TECHNICAL COOPERATION EFFORTS IN IMPROVING THE
ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT
ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AFFAIRS
This report summarizes activities and results which the Department of
Social Affairs (DSA)of the General Secretariat of the Organization of
American States (OAS) has achieved during the past several years with an
AID grant of US$167,000. This grant was given in two phases: an initial
grant of $67,000 was given by the Science and Technology/Rural
Development Bureau of AID for a period beginning July 1980, and a
supplemental amount of US$100,000 was awarded in October 1981 which
extended the grant until September 1982. Two administrative extentions
(October to December 1982, and January to April 1983) were given to allow
for a better utilization of the monies in projects at the grassroots. The
bulk of the supplemental grant (US$100,000) has been utilized during the
first quarter of 1983, since preliminary training programs are being
conducted to prepare the project participants for productive activities.
In most cases, financial returns (where the investments have already been
made) were evident within a 3-6 month period from the initiation of
funding to the initial returns on production.
The bulk of the grant-related activities were carried out in the
Caribbean--Jamaica, Dominica and recently in Antigua and Barbuda.
However, some technical assistance in on-going DSA projects and regional
Li4.i.. porgrams were conducted in Ecuador and for the Andean region.
The principle activities were technical assistance and training--at
several levels: a. regional training for persons in management and
decision making roles, and b. national and local training (and technical
assistance) directly related to project implementation. This report
summarizes the conceptual framework utilized in the DAS projects project .
profiles including activities, inputs, results) and pictures of some
project activities (Annex B).
The principal objectives of the grant awarded to the DSA (as
sanctioned by MD/S & T, October 1981) was to increase the income oE
persons currently unemployed or underemployed, and in a very critical
economic situation outside the main stream of their country's economic
activities. This was achieved through utilizing a combination cf
participatory involvement (based on four generic constituency groups o.
social organizations) and immediate action income generating projects
The activities designed under this grant have been essentially
complementary actions to on-going OAS/DSA projects in member states. The
DSA is requested by the member states to provide technical assistance,
training and advise through the OAS programming procedures. This process
occurs on w biennium basis and is in direct response to countries'
needs. The grant-related activities have then complemented the already
existing DSA actions with small immediate action projects which have had
a catalytic effect in terms of community involvement in the development
process. The conceptual framework of this development approach will be
described subsequently in this section. Much attention was given to the
social organizing of the people through participatory processes and
related training. These efforts were focused on enhancing actual
socio-economic conditions which were precarious, as the DSA has a mandate
for working with the poorest sectors in the countries where requested.
The income-generating activities were, thus, a catalyst for
socio-economic and political development.
The DSA projects involve people living in small clusters, in hamlets,
villages, ghettos and other marginal communities. Small amounts of
investment capital (US$300-500) are used with groups of three to eighty
people. This allows for immediate actions at the local level, both rural
and urban, usually via cottage industries, micro organizations and
small-scale industries. The economic size of the projects is determined
by local conditions allowing each group, village, to manage their own
process by auto-determination. The social development projects of the
DSA are means of channelling "... the flow of financial, technical and
human resources both internal and external in the effort to promote
the development of the groups identified as priority targets of social
actions" (OAS/Ser. H/XIV). These projects are integrated in nature and
endeavour to involve on a broad basis the participation of the target
population as well as agency personnel (local, national and
international) involved in project formulation, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation. This process provides mutual support and
enhances already established linkages with national programs and
projects; to local projects as well as international efforts.
Activities at the local level were usually initiated as a follow-up
to regional training seminars. The seminar participant was the "linking
pin" with the OAS/DSA, organizing the community for initial interactions
and receiving "hands-on" training in project coordination and
implementation. As this occurs at the village level, other "actors" of
the development scenario -are being involved, most of them through the
implementation team. This team works with the community to implement
their prioritized projects providing technical training and assistance
and enhancing managerial skills. The holistic approach includes persons
from four "constituency groups".
1. Service Providers those individuals and groups responsible for
implementation of project activities in the field.
2. Service Acquirers these are the "beneficiaries" both direct and
indirect of the development process (in some development projects
defined as "target" population).
3. Resource Providers these are the organizations (local, national
and international) which provide resources--financial, material
and human--for the implementation of projects and processes.
4. Technology Developers (Management)--These are the persons
responsible for policy-making, and decisions which impact on the
management of projects, procurement of new technologies, and
impact upon local decision makers; they are also responsible for
searching out the best combination of inputs for the projects,
and providing accountability at both the village/community level
and to the other constituents in the process.
Persons from all of these four groups must become actively involved
for the projects to be successful. This approach provides a structured
process of integrating the people of different organizational-societal
levels in an essentially action-oriented development effort. The success
of each development effort is measured by projects identified and
implemented that increase per capital income, managed by
auto-determination, with growth occurring due to the participants' own
abilities to plan and progress in such a way as to expand project
The critical points leading to successful development efforts are
this combination of immediate actions projects (small inputs of capital)
and constituency groups/participatory involvement. This combination
builds capability at the local level, for larger projects. A summary of
the process being used is as follows:
Starting at the local, grassroots level, the OAS team initiates
motivational activities designed to generate participation and
commitment to the development process and its' goals (which are, in
fact, the peoples' goals). The motivational phase includes community
participation in all the initial stages of project diagnosis,
planning, and design.
The involvement of all four constituency groups as part of the
implementation teams insures a complete and total participatory
process since the "community" necessarily consists of all of these
At the community meetings, the people identify felt needs and
prioritize their preferred projects according to those needs. They
commit themselves to specific responsibilities of the implementation
We react to their identified needs. There are no
preconceived ideas, categories or limitation placed on the community
members as regards what activities can be done, except that they
should provide income for the project participants. The only
limitations which exist are those which are expressions of reality -
the limitations of existing resources and local conditions.
Consequent of the above, the people in the community and the
other constituency groups have the "ownership" of the development
process; this does not just lie with the external donors/project
personnel and government officials.
Because the projects being implemented respond directly to the
needs of the people, they are committed to investing their time to
learning (usually by doing), to organizing and to solving their
problems as they arise.
The projects can evolve from "cottage" size to small or medium
size within one year, always dependent upon the initiative and
efforts exerted by the project participants.
The key issue is that these social organizations are of the people,
they are the owners in the economic and social sense. The "people" are
the ones who will carry on the development efforts once the foreign
expert, adviser has left. They must be substantially involved in all
decision-making, problem-solving, policy making, and other project
activities from the inception of the project.
C. PRINCIPAL GRANT ACTIVITIES
The primary focus was the social organizing of the people through
participatory involvement and training. This was achieved through the
a. Technical assistance; ranging from facilitating village and
community meetings, helping groups organize, to project design and
implementation, to forming and advising the implementation team, to
working with people in starting new economically productive activities, to
conducting internal workshops to plan and re-design project actions, to
briefing of and dialogues with government officials.
b. Training; generally of two distinct types:
1) Regional training in "Management and Organizaton Development"
(four-week residential seminar) and "Participatory Planning"
2) Project-related Training; again, two modes:
(a) Skill-related training, usually as a response to a
direct need of productive processes being initiated or
(b) Management and administration related training helping
people streamline already existing small enterprises or
getting new ones started; can be.in the areas of marketing,
bookkeeping, finance (especially credit needs), etc.
c. Providing guidance and orientation to government agencies and
institutions, especially related to formulations of action plans. This
also occurs at the local levels. We are developing and involving various
"actors" in the development process as part of a consciousness raising
situation. As people participate in the process they are taking
ownership of the situation.
d. Helping to build an "organizational memory" of the methodological
aspects of the developmental process being used and trying to systematize
project progress. Also included is the preparation, for discussion and
presentation, of documents describing the process being implemented.
2. Specific Project Activities/Investments
The results generated by many of the projects give us great hope and
enthusiasm that we are in fact implementing projects with very "rapid
economic returns" for the participants. As was highlighted at a recent
meeting on "Productivity, Participation and Ownership", sponsored by the
Department of Labor/Agency of International Development, we are achieving
"increasing returns" to project size, so that 10 projects of US$5,000
each will achieve (for a larger number of people) greater and more rapid
returns than will one project of US$50,000. There has been very low
overhead due to the strong OAS/DSA support of ongoing installed local
capabilities which strengthen the projects and make them an integrated
It is important to -remark that there are additional benefits which go
beyond the "money measures", such as: the ability of people to
self-manage their own economic activities;- acquisition of new skills (or
improved skills) in problem solving, decision making, planning, etc.) an
increased motivation to be active participants in their area's/country's
development efforts; an awareness of their own self-worth (and growing
self-respect) and their socio-cultural contributions to society--all
" these go beyond the numeric indicators of project success.
Our efforts are leading towards an enhanced absorptive, capacity of
the population to manage larger amounts of money, larger organizations
than they are used to and more complex technologies of production and
administrative processes and improved training opportunities. By
investing in time to organize and "ensure" true participation of people
before investing money, effective results are assured. As problems
occur, they are resolved by the participants rather than waiting for the
"experts" to decide upon a course of action.
The time invested initially in getting groups and people involved in
identification, preparation and implementation of projects, as "owners"
of these projects, leads to a logical and smooth expansion of the
"cottage" size activities to medium activities. For example, the small
livestock cottage industry project in Dominica was so successful during
the first six months (average monthly income per person $138) that the
participants will become the principal providers for the rehabilitation
of the chicken raising industry in Dominica. The results of this project
are discussed more completely below.
The following is a brief breakdown of how, in general terms, the
grant-related funds have been spent.
COUNTRY $ INVOLVED ACTIVITIES
Jamaica (Nov-Dec) 25.0 Regional 4-week seminar in
Management and Organization
Development. 26 partici-
pants from Caribbean.
Ecuador (May) 14.1 Andean regional two-week
workshop in "Participatory
Planning" for 23 partici-
COUNTRY US$ INVOLVED ACTIVITIES
Ecuador (by Dec.)
Jamaica (by June 82)
Dominica (by April 83)
Jamaica (by April 83)
Caribbean regional two-
week seminar in "Parti-
cipatory Planning" for
To start revolving
in Quinind6 "Integrated
Rural Development Pro-
To purchase three in-
dustrial sewing machines
for straw workers group.
1982-1983) 40 direct
Construction of 40 bee
hives and purchase of bees
for honey-making) 40 direct
Implementation of income
generating projects in 11
site areas i.e. small
livestock cottage industry,
solar drying, flower
raising for export, school
programs for youth) straw
workers, drum makers, etc.
700 direct beneficiaries.
Implementation of income
generating activities in
bee raising and honey
makings cheese making from
goat's milk, handicrafts,
preservation of food and
chalk making. 165 direct
Antigua and Barbuda
Towards salary of
Implementation of income
generating projects for
cottage industries in
215 direct beneficiaries.
D. PROJECT PROFILES BY COUNTRY
This section presents updated information about the projects in
Dominica, Jamaica and Antigua and Barbuda. These three countries have
been the principle areas of actions in the last year and a half. In
Annex A there are summary charts of these profiles.
1. DOMINICA PROJECTS
PROJECT: SMALL LIVESTOCK COTTAGE INDUSTRY
COMMUNITY: Carib Indians hamlet committees and households
OBJECTIVES: 1. To improve the diet and nutritional aspects of meals in
the Carib community through increased protein.
2. To acquire training to raise, breed and slaughter the
following animals: chickens, rabbits, sheep and goats.
3. To raise these animals in backyards for subsequent sales
of meats and eggs.
4. To increase community awareness to integrated development
efforts and promote more active Carib participation in
ACTIVITIES: 1. Organization of people into hamlet committees; many
meetings to self-organize and manage project activities;
house visits and explanations to neighbours.
2. Chickens: Training by Ministry of Agriculture/Livestock
Section in chicken raising; coop building.
3. Funding for preparation of coops and initial feed require-
4. Sales in local markets.
5. Training in nutrition and dietary aspects of chickens -
to be extended to rabbits, sheep and goats, and dried
fruit and fish.
6. March June 1983: Training in rabbit raising began
March 14; this includes hutch construction and health
aspects; April sheep raising and June, goat
2300 red comet chickens,
transportation of rabbits and chickens,
wire and feed.
10 sheep, 20 goats,
transportation to Dominica,
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wire and other supplies for pens,
50 households (minimum 2 hutches per
household), training material, feed.
13 members on coordinating committee,
each person responsible for total -
project organization in their hamlet.
70 families/chicken raising.
3 Junior 4H Clubs Schools in Atkinson,
Salbia and Sinecu.
50 families/rabbit raising.
35 families/sheep raising;
40 families/goat raising
(2 male goats service herd);
70 household chicken coops (25 chicken size)
3 school coops 25 chickens/coop
Individual site visits
Training program and continuous consultation(see pictures)
Training: rabbits and sheep
Rabbits: 2 female/l male per household and rabbit hutch
Areas for sheep and goats fences constructed sheep
delivered to Caribs.
Goats delivered to Dominica/in quarantine (goat training
to begin in June then delivery of goats to site).
Health and nutrition training expanded to include meats
(especially rabbits, sheep and goats see pictures).
December 1982 into January 1983:
10 households egg sales in Marigot
1 dozen eggs per day per household
EC$5.00 per dozen per day
EC$35.00 per week per household
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Total net income generated:
EC$1,050 = US$400 (6 weeks of production less costs)
US$20 per week per household
1. Egg sales 12 households
12 dozen per day Sinecu School Sciool Feeding
12 dozen x EC$5.00 EC$60.00 per day
5 days per week x EC$60.00 EC$300.00 per week =
US$120.00 per week Total school sales
EC$25.00 per week per household (US$10.00 per week
per household household income
2. Marigot and Reserve
30 households/dozen per day x EC$5.00 EC$150 per day
1 week EC$35.00 per household x 30 EC$1,050
Gross income per month EC$4,500 (30 households)
US$56.66 per month per household (gross)
Net income per month = US$850.00 (30 households)
Rabbits: Income should start being generated in
Sheep and goats: Income generated end of 1983,
Productivity: 70 households over 60 households producing
an average of 13 eggs per day.
Markets: Local Marigot and Reserve
April 1983 School Feeding Program
1. The Government is in the process of studying (via CFC) the
feasibility of re-establishing the chicken industry on a national level.
This would thus imply an import substitution policy. When this happens
(1983 or 1984) the DAS participants will be given priority for
participating in a project to raise broilers. This implies a need to
expand their chicken coops to accommodate 300-500 broilers each. It also
implies more training to prepare the participants for more
self-sufficiency in animal raising as well as/and additional skills and
capabilities needed for raising small animals on an industrial level.
Approximate cost: US$30,000.
2. Rabbits: There are two needed areas of expansion. a) Preparation
of an appropirate central rabbit housing installation. This will then
allow us to expand the stock to be able to provide rabbits to all OAS
project site inhabitants that want to participate. It is now proceeding
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well but with a limited number of communities participating. More area
would mean more animals producing at a faster rate and therefore more
people could become participants in the project. They could also then
sell stock to other islands which want to develop the rabbit meat
projects. This would considerably speed up "development" because the
other countries would receive acclimatized animals and not have to repeat
the same heavy investment as Dominica. There wa.- initially only a 33%
survival rate of the young rabbits; several abortions on first and second
litters; several female rabbits died of kindling, colds, and other
climatic sicknesses; bucks not servicing does, etc. These problems have
been overcome and now "acclimatized" babies will provide sturdy stock at
considerable savings for all project participants.
Approximate cost is US$10,000.
b)Tannery: The preparation of rabbit skins for export would be the first
stage of this industrial activity. This could begin by the end of 1983.
Further work would need to be done (we recommend the OAS/Department of
Economic Affairs) to then expand the activity into a more complete
tannery process in Dominica and production of tourist items, such as
purses. bags, coats, etc. from the rabbit skins. The tannery activity
could be easily expanded to include goat and sheep skins.
Approximate cost is US$18,000.
There has always been a demand for two or more types of small
livestock per household. However, in the beginning stages of the project
the Caribs decided that before any household could start raising a second
type of small animal all persons who wanted to participate must already
be involved by raising one type of animal. Then expansion into other
animals per household could begin. This process will take them through
1985/86 to be totally involved unless there is additional funding.
Approximate cost is US$5,000.
School Feeding Program (Sincecu, Grand Bay, and Scotts' Head): is a
project organized and funded by NOVIB-The Netherlands Organization for
International Cooperation; NOVIB and the DSA are collaborating partners
in this program. In Dominica the DSA is working the NOVIB and the
Ministry of Health and the Food and Nutrition Council. The three
villages in the OAS/DSA project site area (also part of the NOVIB
project) that are raising chickens and selling eggs will be the primary
supplier of eggs to the school feeding program in their village.
The OAS/DSA has received the collaboration of the Dominican Food and
Nutrition Council, especially in training in nutrition. They will be
assisting in the continued training of participants as the projects
progress and expand.
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SOLAR DRYING OF FRUITS AND FISH
Carib Indians Bimena Group
1. To construct three medium sized (10' x 6' x 4') solar
dryers to dry reject bananas; subsequent expansion to
dry other fruits and fish (a fourth drye needed for
2. To sell (export) one pound bags of banana raisins to
U.S. Save the Children (at US$1.00 per pound).
3. To sell locally banana flour (EC 80 cents/lb.); dried
fruit (EC cents/lb.); and dried flying fish (3
4. To make banana flour and then use recipes with this
flour (i.e. banana breads, banana and other fruit cakes)
and serve at Community functions; this is a
consciousness raising activity in food and nutrition to
make people aware of new ways of preparing local food
5. To train in food and nutrition for large community
groups: expand cooking efforts to include school lunches
for children currently unable to have a mid-day meal.
1. Purchase of building materials to construct first dryer.
2. Demonstration of use to potential participants.
3. Training of nucleus group of five; group to expand to
fifteen by June if the four dryers are built and
4. Packaging machine for export products (small and
portable but dependent on electricity) purchased to be
used on pilot basis to test its' durability and
5. By April 1983, two more solar dryers for fruit and one
solar dryer for fish should be built.
December 1982: $300
April 1983: $500
-Wood, paint, nails, saw, hammer, fiberglass, TEDLAR film
-3 Seal-a-meal machines and plastic for bags
-Stainless steel mixing bowls and pans, rolling pins,
sifters, manual food grinders.
15 April 1983
105 April 1983
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One complete fruit-drying solar dryers
Demonstrations for interested persons and groups;
Training program initiated by Food and Nutrition Council
-this relationship established by participants themselves.
Financial Returns and Productivity:
Projection by mid 1983:
Production: 3 fruit dryers:
a) 1 banana raisin for export (using 6 trays) = 25 lbs.
per day per dryer.
b) 1 banana for grinding into banana flour = 25 lbs.
per day for local sales.
c) 1 other fruit drying (initially on an experimental
basis because productivity not yet established).
d) Fish dryer: 60 small flying fish per day.
a) Banana raisin export market
6 days x 25 lbs. = 150 Ibs. per week
Average: 500 lbs. per month x US$1.00 each
US$500 per month
b) Banana flour local market
6 days x 25 lbs. = 150 lbs. per week
Average: 500 lbs. per month x EC$0.80 per lb.
= EC$400 per month US$150 per month.
c) Dried fruit: 15 lbs. per day x 6 days = 90 lbs. week
EC$0.50 per lb. x 90 lbs. EC$45 per week
EC$180 per month = US$70 per month.
d) Dried fish: 60 fish per day x 5 days 300 per week
3 fish = EC$1.00 = EC$100 per week EC$400 per month
= US$150 per month.
United States for banana raisins.
Local all other dried products.
1.It is recommended that this project be vastly expanded in terms of
household use of dried food stuffs. The Carib area has no electricity
and it is not expected in the foreseeable future. People need methods to
preserve foodstuffs as a means of improving their nutritional standards
and health. In terms of marketing and "income generating" it is
suggested that the project immediately expand to ten fruit dryers and ten
fish dryers. These items would be sold in local markets. The group
could also make 'banana chips' (thinly sliced bananas, dried/fried and
salted) for local/national consumption as snacks.
Approximate cost: US$8.000.
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2. The experience of the Caribs can be expanded to other small hamlets
in the OAS/DAS project area that have not yet been involved in any of the
immediate action projects, if there were additional grant funding.
Approximate cost: US$15,000.
The OAS/DAS has received the collaboration of the U.S. Save the
.Children organization (especially in technology for solar dryer
construction) and the Dominican Food and Nutrition Council(expecially
training in nutrition).
FLOWER GROWING FOR EXPORT
COMMUNITY: Carib Indian hamlet groups and households
OBJECTIVES: 1. To re-establish export sales of flowers in Guadeloupe
and Martinique, which ceased with the immigration of
the"middleman" and thus reinitiate an income generating
2. To organize the productive activity of raising local
flowers (balisiere, ginger lilies and anthuriums) and
organize the socio-economic/management processes and
activities of flower raising.
3. To acquire training in the appropriate techniques and
processes of flower growing, packaging, marketing, etc.
ACTIVITIES: 1. Committee meetings to register project participants,
calculating amount of land utilized by each participant
and projection of "available supply" once the project
2. Feasibility study being conducted to include methods to
develop and make preliminary contacts (where possible)
with international markets; consolidation of efforts
within country, purchase of airplane for transportation
INPUTS: US$2,000 in May 1983
BENEFICIARIES: No. Direct: The coordinator of the hamlet
committees indicated that 72 households are interested.
They are currently registering.
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n.a. as a project; however flowers are in natural abundance .
n.a. as yet. (Summary of CPR will include projections)
n.a. yet. (Summary of CPR will include projections)
Markets: Initial/Short term: Guadeloupe and Martinique
Medium and long term: Other Caribbean islands,
Miami, Nwe York, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Rome, etc.
This small project has already generated national interest. There
will be need for technical assistance; materials and supplies; training
and revolving loans. This implies an immediate need for additional grant
funding. It is possible (if funding is made available) that this project
will become the most exciting "income generating" project for the country
because it is a natural expression of entrepreneurial activities in the
Caribbean's "nature island".
Approximate costs are US$15,000.
This project began after the other two in the Carib area. It started
because of a "felt need" due to the loss of sales of locally grown
flowers to a national. Albeit this national was paying very low prices
(EC$0.25 per stock) to the Caribs it was an "income" of some sort. We
talked, and started to find out who and how many were really interested
in participating in the project. It was then obvious that many persons
wanted to participate. As the DAS team started more "formally" to
develop this project, the private sector and the Government officials
expressed keen interest. They indicated this was a project they had
wanted to develop for some time and asked us to help. We already knew
that natural resources and packaging materials were available and
previous markets existed, also a marketing study had been conducted by
the German University of Hanover. Grant monies will soon be needed when
the current OAS study recommendations are made.
PROJECT: GRAND BAY HANDICRAFT/CULTURE CENTER
COMMUNITY: Grand Bay Community at-large; initially four areas of
"economic" activities--straw workers, drum makers, leather
and wood workers.
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1. To build (through self-help construction) a place where
local people can come to work in their specialized
areas no shelter is currently available (since
hurricane Davidin 1979) and people must work in open
2. To provide space where local cultural groups (there is
some overlap in terms of the same people being involved
in "productive" activities) can gather, rap and practice
their particular areas of interest (folklore, song,
3. To provide some tools and equipment to facilitate the
work and to replace (in come instances) tools
lost/ruined during the hurricanes.
1. No construction activities to date--see "other comments."
2. Some tools and equipment purchased and will be presented
soon; some will then be used in the self-help
3. Meetings held regarding design and use of Center.
Dec. 1982: None
Apr. 1983: $10,000 towards self-help construction
$ 3,500 tools and other materials
Electric: Circular saw, chain saw, drills (and trans-
formers)} vises; hack saws and tool parts (i.e. drill bits,
saw blades, drill extensions); small tools--chisels,
extension cords, measuring tapes) clamps, players, screw
drivers, rubber tongs, mallets, hammers, planes and extra
blades, wrench levels, saws.
Number direct: 100 people (approximately)
Number Indirect: Entire Grand Bay area, 2,400 persons
-all tools and materials purchased
-expenditures for construction
materials with actual work beginning
about June 1983.
Financial Returns and Productivity: Not applicable.
This project was selected by the community as the most urgent for
youths and adults to get back to active production of goods. The
drum makers and straw workers have continued to eke out an existence
however, at a very low rate of production.
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Projected financial returns, based on results of interviews in the
community as follows:
a. 5 drums/week x EC$500 = EC$2,500 per week
Monthly: EC$10,000 US$3,700
or US$185 per month per person (20 people)
b. Straw workers mats, hats, purses, etc. to local and
tourist markets. Approximately EC$400 per week or EC$1,600
per month, = US$600 per month
c. Leather workers and wood workers there is not enough
current data to project accurately. A guess-timate, based
on sales before the hurricane would be approximately:
EC$750/wk., or EC$3,000/mo.US$1,100/mo. Combining the
incomes for straw and leather/wood for approximately 80
people, we get an average monthly income of:US$l1,700 divided
by 80 = US$200/mo./person.
It is necessary to buy more tools and equipment (min. $5,000) for the
four groups of workers. It is also important to buy supplies and
equipment for the cultural groups (min. $5,000). This project has a
potential catalytic effect on the villages surrounding Grand Bay (Tete
Morne, Pichelin, etc.). This is an area where the people are discouraged
because of the hurricane's damage but they are very active in
participating in their community life. This project can be more than
just income generating if it gets successfully implemented and this
depends on Government's relationship with the EDF (see "other comments").
Approximate costs are: US$15,000.
The Community decided to build its' own small shelter in order to
accommodate the urgently needed space to work for the people.
Subsequently, the Prime Minister offered the ground floor of the future
Community Center for this handicraft/culture center. The Community
Center project was presented to EDF European Development Fund for
financing and should be approved soon for construction to begin by June
1983. The EDF funds will be used to build the foundation and first
floor* the USAID/OAS monies will go towards building the ground floor.
This Handicraft/Culture Center will also provide support to the
national "Junior Secondary Program" in which the Grand Bay School is
involved. The community said that those persons leaving the Junior
Secondary Program and wanting both further training (probably on an
apprenticeship basis) and a place to work will have the Center. As such,
it provides continuity to another national program and is being highly
supported by the Ministries of Education and Agriculture (see next
- 19 -
COMMUNITY SCHOOL-Small Livestock and Vegetable Gardening
.Grand Bay community school, currently with 957 students
1. To provide school children with the opportunity to
acquire hands-on knowledge of raising animals (chickens
and rabbits); sales of eggs and record keeping related
to animal rearing.
2. To prepare land, plant seeds and raise garden vegetables
for sales to local community.
3. To contribute toward the implementation of the
agriculture portion of the Junior Secondary Program
(Ministry of Education) as an activity identified by the
community as important to them.
4. To allow children the chance to make and manage money as
part of an educational experience.
1. Construction of chicken housing with capacity for 100
2. Rearing of chickens, including de-beaking; sales of eggs
and record keeping.
3. Preparation of small plots for vegetable raising.
4. Planting seeds, raising, vegetables} sales to local
Purchases:Wire, cement, wood, feeding equipment;
100 Red Comet chickens)
Feed, agriculture tools, seeds;
BENEFICIARIES: Number Direct:
120 students; school agriculture
teacher, Ministry of Agriculture -
Livestock and Extention Division
Number Indirect: Entire village 2,500 people.
Chicken housing for 100 chickens, fully equipped,
including laying boxes.
School garden with 6 beds ready (Mar. 1983)
Children in the garden, tendinv vegetables; children
feeding and watering animals, collecting eggs, keeping
records, and sales.
Rabbit hutches (construction beginning Apr. 1983)
- 20 -
Financial Returns: Monthly Sales of Eggs in US$
Apr. 326 (projection)
1,185 total revenue, egg sales
Productivity: eggs per month
Apr. = 2100 (projection)
7233 eggs total production
Vegetable garden n.a., production and sales should begin in May
Markets: All local Grand Bay area
1. Currently the school if preparing rabbit hutches since they will
also be raising rabbits (for meat) as part of their small livestock
project. The Grand Bay community is very large, the third in size in
Dominica. The school population is over 900--so it is obvious that less
than 10% are able to participate in the project. It is recommended that
this school increase its' chicken raising facilities and rabbit project.
They should also go into goat raising.
Approximate cost: US$ 10,000.
2. The school at Tete Morne, within this general area, will start
preparing rabbit hutches for a school project. It is suggested that
chicken raising and vegetable garden projects be established at both Tete
Morne and Pichelin. The Pichelin school will also need chicken raising
Approximate cost (for both community schools) = US$ 25,000.
3. Expand chicken raising projects in all schools to include
broilers, for meat production.
Approximate cost: US$1,500.
The Grand Bay School is part of the national "School Meals Program"
being financed by NOVIB with the Ministry of Health. The School will
have 250 students (between the ages of 5 to 9 years old) getting a meal
- 21 -
every day. The eggs for the project will be purchased from the students.
It is obvious, with just this one program, that there exists enough
"demand" for eggs to increase the number of chickens (expand the
project). Initially these small livestock projects of chicken raising
were focused on egg production. It is evident that the training has been
effective and it is time to increase horizons to include chicken raising
for meat--protein improvementt in daily diet.
An U.S. Peace Corp volunteer, working with the Livestock Division
(Min. of Agriculture) has been very active in giving technical assistance
to this project. The volunteer is a member of the implementation team
for this project site area.
SOURFIERE COMMUNITY GROUP SEWING AND JUICE MAKING
1. To train community members in sewing including cutting
of patterns, dressmaking; tailoring, children's clothes.
2. To develop the participant's skills so that they can
have an employable skill--thus making them eligible
candidates for jobs in the clothing industry or as
3. As an income generating project for the unemployed and
4. To train participants in the total juice making
process--from fruit growing, to preservation to storage.
1. Training in all aspects of sewing--making patterns,
cutting, stitching, etc., being conducted by the Adult
Education Unit of the Ministry of Education.
2. Acquisition of all materials, supplies and equipment for
both sewing and juice making.
3. Juice making should begin in May 1983--the group decided
to begin first with the training in sewing.
sewing machine; sewing supplies, materials, books bottles,
tubes, jars, thermometers
BENEFICIARIES: Number Direct:
- 22 -
The group has found a place to meet, initially. They will be
receiving all their equipment by the end of April 1983. Training
began on March 14, 198'. The Community Development Officer, Adult
Education Officer & You:h Officer (for that area) are the primary
implementation team persons involved at this point.
Financial Returns: n.a. anticipated for July 1983.
n.a. anticipated for July 1983.
Local Soufriere & Scott's Head they will liaison with
the Scott's Head group (which started their project much
earlier) so that there is no duplication of goods offered
for sale in the same small bay area. Planning is currently
This community is interested in several other income generating
projects. It has been the slowest to get organized, however. The team
is not trying to force progress until sufficient initiative and
motivation are demonstrated by the community members. When this occurs,
other community identified needs are: cooking and preservation, a
bakery, boy scots small livestock and gardening, etc.
Approximate cost is US$25,000.
BOY SCOUTS SMALL LIVESTOCK RAISING/VEGETABLE GARDENING
COMMUNITY: Scott's Head
OBJECTIVES: 1. To learn how to raise chickens and rabbits; to prepare
land, plant and raise vegetables
2. To earn income by selling the eggs and vegetables.
3. To include other youth and train them in these skills.
ACTIVITIES: 1. The boys, with only the help of one adult, built chicken
housing for 100 chickens (see picture).
2. Clearing of lands, beds formed and seeds planted; fences
made from scrap galvanized (from hurricane).
3. Training by the Ministry of Agriculture and de-beaking.
4. Sales of eggs in local community) some vegetables sold,
however most were used for home consumption.
5. The supervised training in the vegetable gardening
aspects of the project need strengthening.
- 23 -
Purchases: materials for chicken housing (cement, wood, nails, wire,
etc.) feed, agricultural tools, seeds
BENEFICIARIES: Number Direct: 33 bo': scouts (includes some girls).
Number Indirect: 165 persons
-chicken housing for 100 chickens
-one acre of land cleared and vegetables raised
-tools and supplies being properly used
Financial Returns & Productivity:
No consistent record keeping has occurred so projections need to be
made. Sales through the end of January were about EC$1000 or US$350.
There were no sales from February due to poor management by the Scouts.
A change in feed accompanied by several days of no food lead the chickens
to stop laying. These problems have been addressed and are being
corrected but egg production will not re-start until late April.
Markets: Local- Scott's Head
1. The rabbit raising project should be implemented, with more
Approximate cost is US$1,200.
2. Chicken raising should be expanded to include broilers.
Approximate cost is US$1,500.
The school at Scott's Head is included in the national "School Meals
Program" financed by NOVIB with the Ministry of Health. There are a
total of 242 children in this program and should consume 242 eggs per
day. The Boy Scout troop will be the principle supplier and this will
provide them with a steady income. The school will also purchase as many
vegetables as possible from the Boy Scouts. CANSAVE collaborated with
this project by purchasing all the feeders and some construction
An U.S. Peace Corp volunteer, working with the Livestock Division
(Min. of Agriculture), has been very active in giving technical
assistance to this project.'- The volunteer is a member of the
implementation team for this project site area.
- 24 -
ADULT EDUCATION COMMITTEE
1. To learn skills in sewing and cooking.
2. To provide an income for unemployed and some
3. To improve the nutritional aspects of daily diet by
cooking and preserving excess fruits and vegetables.
4. To prepare snacks, bread and cakes for sales, as a group
5. To sew school uniforms, children clothes, dresses and
blouses, and men's shirts.
6. To learn skills such as knitting, crotchet and macram6.
1. Training sessions in sewing initiated.
2. Rented a house to hold training sessions and as a
3. Receiving supplies and materials; soon to receive sewing
machine (currently using two loaned machines).
4. Training being conducted by Adult Education Officer;
project implementation also being conducted by Community
Development and Youth Officers.
5. Training in cooking and preserving will begin when stove
* stove, sewing machine;
- sewing supplies & materials;
* cooking pans & utensils;
* books, needles, threads, etc.
Number Direct: 35 persons
Number Indirect: 210 persons
-small house rented
sewing machine and cooker pans & utensils being used
weekly group meetings & several days per week of training.
Financial Returns: not applicable.
not applicable: They are still in the training phase.
Any production is simply used at home.
- 25 -
Local in Scott's Head & Soufriere.Potential markets for
uniforms (i.e. police, customs inspectors, etc.) would
1. There is greater community demand for this project. More money
is needed to purchase more equipment and supplies, and expa id the locale
used for training and as a workshop. There is sufficient need in the
market place to absorb the production of this group. The market place
for clothing in all of Dominica shares one characteristic--all goods are
imported. Thus, all clothes making projects which staisfy local demands
fulfill several cuntions: a) provides clothes at a more reasonable price
and thus more accessibility for the population; b) conserves scarce
foreign exchange; c) provides training and employment opportunities; and
d) retains skills for transfer and use with other related productive
Approximate costs = US$15,000.
2. The group would like to go into other skill areas such as wood
working; simple carpentry, masonry, and electrical techniques.
Approximate costs = US$7,500.
3. The cooking activities should be expanded to take advantage of
all the excess fruits and vegetables, and fish. This would include
alternative methods of preservation (i.e. salting, solar drying, canning,
etc.) and better nutritional opportunities for the population.
Approximate costs US$18,000.
SMALL LIVESTOCK AND VEGETABLE GARDENING;
COMMUNITY: Soufriere and Scott's Head
OBJECTIVES: 1. To provide hands-on learning opportunities within the
existing educational system in agriculture and sewing.
2. To teach skills which lead to income generating either
as a cottage industry activity or employment in the
3. To promote sales of vegetables and rabbit meat, record
keeping related to animal raising and sales; providing
them with a chance to make and manage money as part of
an educational experience.
4. To contribute toward the implementation of the
agriculture portion of the Junior Secondary Program
(Min. of Education).
- 26 -
ACTIVITIES: Beginning April 1983:
1. Construction of rabbit hutches and preparation of land
for garden beds.
2. Planting seeds, raising vegetables and sales to
3. Breeding of rabbits for sale of babies to community
members or raising for slaughter and sale of meat.
4. Training in sewing and clothes making.
Purchases: materials for rabbit hutches,
rabbits and feed;
sewing machines, supplies and materials for sewing;
seeds for gardens agricultural tools.
50 students each village
- 100 students total
two whole villages
Observable Units, Financial Returns, Productivity:
Not applicable: All these projects are planned to begin in late
April 1983 and results will not appear until at least September 1983.
Markets: Local, villages of Soufriere and Scott's Head.
1. Both schools should have chicken and goat raising projects.
Chicken housing, chickens and feed will cost about US$2,000.
2. Cooking and food preservation should be included in the school
program--including making snacks from local fruits, juice making, solar
drying of fruits and fish, etc.
Approximate costs US$4,000.
COMMUNITIES: All cities, villages of Dominica; some hamlets
This was not directly an "income generating" project. The DSA was
fortunate to receive a large quantity of books from the Fairfax Public
Schools and Public Library System. These books were sorted, registered,
- 27 -
packed and crated in the OAS Print Shop in Springfield Virginia.
Together with the Pan American Development Foundation, sharing the
shipping costs, these books were delivered to Dominica. There were over
50,000 books' with a conservatively stated value of US$600,000. The
Government of Dominica, through its' Ministry of Education formed an
interdisciplinary committee to organize the receiving, distribution and
utilization of these books. The committee was chaired by the Head
Librarian of Dominica; other persons represented the areas of Adult
Education, village libraries, Teachers College, primary/secondary
education. Already existing libraries will receive books and organize a
rotation system of books from one village to another. A new library will
be organized for Salybia. New programs in inter-village communications
are being organized via the use of community newsletters and exercises in
composition in the public schools.
2. JAMAICA PROJECTS
BEE RAISING HONEY MAKING
OASIS-Settlement and Multi-Purpose Cooperative
1. To provide income to both settlers and their household
2. To learn how to make bee colonies, care for the bees,
and harvest honey.
3. Up-dated objective: To acquire foreign currency by
focusing sales to export market.
1. Training of trainers in Honduras through IDB funds.
2. Construction of colony boxes (grant monies) and purchase
of queen bees, and others.
3. Preparation of site area in Ebony Park.
4. Training, in groups of ten, of the settlers and
5. Harvesting of honey and sales to CEO-Community Economic
US$3,000; for 40 complete colonies of bees.
Box wood, nails, paint, posts (J$70 ea),
Colony queen bees and others (J$80/colony)
BENEFICIARIES: Number Direct:
1 trainer to Honduras
Number Indirect: 200 persons (approximately)
- 28 -
200 colonies in special site in Ebony Park with bees producing honey
since fall 1982. The first harvesting has already started, season
from March to June 1983.
Projection as follows:
20 colonies yield 45 gallons honey per reaping;
2 reapings per season
40 colonies yield 90 gallons honey per reaping;
2 reapings x 90 gal. 180 gallons honey for total season
J$30/gal. x 180 gal. J$5,400/season or US$2,700/season.
Projection as above 80 gallons honey per season from 40 colonies.
MARKETS: Export market. This started as a small project but has
already escalated into a national effort. The CEO -
Community Economic Organization (also part of the same
ministry as OASIS, the Ministry of Youth and Community
Development) is responsible for expanding the project
nationally. They are organizing the harvesting of honey and
sales to the export market.
Plans are already in place to expand the OASIS apiary to 300
colonies. They will use the current set of bees and local materials.
Grant funds could be used to help the families of settlers organize their
own smaller apiary which would contribute to the CEO effort but also
provide some leeway for them to have their own honey for domestic use.
This would imply need for 100 colonies (one colony per household) plus
Approximate cost US$10,000.
PROJECT: GOAT'S MILK CHEESE-MAKING
COMMUNITY: OASIS-Settlement and Multi-purpose cooperative; specifically
for one household member from each of first 32 houses.
OBJECTIVES: 1. To improve the dietary aspects of OASIS settlers,
especially in cases where electricity supply is varied.
2. To train persons in settlers' household plus an SDC
(Social Development Commission) staff member in tropical
cheese-making, using goats' milk.
- 29 -
3. Sales to local community; to pizza shops, hotels and
ACTIVITIES: '1. Training in how to make several types of goats' milk
cheese (for use in the tropics) includes how to milk
2. Construction of cheese presses out of local materials;
preparation of cheese and "packaging".
3. Training in nutritional aspects of goats' milk cheese
and its use in meals will be provided by the Home
Economics Units of the SDC.
4. Sales to be coordinated by the OASIS project staff
responsible for marketing.
INPUTS: US$6,000; to train 33 people in making at least two types of
tropical cheese from goats' milk.
Purchases: Thermometers, rennent tablets, cheese cloths, etc.
Local materials to make cheese press; trainer.
BENEFICIARIES: No. Direct:
Not applicable: to begin training in May 1983 after
settlers are moved into homes. Necessary purchases are
currently being made; trainer contacted and preparing
150 goats in OASIS herd; will be increased to 300 goats during next
two year, with Jamaican funding.
Projection: 2 kilos cheese per week per participant.
33 participants x 2 kilos x 4 weeks/month = 264 kilos of
cheese per month;
current average price of cheese in Kingston = K$5 per pound;
one kilo = J$11 264 kilos x J$ll per kilo = J$2904 per
month revenue = US$1452 per month.
Although a nursing goat can give a gallon of milk per day,
we are not going to consume each one's total "output". It
was decided that the goats' milk would be shared between the
kid and cheese-making. This was done for two basic reasons:
1. It is best for the kid to have its mother's milk; the
herd at OASIS is being expanded for another two years
and they eant-to try to expand without buying too many
more gats but by using their own offspring; there is
enough milk daily for both the kid and milking.
- 30 -
2. The cheese-making is a pilot project, and needs to be
expanded however, it will only be expanded through the
accomplishments of this first group.
Markets: Local markets and nationally to pizza shops, hotels and
1. This is a top priority project for the OASIS. It needs to be
expanded to include 68 more residents in Village 1 of the Ebony Park
community; persons from surrounding communities; persons from the next
group of OASIS trainees.
An approximate costing would be US$20,000.
HANDICRAFT ACTIVITIES, UTILIZING LOCAL RESOURCES
OASIS Settlement Multipurpose Cooperative
1. To provide supplemental household income to OASIS
2. To utilize exisintg natural resources available on the
2000 acres of OASIS.
3. To provide training, through the handicraft unit of the
SDC, for the persons to be involved.
4. To systematize the marketing by using already existing
1. Survey of land and resources to know how much of what is
available for both training and production purposes.
2. Identify training resources and organizing the training
3. Training to begin in June 1983; sales to SDC outlets.
Tools and instruments necessary to process fibers, coloring
and making various types of handicraft.
BENEFICIARIES: Number direct: 25 persons/first training program
Number indirect: 100 persons
RESULTS: Not applicable: to begin June 1983
Projection: Each participant to make an average weekly income of
J$30 (US$15) during the initial stages.
J$ per week x 25 $J750 per week $J3000 per month
US$1500 per month.
- 31 -
The first training program would focus its activities on
utilization of the following natural resources:
-cassava, plaintain leaves, bamboo, thatch, wicker.
MARKETS: Already exisitng markets national tourist market is the
primary initial focus. The products of this irpoect will be
sold in the Ministry of Youth and Community Develoment's
shops in Kingston and other tourist cities in Jamaica.
This is another project with great potential for expansion the
natural resources exist, trainign capability is readily available, markets
are already established it is almost a "no risk" situation. Minimal
expansion would require US$15,000.
PRESERVATION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
OASIS Settlement and multi-purpose cooperative
1. To utilize excess waste/over-ripe fruits and vegetables
that occur throughout the "learning" phase (until
1986/87 of the OASIS project and leave an installed
capacity for self-sufficient preservation as future
needs or occurrences arise.
2. To improve the daily diet of Ebony Park residents and
those in surrounding communities who either participate
in the training or purchase the goods.
3. To provide training ad materials to do solar drying an
cooking of these items.
4. To encourage sales, at the local level.
1. To begin in July 1983, construction of five medium-sized
solar dryers an purchase of three stoves.
2. Training organized and conducted by the Home Economics
Unit of the SDC/
3. Sales to local community shops and supermarkets.
Tedlar film, fiberglass, wood, etc. for construction of five *
medium-sized solar dryers; 3 stoves; materials necessary for
preservation of fruits and vegetables could also include
cannig and pickling.
- 32 -
Number direct: 55 (25 solar drying, 30 stoves)
Number indirect: 200 persons
RESULTS: Not applicable: To begin in July 1983.
OBSERVA LE UNITS:
5 medium-sized (10'x4'x2') solar dryers, 3 stoves.
All materials and utensils for production.
Not applicable: Projection J$60 per month per participant
,55 persons x J$60 J$3300 per month
'US$1,650 per month.
Productivity: Not applicable:
Solar drying 25 lbs. dried fruit per day per dryer.
25 lbs x 5 days x 5 dryers 600 lbs. per week
or 2400 lbs.per month
Cooking and preservation 2 dozen containers per week
8 dozen per month.
MARKETS: Local markets until there aree enough trained participants
(probably 1986). Then they are discussing the possibility
of producing their own line (with an Ebony Park logo) of
items for sales nationally. The local markets, in this
case, mean within the parish and residential villages of the
trainees. If production goes well, there is a potential for
national markets in 1984.
There is a need to fully equip the model home (in Village I) for an
integrated training program. As more person are involved in the OASIS
project training, there becomes a greater demand for this project. The
average age of the families will be about 19 to 21 years and they are in
critical need of the cooking and preservation project.
Approximate cost US$18,000.
PROJECT: CHALK-MAKING (COTTAGE INDUSTRY)
COMMUNITY: Bull Bay
OBJECTIVES: 1. To generate income for unemployed community members.
2. To train participants in the process of chalk-making -
from the extraction and treatment of the gypsum to the
packaging of the finished product.
- 33 -
3. To utilize existing natural resources which currently
1. To acquire necessary equjipmen, materials and supplies -
2. To organize and conduct training July 1983.
3. Construction and installation of small workshop.
4. Ii itiate production on a small scale basis, an extension
of the training program into a supervised "hands-on"
learning experience and;
5. Sales organized for national and regional markets.
US$7,500 (additional US$2000 from Ministry of Youth and
Furnace with roaster; molds; tools (i.e. thermometer, trays,
BENEFICIARIES: Number direct:
Not applicable: Project will begin training phase in July
1983 Production for sales should be in September 1983.
Not applicable workshop should be completed by July 1983.
Selling price: US$0.52 per box;
59376 boxes per year x $0.52 US$30,875 per year (gross returns).
51/2 days per week x 225 boxes per day
= 1237 boxes per week.
48 weeks per year x 1237 boxes per week
= 59376 boxer per year.
Regional and national. Primary focus will be regional
order to generate foreign exchange.
This i a pilot project. There is current interest and need to expand
to two additional communities, thus expanding to, at minimum, three chalk
workshops. This would employ about forty people. The total cost for two
additional workshops is US$19,000.
- 34 -
3. ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA PROJECTS
COTTAGE INDUSTRIES DEVELOPMENT (TWO)
1. Self-Reliar.e Youth Project youth who have not
completed school ad persons working in their -homes
2. Barbuda Cottage Industries.
A. Self-Reliance Youth Project:
1. To train school leavers (male and female) in handicraft
skills for income generating; to train others
(especially women) to produce these handicraft items in
2. To sell products of training program.
3. To start a cooperative store in St. John's which would
be the sales outlet for these cottage activities.
4. To help people generate incomes where they are now
unemployed and economically stagnant.
B. Barbuda Cottage Industries:
1. To produce food for self-sufficiency and thus encourage
the reduction of imported food items.
2. To improve nutritional standards of family members and
3. To generate income where there is currently no economic
4. To give support and further develop the tourism industry
on the island.
Began in February 1983:
1. Identification and development of the projects,
including composing the implementation team and
initiating discussions with village residents.
2. Purchase of supplies and materials for training porgrams
3. Training, especially in handicraft, continues new
training groups (both youth and "cottage" participants)
being started so as to expand initial project.
4. More extensive work with villages (inclusive trip to
Barbuda) to better identify their specific goals and
aspirations, and socio-economic needs for the project.
5. Sales of products (including eggs and meat) to local
markets nd national tourist markets.
6. Technical assistance and training to establish
cooperative store and other needed components of
- 36 -
This considerably facilitated the speed and smoothness in initiating
projects. These two projects are in fact expansions of:
a) already existing small projects; and
1b) a "request" and community eagerness to start up income
RABBITS AND SMALL RUMINANTS/FISHERMEN'S COOPERATIVE
Rabbits and small ruminants:
Barbuda plus fourteen communities in Antigua- Freeman's
Village, Sweets, All Saints, Seatons, Granville, Villikies,
Freetown, Bethesda, Old Road, Urlings, Potters, Villa, Grays
Farm, and Cedar Grove.
Fishermen's Cooperative: All Antigua fishermen.
1. To increase daily consumption of protein and improve the
nutrition and diet of the villagers.
2. To provide income generating opportunities to persons
who are economically stagnant.
3. To provide training and extension to persons
participating in this project.
4. To provide technical assistance to analyze the existing
problems, identify and develop an improved fishermen's
cooperative movement) provide training as possible;
provide some necessary supplies.
5. Both projects involve economic aspects (income
generating), health (improved nutrition and food
supply), training (both related to productive activities
and to management/organization) and organization -
helping the people to get together in ways which will be
beneficial (especially socio-economically) to their
family and community.
Purchase of core stock of rabbits, goats and sheep;
delivery to Antigua and Barbuda and initiation of
2. Construction begins of household rabbit hutches,
government stock farm totally prepared an servicing
3. Village groups train in raising these animals; as well
as proper housing methods, health and nutrition,etc.
4. Training materials acquired, prepared and utilized.
5. Meetings of fishermen to identify problems and projects,
technical assistance initiated in streamlining the
organizational and training aspects of the cooperative
- 37 -
US$9,900 (OAS $20,000)
-rabbits, goats and sheep
-materials to construct housing
-supplies for cooperative supply store
-revolving loan fund for community participants to assist
with initial purchase of food and materials for animal
BENEFICIARIES: Number direct:
Rabbits and small ruminants
First phase: Rabbits 140
Second phase: Rabbits 420
(Average household = 6)
First phase: 1680
Second phase: 5040
Observable Units, Financial Returns, Productivity: Not applicable.
Should start having initial returns by September 1983 for rabbits and
December 1983 for others.
1. Both projects are small (almost of pilot-size in nature)
additional resources would enable the projects to involve, immediately,
more people. The government has also indicated they are interested in
including chickens (both for meat and egg production) if additional
funding was available.
2. Tannery: Antigua and Barbuda has a very active tourism sector.
We have discussed the potential markets for rabbit and goat skins, both
export markets of skins only and also making items (i.e. purses, coats,
rugs, etc.) for the national tourist market.
3. Small scale activities in fish production (in ponds) and other
mariculture have also been identified as urgently needed.
There is a need to give more technical assistance in the areas of
management and organization. It was quite fortunate for the DSA/OAS to
find very good "structures" already in place in Antigua and Barbuda.
This considerable facilitated the speed and smoothness in initiating
projects. These two projects are in fact expansions of:
a) already existing small projects and
b) a request and communtiy eagerness to start up income
- 39 -
1. It is critical to remember that training and social organization are
strong elements in preparing people just as critical as the
"productive" activities. This combination of concurrent actions: a)
training} b) social organizations; and c) small investment capital for
immediate action projects--provide a secure foundation for developing of
human beings and the groups in which they live/work. Additionally,
attention and time has been given to securing the full participation of
persons from all four "constituency groups".
2. This process requires time to build a solid social basis at the local
level. However, the persons involved are the owners of the process and
production,'-the projects continue without the continual presence of
"foreign experts" in the country. Technical assistance and foreign
financial aid and experts are necessary however, the "price" of it is
shared by several budgets and the need for the experts' time is greatly
reduced by using the well-qualified local resources.
3. The forms of organization are not pre-established. The following
"types" of organizational formats resulted from our work with groups:
ad-hoc committees formed to participate in the project; village councils;
women groups; village committees; workers associations; cooperatives;
adult education committees and other types of "national" committees
present in the communities, 4-H, Boy Scouts, small enterprises, etc. All
are in the "private sector" with technical cooperation from local,
national and external agencies.
4. By investing in time to organize and "ensure" true participation of
people, effective results are assured. As problems occur, they are
solved by the participants instead of having to wait for the "expert" to
arrive or a monthly meeting with project personnel or officials etc. The
time invested initially in getting groups involved in the projects for
identification and implementation; and people prepared and "owning" the
action leads to a logical and smooth expansion of the "cottage" size
activities to medium-sized industrial activities. For example, the
chicken-raising cottage industry project in Dominica has been so
successful during its first six months that the participants will become
the principal providers for rehabilitation of the industrial activity
ofchicken slaughtering. They will receive soft loans to expand the size
of their cooperatives and raise more chickens. This will ultimately lead
to national self-sufficiency in chicken meat production.
5. The process of worker ownership is, of course, more complex than just
owning the productive process. It involves the psychological ownership
of the process and the person's feelings of self-respect, sense of
responsibility and of community, needs for self-expression and
achievement. The process of social organizing also helps acquire the
skills (inter-personal: decision making, problem solving, planning, etc.;
technical: know-how, marketing, use of credit, etc.) to cope with life
and the dynamic changes occurring in their area/nation. This preparation
is crucial to the further growth and continuation of development
- 40 -
efforts. In the Dominica project mentioned earlier, the participants are
fully trained, selling eggs and managing their own activities. The Prime
Minister is in the process of re-establishing the national chicken
processing industry (all equipment and materials of the industry were
destroyed in the hurricanes of 1979 and 1980). Due to the success of the
Carib cottage industry chicken-raising, the Caribs (those interested)
will be given access to "soft" loans to expand their household unit and
accommodate 500 broilers. The chickens would then be sold to the
slaughterhouse; all those actions are in the realm of "private
enterprise." Also, the IDB's program of "Small Loans" provides us with
examples of self-managed organizations in the developing countries
contributing to income-generation in the informal sector. The projects
reviewed in Section D are conscious efforts/results of facilitating
worker participation and ownership of their own economically productive
6. The projects' results lead us to believe that the problems related to
the population's absorptive capacity in development terms, are being
solved. The synergy resulting from the interaction between the initial
training program, the investment capital for immediate action projects,
and the technical assistance/training prepare the population to absorb,
in an effective manner, more and more money. We have the ability to
prepare the target population to increase their absorptive capacity so
that they can gradually receive development assistance, starting with
five or ten thousand dollars. This is a developmental process in the
true sense, not just in the economic sense: it is social, cultural,
organizational and political processes. The people involved with the
projects necessarily pass through several learning processes: training,
technical assistance, apprenticeship with local or outside experts. They
also begin working locally and improving employment opportunities in
their occupational areas, participate in field trips and visits. This
learning process is enhancing and providing the necessary inputs that the
community needs as it becomes economically active, thus promoting their
entrepreneurial skills (including risk-taking), increasing their
absorptive capacity and becoming active participants and owners of the
development process with which they are involved.
2. Group or
B- OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT
D-INPUTSt 1. (US$)Investeds
Wire and feed
December 1982t 2300 Red Comet chickens
and transportation to Dominica
April. 1983: 10 sheep, 20 goats and
transportation to Dominica
B. BENEFICIARIES8 1. Actively Involved
1. 13 members on coordinating committee
2. 70 families/chicken-raising
3. 50 families/rabbit-raising
1. 490 people
2. 3 junior 4H clubs/schools
3. 350 people
4. 3 schools
5. 35 families/sheep-raisings 245 people
6. 40 families/goat-raising: 280 people
LOCATIONs 1. Proiect
1. 5 people
2. 15 people
1. 35 people
2. 105 people
Flower growing for export
Small livestock cottage industry
Carib Indians-hamlet committees and
a- Improve diet and nutritional aspects
of meals in Carib communities through
b- Acquire training to raise, breed and
slaughter chickens, rabbits, sheep
c- Sale of meat and eggs
d- Increase community awareness of
development efforts and promote
more active Carib participation.
1. Organization into hamlet committees
2. Training in chicken-raising/
3. Funding preparation of coops,
4. Sales in local markets
5. Training in nutrition
6. Training in rabbit raising
then goats and sheep.
December 19821 US$ 8,500
April, 19838 15,000
Solar Drying of Fruit and Fish
Carib Indians Bimena group
a-Construct 3 medium-sized solar
dryers to dry reject bananas,
other, fruit and one dryer for
b-Sell(export) one-pound bags
of banana raisins to US SAVE
THE CHILDREN (US$1.00 per lb.).
c-Sell banana flour locally
(ECS0.80 per lb.); dried
fruit (EC$0.50 per lb.); and
dried flying fish (EC$1.00/3 fish)
1. Purchase of building materials
to construct first dryer.
2. Demonstration of use.
5. April 1983: 2 more solar
dryers for fruit and 1
solar dryer for fish.
December 19821 $300
April 1983t $500
Wood, paint, nails, saw, hammer
Fiberglass and plastic;
3 Seal-a-Meal machines and
plastic for bags;
Stainless steel mixing bowls and
pans, rolling pins, sifters,
manual food grinders
1. 72 households currently registering
1. 500 people
Carib Indians hamlet groups and
a-Re-establish export sales of flowers
in Guadeloupe and Nartiniques reinitiate
an income-generating activity.
b-Organize productive activity of raising
local flowers (balisiere, ginger lillies
and anthuciums)o organize socio-economic,
c-Training in appropriate techniques and
processes of growing, packaging,
1. Committee meetings to register project
2. Feasibility study being conducted through
OAS to develop preliminary contacts with
international markets! consolidation of
efforts within country.
Nay 1983s 83,0001 OAS *$9,000
Bulbs, packaging materials
Training# rabbits and sheep
Rabbits: 2 female/l male per
household, hutch constructed
Area for sheep and goats: fences
constructed, sheep delivered
Health 4 nutrition training
expanded to include mats
2. financial returns
December 1982-January 19828
10 households egg sales in Marigot
ECS35 per week per household
Total net income generated#
BC$1,050 a US$400
a-Egg sales 12 households
12 doz./day Sinecu School
(School Feeding Program)
EC$60 per day
5 days/week x 60: EC$300/weekl
US$120/weeks Total school sales
household : household income
Marigot S Reserves
30 households: EC$150/day
Gross income/months EC$4,SOO5
US$1700 (30 households).
c-Rabbitst Income in July 1983
Sheep & goats: Income end of 1983,
70 households average of 13 eggs/day
1. Observable units
70 household chicken coups
(25 chicken size)
3 schools 25 chicken/coup
Individual site visits
Training program & continuous
Gross projected returns:
a-Banana-raising export markets
b-Banana flour local market
c-Dried fruit US$70/month
d-Dried fish US$150/month
Projections: 4 dryersa
a-I banana raisin for export
(using 6 trays): 25 lbs./day/dryer
b-i banana grinding into flour
25 lbs/day for local sales
c-l other fruit drying
d-l fish dryer
(60 mail flying fish/day)
Local: Marigot and Reserve
April 1983: School Feeding Program*
(See other comments.)
U.S. for banana raisins
Local, all other dried products
Initial/Short terms Guadeloupe a Martinique
Medium & Long Terms Other Caribbean islands,
Miami, New York, London, Paris, Amsterdam,
One .mplete fruit-drying
Demonstrations for interested
persons and groups
Training program initiated by
by Food S Nutrition Council
H- SUGGESIrD EXPANSION
Government studying feasibility (CFC)
re-establishing chicken industry on a
national level need to expand chicken
coops to accommodate 300-500 broilers
each: more training to prepare participants
for mor e self-sufficiency in animal-raising
and additional skills and capabilities
needed for raising small animals on an
industrial level. Approximately# $30,000
Rabbits: Two areas of expansion:
1. Preparation of appropriate central
rabbit housing installation to be able to
provide rabbits to all inhabitants who want
to participates considerably speed-up
"development" because would receive ac-
climatized animals. Approximately: $10,000
2.Tannerys Preparation of rabbit skins for
export is first stage of this industrial
activity, to begin end of 1983l further
work to expand activity into more complete
tannery process in Dominica and production
of tourist items. Goat and sheep skins to
be included. Approximately $18,000
There will always be a demand for two
or more types of mmall livestock per
household. However, Caribe have decided
that before any household could start
raising a second type of small animal
all persons who wanted to participate
must already be involved by raising one
type of animal. This process will take
through 1985/86 to be totally involved
unless there is additional funding.
The OAS/DAS has received the
collaboration of the U.S. Save
The Children (especially in
technology for solar dryer
construction) and Dominica Pood
and Nutrition Council(especially
training in nutrition).
f ect be expanded in term of
household u.e of driqd foodstuffs.
Carib area has no electricity.
People need methods to preserve
foodstuffs. Should immediately
expand to 10 fruit dryers and 10
Experience of the Caribs can be
expanded to other small hamlets
in the OAS/DAS project area not
yet involved in any of the
immediate action projects.
This project began after the other two
in the Carib area. It started because
of a felt needQ due to loss of sales of
locally grown flowers. Inquiries were made
about how many were interested in partici-
pating and the private sector and government
officials also expressed keen interest. They
indicated this was a project they had wanted
to develop for som time and asked us for
help. Natural resources and packaging
materials were available and previous
markets existed; also a market study has
been conducted by the German University
*School Feeding Programs Funded by
NOVIB in collaboration with DAS, working
with the Ministry of Health and the Food
& Nutrition Council. Three villages in
OAS/DAS project site area to be primary
suppliers of eggs to the School Feeding
This mall project has alrei generated
national interest. Need for technical
assistance materials and supplies
training; and revolving loans. This
implies an immediate need for, additional
grant funding. Possible that this project
(if funding is made available) will become
most exciting "inome-generating" project
for the Caribbean's "nature island.
I- OTHER CiuwrS
A- LOCATE% I. Pro ect
2. Group or
B- OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT
Grand Bay Handicraft/Culture Centre
Grand nay community at large
a-Build throughh self-help construction)
a pl.-ce wh, re people can work,
currently people work in open fields.
b-Prov.de space where local cultural
groups can gather and practice.
c-Provide some tools and equipment.
1. No construction activities to-date
2. Some tools and equipment purchased
3. Meetings held regarding design and use
Co. jnity Schools Small Livestock
and Vegetible Gardening
Grand Bay- the community school
currently with 957 students
a-Provide school children with
opportunity to acquire hands-on
knowled, e of raising animals
chickenss and rabbits)# sales
and record keeping.
b-Prepare land, plant seeds and
raise garden vegetables for
c-Contribute towards the imple-
mentation of the agricultural
portion of the Junior Secondary
Program (Ministry of Education).
d-Allow children the chance to
make and manage money as part
of an educational experience
1. Construction of chicken housing
with capacity for 100 birds
2. Rearing of chickens, sale of eggs
3. Preparation of small plots for
4. Planting seeds, raising vegetables
and sales to local community
Soufriere Comunity Groups
Sewing and Juice-Making
a-Train community members in sewing.
b-Develop the participants' skills so
that they can have an employable skill.
c-An income-generating project for the
unemployed and the youth.
d-Train participants in the total juice-
1. Training in all aspects of sewing
2. Acquisition of all materials, supplies
D-INPUTS; 1. (USSInvesteds December 1982s None
April, 19831 US$ 10000 towards self-help
US$ 3500 tools & materials
2. Purchases/Expensess Circular saw, chain saw, drills, (and
transformers)l vises, hack saws and tool
parts; small tools chisels, extension
cords, measuring tapes; clamps, players,
screw drivers, rubber tongs, mallets,
hammers, planes and extra blades, wrench,
levels and saws.
1. US$ 2000
Wire, cement, wood, feeding equip-
ment) 100 Red Comet chickens; feed
agricultural tools seeds rabbits
Sewing machine sewing supplies, materials,
books, bottles, tubes, jars, thermometers.
B. BENBm ICIARIIBS 1. Actively Involved
Approx. 100 people
Whole Grand Bay area, 2,500 people
120 students; agriculture
teacher at school
whole village, 2,500 people
r. nRa urba l
All tools and material purchased.
Expenditures for construction materials
with actual work beginning about June 1983.
2. Financial returns
n.a. This project selected by the come-
unity as most urgent for youths and adults
to get back to active production of goods.
Drum-makers and straw workers have con-
tinued to eek out an existence at a very
low rate of production. Projected
financial returns, based on interviews#
a. 5 drums/week x EC$ 500- EC$2500/week
monthly BC$10,000 US$3,700
b. Straw workers approx. EC$400/week
monthly BC$1600 US$600
c. Leather workers and wood workers
not enough current data to project
accurately. Approx9 EC$750/week
EC$3000/month US$1100 month.
n.a.g see above
Straw works national and regional.
Druses regional (esp. Guadeloupe and
Wood and leather goods, national.
A. uoservaDie unitS
Monthly sales of eggs*
Dec. US$ 48
Total USS1185(revenue egg sales)
Egg production per months
Dec. 260 eggs
Jan. 1680 eggs
Feb. 1543 eggs
Mar. 1650 eggs
Apr. 2100 eqqgs (projection)
Vegetable garden n.a.
Production and sales should
begin in May 1983.
All local Grand Bay itself
Grand Bay school will participate
in NOVIB sponsored "School Meals
Ci. Aen housing for eO0 chickens,
fully equipped, including
School garden with 6 beds
ready. School children in the
gardens rabbit hutches.
n.a. anticipated for July 1983.
n.a. anticipated for July 1983
Local Soufriere G Spotte Head
Initially, meeting place loci J.
To receive all equipment by the end
of April 1983. Training began on
March 14, 1983.
Necessary to buy more tools and equipment.
(min. S5000) for the four groups 1 also
for the cultural groups (min. $5000).
Potential catalytic effect on surrounding
villages (Tete Horne, Pichein, etc.)
Approximate costs: US$15,000
I- OTHER COMMENTS
The community decided to build its own
small shelter to accomodate urgently
needed work space for the people.
The EDP funds to be used to build the
foundation and first floor USAID/OAS
monies will go towards building ground
floor. Will also provide support to
'Junior Secondary Program'. Persons
leaving Junior Secondary Program and
wanting both further training and a place
to work will have the center. Provides
continuity to national program
highly supported by the Ministries of
Education and Agriculture.
C antly preparing rabbit hutches.
C,....iunlty is very large, the third
in size in Dominica therefore, less
than 10%t ble to participate in
the project. Recommended that this
school increase its chicken-raising
facilities and rabbit project.
Goat-raising should be considered.
Approximate costs US$10,000
The school at Tete Horne will start
preparing rabbit hutches. Chicken
raising and vegetable garden projects
suggested at both Tete Horne and
Pichelin. Pichelin school also will
need chicken-raising facilities.
Approximate cost for both community
Expand chicken-raising projects
to include broilers, for meat
production. Estimated costs US$1,500
Grand Bay school is part of national
*School Meals Program" now being
financed by NOVIB with the Ministry
of Health. 250 students (between
ages of 5 to 9 years old) getting
a meal everyday. Eggs to be pur-
chased from students. There exists
enough 'demand' for eggs to increase
number of chickens (expand the
project). U.S. Peace Corps
volunteer with Livestock Division
very active in giving technical
assistance member of implement-
ation team for this project site area.
Community interested in sevi other
income-generating projects# cooking
and preservation, a bakery, boy scouts -
small livestock and gardening, etc..
Approximate costs, US$25,000
Boy Scouts: Small Livestock Raising and
A- LOCATIOh. 1. Project
2. Group or
B- OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT
D-IMPUTSI 1. IUS$Investeds US$2,000
Materials for chicken housing (cement
wood, nails, wire, etc.)g feeds seeds
B. BBNPICIAlIBSI 1. Actively Involved
33 Boy Scouts (includes some girls).
Adult Education Committee
a-Learn to raise chickens and rabbits
prepare land, plant and raise vegetables.
b-Earn income by selling the eggs and
c-Include other youth and train them in
l.The boys built chicken houses for
2.Clear ing of lands, beds formed and
4.Sales of eggs in local community.
Stovel sewing machine sewing
supplies and materials# cooking
pans and utensils; books, needles
a-Learn skills in sewing and cooking.
b-Provide inoome for unemployed
and some underemployed persons.
c-Improve nutritional aspects of
d-Prepare snacks, bread and cakes
for sale as a group project.
e-Sew school uniforms, children's
clothes, dresses and blouses and
f-Learn skills such as knitting,
crochet and macrame.
l.Training sessions in sewing
2.House rented for training
sessions and as a workshop.
3.Receiving supplies and
4.Training in cooking and
preservation will begin when
stove is delivered.
Two whole villages.
1. Observable units
Chicken housing for 100 chickens;
One acre of land cleared and vegetables
Tools and supplies being properly used.
2. Financial returns
No consistent record-keeping. Sales
through the end of January were about
C1000OO or US$350. No sales from February
due to poor management by the Scouts.
Problems addressed and being corrected
but egg production will not start until
Small house rented
Sewing machine and cookers
Pans and utensils;
Weekly group meetings and several
days per week of training.
n.a. All these projects are planned
to begin in late April 1983 results
will not appear until at least September
Same as above.
Community Schools Small Livestock and
Vegetable Gardening, Sewing
Soufriere and Sootts Re.ad .
a-Provide hands-on learning opportunities
within existing educational system in
agriculture and sawing.
b-Teach skills which lead to income-
c-Sales of vegetables and rabbit meat
record-keeping to make and manage money
as part of an educational experience.
d-Contribute toward implementation of
agriculture portion of Junior Secondary
Beginning April 19838
1. Construction of rabbit hutches and
preparation of land for garden beds.
2. Planting seeds, raising vegetables
and sales to community.
3. n* --..g of ra;.its for sale of babkia
to community members or raising for
slaughter and sale of meat.
4. Training in sewing and clothes-making.
Materials for rabbit hutches wood, poles,
wire, nails, etc.; rabbits and feeds sewing
machines supplies and materials for sewing
seeds for gardens agricultural tools.
50 students each village 100 students.
Same an above.
Local Scotta Head
8- SUGGESTED EXPANSION
Approximate cost US$1,200
Chicken-raising should be expanded to
Approximate cost US$1,500
Local in Scotts Head and Soufriere.
Greater community demand for this
project. Funds needed to purchase
more equipment and supplies and
expand locale used for training
workshop. Sufficient need in the
marketplace to absorb production
of this group. Market place for
clothing in all of Dominica has
a common characteristics all
goods are imported. Thus, all
clothes making which satisfies
local demand fulfills several
functions a)provides clothes at
reasonable price, more access-
ibility, b)conserves scarce foreign
exchange c)provides training and
employment opportunities and
d)retains skills for transfer and
use with other related productive
areas. US$15,000 needed.
Interest in other skill areas
wood work, simple carpentry,
masonry and electrical tech-
niques. Approximately US$7,SO0.
Cooking activities should be
expanded to use excess fruit
and vegetables and fish. Should
include alternative methods of
preservation (i.e. solar drying,
salting, canning, etc.) better
Approximate costs US$18,000.
Local in Scott@ Head and Soufriere.
Both schools should have chicken and
goat raising projects. Chicken housing,
chickens and feed will cost about US$1,500.
Goats and fencing, tfeed etc. will cost
about US$5000. Total costs US$7000.
Cooking and food preservation should be
included in school program including
making snacks from local fruits, juice
making, solar drying of fruits and fish,
etc. Approimate costs are US$4,000.
1- OTu13 COaUISN
School at Scotts Head included in national
*School Meals Program' financed by NOVIB
with the Ministry of Health. Total of 242
children in this program should consume
242 eggs par day. Boy Scout troup will be
the principle supplier. School will also
purchase as much vegetables as possible.
CANSAVE collaborated with this project.
U.S. Peace Corp Volunteer with the Live-
stock Division has been very active giving
technical assistance as member of implement-
ation team for this project site area.
i. They are still in the
.. ining phase.
Same as above.
PHOTOGRAPHS OF PROJECTS
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