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Title: Myakka
Series Title: Myakka
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Creator: Department of Soil and Water Science. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. University of Florida.
Publisher: Department of Soil and Water Science. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. University of Florida.
Publication Date: Spring 2004
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089449
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
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A Soi an Wae Scec Deatmn Publ-icatio


-oMyakka
i Volume 4 Number 1 Institute of Food and Anricultural Sciences


In this issue:
ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN


Internal lutnent Load in 3
the Lo' 'er St Johns Rirer

Limiting Herbicide Export 3
in Surface Water
Discharged from Indian
Ri'er Citrus Production
Areas

Development of Slo 3
Release Fertilh:ers for
Flonda Acid Sandy Soils

Blue Cypress Marsh Ten -
Years after Cessation of
Nlutnent Loading

Department participates -
in -5th Annual State Land
Judging Contest


EDITORS:
Pam Martin
Darryl Palmer
Dr. Vimala Nair


-FROM THE CHAIR


In this newsletter we highlight the Soil and
Water Science Department's (SWSD) research
and outreach activities in the St. Johns River
Basin. For the past decade, we have
conducted several research projects in this
basin addressing soil and water quality issues.
The St. Johns River Basin includes: Upper St.
Johns River Basin, Indian River Lagoon Basin,
Upper Ocklawaha River Basin, Orange Creek
Basin, Lake Apopka Basin, and Lower St.
Johns River Basin. Land use changes in the St.
Johns River Basin over the past few decades,
including increased drainage, fertilizer
application, and intensification of agricultural
and other land uses has resulted in increased
nutrient loading into St. Johns River.
Our faculty at the Indian River REC has been
active in developing management practices to
improve nutrient use efficiency and water
quality in the Indian River Lagoon Basin. Our
faculty in Gainesville, in collaboration with the
scientists from the St. Johns River Water
Management District (SJRWMD), have been
conducting research on various projects
including: fate of organic in the Lake Apopka
Basin, determining the indicators of change in
the Blue Cypress Marsh located in the Upper
St. Johns River Basin, and establishing the
significance of internal nutrient load in the
Lower St. Johns River Basin. Our collaborators
at the SJRWMD include: Larry Battoe, Mike
Chimney, Matt Fisher, Lawrence Keenan, John
Hendrickson and others. A few examples of our
current activities in the basin are presented in
this newsletter.


St. Johns River Basin in Focus

The following are some of the highlights of the
Spring semester:
* Peter Vitousek, Clifford G. Morrison Professor
of Population and Resource Studies, Stanford
University presented the 2004 Hubbell Seminar.
* Mary Collins was elected as the President of
the Soil Science Society of America. She will
serve as president-elect in 2005 and as
president in 2006.
* Lena Ma's fern research continues to bring
recognition to the department, IFAS, and UF.
Lena was selected to receive the 2004 USDA
Secretary's Honor Award.
* Vimala Nair is recognized as the 2003
Outstanding Associate Editor (Journal of
Environmental Quality) by the ASA/CSSA/
SSSA.
* George O'Connor organized an international
conference on "Sustainable Land Application"
held in Orlando, Florida. Tom Obreza
organized a national conference on "Water
Quality" held in Clearwater, Florida. Both
conferences were successful and well attended.
* John White accepted a tenure track position
with the Wetland Biogeochemistry Institute,
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La.
We wish him all the best.
As of July 1, 2004, UF switched all business and
personnel data management system to the
PeopleSoft Bridges system. In the next few months
we will face many challenges and difficulties in trying
understand this new system. When everything is
done, we hope that the new system will help us to
function more efficiently. Thanks to our office staff:
Cheryl Combs, Kelly Lewis, and Heather Barley for
keeping all of us on track as we adopt this new
system.
As always, we welcome comments and suggestions
from alumni, colleagues, and clientele to improve
our programs.

Whk


Dr K.* Raes Redy Chir Soi an Wae Scec Deatet 10 eelHlBx1050-nvriyo lrda ansilFoia


Spring 2004


UNIVERSITY OF
'FLORIDA

I.FAL_]


m


-,----------









m


I TEACHING


( UNDERGRADUATE


GRADUATED STUDENTS
SPRING 2004
r.lichael E.ond M..1S d ,isor H Fopenoe
Chakesha r..artin MS "d isor J White
Carla Sperry MS Ad isor CI Graetz
Leighton walker P..S "disor CD G.raetz
Tra.is Hanselman PhD i"d isor I GSraetz
Vell, Morgan FhD d isor T C'breza
Janme Sanchez PhDC "d isor
R P.yla ,arapui

NEW STUDENTS SPRING 2004
C'aniel Herrera PhCiD d isor W Harris
Claudia "rrneta MS "d isor S Daroub
Ste -e Barlo i M S Ad isor M Clark
Jennifer Leeds M.S "d isor M Clark
Lidya P..Ieding P.1S Ad isor T ,-Obreza
Laura Parkel MS "d isor C Vilson
LoLui Phdlor rP.S "d isor S Daroub


PAGE 2


COURSES IN FOCUS


SOS 2008 Soils. Humans, and Environmental Impact This general education
course focuses on relationships bet een human acti ties and soils and en iron-
mental quality

SOS 2007 The World of Water This general education course explores the full
range of waterr issues including abundance and quality of water in the en ironment
waterr policy and conflict


SOIL AND WATER SCIENCE SHORT COURSES

Hydric Soils IVV Hurti This e*clusi e training program focuses on the
interrelations of hydrology and hdric soils and ho to distinguiSh h.dric soils from
nonhydric soils VVade Hurt I ,adehurtl,'ifas ufl edui

GIS Applications in Soil and Water Science iS G-riin ,ald This e iluis e
training program focuses on ho to make use of readily a allable geo-data
layers of soils geology land use and topography Sabine Grun .aid
ISG.ruin aldi@'ifas iifl edul

Basic Soils-An introduction ir..1 Collinsi is scheduled for offering during .July
.'00-4 Cletals of these courses can be seen at http conferencee ifas uifl edu/soils/
inde. htmi


5TH ANNUAL SOIL AND WATER SCIENCE RESEARCH FORUM

The Fifth annual Soil and Water Science Research Forum is scheduled for September 2. 2004 in Gaines -ille Florida The forumL IE
designed to bring together representatl es from state and federal agencies and pri ate industry faculty and graduate students and
prospect e students interested in soil and ....ater science The forum ..'.ll pro -ide an opportunity for all interested in soil and ...ater
science to interact ..'..th our students faculty and administrators on campus Please register at http://soils.ifas.ufl.edulforum



FACULTY, STAFF AND STUDENTS


AWARDS
Sampson Agyin won the Best Student award (cash prize of 1000
Euros) for his MS research in the Physical Land Resources
Program at the University of Ghent. Sampson is currently working
on his PhD with George O'Connor.

Mary Collins was elected as President of the Soil Science Society
of America. She is the first woman president in the history of the
SSSA.

Lena Ma won the 2004 USDA Secretary's Honor Award. The
Secretary's Honor Awards are the most prestigious awards
presented by the USDA in recognition of outstanding contributions
to agriculture, to the consumers of agricultural products, and to the
ability of the USDA to serve rural America.

Vimala Nair was selected to receive the Outstanding Associate
Editor Award for 2003, presented by ASA/CSSA/SSSA for
"Exemplary service and sound technical skill in the peer review
process for the Journal of Environmental Quality ".

PhD candidate Lynette Malecki has received $680 in funding for
her project from the Professional Association of Diving Instructors
Foundation. The Foundation encourages and supports underwater
science, environmental projects, and education.


The SWSD-IFAS and Teagasc Research Center, Johnstown Cas-
tle, Co. Wexford, Rep. of Ireland jointly hosted an international
symposium on Nutrient Management in Agricultural Water-
sheds: A Wetlands Solution, (May 24-26, 2004), Wexford, Ire-
land. The symposium was attended by 120 participants from 8 dif-
ferent countries. Several SWSD faculty (Mark Clark, Don Graetz,
Jim Jawitz, Ramesh Reddy, and John White) made presentations
at this symposium. The U.S. portion of this symposium was funded
in part by a grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.


SWS ALUMNI

VVe are in the process of updating contact information Please
Visit our ',ebsite and update your contact information If you do
not ha.e access to a ..ebsite you can send us the updated in-
formation In our future ne letterss ie would d like to include
alumni ne,,.s So please send us information that you ..*ould like
to share '..ith your friends and colleagues Please register at
http://soils.ifas.ufl.eduldepartment/alumni.html







PAGE 3 RESEARCH


RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN THE ST. JOHNS RIVEF


INTERNAL NUTRIENT LOAD IN THE

LOWER ST. JOHNS RIVER


Eutrophication refers to nutrient
pollution of a body of water. Eutro-
Sphication of Florida's lakes, rivers,
and estuaries is a result of dec-
ades of agricultural, industrial, and
urban point and non-point source
nutrient loading. A large amount
of nutrients in fresh and estuarine
waters can result in a variety of
ecological responses such as
algal blooms, decreased dis-
Dr Jim Jawitz and Kimberly Cayse solved oxygen levels and fish kills
preparing to deploy porewater equilib- due to the low oxygen levels in the
rator in the St. Johns River water. The 1972 Clean Water Act
required states to identify impaired
water bodies and establish total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). The St.
Johns River Water Management District is mandated to set TMDLs for
nutrients in the Lower St. Johns River (LSJR).

The LSJR is considered to be the northern 101 mi portion of the SJR from
the mouth of the Ocklawaha River in Putnam County to the inlet at the
Atlantic Ocean in Duval County. The LSJR is an elongated, shallow, estua-
rine river. Unique among rivers in Florida, it is characterized as a black
water river, meaning it has a shallow zone of light penetration but high
productivity. Release of nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and nitrogen
(N) from the sediment must be considered an important contribution to the
total nutrient load to the river when determining TMDLs. The objectives of
this study were to determine and to calculate the annual internal loading of
nutrients from the sediment to the water column. Internal loading results
when nutrients from the sediment are introduced into the water column.

The average annual internal load of P was estimated to be 405 Metric
Tons yr1, one fourth of the total P load to the LSJR. The average annual
internal load of N was determined to be 2,555 Metric Tons yr one third of
the total N load to the LSJR estuary. Results from this study suggest the
contribution of internal loading (nutrients from the sediment) is a major
component of the LSJR estuarine nutrient budget. This load will likely de-
crease as external loading (nutrients from agricultural and urban runoff,
industrial and domestic wastewater discharge, etc.) is decreased over
time, resulting in fewer anaerobic events, thereby improving the water
quality of the Lower St. Johns River Estuary. For additional information,
contact John White at jrwh@ifas.ufl.edu


DEVELOPMENT OF SLOW RELEASE FERTILIZERS FOR
FLORIDA ACID SANDY SOILS


z BASIN



LIMITING HERBICIDE EXPORT IN SURFACE
WATER DISCHARGED FROM
INDIAN CITRUS PRODUCTION AREAS

1 ife FPesticide losses froan;
.Z .- ,-ltrus gro es are a
Sconern withinn the St
Lucie EStLuar I SLE I
S and Indian RI-er La-
goon llRL drainage
basins Of special
concern is the loss of
d 'r herbicides that mal,
negat',ele impact t
HiLlcOte iC n In u. submerged aquatic
9,0oe T/7ne te,eO'Coe 15 apphet as a plant populations
vand unldernear &1ch ea.e of the do .nstrearnm in the
t,ees fresh.. ater and estua-
rne re:cei.ing ater
bodies Pre-ermergent and emergent herbicides are iusualli
applied underneath citru5 trees to imiit competitionn for nutri-
ents and after and to aiio workers to har-est fruit more
easily Herbicide band. idth refers to the area underneath
the trees that IS usually, maintained eed-free on inter-
disciplinar, project funded b, ULSEPA R4 through FECACS
Sas initiated at the UFIIFAS-IRREC to in estigate the influ-
ence of limiting the herbicide band, .dth on discharge of .o
representat..e herbicides norflurazon and simazinei in sur-
face runoff after
S.. .........,,il Results indicate that
e port of herbicide
residues from citrus
prodLu tion areas. :can
be greatly, reduced by
irinimrizing the .. Idth of
the herbicide bands
underneath trees Pos-
sble explanations are
that the herbicide is
more sheltered from
the rainfall impacts.
rrfulWal on oi surface iatei unitt and/or that signific antl,i
events uScnl, otemead Itriaton less herbicide is ap-
plied ,'.ith the siraller
band. idth The principal investigators for this project are
Chris VVilson and Brian Boman IUF/IF"S-IRREC and Jane
Ferguson Foos F C S. For additional information con-
tact Chris VWilson at pc '..lson@ifas ufl edI u


ODPR materials in Central Florida
Acidic sandy soils (Spodosols and some Alfisols)
occupy a wide area under citrus and vegetable production in the Indian River Drainage Basin. The Phosphate
Industry in Central Florida annually produces over 800,000 short tons of oversize dolomite phosphate rock
(ODPR) at the beneficiation sites. Use of the ODPR in the mines through recycling or blending generates very
little revenue. Our analysis indicates that the ODPR materials contains up to 103 g kg total P, 309 g kg-1 Ca, 19
g kg-1 Mg, and 2.2 g kg-1 K20. The calcium carbonate equivalent of the dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) material
is 77%, which is approximately close to the best quality limestone in Florida. Therefore, these industry
byproducts can be a good source of nutrients and lime for crop production on acidic sandy soils. Greenhouse
studies indicate that the newly developed DPR fertilizers are superior to water soluble NPK blend fertilizers for
both citrus and vegetable crops on acidic soils, as the DPR fertilizers can not only provide adequate supply of
multiple nutrients (P, Ca, and Mg), but also improve soil conditions, especially neutralizing soil acidity. Results from this research are expected to
benefit the phosphate industry by substantially increasing the economic value of the ODPR materials and to be beneficial to both agriculture and
the environment by reducing crop production costs and minimizing impact of fertilization on the environment. This on-going project is funded by
Florida Institute of Phosphate Research. For additional information, contact Zhenli He at zhe@ifas.ufl.edu.


^






PAGE 4



BLUE CYPRESS MARSH: PEAT PALEOCHEMICAL RECORD OF WETLAND NUTRIENT STATUS

The headwaters of the St. Johns River are located in Indian River and Brevard County, just west of Vero Beach. The "river" at this point consists of
extensive shallow marshes that surround several shallow lakes. In this region, the St. Johns River resembles a shallow inland lagoon, characterized
by shallow water and a very slow northward flow of water. Land use in the area is principally agricultural; mostly citrus farms and cattle ranches.
Similar to the Everglades, the floodplain of the Upper St. Johns River (USJR) was extensively diked and drained in the early 20th century to allow for
agricultural development. Surface water runoff from agriculture and urban development pose threats to the low nutrient-adapted flora and fauna of
the USJR. One goal of water management agencies nationwide has been to determine a safe or allowable nutrient load to lakes and wetlands.

A study underway in the Upper St. Johns River is examining biogeochemical changes in organic matter and phosphorus (P) in peat deposits of the
Blue Cypress Marsh Conservation Area. Deep peat cores taken from the marsh allow examination of changes that have taken place over the last
ca. 3000 years. Once these transformations are better understood, the rate of historical P accretion can be better modeled, perhaps leading to bet-
ter estimates of ecologically safe P loading rates. Techniques that are being used in this study include classical acid base phosphorus fractiona-
tion into inorganic and organic pools. In addition to the chemical techniques, novel thermal organic P fractionation techniques are also being investi-
gated. These techniques have shown promise in providing more resolution to the continuum of organic P recalcitrance. Other techniques used in
this study include spectral fluorescent and absorbance properties of extracted organic matter, characterization of plant biopolymers, nuclear mag-
netic resonance (13C-NMR) and carbon (14C) dating. This project is funded by the St. Johns River Water Management District. For additional infor-
mation contact Matt Fisher at mfisher@sjrwmd.com.


EXTENSION


DEPARTMENT PARTICIPATES IN 45TH ANNUAL

STATE LAND JUDGING CONTEST

The 45th Annual Florida State Land Judging Contest was held on March 26th at the Florida
Sheriff's Boys Ranch, Live Oak. The host for this outstanding event was the Suwannee
County Conservation District, with numerous agencies, organizations, and individuals
assisting with the event and/or providing sponsorship. Thirty-five teams participated in four
Divisions. High Teams and High Individuals in each of the four Divisions were:


Division
High School FFA
High School 4-H
Middle School FFA
Middle School 4-H


High Team
Charlotte Sr. FFA
Manatee Sr. 4-H
Clermont Middle FFA
Manatee Jr. 4-H


High Individual
Clay Myers (Charlotte)
Britten Couch (Manatee)
Cassidy Caldwell (Clermont)
Tyler Reckner (Manatee)


The top teams in the High School Divisions (Charlotte Sr. FFA and Manatee Sr. 4-H) won a
trip to the National Land Judging Contest, held in Oklahoma in May.

Land judging (conducted at three different soil-landscape locations at the State Contest),
entails the determination of specific soil attributes such as surface texture, rooting depth,
drainage class, degree of erosion, and classification at the Order level, plus selection of
appropriate conservation practices and fertilization recommendations. In addition to the
contest host and the landowner (Florida Sheriff's Boys Ranch), the many other sponsors
included-but were not limited to-the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, Office of Ag Water Policy; the UF/IFAS Soil and Water Science Department; the
USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service; the UF/IFAS Family, Youth and
Community Sciences Department, 4-H Youth Development Office; and the Florida FFA
Association. The Soil and Water Science Department is proud to join the many other
participating organizations in the state land judging program, providing an education in
soils and land use for many youngsters and adult leaders. Further information may be
found at the Land Judging Website (http://landjudging.ifas.ufl.edu/) or by contacting Randy
Brown at rbb@ifas.ufl.edu.



Dr. Peter M. Vitousek. Clifford G Morrison Professor in Population
and Resourc:e Studies Department of Biological Sciences Stanford
Jni..ersity. Stanford CA presented the 2004 Hubbell Seminar His
seminar entitled Sources of nutrients during four million years of soil
3and ecosystem development ,.as attended b'y 200 people including
I ` faulty si aff and students iLr vitousek as hosted by Land iUse
Change Institute School of natural Resources and En ironment and
SW'SD Prei.ouis speakers in this series include Derek Lo.el 12j0001
IUnl ersit of Massachusetts and Malcom Sumner 1'002-1 Uni.ersit, of Georgia


NEW SOIL AND WATER SCIENCE
FACULTY MEMBER AT THE
INDIAN RIVER REC, FORT PIERCE, FL
ZHENLI HE

LCr -henli He as born
and rai jd in .:heiang
China He rFece ed his
BS in Soil Scien:ce and
Plant Juitrition 1 918
MS in Soil Chen-iistr
and Fertilit, i 1iS5 and
Phl degrees in Soil
Cheinistry and En..iron-
irental Science 19188
from Zhe iang Uni.er-
sit, I,.hina From 19 to 1 to 1'C93 he ser..ed
as a .iiiting scient is[ at the I.ni..ersit of iee, o -
Castle Upon Tvne England and the Ma.-iaula
Land Use Research Institute Scotland here
he conducted research on Soil rmi..robial eol-
og n and nutrient :ye:ling related to sustainable
agriculture and en.ironiental q1uaIlit on a
teChni: al ooperatie.. a, ard from the British
council l of C~ulture ECohange U and e-
:iired a grant from Science and Technologs
De elopmient Bureaui of European UInon for
onduicting an international Collaboration re-
search on acidl soils in China At the Zhei-
ang Uni i ers.tytr He as. hired as. an assis-
tant professor in 1'i.8.9' and promoted to an
assoCiate professor 1I99I1 and a full professor
1',.I ,., here his responsible included course
teaching graduLate super isiOn and research
He migrated to the LI S in 1:'',, and worked
as a postdoc:toral research ass.ociate at the
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Uni..er-
sCit He joined the Indian Ri -er REC
IiRREC as a postdoctoral research associate
in 1I'j'T and -as promoted to assistant scien-
tist in 2001 "t the IRREC Dr He conducts
research on soil biogeochenmistry of nutrients
and hea.,y metals in relation to soil and waterr
Quality :citrus. nutriltin and best management
practices in 00J Dir He as hired as an
assistant professor ith teaching and research
re& ponsibilities in soil and afterr science at the
IRREC Uni.,ersity of Florida Contact infor-
mation is zhei@ fas uifl e-du




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