security Graduate students and post-doctoral fellows presented 8 oral and 35
poster presentations. One best oral and 4 best poster presentation awards
were presented. Winner of oral presentation was: Larry Ellis (Collins advisor).
Winners of best poster presentations were: P. Inglett (Reddy advisor),
I. Yapsilantis (Ogram advisor), G. Kertulis-Tartar (Ma advisor), and T. Osborne
(Reddy advisor).


Sabine Grunwald was elected Vice Chair of the
Commission 1.5 Pedometrics, Division 1 of the
International Union of Soil Science (IUSS).

Graduate student, Sanjay Lamsal, was awarded 2nd
place in the Graduate Student Paper Presentation
Contest for his thesis research, Soil and Crop Science
Society of Florida, Tallahassee, FL, May 20-21, 2004.

Rao Mylavarapu has been elected at the 2004 Joint
Work Session in Delaware, as the Secretary of the
Southern Extension and Research Activities
Information Exchange Group (SERA-IEG-6), a USDA-
CSREES sponsored group focusing on cooperation
among the southern states on Methodology,
Interpretation, and Implementation of Soil, Plant,
Byproduct, and Water Analyses. In a six-year
commitment, Mylavarapu will be the Secretary (2004-
2006), Vice-Chair (2006-2008) and Chair (2008-2010)
of the group.


PEDOMETRICS 2005
FRONTIERS IN PEDOMETRICS


Septeiniber 12--14 2005 r rJaFie Beach Hotil Golf
IDLLb lIaplec. Florida


Eir Sjabine Grin '.aid ..iII be hoting the Biannual3
M&&ting of C'oiniimsion 1 F edointrici, [ D'i.iiOn I of
the International Iflion of Soil Srien_-e ilJSS
Pedoinetri._, i the applirafilo of iraheivaticai and
idattli:J ai irhodS for the skid'/ of the dijdtribuion and
gini-~b Of .oils PIMea *.ieit the ,bs'ite http II
conference ifai, ufl eduiipedoirietri.: for inore informa-
tion


PAGE 2


GRADUATE


=.XXILL







RESEARCH


RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN THE SUWANNEE RIVER BASIN


MANURE PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT FOR THE
SUWANNEE RIVER BASIN:
A MODEL FOR HIGHLY LEACHABLE SOILS

This project was funded in 2000 by the USDA-Initiative for Future
Agricultural and Food Systems (USDA-IFAFS). The Principal Inves-
tigators of the project that integrates research, teaching and exten-
sion components are Willie Harris, Vimala Nair, Dean Rhue, Don
Graetz, Jerry Kidder and Rao Mylavarapu. Also involved in the
project is Clint Truman of USDA-ARS, Tifton, Georgia. The main
outputs from this project are given below:

* A rapid field test, called the Phosphorus Quick Test (PQT): The
PQT could be a valuable tool for rapid, on-site evaluations of the
extent of P leaching that has resulted from previous P applications
and for estimating the future potential loading capacity of field sites.
The depth to which P has impacted the soil profile is indicated by
changes in intensity of blue color. A comparison of the PQT results
with Mehlich 1 P (soil test
P in Florida) showed that
the PQT could accurately
determine the depth of P
movement in sandy soils
in a matter of a few min-
utes. Details of the pro-
cedure can be found in
our Research Brief
located at
http://soils.ifas.ufl.edul
Performing the P quick test in the field department/briefs/sws03-
03. pdf

* A second output of this project is the introduction of a new con-
cept, the soil P storage capacity (SPSC). Soil test P concentrations
(STP) are often used as measures of environmental P risk. How-
ever, a low STP is not valid justification for further P application in
the nutrient management scheme because risk of application re-
lates to P sorption capacity up to some threshold where additional
P could be detrimental. The SPSC can be used to predict a "safe"
lifespan of a field where manure is being applied, with respect to P
leaching risk. We are now looking into the possibility of introducing
the SPSC concept as a parameter in the Florida P-Index, a P risk
assessment tool. Details can be found in our Research Brief, http://
soils.ifas.ufl.edu/department/briefs/sws04-03.pdf.

* Insight has been gained into the long-term sorption properties of
sandy coastal plain soil materials from Florida and Georgia. Cyclic
loading and desorption experiments in unsaturated columns have
shown a time dependency of sorption for the most tightly bound P,
and a progressive depletion of these highly-retentive sites until P
sorption becomes essentially reversible. The latter stage indicates
that the soil has become a potentially long-tem source of P. Details
can be found in our Research Brief, http://soils.ifas.ufl.edu/
department/briefs/sws03-02. pdf.

* An alternative approach to the SPSC (explained above) for pre-
dicting the "safe" lifespan of a P application site was developed
based on principles influencing the retardation of vertical P move-
ment (leaching) in soil. This "retardation" approach is complemen-
tary to the SPSC in that the former would not be confounded by
naturally phosphatic soils whereas the latter more effectively re-
flects previous agricultural loading. For additional information,
contact Vimala Nair at vdna@ifas.ufl.edu.


ASSESSMENT OF LAND COVER DYNAMICS IN
THE SANTA FE RIVER WATERSHED


Change TrajiClor,
i lii-


I -II
a --
- II

'lh-M

i '-I- ,


Dr. Sc~. I

Ti alectoLes Lt ianaj coie, cnanrce in tie ;FP I
foin 1990 ro 2003 i agiiCullute N non-
9,liCulltu, t

In after year 2002 abouIt 2 970 tons of ni-
trate-nitrogen ,,.as transported to the Gulf of
r..e,, CO b the Su annee Ri..er Basin The
Santa Fe Ri er watershed iSFRvvi ac-
counted for -19 5'':. of these total loads but
co ers onl, F. 7':', of the total area of the
Sui.i',nnee Basin (SRVM. 2i00.u2 Land
co er and land use dynamics are pi total to


understanding loading trends VVe used Landsat TM and
ETMP.. satellite imagery to quantify the land co er shifts in the
SFRVV using a multi-temporal change detection analysis Pine
plantations co ered 2" 5': .: agriculture 23 5".:. rangeland
15 1,, ....etlands 1l .7',:, upland forest 8 9':'.:. urban 5 5',:. and
aftere r 1 1'.:.2 7',:. misc I in 19i''0 In 200 1 pine plantations
covered 2. ':' .:., agriculture :.. ,':', rangeland 4 .':'.:. wetlands
1 9''.::. upland forest 10 5',:. urban .6'',:, and waterr 1 1 '::,
O'ur results sho','ed that land co .er shifts in the SFRVV oc-
curred bet..,een 1'iSjl and 200'. significantly increasing the
agricultural area yet no significant increase in urban land
co.er In this USCD and USEPF-funded ongoing project
soil samples are collected seasonally o..er a .-year period at
about 12. sites at four different depths iup tol80 cmy spatially
distributed throughout the SFRVV Soil samples are analyzed
for a variety of soil properties including nitrate-nitrogen total
phosphorus total carbon soil te lture and other G.eospatial
modeling techniques are used to characterize geo-temporal
patterns of soil properties throughout the SFRVV C._ur goal is
to de elop spatially e-plicit soil-landscape models that de-
scribe the geo-temporal distribution and ariability of soil char-
acteristics We use quantitati *e upscaling techniques to pre-
dict soil properties at ..,atershed-scale using site-specific geo-
temporal obser nations O'ur goal is to gain a better under-
standing of soil and land co *er / land use characteristics and
ho..-.. they relate to soil and water r quality In estigators on this
project are Sabine Grun',..ald Randy Ero',.n I ick Comerford
Mark. Clark and Don G.raetz For additional information con-
tact Sabine Grun..ald at sgrun aldi.ifa. uIfl edu


PAGE 3










PERENNIAL FORAGE NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT
AND LEACHING MITIGATION


Strategically located perennial forages,
whether for haying/grazing or silvopasture
operations, have the potential for taking up
large quantities of nutrients that would
otherwise be lost to surface runoff and
leaching. The Suwannee Valley North
Florida Research and Education Center
(NFREC) serves as both a demonstration
and a research site for studying and devel-
oping forage fertilization BMPs and nutrient
Bermudagrass K fertilization test plots at leaching mitigation. A nutrition study was
the NFREC-Suwannee Valley. The light initiated this spring at the NFREC-
green plots are checks (no fertilizer). Suwannee Valley to compare the current
IFAS forage fertilizer recommendations with
additional potassium (K) fertilization of bahiagrass and bermudagrass hay fields.
Extension issues concerning stand declines in bahiagrass and bermudagrass may be
related to low K nutritional status, resulting in lower productivity and therefore lower
soil nitrate removal. Future research will include a proposal to study nitrate mitigation
via plant uptake and soil denitrification and evaluate forage variety selections within
bahiagrass and bermudagrass for improved nutrient removal. To address the different
soil conditions (i.e., soil type and moisture), these studies will be located at several
sites throughout the state. The overall goal at the NFREC-Suwannee Valley is to
determine how these, as well as other forages (perennial peanut and ryegrass cover
crops), may play a role in nutrient recovery by reducing nutrient inputs into
groundwater in the Suwannee River Basin. For additional information contact Cheryl
Mackowiak at clmackowiak@ifas.ufl.edu.




EXTENSION

The NRCS National Nutrient Management Team visited Florida on February 19, 2004
to gain first-hand knowledge about the "Florida Practicum" the Technical Service
Provider training program being offered by the IFAS-NRCS team led by Rao
Mylavarapu. As a part of the visit, the team took part in a demonstration field trip to
Byrd Dairy in Lafayette County. Soil and Water Science faculty members, Willie
Harris, Vimala Nair, Rao Mylavarapu, Dean Rhue, and Don Graetz discussed the
risks from applied phosphorus particularly through animal manures on sandy soils
with a karst geology. The team conducted soil borings at the dairy to show soil
features that influence nutrient retention and to discuss the importance of site-specific
assessments. Bill Reve, Senior Laboratory Technician in the SWSD led a
demonstration of the Phosphorus Quick Test to determine the extent of leaching of
phosphorus in the soils.

Rao Mylavarapu and
Susan Curry discussed
the Nutrient Management
training program that is
conducted in partnership
with the Florida NRCS to
educate and certify
nutrient management
technical service
providers. The NRCS
National team was
provided with materials
developed for the course.
Steve Boetger (Florida
NRCS) informed that the
The NRCS team with SWSD personnel at the field site NRCS National Team was
extremely impressed by
the presentations and the material provided. The visitors were notably upbeat at the
level of collaboration between the IFAS and the local NRCS teams, which apparently
is lacking in several other states. For additional information contact Rao Mylavarapu
at raom@ifas.ufl.edu.


2004 DEPARTMENT
RESEARCH FORUM


[Ir Rattan Lal professor in
the SchOol of a Jtuiral Re-
,ouirces at the Ohio State
IJni.ersitr presented the keynote lecture enti-
tied "Climate change and global food secu-
rity" at the 5."' nnual Soil and Water Science
Research Forum i September 2' 2'0041 The
Research Fornum IS an annual ei.ent and acs
attend by 150 people including Dr E T ork
Dr Jiminmy Cheek faciult[ staff and stu-
dents CEr Lal conducts research on soil
processes and the greenhouse effect soil
erosion and its imianageiment by conservation
tillage tropical soils. soil degradation and en-
..ironment quality restoration of degraded
soils and ,aler table iranagement He re-
c.ei ed niiumeirous a yards s at national and inter-
national le els for his research and educa-
tional contributions He authored o.,er 550
puLblications and 4S books For additional
information see http 11snr osu edulfa' staff/
c 1131 htiml


EXTENSION ROLE IN SUWANNEE RIVER
PARTNERSHIP

The in, ersirt. of Florida s
Institute of Food and Agri-
cuiiitural Scien..es ilF SI is,
one of the original signato-
ries of the Su' annee Ri,.er
Partnership I.IF-IFAS ii.
expanding its role in this
program by de.oting more
resoIrceis to the ork of
aiin C e the 'artnership including
eedui'Ction outrea.Ch and
resear:hlidenions.tration projects Sarah Carte
Sas hired a5 the ediu: national Coordinator for the
Partnership and ,.IIi ork closely i,.th Coiunt,
e,tension faculty and the IJF-IFAS E tension
l^Jater FociLis Teamii to identfn educational needs
..,thin the Su. annee Basin and to dei..elop and
inripienient reie. ant programs. Best Manage-
ient Practie. research and e-tens.lon efforts ill
continue within the bas,in also in order to
e.. pand educational efforts to non-agric-ultulrai
iiudiences there are plans to bring the Florida
yardss and rJeighborhood. prograimi to the Part-
nership area By in.oiing all stakeholders in our
research education and outreach h programs
the Partnership has been able to applv the best
resources available to make the BMP process
effe.cti.e and achie able for agriculture and
natural resource industries in the Su. annee and
Santa Fe RI..er basins I.IF-IF.AS is proud to play
a key role in that effort For additional infornia-
ton contact t Tomn Obreza at taob@0'fas ufl edu
^______I________________


PAGE 4




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