Title: Myakka
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089449/00006
 Material Information
Title: Myakka
Series Title: Myakka
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Department of Soil and Water Science. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. University of Florida.
Publisher: Department of Soil and Water Science. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. University of Florida.
Publication Date: Summer 2002
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089449
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Myakka

A Soil and Water Science Department Publication


IFAS


I Voum 2 Nube 2 Inttt of Foo an Agiulua Scene Sume 200


Featuring
SWSD Thrust Area:

WASTE
MANAGEMENT


Constructed wetlands for dairy
effluent treatment


Land application of biosolids


Editors:
Pam Marlin
Darryl Palmer
Dr. Vimala Nair

Visit the SWS website:
http://soils.ifas.ufl.edu

I. UNIVERSITY OF
SFLORIDA


Land application of
non-hazardous
wastes such as
agricultural,
industrial, and
municipal wastes as
a source of nutrients
for crop production is
becoming a common
practice throughout the world. The cost-
effectiveness and environmental impact of
utilizing wastes continues to be a volatile
issue. In the state of Florida, land application
of wastes is a special concern because of the
poor nutrient retentive capacity of sandy soils
and the fragile nature of nutrient sensitive
aquatic ecosystems. The animal industry's
sustainability in Florida depends on optimal
management of wastes while preventing the
contamination of water resources. In this
current newsletter, we focus the statewide
research and education efforts of the Soil and
Water Science Department on management
of wastes, with special emphasis on land
application and water quality. Here are a few
examples:

* We conducted research, and cooperated
with scientists and regulators nationwide, to
develop numerical standards for molybdenum
(Mo) in biosolids that provide beneficial reuse
of biosolids while protecting against
molybdenosis.

* Pressure is growing to limit waste
applications (e.g., manures, biosolids,
composts) to land based on the phosphorus
content of the waste. Such guidelines
threaten to severely limit waste utilization on
land. Our research has shown that not all
phosphorus in wastes is equally available and
that normal waste application rates are
possible without water quality degradation.

* Our research has shown that amending
soils with water treatment residuals can
increase soil retention of phosphorus and
dramatically reduce its leaching potential.

* Management practices to protect
groundwater from nitrate contamination have
been demonstrated for dairy, poultry, and


row crop farms in the Suwannee River
Basin. Groundwater beneath these
farms is being monitored to confirm the
effectiveness of these practices

* A demonstration-scale fixed-film
anaerobic digester at the IFAS Dairy
Research Unit is serving as a model for the
Florida dairy industry. This system treats
flushed dairy manure, controls odors,
produces renewable energy biogass) for on-
farm use, minimizes environmental impact
from waste emissions, and maximizes
fertilizer and water recovery for reuse.

* We are now investigating the potential
contamination of agricultural drainage waters
with natural steroidal estrogen hormones
(particularly 171-estradiol and estrone) when
manure is land-applied at conventional
agronomic rates.

As we all know, the fiscal year of 2002-03
started with severe budget cuts. This has
limited our ability to serve our clientele
effectively. Our faculty, staff, and students
had a busy summer and here are few
highlights of their activies.

* Soil and Water Science Institute offered
two short courses: Hydric Soils (Wade Hurt
and Willie Harris), and GIS Applications in
Soil and Water Science (Sabine Grunwald)

* 3rd Annual Soil and Water Science
Research Forum was held on September 5,
2002. Graduate students presented 10 oral
and 40 poster presentations. Several
funding agency representatives participated
in the forum.

* Our faculty, in collaboration with the
Agricultural and Biological Engineering and
Environmental Engineering Sciences
departments, initiated a major research and
extension initiative in the Okeechobee
Drainage Basin to address water quality
issues related to animal industry.

Continued on page 2


26 Teepone 35- 3210 Fax 3 52-392339. E-al kr~f.e-.


FroMv the chair...









Teca chk

Several new courses are now approved for future offering:
NEW GRADUATE STUDENTS SOS 4245 Water Resource Sustainability
SOS 4720C GIS in Soil and Water Science
Summer 2002 SOS 5242 Wetland and Water Quality (Distance education only)
Dara Park 2002 SOS 5245 Water Resource Sustainability
SOS 5050C Soils for Environmental Professionals
GRADUATES SOS 5720C GIS in Land Resource Management
SOS 6456 Advanced Biogeochemistry
Summer 2002
Two Alumni Graduate Fellowships were awarded to the department. Recipients of these
'atie Barch P.1 S "d isor J R fellowships are: Lynette Malecki (John White, Advisor) and Rex Ellis (Mary Collins, Advisor).
White So far, we received a total of 7 alumni fellowships. Distance Education Graduate Program is
gaining momentum. We have 20 students enrolled in our distance education classes. Two
Mavumi Seo P. S "d isor Y R graduate student applications are approved for M. S program via distance education. Details
Redd' about the program can be obtained from Sabine Grunwald, Distance Education Coordinator,
SGrunwald@mail.ifas.ufl.edu or http://disteducsws.ifas.ufl.edu/


The 3rd Annual Soil and Water
Science Research Forum was held
on September 5, 2002. Graduate
students presented 10 oral and 40
poster presentations. The forum was
attended by approximately 150
people. Several funding agency
representatives participated in the
forum. Thanks to our dedicated
graduate student Nadine Kabengi for
her work in organizing the forum.


Continued from page 1

The Soil and Water Science
Department (SWSD) along with
other UF-IFAS departments and
centers went through some serious
budget cuts and the new fiscal year
started with significant reductions in
operating funds and support staff.
We are facing severe reductions in
faculty FTEs as a result of
retirements and faculty leaving for
other positions. Our faculty numbers
will be reduced by as much as 30%
by the end June 2003. We are
hopeful some of these positions will
be restored. These are challenging
times for all of us, especially for our
department. In spite of these faculty
reductions, our grant activity and
graduate student enrollment is at an
all time high. This is a clear
evidence of the quality of faculty in
the department. We will continue to
find creative ways to effectively
serve our clientele effectively. To
our alumni and friends of Soil and
Water Science Department, we need
your help and support during these
critical times. So please send your
creative ideas for us to function
better and more effectively.

VK


Mary Collins was elected as Division Chair for S-5, Soil Science Society of America.

Ann Wilkie was appointed to the Scientific Advisory Panel of Dairy Farmers, Inc., in August
2002. Ann also serves as a technical advisor to the Environmental Committee of the National
Pork Board.

Ron Corstanje, Patrick Inglett, Konstantinos Makris, Monika Tkaczyk, and Kanika
Sharma received best paper awards at the 3rd Annual SWS Research Forum.

Raymond Snyder received the First Place Award for a paper he presented at the Florida
Turfgrass Association meeting held in Tampa during September. The title of his presentation
was 'Investigation of Coated Sands Used in Putting Green Construction'.



The SWSD was well represented by our faculty at the World Congress of Soil Science held in
Bangkok, Thailand from August 14-21, 2002. Various thrust areas were represented by Dave
Calvert, Zhenli He, Vimala Nair, George O'Connor, Andy Ogram, Ramesh Reddy, and George
Snyder. Ramesh Reddy also presented an invited paper at the VIII International Congress of
Ecology (August 10-14, 2002), Seoul, Korea.

Peter Nkedi-Kizza taught a three-week course (Fate of Pesticides in Tropical Soils) in Uganda,
at Makerere University. Twelve graduate students in chemistry from four African countries
(Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia) attended the course from June 26 -August 5, 2002.
Makerere University is a partner with UF through a cooperative agreement that was signed in
1989. The students in the course were sponsored by the African Network for Chemical
Analysis of Pesticides (ANCAP). This was the first course in what is planned as an annual
event to be held in a different country each year.

International Conference "Sustainable Land Application" January .4-8. 2004. VVyndham
Palace Resort and Spa Lake Buena vista Florida

The Uni ersity of Florida-lF"S is planning to host an international conference entitled
Sustainable Land Appiication The conference .-Iill address soil reactions of constituents in
biosolids, effluents, manures and other non-hazardous 'tastes A basic premise of the
conference is that ...aste constituent reactions in soils depend much more on the soil and
basic biogeochemical reactions therein, than on the 'aste itself Focusing on fundamental
reactions rather than specific ...astes is ihkely to promote en ironmentaiill friendly
management of 'astes in a sustainable manner The conference ,ill be science-based to
a.oid the appearance of bias Ve expect the conference to ha e ..'ide appeal and to attract
a minimum of 300 participants The conference *enue is Lake Buena Vista iCrlandoi FL at a
Disney property IWyndham Hotel and Spa) For additional information contact the conference
Chair George :, Connor at gao@ufl edu or visit the conference .','ebsite at
http //conference ifas ufl edu/landapp










Research


Animal Waste Management: Technology for Odor Control,
Energy Production and Nutrient Recovery


Land Application of Biosolids:
Phosphorus Considerations


The increase in production and con-
centration of intensive livestock operations
along with increased urbanization of rural
regions have resulted in greater awareness
and concern for the proper storage,
treatment, and utilization of livestock
wastes. Anaerobic digestion can offer a
beneficial option for livestock waste
management. In anaerobic digestion,
nutrients are conserved, odors, flies and
pathogens are reduced, and greenhouse
gas emissions are eliminated, while a
significant amount of energy is recovered in
the biogas.

In Florida, the use of large volumes of
flush water for dairy manure collection
means that conventional anaerobic
digestion, using complete-mix or plug-flow
technologies, is neither practical nor
economical, due to the dilute nature of the
manure streams. A full-scale
demonstration fixed-film anaerobic
digester was built and is in operation at
the University of Florida's Dairy Research
Unit (DRU) in Hague, Florida. This unique
anaerobic digester design allows biogas
recovery from the liquid portion of flushed
dairy manure at ambient temperature
conditions.

The DRU fixed-film biogas digester is
partially filled with media, which provides a
large surface area for bacterial
attachment. This enables stable biogas
production at low hydraulic retention


Fixed-Film Anaerobic Digester
designed by Ann Wilkie


times (<3 days) even at low ambient
temperature conditions (<20 OC). The
DRU fixed-film biogas digester
demonstrates the application of fixed-film
anaerobic digestion to the treatment of
flushed dairy manure at a working dairy
under field conditions. About half of the
solids in the flushed dairy manure are
removed during pretreatment by
mechanical separation and
sedimentation. Currently, a local certified
organic farm is using the separated solids
from the DRU in vegetable production
after a suitable curing period.
For additional information, contact
Ann Wilkie, acwilkie@mail.ifas.ufl.edu


Steroidal eistrogeno orm[lmU in lmle]estoc1k Hal a1
poenia eniomna containant


Recent literature has indicated that
agricultural drainage waters may become
contaminated with natural steroidal
estrogen hormones, particularly 171-
estradiol and estrone, when dairy or poultry
manure is land-applied at conventional
agronomic rates. The loading of estrogens
to waterways is of scientific and regulatory
concern because there is good evidence
that low part per trillion (ng L 1)
concentrations of these chemicals in water
can adversely affect the reproductive
biology of aquatic vertebrates (fish, turtles,
frogs, etc.) by disrupting the normal function
of their endocrine systems. High
concentrations of estrogens have been
reported in manure-impacted surface
runoff, ponds, streams, and groundwater.
In several cases, the concentrations of
17R-estradiol alone were more than
an order of magnitude higher than the
concentrations typically associated with


Application ot poultry manure to a citrus grove

endocrine disruption phenomenon in
fish and wildlife. Goals of our research
are to survey concentrations of
estrogens in poultry wastes and
investigate the fate of 17R-estradiol and
estrone in poultry waste-impacted soils.
Results of this study help clarify the
potential environmental risk associated
with estrogen hormones in poultry
manure.
For additional information contact D.A.
Graetz, dag@mail.ifas.ufl.edu


- a .1
BaEalgrass ha riest1ng from 1greenlouse
studies of biosoids amnended so5ls

Land application of 1iosolids municipal
se..agqe sludge treated 1t reduce pathogen
hazards is common in Florida especially on
pastures Bi.osoiids contain organic matter and
nutrients that are beneficial to the s.ili-plant
system, and applical.on rates are co:mmo.nli
based on crop nitrogen I I needs Such rates
hon..e' er t~picalli simn ltaneousli supply
ph.jspho.rusi IPl in e.:ess :f crop P needs
Tnis can lead 10 P acL:unlila,.r:n in amended
soils and the potential for P-relaled in%3er
quial311i problems if le 1i.solids-P
contaminates surface ....ater bodies The
vvater En..ironment Pesearch Foundation
i\VEPF I funded a lh&.-phase project entitled
Cnaracierizing Forms Solurilities
Bioa.a, ilaD lilies and Mineraliza.ion Pales of P
in Biosohlids Commercial fertilizer and
Manures to e' aluate the agron..mic and
en, ironmnental impacts of bi:.soids c..mpared
Ito impa.:s fr-,.m P in manure and Fertilizer The
research is a coo.perai..e effort of SvVS
personnel ano personnel at Pennsil ania
Stale uni ersit,


Phase I of the project f-:ocused :on laboraltory
and greenhouse studies of a '.,.ide range :o
bioso:Oids produced i3 trealmeni processes
used hnroughoul Ine US ,lus 3 manures and
a common P-feiizer M.:.Most co.:mmo.nl,
pro.ducled biosolids had P a.. aiabilities
lagrononmic impact about one-hall that of P-
fertilizer Biosolids pr-ducl ed ..ia a Biological P
Pemo..al BPPi process no%,,,e er contained
large amounts of soluble P and P a..allabiliies
essentially h e same as P-ferlilizer Typically
Sthe Susceptibili tl o biosO:lids-P to leaching in
sand FL soils len..iro:nmental impact is much
less than fertilizer.P or nmanure-P BPP
roisoI:is noi.,e er *ere a31pical and resulted
in P leaching losses greater hman manure
though still less than fertilizer Bioso.lis-P
a..alabdlit[ and susceptibilit to[ leaching is a
function :o biosolids Fe and Al concentrations
Bi:solids naturally high in the metals ha' e
reduced agro:nomic impact and muc-h loI.,er P
en ironmentai hazard Data suggest that co-
appl3 ing 1o..solids and after treatment
residuals Ihigh in Fe and ll ma/ amell-orale P
leaching concerns

Phase II of the project began in "00 and
concentrates on field 31da.on o.:f the Phase I
results VVe '.ill als : conduct studies of P
susceptibilit, to run.-ff l.-sses such losses are
more common than leaching lIsses in most of
the US For additional inforniation co.-ntact
CGeorge 0C Connor gao'u Lifl edu


I PAGE 3


S








Extevtson


Waste Management Issues in Florida
Addressing Florida's waste management issues from the perspective of a statewide extension program can be a difficult task
because while a few blanket decisions are made at the state level (e.g., banning horticultural waste from landfills), most decisions are
made on a county-by county basis. As landfill space decreases and biosolids production increases, this traditional way of thinking can lead
to poor waste management efficiency. Decisions that county commissions must make include the methods that their county will use to
dispose of municipal solid waste, the fate of treated wastewater, and where and how to dispose of biosolids.

In the 1990s, there were many projects sponsored by the Center for Biomass Programs that researched the potential for compost
use in Florida. One focus for the waste management extension program will be to educate county commissioners and staff about the pros
and cons of composting municipal solid waste so they can make their most informed decisions when plotting the course of future waste
management. This plan presents the opportunity to work with the Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence (FORCE) in Sumter
County. It will be important to reach the decision-makers far in advance of the time when they take action so they can give composting a
fair measure against the more traditional waste-disposal methods.

The large majority of biosolids are land applied because ocean dumping is illegal, incinerators are few and far between, and
landfill space is shrinking. When the benefits of biosolids application to Florida soils are fully explained to people, only a small minority do
not agree that cycling these materials back to the land is the right thing to do. However, It is not uncommon for a small but vocal minority to
catch the ear of a few key decision-makers and convince them to make far-reaching decisions that make the relatively simple process of
land-applying biosolids a quite difficult one. The recent county rulings in south Florida related to land application of biosolids have taken a
"not in my county" approach. The waste management extension program will focus on two areas: the continuing education of the public
regarding the benefits of land application, and the education those individuals who are involved in the "visible" portion of biosolids disposal,
particularly the haulers and applicators. Even if biosolids have been processed perfectly at the wastewater treatment plant, a single
instance of poor hauling (e.g., leaking trucks) or spreading (e.g., over-application) can give the entire industry a bad name. For additional
information contact T.A. Obreza, taob@mail.ifas.ufl.edu


Com ens/uggston plas sedt-DNwlteBx101,Uiesiyo lrdG ievle lrd 21


Jerry Kidder retires after 27 years of
distinguished service with UF-IFAS












Dr. Jerry Kidder with wife, Kathy

Dr. Jerry Kidder began serving as Extension Soils Specialist in the Soils
Department in Gainesville. In the early years, his program focused on
interpretation of soil tests and the soils aspects of plant nutrition. He
promoted standardization of the fertilization recommendations made from
UF/IFAS soil tests and accomplished computerization of the Extension Soil
Testing Lab's reporting system. He coordinated with research and
extension faculty on campus, at research stations, and in counties to test
and modify recommendations and fertilization practices. For 15 years, he
edited "Highlights in Soil Science," a quarterly publication with short topics
directed toward county Extension agents. As environmental aspects of
waste and nutrient management became prominent issues, his program
emphasis shifted to utilization of wastes on land.

Jerry Kidder received the 1999 Outstanding Specialist award from the
Florida Association of County Agricultural Agents. He served as interim
chair of the Department for nine months in 1990, and chaired the
committee which recommended the establishment of EDIS as the single,
electronic source of UF/IFAS Extension publications. He has consulted in
Ecuador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Oman. In retirement, he
plans on continued enjoyment of travel, grandchildren, fishing, genealogy
research, some unstructured time, and taking advantage of opportunities
that life presents.


New Extension Water Quality
Coordinator

Thomas A. Obreza

Dr Obreza wras born and raised
in northeast Ohio He rece. ed
his B S in Lgronomy from the
Ohio State Uni. in 19 8 He
attended graduate school at the
Unih of Florida rec'ei,.ing his
M S 1980 and Ph D 11983i
degrees in the Soil Science
Dept His Major Professor for
both graduate degrees as
Fred Rhoads of the Quiincy
eeoeriment station
From 19C3 to 1989 he as employed by the Crop
Research and CDe.elopmnrent division of DCuda .r Sons
Inc He .. as stationed at Duda s LaBelle citrus operation
, here his primary responsibility ,.as applied research in
itrus irrngation and nutrition ,. ith particular emphasis on
micro-irngation In 198 the UF-IF'S Inlimokalee
e, periment station ,.as. e, panded to become the
South, est Florida Research & Education Center
ISoJFREC I and in 1989 Dr Obreza -as employed as the
station 5 Soil Scientist, replacing the retired Paul E.erett
During his 13 years at SaJFREC Dr Obreza worked d on
imrpro,..,ing nutrient and after management of citrus
vegetable and sugarcane crops His main contributions
- ere in the areas of efficient nitrogen fertilization and the
management of nmicro-irngation sys.tenms In 2002 the
opportunity arose for Dr Obreza to transfer to the SVVSD
in Gaines ille to assume the duties of state.,.ide e. tension
, after quality coordinator a position actedcatd upon the
retirement of "rt Hornsby Dr Obreza, -ill also ser e as
the department 5 o-0erall e, tension coordinator




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