Title: Environmental horticulture news
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Title: Environmental horticulture news
Series Title: Environmental horticulture news
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Environmental Horticulture Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Environmental Horticulture Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: January 2006
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089447
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
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The Bulletin of the Environmental Horticulture
Department at the University of Florida


i ELnvironmental


Horticulture


News
i


Terril Nell
As Florida becomes more urban-
ized, Florida Friendly landscaping
practices become more important to
its residents, visitors, and to pre-
serving its environmental quality.
And, the recent increase in number
and intensity of hurricanes affecting
our state requires careful consider-
ation of selection and maintenance
of landscape plants and trees. Our
faculty in Milton, Gainesville, Plant
City, Apopka, Ft. Lauderdale and
Homestead are studying how much
water and fertilizer are needed to
establish and maintain lawns and
landscape plants and the fate of
landscape irrigation water. These
projects will provide sound scientific
information upon which to base
future decisions about water and
fertilizer use and landscaping as it
affects stormwater runoff. Also, Dr.
Ed Gilman and Associate Dean Mary
Duryea are studying ways to mini-


mire hurricane
damage to
landscape
Pq rP trees. Our ef-
forts go well be-
yond landscaping and urban trees.
Dr. Tom Yeager, with the support of
FNGLA and the Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Servic-
es, has developed Best Management
Practices for container nurseries.
Similarly, Dr. Laurie Trenholm has
worked with the Florida Depart-
ment of Environmental Protection
on Best Management Practices for
lawns.
As Department Chair, it is always
a great feeling to see our faculty
and students recognized for their
achievements. Dr. John Cisar re-
ceived the Wreath of Grass award
from the Florida Turfgrass Associa-
tion and Dr. Gary Knox received the
Educator Award from the Florida
Nursery Growers Landscape Associa-
tion. Our students continue to be
recognized through scholarships and
awards from industry, garden clubs
and university scholarship pro-
grams. This year, Jennifer Boldt
was recognized as "Intern of The
Year" by Greenhouse Product News.
Our education program changed
dramatically when Gene and Barbra
Batson funded student internships.
Our faculty responded by making
internships a requirement for every
student. Jennifer exemplifies the
caliber of our students and interest
in their own educational and pro-
fessional development.
UF's Environmental Horticulture
program is responsive to change.
This ability and willingness to rein-
vent ourselves, combined with the
quality of our faculty and graduate
students, are what will continue to
make us a vital academic and prac-
tical component of Florida life.


FYN's Storm Resistant
Landscaping hits the
airwaves
(Story by Chuck Woods adapted
from UF/IFAS News 9/14/2005)

PUNTA GORDA, Fla. -Storm-resis-
tant landscaping was demonstrated
Friday Sept. 16 when home improve-
ment guru Bob Vila and University of
Florida extension environmental
horticulture agents dedicated a new
residence built in Charlotte County
a year after Hurricane Charley dev-
astated the area.
The hurricane-resistant home
includes landscape plants and prin-
ciples recommended by Florida
Yards and Neighborhoods (FYN), a
UF/IFAS statewide extension educa-
tion program. Vila, who graduated
from UF in 1969, featured the house
and landscaping on his "Home
Again" television program this past
November.
Angela Polo, a UF extension
agent who works with builders and
developers in Charlotte, Manatee
and Sarasota counties to promote
storm-resistant landscaping around
new homes, helped Vila develop the
landscaping segment for the televi-


UF Extension Agent Angela Polo
developed the FYN hurricane-resistant
landscape segment of Bob Vila's popular
television show "Home Again."
continued on pg.4


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FACULTY



FOCUS


Carrie Reinhardt Adams, Assis-
tant Professor
Carrie Reinhardt Adams is our newest faculty addition.
to UF's Environmental Horticulture Department. Although I f
trained as a plant ecologist, the expertise Carrie brings .
with her in the field of restoration ecology is now eagerly L .:.
sought in our department. Why? Because Florida, one of i
the fastest growing areas of the United States, is espe-
cially sensitive to the adverse effects of habitat destruc-
tion most noticeable in rapidly developing areas. Florida .i a
is also a "poster child" for the encroachment of exotic
invasive plants that choke out native species, and Carrie's
involvement with long-term control of invasive species
fills the bill.
A native of "Main Line Philadelphia," coined for the -
western Philadelphia suburbs that reached the city via the
train known as the "Philadelphia Main Line," Carrie
earned her B.S. and M.S. degrees (1994 and 1997) from the
Pennsylvania State University. Her Ph.D. dissertation from the University of Minnesota, entitled "Effectively Controlling
Phalaris arundinacea L. in Wet Meadow Restorations and Subsequent Native Species Establishment," was completed in Water
Resources Science/ Horticultural Science in 2004. This study included research on the best ways to control invasive species in
the long term as well as restoration site preparation and aftercare necessary to establish and maintain a native plant communi-
ty. Carrie, therefore, is well aware of how much horticulture has to learn from plant ecology, and vice versa.
Carrie plans to launch her research program at UF using environmental horticulture to address problems in restoration ecol-
ogy, such as establishment of native species in disturbed and restored landscapes and invasive species management. She will
likely be involved in roadside plant conservation research, habitat restoration of semi-permanent freshwater wetlands, and
ecological modeling of invasive and native plant species. Her appointment also includes teaching and extension components.
She is excited about teaching ORH 4932, Introduction to Ecosystem Restoration, this spring; excellent field trips and guest
speakers are in the works, as well as active learning exercises that will help students develop real restoration decision-making
skills. Carrie's vision is that her extension activities will serve to link native plant industries, restorationists and ecologists,
resulting in a mutually beneficial information exchange.
Dr. Reinhardt Adams will most likely have a very busy personal life as well; she and her husband Pete Adams have recently
bought a 1930's craftsman-style "cracker" house in an historic Gainesville neighbor- hood and will be spending much time
working on it. In addition, she will be following closely the musical meanderings of her talented husband Pete,
who plays banjo, guitar and ukelele. And since her entire extended Tamily halls
from Pennsylvania, most likely the Florida climate will contribute to some
wintertime family visits.


John Cisar wins FTGA's
"Leaves of Grass" Award
The Florida Turfgrass Association presents the Wreath of Grass
Award is each year to an individual who has shown both personal
and professional dedication to the turfgrass industry in Florida. The awards
for 2004 and 2005 were presented at the FTGAAnnual Meeting and Awards
Luncheon in conjunction with the 53rd Annual Conference and Show this past
September 13th in Bonita Springs (due to the cancellation of last year's
conference and show, the 2004 award was presented this year). Dr. John
Cisar of UF's Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center was one of the
two recipients of the 2005 award.

The Florida Turfgrass Association is a not-for-profit organization that
operates in the interest of research and development of the turfgrass
industry. For more information about the FTGA please call 407-291-9415.








Dennis McConnell Retires: "In One Era and Out the Other"


In our last newsletter, we reported
the retirement of Dr. Dennis McCon-
nell. We felt that his 35-year career
was worth a revisitation for our many
alumni whose vocations he helped
foster.
Earning his undergraduate degree
in Biology and Chemistry from the
University of Wisconsin River Falls in
1966, he went on to University of Wis-
consin Madison, where he earned an
M.S. in horticulture the following year.
The Madison campus was the scene of
one of the first violent student antiwar
protests of the Vietnam War while
McConnell was matriculating there. He
recalls a 1967 sit-in at the building
where Dow Chemical, who produced
napalm, was interviewing; it was bro-
ken up by the Madison police depart-
ment, dressed in full riot gear, with
tear gas and billy clubs. Computer
science was in full swing at Madison
during this time period. The Dairy
Barn, which was fully functional at the
time, was also the site of Fortran Lan-
guage Labs, so according to McConnell,
the aromas associated with dairy pro-
duction wafted amidst the computer
geeks and their card readers upstairs
from the various bovine activities
taking place on the bottom floor. (This
is an interesting parallel with UF, since
some of UF's computing activities
currently are housed at the Livestock
Pavilion).
McConnell earned his Ph.D. in Hor-
ticulture/Botany in the summer of
1970, and by September started work
in Apopka as Florida's first state foli-
age extension specialist. This was an
important milestone in the state's
foliage industry. He was one of only
four horticulturists in Apopka, and the
value of Florida's foliage industry at
that time was only about $15 million.
Between editing the monthly publica-
tion "The Florida Foliage Grower,"
readership of which increased up to
more than 1600 nationwide, and his
role from 1971 to 1973 as co-coordina-
tor, then coordinator of the first na-
tional tropical foliage short courses,
his work helped the foliage industry
grow to more than $50 million in just
two short years. Now this is one of
Florida's most important horticultural
industries, worth more than $400 mil-
Lion annually. The other major activity
that helped jump start the foliage
industry was the industry-instigated


Florida Horticultural Industry Certifica-
tion Board, which McConnell was
heavily involved with, writing three
manuals between 1973-76. This organi-
zation, albeit under a different name
and with minor changes, still serves a
vital role in Florida horticulture today.
By 1973, McConnell relocated to
main campus in Gainesville under
chairman James Stroebel, where his
emphasis changed to teaching and
research, including the instruction of
plant identification, which then con-
sisted of three courses, and grounds
maintenance. Eventually, he taught
only one of the three plant ID courses,
exotic and herbaceous plants, until its
elimination when the university
switched from the quarter to the se-
mester system. In 1978, he began
teaching a new course, Foliage Plant
Production, which continues to the
present day. McConnell also designed
and managed "Plants, Gardens and
You," one of our department's most
successful courses, which was crafted
to be of interest to students in all
majors, including many outside of IFAS.
Guest lecture topics range from tissue
culture to researching plants on the
internet; every student in the class
can find many topics of interest, as
well as the opportunity to propagate
and keep many plants through the
course of the semester.
Another facet of McConnell's inter-
est in our students and the depart-
ment's education program was his
coordination of the internship and


scholarship programs. He assumed
these roles in 1979 and 1982, respec-
tively, and continued to manage them
until Lisa Hall, our current academic
coordinator, took responsibility in
2001.
Dr. McConnell's research interests
included two major categories: the
response of plants to environmental
parameters, mainly temperature and
Light levels; and plant biomineraliza-
tion, including birefringence of cellu-
lose deposits as it relates to cell divi-
sion and meristematic activity, and
also the deposition of calcium oxalate
crystals in plant cells. The second
major interest was really ramped up
after his 1984 sabbatical leave at Cali-
fornia's Stanford University, when he
worked with famous microscopist Paul
Green. During his years of research
and teaching at UF, McConnell served
on many graduate student committees
and was chairman for roughly a dozen
M.S. and Ph.D. students. He also pub-
lished more than 300 scientific papers
and authored many extension publica-
tions and several book chapters during
his 35 year tenure. He co-authored a
popular product called "The Green-
house" with Drs. Thomas J. Sheehan
and Charles Conover that some of us
may remember, with its striking plastic
greenhouse-shaped container into
which a monthly selection of cards
describing interior plants and their
care were mailed to subscribers. He
was sole author of "The Indoor Gar-
dener's Companion" (Van Nostrand
Reinhold, 1978).
Dr. McConnell's hobbies will now be
first and foremost now that he has
retired, and include birding, an avid
interest in reading and history. He and
his wife Ruth plan to take a cross-
country roadtrip to Alaska, including
many stops in Utah, Montana, Idaho,
Washington and Oregon. During this
trip, he plans to use the birding glasses
presented to him at his retirement
coffee at UF this past July. McConnell
would also like to work with the Na-
ture Conservancy, complete several of
his research manuscripts, and finish a
book on interior plants parameters and
maintenance intended primarily for
interiorscapers. He will not completely
escape our department, as he still sits
on several graduate student commit-
tees.







Internship Corner
Environmental Horticulture student Will
Wellman will be heading to south Florida this
January to participate in a six-month conser-
vation internship with the Audubon Society.
Will's passion was to work in the fields of
ecology and conservation. He completed an
internship this past summer with the Student
Conservation Association (SCA) at Big South
Fork National Park in Oneida, TN.
While at Big South Fork, Will worked with
the park botanist and assisted with the moni- ,
touring of 22 rare plant species. This included
visiting 29 previously recorded sites and dis-
covering 17 new occurrences of rare plant
colonies. His work with exotic plant management included the treatment of 130 gross
acres and 30 canopy acres of the park with a number of different herbicides and herbi-
cide treatments. He was also involved in a Dogwood anthracnose survey for the U.S.
Forest service.
For his internship with the Audubon Society he will be located at Audubon's Cork-
screw Swamp Sanctuary outside of Naples, FL http://corkscrew.audubon.org. It has the
largest remaining stand of virgin bald cypress in the country. He will be doing resource
management including monitoring rare birds, animals, and plants, exotic plant manage-
ment, and assisting with 1000 acres of prescribed burns. His internship will also include
leading tours over their 2.25 mile boardwalk.
Will plans to enter graduate school in the fall of 2006 and for his M.S. hopes to study
chemical control of specific exotic invasive plants that grow in the same habitats as
rare plants without damaging the rare plant communities.


UF Students

Awarded

Turfgrass

Scholarships

The Florida Turfgrass Association's
2005 Scholarship recipients were
presented at the FTGAAnnual Meet-
ing and Awards Luncheon, held in
Conjunction with the 53rd annual
conference and show on September
13th in Bonita Springs. The scholar-
ships are presented to students who
display exceptional performance in
the field of turf management and
research.

This year's recipients from the Uni-
versity of Florida are:

Col. Frank Ward Scholarship -Asa
High
Max McQuade Scholarship -Mary
Sullivan


FYN Storm-Resistant House (from pg.

sion program.
She said the home demonstration project in Punta
Gorda uses nine environmentally sustainable landscape
principles recommended by FYN, the Southwest Florida
Water Management District's Florida Friendly Landscape
Program and other participating organizations. These in-
clude putting the right plant in the right place, installing
efficient irrigation, applying mulch, recycling yard waste,
proper fertilization, responsible management of yard

protecting the waterfront.
Barbra Larson, statewide coordinator of the FYN pro-
gram in the UF Environmental Horticulture Department in
Gainesville, said the educational effort helps homeowners,
builders/developers and landscape professionals play a key
role in conserving water and protecting wildlife habitat as
well as reducing storm water runoff from residential and- The hurricane-resistant house showcased in Bob Vila's popular television show
escapes. These practices conserve natural resources while "Home Again" also features an FYN-developed hurricane-resistant landscape.
protecting the environment.
During the dedication ceremonies, Teresa Foglina and Jim Minardi took official ownership of the new hurricane-resistant house at
197 Gulfview Road, replacing their home that was destroyed by the August 2004 hurricane. The dedication ceremony was followed
by a tour of the house for guests and members of the media.
In addition to storm-resistant landscaping, the new home incorporates the latest hurricane-resistant technologies, including a
superior roof system with enhanced metal connectors. It also features cast-in- place concrete walls, an elevated foundation,
impact-resistant windows and garage door and outward- opening entry doors to impede pressure. A built-in generator will protect
against power outage, while a whole-house surge protection system will guard against lightning and power surges.
FYN is a UF extension education program that receives financial support from the federal Environmental Protection Agency's 319
Program through the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. It also receives financial support from the Southwest Flori-
da Water Management District, other water management districts and local governments.
The demonstration home was built with help from the Federal Alliance for Safe Homes, or FLASH, a nonprofit agency committed
to strengthening homes, safeguarding families and protecting economic well-being by promoting disaster preparedness and mitiga-
tion. The Punta Gorda residence was constructed by Mercedes Homes in Melbourne, Florida. The company engages in research
with the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the University of Florida to test and incorporate advanced construction
methodologies into residential home building.








2005 Poinsettia Field Days


By Jessica Boldt
The 2005 Poinsettia Field Days were held on December 6th and
December 8th, with the first day geared towards growers and
industry members and the second day towards consumers and
master gardeners. The University of Florida, along with North
Carolina State University and Purdue University, annually conducts
the National Variety Trial as an independent evaluation of poinsettia
varieties. Approximately 90 varieties were grown in this year's trial.
During the industry day, the National Variety Trial and numer-
ous poinsettia experiments were on display. As Florida and south-
eastern growers face many issues that are unique to this region
of the country, these trials indicate how specific varieties will
perform in our specif-
ic cultural and envi-
ronmental conditions.
During the three discus-
sion sessions, Dr. Jim Barrett led a group through the trial and
provided detailed in- formation on the varieties and provided recommen-
dations for growers.
Numerous poinsettia experiments were also on display, many of them focus-
ing on new ideas to solve existing crop production issues. One display station


showed the use of graphical tracking curves to monitor and manage plant height from
pinch date to finish date. Two demonstrated the use of plant growth regulators (PGRs)
to manage plant size, one looking at Fascination for internode elongation and the
other looking at the use of early drenches for height control. One final study looked at
the effects of heat delay on floral initiation and color development in commercial
varieties and experimental varieties.
During the consumer day, participants completed a survey designed to help the
industry understand preferences and buying behaviors. They were asked to identify
their favorite red and favorite novelty variety from among the plants displayed. Over-
all, the favorite red varieties were 'Prestige Red' and 'Christmas Spirit Bright Red',
and the favorite novelties were 'Cortez Burgundy', 'Monet Twilight', 'Sonora White
Glitter', and 'Visions of Grandeur'.
The student Environmental Horticulture Clubs continued their tradition of growing
their own poinsettia crop to raise money for their annual spring trip -this year's desti-
nation will be Costa Rica! The students had a valuable learning experience in crop
production, event planning, marketing, and customer service. The most popular vari-
eties this year included 'Monet Twilight', 'Shimmer Surprise', 'Visions of Grandeur',
and 'Winter Rose Dark Red'.


Students Jeff Anderson,
Vicki Ackroyd and Camila Brito-Paula


Thanks to all for making the Poinsettia Field Days a success!







Environmental Horticulture Meets Conservation:

Ph.D. Student Scott Stewart


Scott Stewart, a Ph.D. student work-
ing with Dr. Michael Kane in the Environ-
mental Horticulture Department at
Gainesville, is in perfect step with to-
day's trend in conservation and habitat
restoration that is taking our state and
nation by storm. But he didn't start out
that way. His educational path began in
the diametrically opposite and unlikely
field of pre-engineering. Scott eventual-
ly switched, studying the varied displines
of English, computer science and history,
graduated in 2002 from Illinois College in
Jacksonville, Illinois with a B.S. degree in
biology and chemistry, and was one
French class short of a B.A. degree in
English. Working with Illinois College's
Dr. Larry Zettler (yes, this is the son of
UF's Professor Emeritus Dr. F.W. Zettler
[Plant Pathology]) on several undergradu-
ate research projects, Scott became
entranced with orchids and gained a
serious dedication to the conservation
and propagation of its rare and endan-
gered species. Although orchids are found
in many areas in the United States, Flori-
da is definitely the place to find a con-
centration of endangered orchid species;
approximately 150 species are native in
Florida and of these roughly 120 are
considered threatened or endangered.
Moving to Naples after graduating in
May of 2002, Scott co-founded the Florida
Panther National Wildlife Refuge Native
Orchid Conservation and Ecology Project.
By August of 2002, he came to UF on an
Alumni Fellowship to begin his studies in
the Environmental Horticulture's Plant
Conservation, Restoration and Propaga-


tion Program under the supervision of Dr.
Michael Kane. Scott is using Florida
native orchid species as a model system
to study integrated conservation tech-
niques for all North American native
orchids. Integrated conservation is the
study of a species' biology and place in
its habitat through basic ecology, mycolo-
gy, propagation science, pollination biolo-
gy, genetic diversity, and species recov-
ery methods. He is currently working
with several rare and endangered Florida
orchids (primarily Spiranthes, Habenaria.
and Platanthera species, and several
others as well), but focusing ettorts on
Spiranthes floridana (common name
"Florida ladies'-tresses"), an endemic
Florida species known only from twvo
small sites in the state; Habenar ia macro-
ceratitis ("Long-horned rein orchlis"i a
rare sub-tropical terrestrial species
known only from five central Florida
counties; and H. distans ("False v ater-
spider orchis"), a rare tropical terrestrial
species known only from two sites in
Collier County near Naples.
Scott is also continuing native orchid
work with the Florida Panther liational
Wildlife Refuge Orchid Conservation and
Ecology Project (of which he was recently
appointed co-manager) and
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service. Current projects
include the conservation,
ecology and propagation of
Dendrophylax lindenii (ghost
orchid), Eulophia alta (wild
coco), Spiranthes odorata
(fragrant ladies'tresses),
Cyrtopodium punctatum
(cigar orchid), and Epiden-
drum nocturnum (night-
fragrant orchid). He is
already well-published in his
field, having authored sev-
eral refereed journal articles as well as a
large number of popular articles, posters.
abstracts and reports; he has also been
teaching classes, giving presentations and
workshops since early in his college ca-
reer, and has an impressive lists ot honors
and awards too long to enumerate here.
When he finishes his Ph.D. in August
2007, Scott is considering several career
possibilities, including continuation ot his
work with the U.S. Fish and Wildlite
Service, or seeking a faculty position in
which he can continue his research on
integrated approaches to the conserva-
tion of endangered orchid species. In
addition to his academic pursuits, Scott is
definitely a multidimensional individual,
enjoying many hobbies such as nature


photography, writing, classic cars, and
building a personal orchid collection
focusing on oft-overlooked terrestrial
species.


Some of the Florida orchids Scott is trying to
conserve (top to bottom): Dendrophylax lindenii,
Spiranthes vernalis, Epidendrum magnolia var.
magnoliae and Habenaria macroceratitis.







25th Annual Master Gardener Continued Training

Conference Comes Home to Gainesville Campus

The twenty fifth Florida Master Gar-
dener Continued Training Conference was
held on campus October 24-26, 2005.
This years event included lectures, tours,
a reception, and an awards luncheon.
This was the first time the group had
been on campus in almost ten years. The
event was attended by 300 Master Gar-
dener Volunteers from across the state.
Representation from the South Florida
counties was limited due to hurricane
Wilma, which was then crossing the
state.
Lecture topics were quite varied and
included new plants, landscape design,
butterfly gardening, and a wide range of
talks dealing with trees. The tree theme
was important, as many people around
the state have had problems with trees
after the last two hurricane seasons. Tree
topics included selection, insects, disease
problems, and information about which
trees have performed best during the
past two stormy years. The first day Hillsborough County Master Gardeners gather for a group photo at the Touchdown Terrace.
past two stormy years. The first day
ended with a memorable trip to Florida
Field, where Dr. Grady Miller gave a
presentation on sports turf and the histo-
ry of Florida Field. Albert and Alberta
got everyone in the GATOR spirit with a
reception at the Touchdown Terrace in
the North end zone of the stadium.
Most participants greatly enjoyed
their trip to the Butterfly Rainforest at
the Museum of Natural History on day
two. They were able to see many differ-
ent species of butterflies and tour this
magnificent research facility. Many of the
participants also took the opportunity to
see the newly opened wing of the Harn
Art Museum. Attendees participated in a Gator mascots Albert and Alberta were the featured
horticultural auction and socialized at celebrities at the welcome reception at Florida Field.
the Gainesville Downtown Dine-Around.
The final day was highlighted by the
awards luncheon. Counties put together
and submit packets of the projects that
they have completed over the past year
and compete for awards of excellence.
We also recognize volunteers for 10, 15,
20 and 25 years of service, and present
the Master Gardener Professorship award.
This year, Charles Fedunak, a County
Agent in Lake County, received the award
for his innovative and superior program-
ming.
Next year the conference will move to
Jacksonville and will take advantage of
unique tour opportunities that northeast
Florida can offer. If this sounds like fun,
you can get involved in the Master Gar-
dener Program by contacting your local
county Extension Agent to find out more Dr. LarryArrington presenting the
Outstanding Master Gardener Award to
about what is available in your county. Citrus County Master Gardener Jim Bruno.















Dr. Robert Black, Professor Emeritus


One of the nicest parts of working in
your garden in the spring is planning and
planting flowering annuals. They add
color and beauty to any garden.
An annual is a plant that completes its
entire cycle in one growing season. Many
plants that are considered annuals in the
north can survive for years in Florida and
thus are perennials. Perennials are plants
that live at least three years under local
conditions. The plants grown as annuals
in the USA come from all over the world.
A few favorites include ageratum, zinnia


Zinnia elegans


and marigold from Mexico, petunia and
verbena from Argentina, four o'clock
from Peru and California Poppy and phlox
from North America.
Annuals are bright and cheery addi-
tions to any garden and can be used in
many landscape situations. The splash of
bright color makes an excellent focal
point. When annuals are planted in con-
tainers, either stationary or hanging from
trees or eaves they add color to accentu-
ate the surrounding area.
Zinnias, marigolds and petunias are
the most popular annuals. All of them are
sun lovers and provide a massive display
of color. The colors available seem limit-
less. Perhaps the best loved shade toler-
ant annuals include impatiens and bed-
ding begonias. Both can provide bright
splashes of color in shady areas. They
also make excellent hanging baskets to
add color to a tree overhanging your
patio. Flowering annuals are continually
breeded for disease resistance, size,
color, and flower shape. Each year new
and better varieties are released. New
selections are tested in All-American
Selection gardens which are located
throughout the United States. The func-
tions of the trial gardens are to demon-
strate the fitness of the new varieties
and to recognize the most outstanding
new varieties. The panel of judges select
the best new varieties and the public is
informed of their choice, which are la-
beled All-American Selections. There is a
flowering annual to fit anyone. Here are
just a few that can be planted in March
and April -ageratum, aster, balsam,
celosia, cone flower, cosmos, crotalaria,
cypress vine, dahlia, floss flower, globe
amaranth, gourds, marigolds, morning
glory, nasturtium, petunias, rose-moss,
salvia, sunflower, torenia and zinnia. Plan
a focal point or an annual garden. Place
the taller plants in back, and mass your
colors for a striking arrangement that will
provide joy and beauty for you and your
neighbors.


Ft. Lauderdale, FL Come see us Lake Buena Vista, FL Atlanta, GA
January 19-21, 2006 at Booth #708! January 18-22, 2006 February 6-11, 2006
http://www.fngla.org/tpie http://www.sportsturfmanager.org http://www.gcsaa.org


Petunia hybrida
kL ILT .."


Celosia plumosa


Verbena hbrda
Verbena X hybrid




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