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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 Main














Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Florida Farm Forestry
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089248/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida Farm Forestry
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 32 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Forest and Park Service
University of Florida -- School of Forestry
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
United States -- Forest Service
Florida -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1942
 Subjects
Subject: Forests and forestry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Issuing Body: Compiled by: School of Forestry, University of Florida, Gainesville; by Agricultural Extension Service, Gainesville; by United States Forest Service, Tallahassee; by Soil Conservation Service, Gainesville.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089248
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46802473

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Preface
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text


FLORIDA


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FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY, BULLETIN 14

CONTENTS

Forestry for Victory, Security and Prosperity ............. 3
Assistance for W oodland Owners ................ ....... ......... 3
W oodland Crops ....... .... .. .... .. .. 3
Trees to Reserve for Farm U se........ ........... ... ... ............ 4
Lumber
Fence Posts
Handle Material
Fuelwood
Shade and Protection
Wildlife Food and Cover
Trees to Reserve for Future Markets ... 5
Lumber
Veneer and Crate Material
Naval Stores
Poles and Piling
Cross Ties
Seed Trees
Trees to Cut .... ... .. ...
Low-grade Trees
Mature Trees
"Worked-out" Trees
Crowded Trees
Gum Farming .... ........... ........ 7
Hints on Marketing ... .. .. .. ..... 8
First Values First
Poles and Piling
Sawlogs
Veneer Blocks
Cross Ties
Pulpwood
Turpentine Gum
Tim ber Sales ... ....... . .... .............. . ..... .... 10
Lump-Sum Sales
Unit Sales
Sales Contract5
M easuring Trees................... . . . . ............... ....... ........ 11
Marking Trees and Figuring Volume ..... ................ 12
W oodland Improvem ents . ..... .................... .. ......... 12
Protecting the Farm Woods
Planting
Thinning
Pruning
Weeding
Finally.. ...... . ... 18

I. Should I Sell All My Timber While the Market is Up? . 19
II. It Pays to Sell Timber Products not Stumpage .... ....... 20
III. Gum Farming Costs Based on 1,000 Faces 21
IV. Sample Lump-Sum Timber Sale Contract .. 22
V. Sample Sale Contract by Log Scale ...... 24
VI. Sample Pulpwood Contract ............ . 26
VII. Pulpwood Table .. ............... ... 28
VIII. Practical Height Measurement Method.. . .. ..... . 29
IX. Helpful Bulletins... . .. . 29
X. Board Foot Contents by Scribner C Rule ...... .. 30
XI. Board Foot Contents by Doyle Scale........ .... 31
XII. Sample Pulpwood Tally Sheet ............ ......... ... 32
XIII. Sample Saw Timber Tally Sheet .... 32
























The material presented in the following pages was
compiled by representatives of


School of Forestry, University of Florida, Gainesville
Florida Forest & Park Service, Tallahassee
Agricultural Extension Service, Gainesville
United States Forest Service, Tallahassee
Soil Conservation Service, Gainesville



November, 1942










FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY

FORESTS FOR VICTORY, SECURITY AND PROSPERITY
Florida's forests have long been famous for their products.
They can be depleted by over-cutting or they can be kept pro-
ductive by wise use. Every farmer and forest owner in the
State of Florida holds in his hand the axe of destiny when he
faces the management problems of his farm woodland or other
timber holdings.
These forests are now being called upon to supply their
share of the materials of war necessary to assure the ultimate
victory of the United Nations. Every acre of forest land called
upon for the services of our country should yield its quota
willingly and at the same time wisely. Every timberland
owner of the State should realize that wise and proper cutting
of forest products now should provide for the protection and
reforestation of the acreage for our country's security. This
security will, in turn, guarantee to the forest owners their
share in the national prosperity.

ASSISTANCE FOR WOODLAND OWNERS
The Agricultural Extension Service, the Florida Forest
and Park Service, the Soil Conservation Service, and the
United States Forest Service have trained foresters who, on
request, can inspect owner's woodlands and give advice and
assistance. Call upon your local county agent, your nearest
district forester (located at Panama City, Tallahassee, Lake
City, Ocala and Lakeland), your Soil Conservation district
technician, or the nearest U. S. Forest Service ranger.

WOODLAND CROPS
Tree crops may be used in many ways and made into many
kinds of products. Almost every farmer uses a lot more wood
right on his farm tharnhe realizes. If he had to buy his fuel
wood, fence posts, poles and the like, it would cost him real
money. His woodland should be managed so as to produce
what he needs and as much as he needs.
Tree crops are cash crops. There is always a market for
poles, posts, sawlogs, cross ties, veneer blocks, pulpwood and
naval stores. Frequently, the same trees are suitable for dif-
ferent products and the farmer has a choice of markets. The
wise farmer will study his markets and sell his woodland crops
so as to make the most out of them year after year.
If he provides wood for his own use and, at the same time,
produces high-quality products for sale, he should know how
to manage his woodland acreage just as he knows how to
manage his row crop and pasture acreage.









4 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14

TREES TO RESERVE FOR FARM USES
Lumber
In every farm woodland there should be reserved mature
or maturing pine trees, longleaf, slash, or quality loblolly
pines, which may be cut into lumber for construction or re-
pairs on the farm. In reserving such timber, enough trees
should be retained to supply current needs and to meet emer-
gencies such as may result from loss of buildings by fire.
Fence Posts
The heartwood of red cedar, cypress, catalpa, black
cherry, black locust, swamp chestnut oak, red mulberry,
"juniper" (white cedar), white oak, and sassafras are de-
sirable for fence posts in the order listed. Wherever possible,
enough of these trees should be reserved to meet present and
future needs on the farm. Old-growth, dead, longleaf and
slash pine trees, full of resin, and usually referred to as
lightwoodd," should also be reserved for fence posts. Dead
heart cypress is valuable post material. When durable fence
post material is not available, treatment of less durable wood
with preservatives and chemical salts is recommended. (See
appendix for references.)
Handle Material
Hickory, ash, and ironwood trees suitable for tool handles
should be reserved in the farm woods.
Fuelwood
Usually there is enough waste wood from the tops of felled
lumber trees, turpentine butts, defective trees, or low-value
species and thinnings, to take care of fuel needs on the well-
managed farm. All lightwood should be carefully reserved
for present and future fuel purposes. On farms where fuel-
wood is or soon will be scarce, plantings of slash pine may
be made and the thinnings used for fuel.
Shade and Protection
Trees which serve as protection to buildings, as wind-
breaks for crop lands, or in providing needed shade for live-
stock, should be reserved. Often additional plantings for
such purposes are desirable.
Wildlife Food and Cover
There are some trees, such as, red cedar, hackberry, hick-
ory, oak, chinquapin, persimmon, mulberry, plum, holly, dog-
wood, and cherry, which, even though of poor form, may be
reserved because of their value as food and protection to birds
and other wildlife useful to the farmer.









FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


TREES TO RESERVE FOR FUTURE MARKETS
Lumber
As a rule, all tall (2-16 foot logs or over), clean, sound,
straight, immature, fast-growing trees of marketable species
under 16 inches in diameter at 41/2 feet above ground (20
inches for hardwoods), should be left to grow into larger sizes.
See Chart 1, appendix.
When scattered loblolly, shortleaf, or other lower-value
pines occur in otherwise pure stands of the higher-value long-
leaf or slash pine, they may be cut in order to prevent re-
seeding of the forest to lower-value species.
In pure stands of the lower-value trees, or where these
are in the majority, they should be left to grow to maturity.
However, it may be good business to replace them when they
are finally cut by planting higher-value species. Among the
best softwood lumber trees to reserve, somewhat in the order
named as to value, are: slash pine, longleaf pine, red cedar,
juniper, cypress, and loblolly, shortleaf, spruce, sand, and
pond pine.
In the same order, the best hardwood trees for lumber
include: yellow poplar, ash, hammock hickory, white oak,
swamp chestnut oak, black cherry, red oak, sweet gum, and
southern sugar maple.
Veneer and Crate Material
Hardwood trees to reserve for veneer, mostly for the con-
tainer trade, are: sweet, black, and tupelo gum, magnolia,
sweet bay, basswood, hackberry, elm and red maple.

Naval Stores
Reserve for possible naval stores production longleaf and
slash pines as follows:
(A) All trees which later may be worked for gum.
(B) All fast-growing trees with good tops which have
room for another face, or on which it is profit-
able to continue working old faces.
(C) All healthy, worked trees of rapid growth which
show promise of developing enough space on the
trunk for another face within a few years, unless
crowding a more desirable tree.
Poles and Piling
Reserve for poles and piling the sound, clean (free of
knots), tall, slender, straight longleaf, slash, and loblolly
pines, cypress, and juniper. Trees that will sell for high grade
poles or piling should not be sold as lumber.









6 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14

Cross Ties
Short-bodied pines, cypress or hardwoods that will not
make good higher grade products may be reserved for cross
ties. The best softwoods for this purpose are: slash pine, long-
leaf pine, cypress, loblolly pine, and pond pine. Hardwoods
include most of the oaks and sometimes sweet gum and black
gum.
Seed Trees
Seed trees of all desirable species should be reserved
where needed. Six to eight thrifty trees per acre, 10" in
diameter or larger, should be left to distribute seed evenly
on the area.
TREES TO CUT
In managing the farm woodland, the aim should be to
produce the maximum sustained value of forest products per
acre, thus providing a regular cash return. To do this, it is
necessary that the woodland contain healthy, high-quality
trees of desirable species. In harvesting forest products, it
is best to remove trees that will not yield any greater profit
if kept in the stand. This type of cutting is called "selective"
and, in most instances, is the most satisfactory system of har-
vesting forest products. Trees to be cut are classified in the
following groups: (A) low-grade trees, (B) mature trees.
(C) worked-out trees, (D) crowded trees.
(A) LOW-GRADE TREES. These are trees that are quite
common in the average farm woodland. They are
the very limby, crooked, short-trunked, fire-scarred,
forked, diseased, and trees of inferior species that
usually were left by old logging operations. Often
these trees can be cut at a profit for pulpwood, ve-
neer blocks, crate stock, etc., where short pieces are
utilized. Home use for fuel wood, for making syrup,
tobacco curing, etc., is another good use for trees of
this type.
(B) MATURE TREES. Trees, like any other crop, should
be harvested when they reach maturity. Mature
trees are those that have reached a point where
their increase in value through further growth will
not be enough to justify keeping them in the stand.
The removal of these trees gives a better chance to
the younger trees that are to make the next crop.
Mature trees may be recognized by their flattened
tops and thin foliage. In some instances, however,
it is advisable to cut certain trees before they reach
that condition. When there is a big demand and high









FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


prices are offered for certain high quality products
such as poles and piling, it may be good business to
cut trees that will make these products before they
reach maturity. In other words, when a tree reaches
a size which will bring the highest price, it should
be harvested.
(C) WORKED OUT TREES. Trees that have been
"worked-out" for naval stores should be removed
from the woodland if not needed for seed trees.
Their rate of growth is usually slow and they are
easily damaged by fire, wind and insects. They
should be utilized for the highest value possible. A
sawlog sale is desirable as most of the turpentine
butts can be used if unburned. If "jump-butting"
is necessary, the jump butts should be used for fence
posts and fuel wood.
(D) CROWDED TREES. Forest trees require a certain
amount of space to produce at their best. Some of our
second-growth stands are too crowded for best
growth and should be thinned. This condition is
shown by small crowns, interlaced limbs, and by the
long, slim trunks which yield very little volume. To
improve this condition, enough trees should be re-
moved from the stand so that the remaining trees will
have space enough around their crowns or tops to
grow freely for the next five or ten years. There is
usually a ready market for material cut out. Thin-
ning should be done from November to January, in-
clusive.

GUM FARMING
The Government is calling for increased production of
turpentine gum to provide necessary naval stores products for
war purposes. More and more Florida farmers are gum farm-
ing their own trees. Others are hiring the work done. Avail-
able labor to do the work, number and size of the slash and
longleaf trees, and arrangements for hauling to established
markets should all be considered before a gum farming proj-
ect is begun.
Gum is a cash crop gathered every three to four weeks
for eight or nine months per year. At present gum prices,
July 17, 1942, a properly conducted gum farming operation
should give a net return of about $4.00 per barrel or 71/2
per face for the first year. If the farmer does his own work,
he should net $9.00 per barrel or 180 per face for the first
year. See "Cost of Gum Farming 1,000 Faces," I of the Ap-









8 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14

pendix. These figures are based on 32 streaks applied regu-
larly. The farmer will be successful to the extent that he does
a good job.
Cups are hung and the lead streak chipped during De-
cember and January, not later than eight weeks before be-
ginning regular chipping for good results. Begin chipping
slash pine in April and continue to December 15. For long-
leaf, begin chipping March 1 and discontinue November 1.
Chip regularly once a week except in July and August, if soil
moisture is good, then two streaks a week are permissible.
Dip every three weeks, or oftener, after trees begin normal
flow.
Woodlands having 1,000 or more thrifty-topped slash and
longleaf trees with 10" diameters and over can be gum
farmed. Smaller trees do not yield enough gum to pay. There
should be 15 or more faces per acre for a paying operation.
Where favorable hauling arrangements can be made and the
farmer with his regular help can do the work, as few as 500
faces might be worth while.
Use rust free cups, preferably clay. Chip lead streak full
width and depth the face is to have. Raise cups and gutters
at least every other year, preferably every year for four
years. Keep the face confined to a width equal to the diam-
eter 4/2 feet high. No face should be wider than 12 inches.
Keep cutting tools sharp. A sharp hack may increase gum
yield as much as 15 per cent. Use of sulphuric acid on fresh
streaked slash pine has greatly increased gum production.
Chip 1/4- to 1/.-inch high and 12- to 34-inch deep. Neighbors
can work together to make a full truck load when sending the
gum to market. Benefit payments for proper naval stores work
may be obtained from the Naval Stores Conservation Pro-
gram.
Keep fire out of the turpentine woods.

HINTS ON MARKETING
By doing his own cutting, the landowner can protect the
young growth and the condition of his woods. He can obtain
good wages for his labor, hauling profit, and contractor's
profit. See Chart 2, Appendix. Definite arrangements for the
sale of the products should, however, be made before any
work is started.
Due to shortage of labor or equipment, it is not always
possible for the owner to do this work and a sale of stump-
age (trees on the stump), may be necessary. No sale should be
made without the owner knowing the amount, kind, and value
of his trees and entering into a written contract.









FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


First Values First
Poles and piling, veneer blocks and sawlogs usually bring
more than cross ties and pulpwood. An owner's woods should
be inspected to find out what products will pay the highest
returns. Local and other markets should be checked and
neighbors asked about their experiences in selling their forest
products.
Poles and Piling
Poles and piling are sold by the piece. About 10 per cent
of the trees in an average second-growth stand will meet the
specifications. About 2 feet of sound, unburned turpentine
face on one side of the butt is acceptable. Small-sized poles,
classes 7 and 6 only 30 to 35 feet long, will usually bring the
owner no more than sawlogs. Trees which will make 40 to
45-foot poles or longer bring in good prices if there are enough
of them and they are not too far from the railroad siding.
If the pole or piling price is only fair, a good sawlog or ve-
neer block sale for the stand may be better as more of the
trees will make veneer or sawlogs.
Sawlogs
Trees 12" in diameter and up, measured at 41/' above
ground, if they need to be cut for the good of the stand, have
a good general market for sawlogs throughout Florida. They
are usually sold by the 1,000 board feet. The board foot
content is determined by measuring the tree or log and re-
ferring to tables which give tree or log volumes in board feet.
The Doyle log rule favors the buyer. The Scribner or Pres-
ton log rules are fair to both buyer and seller.
Veneer Blocks
Trees suitable for veneer blocks will bring about the same
price per thousand board feet as sawlogs. It is easier for the
owner with limited hauling equipment to get out veneer blocks
and deliver at the mill or alongside the road than for him to
handle sawlogs. Several hardwood species, including mag-
nolia, poplar, bay, and sweet, black and tupelo gum, are used
for veneer.
Cross Ties
Sap or heart pine, gum and cypress are in demand for
cross ties. For many kinds of oak the only sale may be for
cross ties or fuel wood.
Pulpwood
A general market exists for pine pulpwood which is espe-
cially desirable as it can use small-sized, defective or worked-









10 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14

out turpentine trees and tops from other pine cutting opera-
tions.
Turpentine Gum
Where possible, a large percentage of slash and longleaf
pine trees about 10" in diameter (41:' above ground) should
be gum farmed, or, if that is not possible, leased for turpen-
tine. Some of the best shaped trees should be reserved for
higher value products and not turpentined.
TIMBER SALES
Lump-Sum Sales
To protect himself, the owner should first find out what
he has to sell and how much of it. Without a tally, cruise or
count to know the number and volume and to find out the
value of trees to be cut, the lump sum sale is very bad for the
owner. Timber buyers, from years of experience, usually
know the value of a timber stand and usually the owner does
not.
With a tally, cruise or count the owner is in a good posi-
tion to get the right price for his products if he specifies the
trees to be cut by sizes or marks the trees and offers only the
marked trees for sale.
If a lump sum sale based on a tally is made by written
contract with specified sizes or specified marked trees, the
advantages of this type of sale are as follows:
(A) If he is to be paid in advance or partly in advance.
the owner gets paid for all his timber whether cut or
not.
(B) High stumps, logs left in the woods, or top wood left
behind are at the expense of the purchaser.
(C) The owner need only to see that his unmarked or re-
served trees are not cut and that the logging opera-
tion does the minimum damage to the stand left.
Unit Sales
The owner gets paid for what is actually produced by sell-
ing at an agreed price for recognized units of measurements
-such as per thousand board feet of sawtimber by a certain
log rule, or unit of pulpwood, or weight and grade of turpen-
tine gum, or class and length of pole or piling. A cruise or
tally of standing trees is not needed, but the measurement is
made of what comes out of the woods. The owner, to protect
his interest, should check on the measurement of what is re-
moved and not take someone else's word for it.
To be sure of getting full payment, the written contract
should have in it a proper payment clause and should be
signed jointly by the owner and the buyer.








FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


The owner should:
(A) Require that stumps be cut low and the trees used
to as small a top as possible.
(B) Collect from the purchaser for products specified in
the contract but not removed.
(C) Measure or check-measure what is cut and collect for
the full amount from payments or deposits made in
advance of the actual cutting.
Sales Contracts
The written contracts should state parties to the contract,
what is to be sold, where it is located, price to be paid, the
method of payment, penalties for not following the contract,
and a date when the contract terminates.
In the Appendix at the back of this book will be found
samples of lump sum timber sale contract, log scale contract,
and pulpwood contract. Other contracts may be obtained by
writing to the Agricultural Extension Service, Gainesville, the
Florida Forest and Park Service, Tallahassee, the U. S. Forest
Service, Tallahassee, or the Soil Conservation Service, Gaines-
ville.
MEASURING TREES
By measuring the diameter of trees to the nearest even
inch size (6, 8, 10, etc.) and the height to which the tree can
be used to the nearest pulpwood cut (51/ ft.), the pulpwood
volume may be obtained from the table found on page 28 of
the Appendix. Likewise, with the diameter and usable height
to the nearest half-log length (8 feet), the sawlog volume
may be obtained. See tables VI and VII of the Appendix.
Tree diamters are measured at 41/.) feet above the ground
(D.B.H., Diameter Breast High). A carpenter's square with
a sliding arm or calipers may be used. Diameters are re-
corded to the nearest even inch, for example, the 10" class
includes from 9.0 to 10.9 inches.
Height measurements are usually judged by the eye, but
can be estimated by use of tree rule stick. See Practical
Height Measurement Method in Appendix.
Sample tally sheets may be seen on page 32 of the Appen-
dix. A dot for each tree is placed opposite the diameter and
under the length figure.
The easiest method of tallying the trees is known as the
"Dot and Square" system. The symbols used are:

Number of
Trees: 1 Z 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Symbol: . .. --7-I L Z









12 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14

Measuring and Marketing Farm Timbers, U.S.D.A Farm-
er's Bulletin No. 1210, gives a great deal of worthwhile in-
formation on this subject. It may be secured at a cost of 5c
from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C.

MARKING TREES AND FIGURING VOLUME
All trees to be sold should be marked in some way below
stump height and at about 5' above ground at the time that
they are measured. Spots made with dry slack lime in a
cotton sock by tapping it against the tree will last for three
weeks or longer. Spots of paint will remain for six months
or more and are not washed off by rain. The marking is im-
portant if the owner is not doing his own cutting as it gives
the owner a chance to check on the cutter. If done while
measuring the tree, it helps in keeping the tally accurate as
he knows whether he has measured the tree or not.
When the tally is completed, the next step is to refer to
an appropriate volume table. Multiply the number of trees in
each diameter and length by the volume for that diameter
and length. When this has been done, add the volumes from
all classes to get the total volume of the trees to be cut as
measured and marked.
Pulpwood volumes are given in the table on page 28 in
cubic feet. If the pulpwood sale is based on units, wood cut
5'3" long, the total number of cubic feet should be divided by
118 to give the number of units. For clean, tall, close-grown
trees add 5 per cent to the final figure. For short, limby, open-
grown trees deduct 5 per cent.
Sawlog volumes are given in board feet in both the Doyle
and Scribner Rules, shown on pages 30 and 31. Wherever
possible, the Scribner rule which is more correct should be
used as a basis of sale as the volumes for smaller-sized trees
are actually greater than the Doyle rule shows. The Preston
rule, in use in several localities in this State, is about equal to
the Scribner rule if 16' log lengths are used as the unit of
measurement.
WOODLAND IMPROVEMENT
Protecting the Farm Woods
Farm woods, like farm crops and farm animals, have their
enemies. The most important are fire, insects, disease, goats,
sheep, hogs, and sometimes cattle.
Fire is the worst enemy and takes the greatest toll of forest
products. Some of the damage done is not easily seen. Little
trees, still hidden in the grass, are killed by burning and a new









FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


crop of timber cannot be had unless they live. Young trees
that are above the grass, if not killed, are slowed down in
their growth. Even older, big trees may be killed, retarded in
growth, or so weakened that they are attacked by insects and
disease. The sale value of a butt log may be cut by half or
more if fire-scarred. Burned, charred logs cannot be sold for
poles, ties, piling and pulpwood. When the layer of leaves
and rotting plant humus is burned, the soil is left bare and
soon packs so that rain water runs off instead of soaking in.
This results in erosion, gullying, floods and severe droughts.
Nesting cover of birds and animals may be destroyed. Fires
often burn fences and sometimes farm buildings and other
improvements.
There are many reasons given for burning but the main
one is to make grazing better. Before setting a fire for this
purpose, the owner should balance his cattle gains against
his timber losses. Both cattle and woodlands usually benefit
from a land-use program which provides for improved
pasture for the cattle and fire protection for the woodland.
Grazing in the rough woods should be limited to the number
of animals that it will carry without being burned.
It is usually good business to plow a firebreak along or near
the property line where woodlands are located to keep fire
from coming in. Large areas of timber should be broken into
blocks of 20 to 30 acres by plowed lines. These plowed lines
should be 4 to 6 feet wide, clean of material that will burn,
and should tie to each other so that the fire will have no
place to creep through. Such lines can be made with a hoe,
rake, plow, harrow or other equipment. Where such lines
are on the outside boundary, it is sometimes advisable to plow
two such breaks about 8 feet wide and space them about 100
feet apart. Then the strip of grass and woods between can
be burned off if the woods are particularly dry and a bad
fire season threatens. Alongside a road or a natural fire bar-
rier one strip can be plowed about 100 feet from the road and
the ground cover between it and the road burned. Care must
be taken to do the strip burning when the ground cover is
not too dry and wind and time of day are less hazardous.
Late afternoon or night is usually best.
A farmer should keep handy a few fire fighting tools
such as a hoe, an axe, a fire flap, and a bucket or a back pump
for water. Neighbors, tenants and others may be called on to
help when needed. He can get help from the Florida Forest
and Park Service under cooperative agreement in his efforts
to protect his woods from fire. Fire control assistance by the
U. S. Forest Service is rendered in the vicinity of National
Forests.









14 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14

There are two common ways to fight fire. In the direct
attack, the flames are beat with a wet burlap bag, pine top
or fire flap. A fire flap or swatter is usually made of heavy
canvas or a piece of heavy belting fastened to a long handle.
Wetting down the burning material with water from a bucket
or spray pump makes the job easier. Building a fire line in
front of the lanes with a rake, hoe or plow robs the fire of
anything to burn and gives a better chance to stop it. The
direct attack should be used whenever possible as it results
in a smaller burned area.
In the indirect attack, the backfire is used. The fire fight-
ers fall back on a firebreak, road or other natural barrier
some distance ahead of the flames and begin setting small
fires to burn off the ground cover between the firebreak and
the approaching flames. This method is used in emergencies
and to stop a fire which is too large to be handled by direct
attack. More land is burned and the loss is greater than if the
flames could be fought direct.
Remove fire-scarred, injured, defective, weak or over-
mature trees. Trees diseased or infested with beetles should
be removed to prevent further spread to healthy trees. For
further information on this subject, consult County. State or
Federal men qualified to help.
Planting
Where planting should be done.
(A) Old fields not suited or needed for cultivated crops
or pasture should be planted to forest trees where
land will pay best in a timber crop.
(B) Open woodland where there are not enough seed
trees of the right kind.
(C) On old fields and other areas for checking run-off
and erosion.
(D) As windbreaks along borders of fields.
What to plant.
(A) Slash pine is the best all-purpose tree.
(B) Red cedar for fence posts, cabinet wood, pencil wood
and Christmas trees.
(C) Longleaf pine, black cherry, yellow poplar and other
species when desired.
When to plant.
(A) Requests for seedlings, with check or money order,
should be sent to the district foresters of the Florida
Forest and Park Service (located at Panama City,









FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


Tallahassee, Lake City, Ocala and Lakeland) after
July 1, and before the planting season. Orders re-
ceived late in the planting season cannot be filled if
the supply is gone or already sold. Farmers cooper-
ating in Soil Conservation Districts may receive some
seedlings from their districts.
(B) For best survival, seedlings should be planted when
soil is reasonably moist during December and Janu-
ary.
(C) Seedlings should be planted as soon as possible after
they are received. If they cannot be planted at once,
they should be unbundled and "heeled in" in shallow
trenches and the roots well covered with dirt and
kept damp and shaded.
How to plant.
(A) It is desirable to prepare the ground by cross check-
ing with a small bull-tongue plow, scratching the
surface just deep enough so planting crews can fol-
low the mark at the desired distance apart. If a
furrow is used, it should never be deeper than 3".
(This should not be done for longleaf planting.)
(B) The seedlings should be planted with a dibble in the
spot where the shallow streaks cross or in the bottom
of the furrow.
(C) The seedling supply should be carried in a bucket
of soupy clay or a small amount of water while
planting. Roots should never be exposed to sun and
air.
(D) Do not leave seedlings in water overnight; heel them
in.
(E) When the ground is too hard or rough to permit use
of dibble, a mattock may be used.

Average Cost of Planting an Acre of Pines

Delivirecd Preparati(ion
SpIcilhlg No. Cost of a nd I T;al I s
Trees Tl'res P il tin ('lst

6 x 6 1210 $2.85 $3.75 $6.60 Erosion control
8 x 8 680 1.60 2.15 3.75 All purpose
10 x 10 435 1.02 1.49 2.51 Early returns
12 x 12 305 .71 1.12 1.83 Naval stores

Pine seedlings cost $2.35 per thousand delivered. Some
other species cost more.









16 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14

Thinning
Thinning forest stands, when properly carried out, hastens
the production of a full crop of timber. All species of forest
trees which are crowding excessively may be thinned. Care
must be exercised not to thin too heavily while trees are very
young. In general, thinning should be delayed until the trees
so removed are large enough to be sold or utilized on the farm.
because:
(1) Trees must be crowded while young to develop tall.
straight boles, free of branches and knots.
(2) Enough time must be allowed to give the best trees
an opportunity to establish themselves and prove their
fitness to survive. During the first 10 to 15 years many
trees which showed early promise may develop dis-
eases, or defects.
Trees may be thinned, profitably, at intervals up to the
time of maturity. Insofar as possible, thin so that the tops
will again come together in about five years. Sometimes, of
course, this will take longer. A point to remember is that
maximum height and maximum diameter cannot be developed
simultaneously. However, reasonably close spacing while the
trees are young will make them grow tall and straight with
a large percentage of clear, knot-free trunks. After maximum
height has been obtained a heavier thinning will bring about
the most rapid increase in diameter possible, consistent with
quality.
If followed consistently and intelligently, the thinning
operation will result largely in the removal of the weaker or
unpromising trees. Thin so as to keep the ground shaded as
much as possible.
Thin during the winter months to avoid insect damage.
There is no hard and fast rule for thinning. As a general rule
add 2 to the diameter of the tree 41/ feet above the ground.
The result expressed in feet will be about the proper distance
between trees. For instance, in a pine sapling thicket, where
the trees average 6 inches in diameter, add 2 to the diameter
of the 6 inch trees making 8. This would indicate that these
trees should be thinned to an 8 ft. by 8 ft. spacing, and so on
for the different tree diameters. Later on, as the trees ap-
proach their maximum height, it may be better to add 4 to
the diameter of the tree, instead of 2, thus giving the trees
more room and obtaining a more rapid diameter growth.
Tree species, rate of growth, and the experience of the
farmer will determine the best spacing on each particular
forest stand.









FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


Pruning
A large part of Florida's woodland is now producing only
knotty second-growth timber. Knots lower the quality and
value of lumber produced from the trees.
Young trees start to limb close to the ground. As the tree
gets bigger, the lower limbs die from lack of sunlight. On a
tree that grows in the open the limbs get more light, more of
the lower limbs live, resulting in a limby tree with little clear
wood. In a close stand, the side limbs are shaded out earlier.
The dead limbs may decay and finally are knocked off or drop
off. If these dead limbs dropped off at the trunk, clear lumber
would start to form. Frequently, the dead limb, or a stub of
it, will remain on the tree for some time and may be partly
grown over. When the tree is cut for lumber these encased
limbs appear as knots and lower the grade and value.
If these branches are sawed off close to the stem of the
tree, later growth will produce clear lumber. The amount
of clear lumber secured in any tree or stand depends upon how
much the tree grows after pruning. This means that the best
values will be had from pruning rapidly growing stands when
the trees are small. Pruning can best be done by the farmer in
the winter as he has more time then and there is also less
danger of bugs getting started in the pruned branches.
It is also worth while to prune in young, rapidly growing
stands that have 10 years or more to grow before they are
ready to cut. It will take about 5 years' growth to add to the
value of the lumber produced, so there is nothing to be gained
by pruning trees which it is fairly certain will be cut within
that length of time. All species of pine that are worth saving
for lumber, poles, piling or naval stores should be pruned.
This is not true of timber to be cut for pulpwood or ties.
The following rules should be followed in pruning pine
stands:
(A) Selected trees-sound, straight, thrifty, evenly-
spaced, and likely to make high-quality products
should be pruned.
(B) Smaller or younger classes of trees should be pruned.
(Sizes suggested for pruning, 3"-7" D. B. H. Trees
8" D. B. H. and larger may be pruned to 9' for gum
farming.)
(C) Cut close to tree trunk so as to leave no portion of a
stub.
(D) Prune not more than 2/3 of the total height of the
tree or more than the lower 1/3 of the live crown or
top.









18 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14

(E) Prune a second time, if necessary, to produce at least
one clear 16-foot log.
(F) Scatter pruned limbs away from the base of trees.
This is to prevent insect attack and reduce possible
fire damage.
A pole pruning saw, pull type, with a stiff, curved blade.
having 5 or 51/2 points per inch is a good tool. The farmer
should have 2 saws, one with a handle 7 feet long and the
other with a handle 14 feet long.
The pruning of hardwoods is more difficult and needs more
study and care. Sometimes the danger of rot in the larger.
slower-growing hardwoods makes pruning questionable. Fast-
growing saplings, under 6 inches in diameter, may be pruned
of small branches. Hardwood pruning should be done before
spring growth starts.
Weeding
Weeding, or release cutting, is the removal of weed trees
and those of little value which compete with better quality
trees. Weed trees are quite common in cut-over woodlands
where scrub oak or larger limby trees, left by past logging
operations because of their low value, are overtopping young
pines. Young pine trees growing in scrub oak should not be re-
leased until at least three feet high. This will keep the oak
sprouts from overtopping the pines. Large trees of no value
may be girdled (deadened) or poisoned. Usually the wood
removed in such a cutting is of value only as fuel wood. This
being the case, only those trees that are holding back more
desirable trees should be cut. Often a release cutting is worth-
while in young planted stands if persimmon trees, sassafras,
and inferior oaks are crowding the planted trees. This is com-
mon in old field plantings which abound in persimmon trees.

FINALLY
Timber is a crop; it is a crop that will bear on lands too
poor for other uses; the best use of land and labor is not being
made if woodlands are not producing their maximum.








SHOULD I SELL ALL MY TIMBER


WHILE THE MARKET IS U


MATURE TIMBER MAY BE
TURNED INTO CASH-----

BUT YOU CAN'T LOSE
BY HOLDING YOUNG
TIMBER
30
YEARS
1I YR OLD SEEDLING

ASSUMED STUMPAGE PRICE
$10.00 PER M
$ 8.00 PER M
$ 6.00 PER M
$ 4.00 PER M
$ 3.00 PER M
$ 2.00 PER M
$ 1.00 PER M


VALUE OF
200 580
160 460
12$ 350
8$ 230
170
120
6o


EACH TREE AT STATED STUMPAGE PRICE
$1.08 $1.76 $2.64 $3.44
860 $1.41 $2.11 $2.75
65$ $1.06 $1.58 $2.06
430 710 $1.06 $1.38
320 53$ 790 $1.03
220 350 530 690
110 180 260 340















THE MARKET VALUE OF TIMBER
REPRESENTS BOTH LABOR AND MATERIAL VALUES
SIKF THE MARKFT ALUE OIF OTHER FARMI CROPM


RULING r'j


-BUSINESS PROFIT


YARDINGG




-CUTTING


-STUMPAGE


T PAYS TO SELL TIMBER PRODUCTS

NOT STUMPAGE


82% OF VALUE IS IN WAGES AND BUSINESS PROFIT
ONLY 18% IN STUMPAGE
S COST ITEMS IN TERMS OF EACH DOLLAR OF MARKET PRICE OF PRODUCT

1 $1 $1 $1 $1 $1


ts3
0


0
ct-

0
t/
5
>
m

0O
z


U)




z


4-
~1



sa
<
m
H




t-^










FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


III

COST OF GUM FARMING 1,000 TURPENTINE FACES
ON FARM WOODS

(1) Items which will last the full six or more years the face is worked: tj,,,.tion
1,000 clay cups delivered $35; 3 dip barrels $9.75; broad axe c'-0,s
$7.50; 2 dip buckets $1.00; 2 dip paddles $1.50; 2 cup covers 50c
1 gutter puller $3.00; 1 hack weight 60c; 1 shove-down scrape
iron 75(; total $59.60.

(2) Each year the following items will be required: 3 No. 0 hacks or
pullers $4.00; 2 triangular files 30(; 4 sharpening rocks 35c; 20 lb.
10d flooring nails $1.60; total $6.25.

(3) Galvanized gutters at $16 per 1,000 faces should be bought the
first, third and fifth years, totaling $48 for six years or $8 a year.

(4) Tompkin's nails will be needed the second, third, fourth and fifth
years, averaging about $1.50 per year for the six-year period.

Initial cost of material for starting operations will be the sum of starting
$59.60, $16, and $6.25, or $81.85. '

The annual production of 1,000 faces is at least 20 barrels. This is urns (Ieliv-
equivalent to 44 units per crop. Operations conducted on approved .n1l)
methods could expect 55 units per crop or 25 barrels of gum per 1,000 bble. : 11 gal.
faces. Gum yielding WG rosin is worth $14.15 per barrel at the central tu."eli"ti;,e 0
still. Allowing $1 for hauling would leave $13.15 per barrel. The lower il 29'!, 11.
ro.,in 6 83.15
estimate listed above would bring $263.00, delivered. I1.r hu1111V',d.
July 17 17. 1942.
Using the lower estimate ($263.00) and subtracting $81.85, initial
costs, $181.15 is realized above all cost the first year. For five years N't '"1'turn
following the first year, equipment and tools cost only $10 to $25 per 1,000
faces annually.

The above figures are based on the gum farmer doing his own work. ILnll.
If the work is to be done by hired labor, the following deductions are to
be made annually: hanging cups or raising $16; chipping @ $2.00 per 1,000
for 32 streaks, $64.00; dipping @ $1.25 per barrel for 20 barrels, $25.00;
total, $105.00.

The farmer thus realizes on the lower estimate about 18( per face Itt.'ru's p 1
for the first year or $9.00 per barrel by doing his work, or about 7/2 c
per face or $4.00 per barrel if he hires the work done.

(Note: This type of sale is recommended only when an accurate timber
cruise has been made and the volume of timber determined by the land-
owner.)










22 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14


IV
SAMPLE LUMP-SUM TIMBER SALE CONTRACT
This agreement entered into this day of
19_, between __of
Florida, hereinafter called the seller and
Company of
Florida, hereinafter called the purchaser.

WITNESSETH:
ARTICLE 1. The seller agrees to sell and the purchaser agrees to
buy upon terms and conditions hereinafter stated all the merchantable
pine (cypress or hardwood) timber marked or designated by the seller
with paint spots or axe blazes in Sections _
twp. Range County of
State of Florida.

ARTICLE 1. (Alternative) The seller agrees to sell and the purchaser
agrees to buy upon terms and conditions hereinafter stated all the mer-
chantable pine (cypress or hardwood) timber* inches minimum
diameter and above measured outside the bark 12 inches above the ground
in Sections Twp. Range
County of State of Florida.

ARTICLE 2. The purchaser agrees to pay the seller the sum of
$ for said timber,f payable prior to the cutting of the
material in installments of $__ each.
payable on or before the first day of
respectively.

ARTICLE 3. The purchaser further agrees to cut and remove the said
timber in strict accordance with the following conditions:
a. Unless extension of time is granted, all timber shall be paid for.
cut, and removed within one year from the date of this contract
(or on or before day of_
19__ ).
b. All damage caused by the purchaser or his agents to fences or
other improvements of the seller shall be repaired or paid for at
replacement value by the purchaser.
c. Seedlings and other remaining trees shall be protected against
unnecessary injury from felling, skidding, and hauling. Any Trees

*ItecolllUIlne(ded sizes: 10" in diameter for pulpwl od : 14t, saw timber: li".
t The first lpaymelnt lo ._$_ payable when this contract is signed. the
second payment of .$ payable when the material is 1.3 ctut. anld the last
paymeneit of $ payable when tile material is 2/3 cut.










FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


so injured or undersized or unmarked trees cut shall be paid for
by the purchaser at double the market value per thousand feet
Scribner Decimal C log scale.

d. Only dead trees, scrub oak
(other scrub trees
may be used for road construction purposes in connection with
logging operations.

e. Care shall be exercised at all times by the purchaser and his em-
ployees against the starting and spread of woods fires. During the
cutting operation the purchaser and his employees shall fight woods
fires without compensation in the sale area, and if such fires are
caused by the purchaser or his employees, the purchaser agrees to
pay the seller all of the suppression costs and for the damage to
the timber.

ARTICLE 4. The seller guarantees title to the timber and will defend
said title from all persons whomsoever.

ARTICLE 5. It is mutually agreed by and between the parties hereto
as follows:
a. All timber included in this agreement shall remain the property of
the seller until paid for in full.

b. The seller may stop all operations for violations of this contract
by the purchaser and may retain all monies deposited to the sale.

c. In case of dispute over the terms of this contract, the decision shall
rest with a reputable person to be mutually agreed upon by the
parties to this contract, and in case of further disagreement, with
an arbitration board of three persons; one to be selected by each
party to this contract and a third by mutual agreement between
the members appointed by the contracting parties.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties hereto have hereunto set their
hands and seals this day of 19 .


Witnesses as to Seller:


Seller Date



Witnesses as to Purchaser:


Purchaser Date










24 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14


V

LUMBER SALE CONTRACT
BY LOG SCALE

This agreement entered into this day of
19 between of
,Florida, hereinafter called the seller and
Company of,
Florida, hereinafter called the purchaser.

WITNESSETH:
ARTICLE 1. The seller agrees to sell and the purchaser agrees to buy
all merchantable living pine, cypress, hardwood marked or otherwise
designated by the seller and all merchantable dead timber standing or
down, in Sections Twp.
Range County of State
of Florida.

ARTICLE 2. The purchaser agrees to pay the seller the sum of
dollars ($ ), more or less. as
may be determined by the actual log scale
(In woods.. at 1.g deck. t'. Spe'iiy I
at the rate of dollars ($ ) per thousand
feet for pine and dollars ($ ) per
thousand feet for cypress and dollars
($ ) per thousand for payable prior
to the date of removal of the material, in installments of
dollars ($ ) each.
ARTICLE 3. The purchaser further agrees to cut and remove said
timber in strict accordance with the following conditions:
a. Unless extension of time is granted, all timber shall be cut, paid
for, and removed on or before
19_.
b. Saw timber shall be scaled by the Scribner Decimal C log rule. and
measured at the small end of the log along the average diameter
inside the bark to the nearest inch.
c. The maximum scaling length of logs shall be 16 feet; greater lengths
shall be scaled as two or more logs. Upon all logs an additional
length of 4 inches shall be allowed for trimming.
d. Stumps shall be cut so as to cause the least possible waste; stumps
of trees up to 16 inches in diameter not higher than 12 inches
above the ground, and tnose of trees above this size at a height
above the ground not greater than three-fourths of their diameters.










FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


e. Seedlings and other remaining trees shall be protected against un-
necessary injury from felling, skidding, and hauling. Any trees so
injured or undersized trees cut shall be paid for by the purchaser
at double the market value per thousand feet Scribner Decimal C
log scale.

f. Only dead trees, scrub oak,
(Other scrub trees)

may be used for road construction purposes in connection with
logging operations.
g. Care shall be exercised at all times by the purchaser and his em-
ployees against the starting and spread of woods fires. The pur-
chaser and his employees shall fight woods fires without compensa-
tion in the sale area, and if such fires are caused by the purchaser or
his employees, the purchaser agrees to pay the seller all of his sup-
pression costs and for the damage to the timber.
h. All damage caused by the purchaser or his agents to fences or
other improvements of the seller shall be repaired or paid for at
replacement value by the purchaser.

ARTICLE 4. The seller guarantees title to the timber and will defend
said title from all persons whomsoever.

ARTICLE 5. It is mutually agreed by and between the parties here-
to as follows:
a. All timber included in this agreement shall remain the property of
the seller until paid for in full.
b. The seller may stop all operations for violation of this contract
by the purchaser and for cause may retain all monies deposited to
the sale.
c. In case of dispute over the terms of this contract, the decision
shall rest with a reputable person to be mutually agreed upon by
the parties to this contract, and in case of further disagreement,
with an arbitration board of three persons; one to be selected by
each party to this contract and a third by mutual agreement
between the members appointed by the contracting parties.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties hereto have hereunto set their
hands and seals this day of 19_-.

Witnesses as to Seller:


Seller Date



Witnesses as to Purchaser:


Purchaser


Date










26 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14


VI
SAMPLE PULPWOOD CONTRACT
Agreement entered into this day of
19__, between, of
State of
heerinafter called the seller, and
of State of
hereinafter called the purchaser.

WITNESSETH:
Section 1. The seller agrees to sell, and the purchaser agrees to buy,
under the terms and conditions hereinafter stated, the living pulpwood
timber which has been designated by the seller, or his representative, as
follows:

(State kind of timber, whether marked with paint or blazed minimum diameter
outside the bark at the 10' u stump height. or other splcifications.)

and estimated to be units of _cubic feet'
unpeeled, stacked wood, more or less, on a certain tract of land belonging
to the seller situated in the County of State of

described as follows:




Section 2. The purchaser agrees to pay the seller in mutually agreed
upon installments in advance of cutting. The first installment of

dollars shall be paid when the contract is signed, and
subsequent installments shall be paid on or before such time as the value
of the pulpwood previously cut shall equal the total payments actually
made.

Section 3. The purchaser agrees to pay the seller for all wood cut

under this agreement at the rate of dollars per unit of
cubic feet which shall be a stack of wood cut into
foot lengths and closely piled 4 feet high and 8 feet long.
Pulpwood will be measured in solid ricks at the following places:

(Indicate whether stacked in woods, onl trucks, or c on cars.)





The number of cubic feet in ai unit depends onl the length of the sticks: all units
are stacked 8 x 4'. Cubic foot contents for various lenlgtls of sticks are
4ft. 128 cu. ft. 5 ft. 160 cu. ft. 5 ft. 3 in. 168 eu. ft.










FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


Section 4. The purchaser agrees:
a. To work into pulpwood, merchantable tops of trees cut from saw-
logs, and parts of trees wasted in logging operations.
b. To cut stumps so as to cause the least possible waste, and not higher
than 10 inches above the ground except when defective or badly
fire scarred.
c. To utilize all trees cut to a 4-inch top diameter except when a piece
may be unmerchantable on account of large limbs. The purchaser
agrees to pay two cents ($0.02) per stick for each merchantable
piece left in the tops of trees which have been cut for pulpwood
by him or his agents.
d. To protect young trees against unnecessary injury. Only dead trees,
unmerchantable hardwoods, tops, or other trees designated by the
seller shall be used for building roads necessary to remove the
wood, and roads shall be so located as to avoid stands of young
timber so far as practicable.
e. To exercise care at all times against the starting and spread of
fire. Any fires caused by the purchaser or his agents shall be sup-
pressed by the purchaser at his own expense, and the purchaser
agrees to pay for all damages caused by any such fires.
f. To repair at his own expense damages caused by him or his agents
to the roads, gates, fences, bridges, and other improvements.
g. Purchaser agrees to furnish the seller with itemized copies of all
mill invoices covering timber cut under this contract.
h. To pay double the rate stipulated under Section 3 for all marked or
designated trees left uncut and all trees cut which are not desig-
nated or marked, except when necessary to release lodged trees or
to salvage badly damaged trees.
Section 5. It is further understood and agreed by and between the
parties hereto that:
a. All timber included in this agreement shall remain the property of
the seller until paid for. Wood left unhauled shall be paid for by
the purchaser at the regular rate.
b. The seller guarantees that he has full right and title to the timber
included in this sale.
c. All pulpwood shall be cut, paid for, and removed on or before
19 unless extension of time is requested and
granted in writing.
d. In case of dispute under this contract, final decision shall rest with
arbitration board of three persons, one to be selected by each
party to the contract, and the third to be selected by the other two.
e. This agreement shall not be assigned in whole or in part by
either of the parties hereto without the written consent of the
other party.
f. The seller may stop all operations for violation of this contract by
the purchaser and for cause may retain all monies deposited to
the sale.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have hereunto set their
hands and seals this _day of 194__.
Witnesses:
(Purchaser) (SEAL
-(Seller) (SEAL)
(An acknowledgment by either single or married persons or by a corpo-
ration should be attached to the bottom of the contract and when notarized
will make the contract legal and binding.)











28 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14


VII

PULPWOOD TABLE

CUBIC FOOT VOLUME TABLE-SECOND GROWTH SOUTHERN PINE

For stands of average second-growth southern pine

Compiled for wood cut in 5.25 foot lengths by interpolation from "Volume Tables,
Converting Factors, and Other Information Applicable to Commercial Timber in the
South" by E. T. Hawes.
Table includes bark. Top utilization assumed to average approximately 5 inches out-
side bark, varying from 3.8 inches to 6 inches.


Form
Point D.B.H. 1


Inches
6
8
10
12


2 3 4



1.4 2.2 2.8
3.5 4.8
7.1


Number of 5! ft. cuts

5 6 7 8


Cubic Foot Volume
4.2 4.9
7.2 8.5 9.5
10.6 12.5 14.3
14.7 17.0 19.5
19.0 22.1 25.2
23.4 27.4 31.3


9 10 11 12


19.6
26.8 29.3
34.7 37.9
43.0 47.0


Divide total volume of measured trees by 118 to arrive at number of 168 cu. ft. units.
Divide by 90 to arrive at number of standard cords 128 cu. ft. (The differences are
air space).










FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


VIII

PRACTICAL HEIGHT MEASUREMENT METHOD

(A light weight stick, a limb from a bush or a piece of dogfennel about
30" long is all that is needed for this method.)
Height measurements are usually judged by the eye but can be esti-
mated by use of tree scale stick. See bulletin Measuring & Marketing
Farm Timber, page 23. Stand from the tree the approximate distance you
guess the merchantable length to be. Hold a light weight stick between the
thumb and first finger with your arm extended in front of you with one end
of the stick reaching to your right eye. Hold your arm still but move
thumb and finger raising the stick straight up. Sight over your thumb on
stump height and over the top of the stick at the merchantable top of
the tree without moving your head. If you are standing too close your sight
over the top of the stick will be below the merchantable top. If you are
too far back your sight over the top of the stick will be below the mer-
chantable top. Move your position till the sight over your thumb at stump
height and sight over the tip at merchantable top are both correct. Check
stick distance from your eye and your sighting. Then pace or measure the
number of feet from where you were standing to the tree. This gives you
the merchantable length of the tree. Record the length to nearest full 5'
length for pulpwood or nearest 8' log length for sawlogs.


IX

HELPFUL BULLETINS

1. Measuring and Marketing Farm Timber,
USDA Farmer's Bulletin No. 1210F,
Supt, of Documents, Washington, D. C. . 5c
2. Cutting Timber for Increased Profits,
Florida Forest and Park Service Bulletin No. 13
Tallahassee, Florida. . ............ .. Free
3. Planted Pines Pay,
Florida Forest and Park Service Circular No. 2
Tallahassee, Florida. ..... . Free
4. Pruning Southern Pines,
USDA Farmer's Bulletin No. 1892F,
Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C..... 10c
5. The Preservative Treatment of Farm Timbers,
USDA Farmer's Bulletin No. 744,
Supt, of Documents, Washington, D. C. ..... 5(-
6. Growing and Marketing Pulpwood,
Florida Forest and Park Service Bulletin No. 12
Tallahassee, Florida.. ......... ......... ..... ... Free











30 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14


X

BOARD FOOT CONTENTS BY SCRIBNER C RULE-CURVED

DBH*
in 16-Foot Log Lengths

Inches 1 11% 2 2/2 3 3 / 4 4,2 5


Form Class 85-High Grade-Virgin Timber
10 40 50 60
12 60 80 100 115 130
14 80 115 150 170 190
16 110 155 200 230 260 270 280
18 150 205 260 305 350 370 390
20 190 265 340 395 450 475 500
22 230 275 420 440 560 60 6 640 670 700
24 280 390 500 595 690 745 800 835 870
26 340 475 610 720 830 895 960 1015 1070
28 400 565 730 860 990 1080 1170 1235 1300
30 460 660 860 1015 1170 1285 1400 1480 1560
32 540 770 1000 1175 1350 1495 1640 1735 1830
34 620 890 1160 1355 1550 1900 2090
Form Class 82-Middle Grade-Second-growth Clean Timber


30 45 60
50 70 90 110
80 110 140 160
110 150 190 215
140 190 240 280
170 240 310 355
210 290 370 330
250 350 450 525
300 425 550 635
350 500 650 755
410 590 770 890
470 680 890 1040
540 785 1030 1205


130
180
240 255 270
320 340 360
400 425 450
490 525 560 590 620
600 650 700 735 770
720 780 840 890 940
860 945 1030 1075 1120
1020 1125 1230 1300 1370
1190 1215 1440 1515 1590
1380 1530 1680 1770 1860


Form Class 78-Low Grade-Open-grown, Limby, Fast Tapering
10 30 40 50
12 50 65 80 95 110
14 70 95 120 140 160
16 90 130 170 200 230 240 250
18 120 170 220 255 290 310 330
20 150 215 280 325 370 395 420
22 190 265 340 400 460 490 520
24 230 320 410 485 560 605 650 675 700
26 270 285 500 590 680 730 780 810 840
28 320 460 600 700 800 865 930 980 1030
60 3(0 535 700 820 940 1020 1100 1160 1220
32 430 620 810 950 1090 1190 1290 1355 1420
34 490 710 930 1100 1270 1385 1500 1570 1640

Dinillletlr BrIils IlHigh llllisurild iilside the harrk 41. feet ;llb\o e ground.










FLORIDA FARM FORESTRY


XI

BOARD FOOT CONTENTS BY DOYLE SCALE-CURVED

DBH*
in 16-Foot Log Lengths

Inches 1 1 2 21/2 3 3/2 4 4 1 5

Form Class 85-High Grade-Virgin Timber
10 20 28 33 38 41
12 38 48 57 65 70 76 80
14 62 84 100 111 118 126 132
16 92 128 158 176 190 199 205
18 130 178 220 254 280 294 300
20 170 243 300 354 390 409 420
22 210 303 380 447 500 534 560 582 600
24 260 372 470 560 630 672 710 743 770
26 320 468 580 690 780 840 890 938 980
28 390 550 700 830 940 1030 1100 1165 1210
30 460 655 840 1000 1130 1245 1340 1415 1470
32 540 780 990 1180 1340 1470 1590 1685 1770
34 620 935 1180 1390 1570 1740 1880 1990 2080

Form Class 82-Middle Grade -Second Growth Clean Timber
10 18 25 30 32 34
12 35 48 60 70 78 83 87
14 56 77 97 111 124 132 138
16 83 114 141 160 178 186 193
18 120 165 200 228 250 266 280
20 150 210 260 205 340 356 370 376 380
22 190 270 340 390 430 458 480 492 500
24 240 340 420 490 540 585 620 636 650
26 290 410 510 600 670 715 760 782 800
28 360 510 630 750 850 920 990 1030 1060
30 420 610 760 900 1030 1125 1230 1285 1330
32 500 740 960 1110 1240 1320 1390 1410 1610
34 580 870 1130 1310 1470 1570 1650 1780 1890

Form Class 78-Low Grade-Open-grown, Limby, Fast Tapering
10 14 19 23 26 29
12 29 39 48 55 61 65 70
14 48 66 83 95 106 115 122
16 72 99 124 143 161 168 173
18 100 136 170 203 230 241 250
20 130 185 230 273 310 326 340
22 170 240 300 354 400 426 450
24 210 300 380 445 510 544 570 586 600
26 260 370 470 550 620 664 700 726 750
28 310 440 560 660 750 810 860 900 930
30 370 530 670 785 890 965 1030 1085 1130
32 440 620 790 1005 1060 1145 1220 1295 1360
34 520 730 920 1080 1220 1330 1430 1525 1610

Diiieter Brelast High mll ias ured outside the Iatrk 411f feet almve ground.










32 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE, BULLETIN 14

XII

SAMPLE PULPWOOD TALLY SHEET
5 ,' Lengths


Diameter Usable length of stem in feet
at 42 ft.I 2 3 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12


6

8

10

12

14

16
I I




XIII

SAMPLE SAW TIMBER TALLY SHEET


Diameter Number 16-foot logs
at 4/2ft. 1 1%2 2 22 3 312 4


10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24
Izzzz^z~^









FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE
ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL
As of November, 1942
Tallahassee, Office
Administrative-
H. J. Malsberger, State Forester and Park Executive.
Branch of Fire Control-
Joe R. Gramling, Assistant State Forester.
Branch of Applied Forestry-
C. H. Coulter, Assistant State Forester.
Branch of Public Relations-
William F. Jacobs, Assistant State Forester.
Branch of State Parks-
L. G. Scoggin, Director.
Fiscal Branch-
H. D'Anna, Fiscal Agent.

Field Offices

District 1. Headquarters, Panama City-
James N. Wilson, Jr., District Forester.
Counties: Gulf, Calhoun, Jackson, Holmes, Washington,
Bay, Walton, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa and Escambia.
District 2. Headquarters, Tallahassee-
B. C. Leynes, District Forester.
Counties: Franklin, Liberty, Gadsden, Leon, Wakulla,
Jefferson, Madison, Taylor, Dixie and Lafayette.
District 3. Headquarters, Lake City-
B. F. Harris, District Forester.
Counties: Gilchrist, Suwannee, Hamilton, Columbia, Al-
achua, Bradford, Union, Bay, Nassau, Duval, Clay, Putnam
and St. Johns.
District 4. Headquarters, Ocala-
E. L. Molpus, District Forester.
Counties: Flagler, Volusia, Lake, Marion, Citrus, Her-
nando, Levy, Sumter, Seminole, Orange, and north half of
Brevard.
District 5. Headquarters, Lakeland-
Claude L. DeVane, District Forester.
Counties: South half of Brevard, Indian River, Osceola,
Polk, Pasco, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Manatee, Sarasota,
Charlotte, DeSoto, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, St.
Lucie, Martin, Palm Beach, Hendry, Glades, Lee, Collier,
Broward, Dade and Monroe.




















FIRE AND SOIL


"When cut-over land is burned the fire accomplishes
in minutes the degrees of litter removal that would be
achieved naturally only after several years. This sudden
removal of the litter and its living population sets in
motion a chain of events leading directly to deterioration
or loss of the soil. The highly alkaline ash is leached or
carried into the soil with the first rains. ... .On light
sandy soils of low gradient . the essential bases are
leached deeply into the soil and in effect are lost. The
organic matter, the soil and the litter organisms, and the
nitrogen disappear just as completely as though washed
away, and the surface layers are left in a sterile condi-
tion unsuited to the establishment of a new forest" . or
agriculture.


-Soils and Men, U. S. D. A. Yearbook. 1938.




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