Group Title: Land & livestock
Title: Hillsborough County land and livestock
Full Citation
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 Material Information
Title: Hillsborough County land and livestock
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Hillsborough County Extension Office, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Hillsborough County Extension Office
Place of Publication: Seffner, Fla.
Publication Date: Winter and Spring 2007
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089229
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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illih .. i..i' ,![ IFAS EXTENSION
F!, ,i .LI

University of Florida IFAS Extension and
Hillsborough County, FL



Upcoming Events 2

FL Cattle Auctions
Weekly Summary

Beef Management

Sand Colic (cont'd from

EDIS Publications 4

Equine Vaccinations 5,6

Winter Vegetable 7

Brandon Fresh Market 7

Poisonous Plant Alert: 8
Rosary Pea

Dear Friends,
I hope you enjoyed the holidays and were able to share
the season of giving with friends and loved ones. I feel especially blessed,
having successfully overcome a frightening colic episode with my 3 year old
horse. With the recent changes in weather, decreased water intake, and
declining pastures, the incidence of colic has been on the rise lately, accord-
ing to a number of local veterinarians. If you've ever had a horse colic, you
know what is like staying up around the clock for days on end, praying for a
miracle. No matter how many times you've experienced it with your own
horse, or a client's or boarder's horse, you truly understand that an ounce of
prevention is worth a pound of cure. In addition, it is certainly a wise eco-
nomic investment to take action to prevent colic and avoid a costly bill from
emergency medical or surgical treatment. I feel compelled to take some
space in this issue to remind horse owners of some preventative measures
they can take.
* Provide a Sufficient Source of Fiber- Horses need roughage, or suffi-
cient amounts of hay, and ideally, at frequent intervals. This will de-
crease behavior like eating dirt, weeds and shavings and will prevent
them from licking the ground and chewing fences. It is advisable to pro-
vide your horses with a free-choice quality hay, salt or mineral block,
and a clean, adequate water supply at all times.
* Good Pasture Management- Do not allow a situation where horses are
turned out in a sand pit and forced to consume dirt
* Utilize Feeding Tools- Keep hay off the ground by utilizing hay racks,
nets, tubs, etc. Horses (like mine) will often pull hay out of the racks and
onto the ground. In such cases, placing a rubber mat on top of the stall
bedding is helpful. This also allows the horse to have a natural 'head-
down' eating position, preventing potential respiratory problems.

SImplement a Psyllium Treatment Plan- Psyllium acts to move sandy material out of the gut by lubricating it
in a gelatinous material. It is known to stimulate motility of the bowel and keep fluids in the intestine, helping
to move sand along with the water. Commercial psyllium products are available at your local feed stores in
the form of pellets or powders. As a result of implementing psyllium preventative plans, veterinarians have
noticed a reduction in the incidence of sand colic. (Continued on Pg.4)

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IUpcoming Events

2* 2-Id .nnual CLulemen 's Instinite
& Allied Trade Stion
Thursday, Januar- 18, 2007
Osceola Heritage Park
Kissimmee, FL
*See Attached FIl-er

-4-H & FF4 M eat judging Clinic
S I(o.. /br .oIith & ;ad isors)
-. Tuesday, January 30, 2007 "r 4-6pm; 744-5519 ext. 118 to reg.
Hillshorough Co. Extension Office

Florida State Fair
February 8-19th, 2007
Tampa Fairgrounds for
schedule of events & more details

SFlaridan t nr;-tinberr Festii al
lMarch 1-lith, 2007
Plant Cit\y
1-1 w-.flstraw-I) fir
schedule of events & more details

Small Farms Lihestock
Production Conl rence 2007
"So, You \Want to Be a Farmer"
March 3rd:
Highlands Counrt Agri-Ci\ic Center
Sebring, FL
& March 17th:
Manatee Co. Extension Office
Palmetto, FL
*See Attached FIler

South-Central Florida S'm;all
Farms Con ference
April 28th, 2007
Sarasota Cotunty Fairgrounds
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.

Page 2


USDA-FL, Florida Cattle Auctions Weekly Summary I

At the Florida Livestock Auctions (Fri. December 22, 2006); Cattle receipts at 9 markets; Ocala, Wauchula, Okeechobee, Lakeland,
Webster, Elli.vill', Arcadia, Madison and Lake City, receipts totaled 2,047 compared to 8,945 last week, and N/S last year. According
to the Florida Federal-State Livestock Market News Service: Compared to one week ago, slaughter cows steady to 2.00 higher, bulls
steady, feeder steers 1.00 to 3.00 lower, heifers ;,. \r., steady, replacement cows poorly tested.
Feeder Steers & Bulls: Medium and Large 1-2 215-235 Ibs $120.00-127.50; 250-295 Ibs $119.00-
132.50; 310-345 Ibs $117.50-127.50; 350-395 Ibs $110.00-120.00; 400-440 Ibs $102.00-116.00;
450-495 Ibs $92.00-115.00; 500-530 Ibs $84.00-105.00; Medium and Large 2-3 200-240 Ibs $110.00-
130.00; 255-295 Ibs $112.00-125.00; 300-345 Ibs $102.00-130.00; 350-390 Ibs $98.00-110.00; 405-
445 Ibs $92.00-102.50; 450-495 Ibs $80.00-102.50; 500-540 Ibs 76.00-95.00; 550-590 Ibs $68.00-
92.00; Feeder Heifers: Medium and Large 1-2 200-235 Ibs $117.00-145.00; 250-295 Ibs $115.00-
125.00; 300-345 Ibs $102.00-120.00; 350-395 Ibs $98.00-113.00; 400-445 Ibs $94.00-107.50; 450-
495 Ibs $88.00-100.00; 500-545 Ibs $84.00-95.00; 560-585 Ibs $94.00-98.00 Medium and Large 2-3
200-245 Ibs $104.00-130.00; 250-295 Ib $104.00-122.50; 305-345 Ibs $96.00-110.00; 350-395 Ibs
$90.00-110.00; 405-445 Ibs $80.00-97.50; 465-495 Ibs $78.00-90.00; 520-540 $85.00-88.00; 585-
590 Ibs $81.00-87.00

Beef Management Calendar

a nuar y
> Apply lime for summer crops
= Check for lice & treat
= Control weeds in cool season
= Beginning grazing winter rye
pastures (should be 12"-18"
= Check mineral feeders
> Put bulls out for October calving
> Watch for calf scours
> Provide sufficient feed so bulls
are in good condition for
breeding season
> Buy only performance tested
bulls with superior records
> Semen test bulls & examine for
breeding soundness
> File taxes
> Discuss herd health
management with veterinarian
and outline yearly plan
> Observe cow herd to record
heat, breeding abnormalities,
calving difficulties, abortions,

> Vaccinate cows & heifers
against vibriosis & leptospirosis
prior to breeding season
> Watch for grass tetany on winter
> Increase magnesium levels in
mineral mixes if grass tetany
has been a previous problem (if
you are not already using a high
magnesium mineral)
> Top dress winter forages if
> Check & fill mineral feeders
> Put bulls out with breeding herd
> Work calves (ID, growth implant,
vaccinate, etc.)
> Ensure lactating cows receive
adequate level of energy
> Watch calves for signs of
respiratory disease
> Cull cows that failed to calve
while prices are seasonally up
> Fertilize pasture to stimulate
early growth and get fertilizer
incorporated in grass roots while
still good soil moisture

> Fertilize & prepare land for sum-
mer crops
> Begin grazing warm season
permanent pastures
> Check & fill mineral feeder
> Observe bulls for condition &
success. Rotate and rest if
> Make sure calves are healthy &
making good weight gains
> Deworm cows as needed
> Hang forced-use dust bags by
April 1 st for external parasite
control or use insecticide im-
pregnated ear tags
> Identify, vaccinate, implant, and
work late calves
> Put bulls out March 1 st for calv-
ing season to start Dec. 9th
> Remove bulls March 22nd to
end calving season January 1st


Page 3

It is important that you don't overfeed psyllium, as it will lose its
effectiveness as a sand treatment. The West Coast Regional Surgi-
Care Center for Horses (CARES) in Brandon recommends giving 8 oz
of a 99% psyllium product, such as Equi-aid once a day for 7 days,
then once a week for the other 3 weeks of the month. Remember
that psyllium alone will not guarantee that your horse won't colic, but
your management practices to limit your horse's sand intake in the
first place is critical. Here's to happy & healthy horses in 2007!
Warm Regards,

Steffany L. Dragon, Hillsborough County Livestock/Small Farms

Even grazing lush pastures, horses can
experience sand colic.

EDIS is the Electronic Data Information
Source of UF/IFAS Extension

New Relevant EDIS Publications EDIS Homepage:

* AN176/AN176: Spreadsheet to Calculate the Economic Feasibility of Anaerobic Manure Digesters on
Florida Dairy Farms:
* AN177/AN177 The Dairy VIP Program to Evaluate the Consequences of Changes in Herd Management
and Prices on Dairy Farms:
* ENY-66/IN416 Infectivity and Persistence of Steinernema scapterisci Nematodes on Pasture Mole Crick-
ets in Florida:
* FA-117/FA117 Harvesting Ornamental Fish From Ponds:
* FA-118/FA118 Grading Ornamental Fish:
* FA-119/FA119 On-Farm Transport of Ornamental Fish:
* FA-120/FA120 Preparation of Ornamental Fish for Shipping:
* FE-676/FE676 Determining the Value of an Orchard Tree:
* SS-AGR-75/AG266 Bamboo Control:
* SS-AGR-87/AG267: Forage Grass Tolerance to Pasture Herbicides:
* PI-137/PI1174: Florida Herbicide Pricing & Expectations: 74
* HS188/WG025: Weed Control in Beans and Peas (Bush, Pole, Lima Beans, English Peas, & Southern
* HS196/WG037: Weed Control in Strawberry:
* HS200/WG040: Weed Control in Tomato:
* HS203/WG031: Weed Control in Leafy Vegetables (Lettuce, Endive, Escarole, and Spinach):
* HS1074/HS328: Calibrating Sap-Testing Meters:


Page 4

Equine Vaccination Schedule for Hillsborough County
By, Steffany Dragon, UF Livestock & Small Farms Extension Agent

With the recent outbreak of Equine Herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) in Florida, horse owners have been uneasy to say the
least. Recent cases of infected horses have been confirmed in Jupiter, Wellington, and Ocala. After speaking
with a few local equine veterinary clinics, it seems their phones have been ringing off the hook with questions
from nervous clients. Owning horses myself, I can understand the concern and would like to clarify a few

Q. Are Equine Herpes Virus and Rhinopneumonitis the same thing?
A. Yes. Rhinopneumonitis is now known to represent two separate diseases caused by two different vi-
ruses, EHV-1, and EHV-4, both which infect the respiratory tract. In addition, EHV-1 can cause abortion
in pregnant mares, birth of weak nonviable foals, and a paralytic neurologic disorder.

Q.If my horse has received routine Flu/Rhino shots, isn't he/she protected?
A. The current vaccine does not provide absolute protection but apparently decreases the incidence and
severity of illness and limits the occurrence of abortion outbreaks. The vaccine also prevents nasal
shedding of the virus and therefore mitigates spreading to other horses. The cases of horses infected
with EHV-1 that presented with neurologic disorders have been rare, sporadic, and contained but repre-
sent a mutation in the virus for which there is currently no vaccine. Horse owners should make sure
their vaccinations are current in order to prevent shedding of the virus to other animals and a more se-
rious form of it, in the event that the horse does become infected.

Q. How often should my horse be vaccinated against the Equine Herpesvirus?
A. Twice a year for backyard horses, or horses that are not exposed to outside horses. Four times a year for
foals, young horses, and performance and show horses at high risk of exposure. Dr. Fay Herrero, Equine
Veterinarian with Odessa Equine Clinic warns that over-vaccination can actually cause predisposition to
the neurological form of the disease and recommends not vaccinating more frequently than at 3-month

While we are on the subject of vaccinations, let's revisit the basics. It would be ideal to have one simple proto-
col to adhere to, but vaccination recommendations are best tailored to individual circumstances. The two main
factors to consider when deciding the type and frequency of vaccinations are: 1. the area of the country the
horse lives in or travels to and 2. whether a horse is exposed to 'outside', transient populations of horses on a
regular basis, such as when following a show circuit. For example, Dr. Herrero does not routinely recommend
vaccinating for Potomac Horse Fever unless horses are traveling north, especially around the Potomac Valley/
Maryland area, nor does he consider vaccinatingfor Venezuelan equine encephalitis necessary unless horses
are traveling to states bordering Mexico, such as Texas.

Aside from geographic considerations, protocols should be determined based on individual situations. Stay at
home horses that don't encounter high-risk exposure to possibly infected horses are less at risk for influenza,
strangles, and rhinopneumonitis. In contrast, performance horses routinely traveling to shows or horses
boarded in facilities that experience a lot of equine traffic would be stronger candidates for rhino, flu, and
strangles vaccines. A couple of universal 'must-have' vaccines are rabies and tetanus. They both carry a high
mortality rate, and in cases where tetanus can be treated, it is a costly and complicated process. On the follow-
ing page is a typical vaccination schedule for our area.


Page 5


Suggested Equine Vaccination Schedule for Hillsborough County
Tetanus 1st dose: 3-4mos Biannual Biannual Biannual Biannual, 4-6 weeks
2nd dose: 4-5mos before foaling
Eastern/Western 1st dose: 3-4mos Biannual, Biannual, Spring Biannual, Spring Biannual, 4-6 wks be-
Equine Encephalomye- 2nd dose: 4-5mos Spring fore foaling
West Nile Virus 1st dose: 3-4mos Biannual, up to Biannual, up to every Biannual, up to Biannual, 4-6wks post-
2nd dose:4-5mos every 4 months 4 months if high risk every 4 months if partum
(plus 3rd dose: 6mos if high risk high risk
in endemic areas)
Influenza 1st dose: 3-6mos Every 3 months Every 3 months Biannual w/added At least biannual, w/one
2nd dose: 4-7mos boosters prior to booster timed 4-6 weeks
3rd dose: 5-8mos exposure before foaling
Repeat at 3-month
Rhinopneumonitis 1st dose: 2-3mos Every 3 months Every 3 months Biannual 5th, 7th, 9th months of
(EHV-1 & EHV-2) 2nd dose: 3-4mos pregnancy (inactivated
EHV-1 vaccine)
3rd dose: 5-8mos EHV-1vaccine)
Repeat at 3-month
Rabies 1st dose: 3-4mos Annual Annual Annual Annual, before breeding
2nd dose: 4-5mos ___

In summary, EEE/WEE and Tetanus shots should be given twice a year; Influenza and Rhino shots twice a year for backyard horses
and 4 times a year for performance horses; Rabies once a year; West Nile twice a year. Strangles vaccine is only recommended in
conditions or circumstances where risk of exposure is high. The intranasal vaccine has become a preferred option due to the high
rate of shot reactions associated with the intramuscular injection. The intranasal vaccine does not give a very strong immunity, but
rather should result in a milder case should the horse become infected.

Recently, I have heard rumors of a rabies vaccine that lasts a couple of years. This is a misnomer! While some counties acknowledge
the efficacy of rabies vaccines for dogs for a 3 year period, there is no such long-lasting vaccine for horses, and they must be vacci-
nated for rabies annually. It should also be emphasized that this chart is simply a vaccination guide, but that your local veterinarian is
the most qualified person to administer the shots and should be contacted for the most local, up to date, and professional advice as
it pertains to your specific horses and their particular situation.

t'*Jur o


Page 6

Win ter Plan tings \

> Recommended season vegetable crops to be planted this time of year are: Beets, Broccoli,
Cabbage, Carrots, Cauliflower, Celery, Chinese Cabbage, Collards, Endive/Escarole, Green
Onions, Lettuce, Mustard, Peas, Potatoes, and Turnips.

> Herbs & spices for this time of year: Anise, Basil, Bay Laurel, Borage, Caraway, Cardamom,
Chervil, Chives, Cilantro/Coriander, Dill, Fennel, Ginger, Horehound, Lemon Balm, Lovage,
Marjoram, Mexican Tarragon, Mint, Nasturtium, Oregano, Rosemary, Sage, Savory, Thyme &

The EDIS publication: Florida Vegetable Gardening Guide is a very useful resource for gardeners and small
farmers. It contains information on soil preparation, cover crops, organic matter, composting, fertilizing, irriga-
tion and drainage, fertilizing, weed control, nematodes, disease control, insect control, suggested vegetable va-
rieties, harvest information for specific varieties, spacing information and seed dates, rates and depths for each
specific vegetable. This publication is available electronically at: You can also stop by the office to pick one up or we can mail it to you.

Due to the fast growth
of the market, it has
moved to one of the
best locations in town:

More music, more vendors, more enter-
tainment!! Visit us every
Saturday from 9am -2pm. Fresh baked
German breads, plants, flowers, local
honey, antiques, homemade dips and

13, 2007

The Market welcomes

= Jon & Debbie Butts
S from Ecofarm: organic
produce, fruit plants,
homemade cane
syrup AND
= Gabriel Gilpin with Mona Vie Juice:
combination of 15
different kind of fruits from the

salsas and much more.
For more information, please visit
Or contact the market manager, Olga Santamaria @ 813-684-6806 or via e-mail:

7, 2006 Through May

in Fresh


Page 7

Poisonous Plant Alert by, Steffany Dragon

Rosary Pea may very well be the most toxic plant found in Hillsbor-
ough County. Then why haven't you heard of it? Given plenty of
other forages and feed sources, animals will usually leave it alone.
The highly poisonous seeds, if ingested whole will most likely pass
through the animal doing no harm. Toxins are only released if the
seeds are chewed, breaking the hard outer seed coat, before be-
ing swallowed.
Rosary Pea (Abrus precatorius L.), often called 'Precatory Bean' or
Photo Credits: Jeff Hutchinson 'Crab's Eye' is a perennial legume that is often noticed as a climb-
ing vine cascading down pine and oak trees in this area. It is fairly woody, branches freely, and often reaches
heights of 20 ft. or more. It produces flowers red, purple, and white in color that grow close together on a stalk.
The leaves are alternate and compound, having 8-20 pairs of oblong leaflets. The fruit is a flat, broad, rectangu-
lar legume seed pod which contains 3-5 seeds that are red with black spots at the point of attachment. When
the pod is dry and brittle, it splits, revealing the clinging seeds. These plants go dormant in cold weather, but re-
emerge in early spring.

The plant's scientific name has an interesting history. The genus comes from the Greek word abrus, meaning
'delicate,' and refers to the leaflets. The species is derived from the word, precator, meaning 'one who prays' and
alludes to the use of the seeds for rosaries. In fact, the brightly colored seeds were strung to make necklaces,
jewelry, and used as beads in percussion instruments. It is native to India, but has been introduced to other re-
gions around the world for these uses. It is now well established in Florida and is used as an ornamental plant
throughout North America.

Toxic Principle
The seeds of this plant are so toxic (even more so than ricin) that chewing and ingestion of only one seed can be
fatal to animals and people. Anecdotal evidence provides stories of children dying after gnawing on their moth-
ers' beads made of the Rosary Pea seeds. What makes the seed so toxic? The seeds contain abrin, a potent
lectin. It is a close relative to ricin but much more toxic. In
fact, abrin is one of the most toxic compounds known. The
toxin first binds to certain transport proteins on cell mem-
branes which then transport the toxin into the cell. Once
there, the toxin prevents protein synthesis that the cells
need to survive. Consequently, cells die. One molecule of
abrin will inactivate up to 1,500 ribosomes per second and
can kill with less than 3 micrograms in the blood stream.
All animals are susceptible.

=> colic
=> vomiting
=> diarrhea


Page 8

Poisonous Plant Alert (Cont'd)

Body temperature may also rise to 104 F and hyperexcitability
and convulsive seizures are often seen before death.

An autopsy might reveal sores and ulcers in the digestive tract and
urinary bladder. Signs of accumulated fluid in the lungs, conges-
tion of various organs, and blood-shot eyes may also be visible.
Mild to moderate degeneration of the liver and kidneys is also

No antidote exists for abrin, so the key is preventing your animals
from ingesting them in the first place. Make sure they have plenty Poto credits ef
Photo Credits: Jeff Hutchinson
of alternative feed sources and are not in an over-grazing situa-
tion. Given sufficient feed and forage, they generally won't eat Rosemary Pea. If you have some on your property,
however, monitor young animals and ones that have newly arrived. The most important factor is getting the abrin
out of the animal's system, so if the animal can throw up it may have a better chance of survival. Administration of
IV fluids and electrolytes will alleviate dehydration.

Control Methods
According to Dr. Jason Ferrell, Weed Scientist at the University of Florida, hand removal is difficult and rarely effec-
tive. However he does suggest gathering all the seed pods during the late fall, winter, and spring months. They can
be placed in double heavy duty plastic bags and disposed of in the trash dump. Since Rosary Pea often climbs up
trees, Dr. Brent Sellers, UF Weed Scientist at the Ona Range Cattle Research and Education Center, suggests find-
ing the source of the vine. These plants can be deeply rooted and difficult to remove by hand, so stems should be
cut a few inches above the ground and treated with herbicide using the cut stump method. Sellers says that herbi-
cides with the following active ingredients are all viable options when used according to the label: tricloypyr (Garlon,
Garlon 3A, or Remedy); imazapyr (Arsenal AC or Chopper); tricolopyr + fluroxypyr (Pasturegard); and glyphosate
(Roundup) (please see Table 1.). Remember that glyphosate is non-selective and will injure surrounding vegetation
more severely than the other herbicides. The addition of a non-ionic surfactant at .25-.50% v/v will increase con-
trol. Within 5 minutes of cutting the stem, it should be dipped into the herbicide mixture. Rosary Pea is a hardy
plant, and a second treatment may be necessary.

If the site is heavily infested with Rosary Pea, it should be monitored closely and either kept mowed down to pre-
vent it from going to seed, hand-picked or spot sprayed. If seed pods are present, they should be collected and dis-
posed of, as described previously. Remember to keep a sufficient feed supply for your animals and monitor your
pastures from time to time to detect poisonous plants in order to control them and prevent your livestock from be-
ing poisoned.
Source: Ferrell, J., Langeland, K. & Sellers, B (2006). Herbicide Application Techniques for Woody Plant Control. To
access this publication, go to:


Page 9

Hillsborough Extension Service

5339 S. County Road 579
Seffner, FL 33584-3334

Non-Profit Org.

US Postage Paid

Permit # 15


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