Title Page

Title: preliminary view of the Colombians and the Catholic Church
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089154/00001
 Material Information
Title: preliminary view of the Colombians and the Catholic Church
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Hanratty, Dennis M.
Publication Date: 1972
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Caribbean
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089154
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
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        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
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        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
Full Text




Dennis M. Hanratty
May 15, 1972

Dr. E. Chaney
Pol. 192

It should be emphasized at the onset that any consid-

eration of the relationship between the Catholic Church and

the migrants from Colombia must be viewed as tentative.

There are several reasons for this. First of all, there

is nothing in the way of a systematic study which has been

done. Any examinationsconducted by the Church have con-

cerned themselves with either Latins in general or Puerto

Ricans in particular. As far as I know, there is nothing

which addresses itself directly to the Colombians. My own

research has unfortunately been highly selective, due

mainly to time limitations, and therefore any statements

implying firm conclusions would be both misleading and

dangerous. Weaknesses in my research will be clearly

identified in the hopes that in the future, they will be

investigated and clarified by other students.

In a sense, the following should not be thought of as

one paper but rather, three distinct essays. Part One

sets up a basic framework, relying heavily on Joseph P.

Fitzpatrick's studies of the Puerto Ricans. Part Two con-

sists of my basic research. In Part Three, the research

will be evaluated in light of the framework. Hopefully,

a connection will be apparent among the three parts.

- 1 -


Prior to the arrival in New York of the Puerto Ricans,

the standard operating procedure of the Archdioces had been

to establish national churches for immigrant groups. Fitz-

patrick identifies three major functions of the national

church: 1) the maintenance of an effective contact be-

tween the immigrants and the Church, 2) the providing of

a basis for a strong community life, 3) the creation of a

sense of identity for the newcomer. This policy was

changed after 1939 with regard to the Puerto Ricans. There

were several reasons for this, among them being the fact

that Puerto Ricans did not arrive with a native clergy but

had to depend upon American priests. In addition, Puerto

Ricans were settling in areas where there already existed

active parishes. In order to deal with the specific needs

of the Puerto Ricans, the Archdiocese established the

Office for Spanish Catholic Action. One of its major

activities centers around the religious festival known as

the Fiesta de San Juan. In addition, through the efforts

of Monsignor Ivan Illich, the Archdiocese sponsored the

Institute of Intercultural Communication at the Catholic

University of Puerto Rico. Here, religious from the main-

- 2 -

land receive instruction in Spanish and are exposed to

life on the island. Although these are progressive actions,

there does not seem to be a significant link between the

Church and the Puerto Ricans who have migrated to New York.

Fitzpatrick has noted that "the priests of the Arch-

docese judge that they are in effective contact with only

about 20 percent of the Puerto Ricans in New York." He

concludes his consideration of the relation between the

two groups, saying, "... only a small percentage of Puerto

Ricans in New York follow those religious practices which

identify one as a practicing Catholic on the mainland.

The enormous effort made by the Archdiocese of New York

is still far from adequate to meet the spiritual needs of

the newcomers."2

1) Joseph P. Fitzpatrick, Puerto Rican Americans, Prentice-
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1971, p. 123

2) Ibid., p. 127

- 3 -


The Church has followed the pattern of the integrated

rather than national parish in dealing with the Colombian

situation. Colombians are clustered in a number of

parishes in Queens, most notably in the area of Jackson

Heights and to a lesser extent, in East Elmhurst and

Corona. According to the original design of this project,

letters were sent to several pastors and principals of

grammar schools requesting an interview. The first con-

tact was a discussion with Msgr. James Donegan, pastor of

St. Joan of Arc Parish. The parish is located at 8200

35th Avenue, Jackson Heights, New York 11372 (telephone

number: 429-2333). Msgr. Donegan was friendly and eager

to talk about the Colombian situation. He had spent a

period of time in Colombia and had obtained a university

degree there. He had been pastor for five years of the

largely middle-class parish, where approximately fifteen

percent of the parishioners were Colombians. The majority

of the parishioners were Irish. However, Msgr. Donegan

did not see this situation as causing a significant prob-

lem and felt that ethnic relations in the parish were

peaceful and friendly. (When I visited St. Joan's Church

- 4 -

after talkingwith the Monsignor, I noticed the banns of

marriage which were posted. There were two notices of

Irish-Latin, most likely Colombian, marriages.) In talk-

ing with Msgr. Donegan, I definitely received the impression

that he was sincerely committed to helping the Colombians

become acclimated. There are three Spanish-speaking

priests, none of Latin or Spanish descent, who are assigned

to the parish. Their role is primarily that of administer-

ing to the sacramental needs of the Colombians and of

celebrating liturgies in the Spanish language. There are

hours set aside on Saturday where confessions in Spanish

are heard. Msgr. Donegan confirmed that one of the first

things that Colombians do when they arrive in Queens is

to get their children into Catholic grammar school. Msgr.

Donegan hinted that the Brooklyn-Queens Diocese may be

more conscious and active in attempting to involve Latin

Americans in the parish life than is the New York Arch-

diocese. A future source of information may be an

interview with a representative of the Brooklyn Diocese,

since that body has direct responsibility for the spiritual

care of Colombians living in Queens.

Soon after my interview with Msgr. Donegan, I received

a note in response to my letter from Father Thomas

- 5 -

Sutherland, pastor of Blessed Sacrament Church, located

at 34-43 93rd Street, Jackson Heights, New York 11372

(telephone number: 639-3888). Father Sutherland said that

he could not be much help to me, but that the information

that I sought would best be found by writing to Msgr.

Thomas Little of St. Bartholomew's Church, 43-22 Ithaca

Street, Elmhurst, New York 11373 (telephone number: 424-

5400). It was originally thought that St. Bartholomew's

was too far away from the Jackson Heights area, and there-

fore, the parish would not have a significant percentage

of Colombians. However, Father Sutherland said that there

was a heavy concentration of Latin Americans there. In

addition, he told me that there was a Jesuit priest from

Spain who was residing at the rectory of St. Bartholomew's

and that he had conducted a study of the neighborhood.

I contacted Msgr. Little and asked him about the study

that Fr. Sutherland had mentioned. Msgr. Little confirmed

the fact that such a study was done, and said that it had

been short in length. However, the paper was lost while

it was being circulated around to the pastors of the

neighboring parishes. I talked with Fr. Coy, the Jesuit

who had conducted the study, but there was a communication

difficulty. I then spoke to a priest at St. Bartholomew's

- 6 -

who was working principally with Haitian immigrants. He

did not have any information concerning the Colombians,

but suggested that I contact Fr. 0i17Ortiz. Fr. Ortiz

is a Colombian priest studying at Fordham University's

School of Education. He also is residing at St. Michael's I O

Parish, 424 West 34th Street in Manhattan (telephone

number: 563-2575). Fr. Ortiz does a considerable amount

of work among drug addicts and among youths in general.

Fr. Ortiz said that there were many difficulties which

existed between the Colombians and the Church. He did not

feel that the Church was sufficiently concerned about the

plight of the Colombians. According to Fr. Ortiz, the

Church considers issues which the Colombians feel are

important as being only peripheral. For example, the

Church does not consider it a terribly important matter to

sponsor dances. He suggested that non-native clergy have

problems in dealing with the Colombians. Latin priests

residing temporarily in New York also have problems in

dealing with the Church hierarchy. Fr. Ortiz said that
like to
they would be/assigned to parishes where they could be

helpful, but in many cases this does not happen. Fr.

Ortiz spoke at length about the loss of religious fervor

that occurs among Colombian students who are in New York.

- 7 -

He said that in Colombia there is someone there who would

make sure that they attend Church functions. But there is

considerably more freedom in New York and, as a result,

most students simply sever any active participation in

Church. Their only connection would be getting married in

the Church and having their children baptized. Students

are harassed, principally by immigration authorities.

Fr. Ortiz said that they are cheated by lawyers who charge

them to fill out immigration form 1-20. There are a few

avenues where Colombians can turn for help, however. One

of them is the Casita movement. Fr. Ortiz said that

Casita, in trying to help Latins, has experienced many

difficulties with the institutional Church, and suggested

that I call Mrs. Ramon Sola (587-3637) to confirm these


The second source of help is the United Students of the

Americas. This is an organization designed to assist

Latin students and is located at 37-63 82nd Avenue,

Jackson Heights, New York (telephone number: 429-3048).

The United Students concern themselves primarily with

assisting Colombians and other Latins who have immigration

difficulties. In two publications connected with their

organization, Hable and La Voz del Tercer Mundo, there are

- 8 -

many articles which attack the current immigration laws.

The workers at United Students agreed with Fr. Ortiz that

Colombian students do not have very much to do with the

Church. They offered to allow me to leave a questionnaire

on religious values of Colombian students.

As far as I could find out, there is no Church re-

port dealing specifically with the Colombian situation.

On March 1, 1972, a conference entitled: "One and Many"

was sponsored by the Archdiocese and chaired by Fr. Philip

Murnion, Executive Secretary, Office of Pastoral Research.

In his opening statement, Cardinal Cooke said, "If this

challenge to be both one and many is our commitment as a

people, surely New York bears a unique share of the burden

because of the unique complexity of this metropolitan area.

We have come here to seek help toward a better understand-

ing of the situation and needs of many of the ethnic groups

who are still struggling to find their place in the

American scheme while retaining the best of their heritage."3

Although groups such as Comite Catolico Cubanoand the

Catholic Society of the Philippines attended the conference,

there was no Colombian organization there. At the confer-

ence, Father Silvano Tomasi of the Center for Migration

- 9 -

Studies charged that immigrants, once admitted to the

country, are left largely on their own. An examination

of the conference was done in Clergy Report, April 1972,

Volume 2, Number 4. Among other things, the report states,

"it is a safe estimate that onehalf of the Catholics in

the Archdioces are Spanish-speaking."5 According to the

1970 Annual Report of the Immigration and Naturalization

Service, 23,221 Colombians reported under the alien laws as

residing in New York State.6

I also spoke with Fr. Joseph McCarthy, who directs

the youth section of the Spanish-Speaking Apostolate,

453 Madison Avenue, New York. Although Fr. McCarthy has

little direct information on Colombians in particular, he

expressed the view that there is a real lack of concern on

the part of the Church for the problems that Latins in New

York are facing. Fr. McCarthy agreed with Fr. Ortiz that

the Church does not place any importance to concerns that

Latins have, and said that many of them have recently be-

come fed up with dealing with the Church and getting

nowhere. Fr. McCarthy said that one of the major parishes

in Queens for Colombians is St. Leo's Church, 48-13 104th

Street, Corona, New York 11368 (telephone number: 639-0265).

I had originally planned to send a letter to that parish,

- 10 -

but decided not to when members of that parish said that

there was not a significant percentage of Latins. A

future source of information could be to contact the

priests at St. Leo's.

I finally discussed the difficulties of immigration

with Mr. Alphonsus Dietsche and Mrs. M. Moreno, two con-

sultants at the Migration and Refugee Services of the

United States Catholic Conference. Their headquarters are

at 201 Park Avenue South, New York 10003 (telephone number:

475-5400). Mr. Dietsche said that in order to study the

immigration question, there are two sources of information

which can be obtained by simply writing away. The first

is The Report of the Visa Office, Bureau of Security and

Consular Affairs, U. S. Department of State, Washington,

D.C. The second is the yearly Annual Report, Immigration

and Naturalization Service, Washington D.C. Upon checking

the records for 1970, Mr. Dietsche said that Colombians led

the list of South Americans in numbers admitted in this

area. During 1970, official statistics show that seven

Colombians were excluded and 957 deported. Immigration

rules clearly favor those from Europe rather than from

Latin America. There is a quota of 170,000 people for the

Eastern hemisphere. The quota for the Western hemisphere

is 120,000. Mr. Dietsche pointed out another way in

which the immigration laws favor

- 11 -

Europeans. If a European has a brother, sister, parent or

spouse living in the United States, he does not have to

obtain a job certification certificate. However, for a

Latin American, this exemption applies only in the case

of parent or spouse. Obtaining the job certification is

an extremely difficult thing. Except in the case of

Cubans, who fall under the political refugee exemptions,

or members of consulates, who receive diplomatic exemptions,

all other Latins, in order to obtain permanent residence

here, must qualify within a very narrow range of skills,

almost all of them in highly specialized medical areas.

Since a significant number of Latins do not possess such

specialized skills, they are denied permanent status. In

such a situation, many simply try to hide out in communities

where large percentages of Latins live. (Fr. McCarthy re-

lated stories of immigration officials arriving unannounced

at Latin dances in an attempt to catch illegal immigrants.)

Mrs. Moreno also said that there was little that the USCC

could do if the person did not have advanced skills. She

discussed in length the situation of teachers seeking

entrance into the United States and provided me with

printed material on the subject. (These are enclosed at

the end of this study.) There are only fourteen states

- 12 -

where there are any teaching positions available, and an

applicant must be willing to relocate there if he wants to

stay in this country. Seven of these states are in the

South, six are in the Mid-West, and only one, Connecticut,

is in the Northeast. Naturally, Latins are reluctant to

settle in areas where there are few people from their

countries. New York as a surplus of teachers. Mrs.

Moreno discussed special problems with Colombian students.

Many students come here on either student or tourist visas

and then obtain jobs. However, the Immigration Service

has the following ruling: "Persons who are visiting the

United States are not permitted to work. Acceptance of

employment may result in deportation or request to depart

voluntarily." While I was at the migration office, a

Colombian student who had obtained work and was ordered

deported, was being consulted.

3) "Statement of His Eminence, Terrence Cardinal Cooke,
at the opening of the Migrant Conference sponsored by
the Office of Pastoral Research March 1, 1972",
Clergy Report, April 1972, Volume 2, Number 4, p. 3

4) Charles Pendergast, "Conference Explores Migrants'
Problems", Catholic News, March 1972, p. 7

5) Clergy Report, op. cit., p. 1

6) Ibid., p. 1

- 13 -


When I began this paper, I stated that this study was

preliminary. Therefore, any conclusions are tentative and

subject to correction. One point that occurs to me is that

the Church does not have as yet any organized policy in

dealing with Colombians. On the parish level, some priests

are active while others are not. There also seems to be

some evidence that suggests that the hierarchical Church

could be doing more in responding to, not merely the

spiritual needs, but also to the cultural and psychological

needs of the migrants. The evidence seems to indicate

that at least as far as students are concerned, they are

following the Puerto Rican example which Fitzpatrick

describes and are losing contact with the Church.

A special word should be said concerning immigration.

At present, there is little that the Church can do about

the immigration regulations. The conference discussed

the question of immigration quotas, but did not come to

any conclusion. In testimony before the House Subcommittee

on Immigration, Fr. Murnion said, "Specifically then, Mr.

Chairman, I wish to affirm our basic support for present

immigration law and acknowledge the current latitude

- 14 -

within administrative procedures for dealing with certain

hardship cases and instances where aliens have acquired

what has been called equity in our society. In this re-

spect, we would recognize that steps must be taken to avert

a recurrence of the present situation in which people from

other countries have been led to believe that they can

sidestep the law with impunity and essentially undermine

the orderly administration of immigration policy."7 This

is a view which I must take exception to. It is my

opinion that one of the most forceful things that the

Church could do would be to call for a more equitable im-

migration structure and as a temporary measure to ask for

an end to harassment for those who do not have specialized


7. "Testimony Before the Hearings Conducted by the House
Subcommittee on Immigration and Nationality, Committee
on the Judiciary, New York, March 10, 1972" Clergy
Report, April 1972, Vol. 2, No. 4, p. 4

- 15 -


If you have a prospective employer in any area cther than those listed
below, and the employer obtains a job offer certification for you, a
new visa petition for preference classification may then be submitted
in your behalf.


Unless otherwise noted the entire State is a surplus area,




New HampshiTre



New Jersey

New Mexico



New York New York City, Albany,
Schenectady, Troy




Rhode Island








U. b. Department of Labor
Manpower -Idmiinistration
Office of Technical Support
Division of Immigration and
Rehabilitation Certification

January 1970



Chicago, Illinois




Washington, D.C.




North Carolina



So. Carolina




Hall Teachers Agency
158 Iamilton Ave., Palo Alto 94301
(415) 321-2630
William Hall, Manager
The Cary Teachers Agency of Connecticut
15 Farmstead Iane, Windsor, Conn. 06095
(203) 525-2133 or 6SS-6409
Ralph E. Plumley, Director
Adams Teachers Agency
605 14th St., N.W., Washington 20005
(202) 737-3938
T. D. Parrack, Manager
Avery Education Services & Teachers Agencies
1512 Wisconsin Avc., N.W., Washington 20007
(202) 337-4171
Vcra L. Avery, Manager
Educators Registry
3400 Pcachtrcc Rd., N.E., Atlanta 30326
(404) 261-4762
N. F. Flaskay, Director
American College Bureau & Fisk Teachers Bureau
327 So. La Salle, Chicago 60604
(312) 427-6662
E. E. llansbrough, President
Clark-Brewer Teachers Agency
64 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago 60604
(312) -127-1277
Bertha Drury, Manager
Illiana Teachers Secnice
III East Green, Champaign 61820
(217) 359-1721
Allyn I.. AlMen, O%. ncr
Lutton Music 'ersonncl Service
64 E.Jackson hIl\d., Chicago 60604
(312) 427-1279
Charles A. & Bert Lutton, Directors
Clinton Teachers Agency
706 S. Fourth St., Clinton 52732
(319) 243-114-1
C.l-rlcs R. Cozzens, Manager
Sabins Education.il Exchange and
Midland Schools Teachers Agency
215 Bennett Bldg., Box 392, Council Bluffs 51501
(712) 328-2843
Wendell Haack, Manager
The New England Teachers Agency
407 Libby Bldg., 10 Congress Sq., Portland 04101
(207) 773-8836
Doris Lewvin, MIanager
Baltimore Teachers' Agency
516 N. Ch tries St., Balltimore 21201
(301) 6S5-6350
Marsby C. I.ittle, Ma-j-rger
I.auretta MANis.:l, Asst. NManager
Wnm. K. Yocum, Ov, ner
Grace I. Abbott Teach'er,' Agency
120 Boyklton St.. lBotonu 02116
(617) 426-8333
PhilJoyal, Director
The Cary Teachers' Agency of Boston
120 Boylston St., Boston 02116 -. .
(617) 5-12-1378
Robert C. Rounds, Director
Friendly Teachers Agency
121 Chestnut St., Springfield 01103
(413) 739-5-130
Edward N. I.okc, Ma.nager
Reed Teachers Agency, Inc.
120 Ioylston St., Boston 02116
(617) 542-7790
May C. Toon, Director

Minnesota Teachers Service
800 Plymouth Building, Minneapolis 55402
(612) 333-160S
Miriam A. Almquist, Manager
Western Teachers Exchange
215 Plymouth Bldg., Minneapolis 55402
(612) 332-8603 or 333-3026
Cecelia Goslin, Manager
The Wood Teachers Agency
1003 Main St., Kansas City 64105
(816) 471-7871
Lester G. Wood, Manager
Davis School Service
726 Stuart Bldg., Lincoln 86508
(402) 432-4954
Beulah Crain, Manager & Owner
Hartigan Teacher Agency
P.O. Box 232, Manasquan 08736
(201) 223-0111
Mrs. Margaret Najar
JohnJ. Najar, Educ. Adviser
Independent Educational Services
80 Nassau St., Princeton 085-10
(609) 921-6195
William W. Baeckler, Placement Director
North Jersey Teachers Agency
106 W. Palisade Ave., Englewood 07631
(201) 568-9320
Dr. Irving Smith
Emilie Smith, Managers
T. A. Teacher Placement Service
5 Langdon Lanc, Morristown 07960
(201) 267-7703
Marcia R. Simonds, Director
Southwest Teachers Agency
1303 Central Ave., N.E., Albuquerque 87106
(505) 242-36-15-
D. E.Jones
Opal Jones, Managers
American RS Foreign Teachers' Agency
551 Fifth Ave., New York City 10017
(212) 682-6975
Buell Critchlow, Manager
The Associated Teachers Agency and
Pratt Teachers Agency
500 Fifth Ave., Suite 1250, New York City 10036
(212) 947-3212
Louise Tatro
Clifton I.. Tatro, Directors
Bardeen Teachers Agency, Inc.
316 S. Warren St.. Syracuse 13202
(315) 479-6663
T. C. Barnum, Manager
Dorothy Marder Teachers' Agency
3-12 Madison A'e., New York City 10017
(212) 687-1944
Edward S. Br.adlcy, Director
Robert W. Hood, President
The Eastern Teachers Agency
288 Sunrise IIighway, Rockville Centre 11570
(516) 766-3320
Louise Mevers
lHenrietta Rausch, Directors
Schermerhorn Teachers' Agency
366 Fifth Ave., New York City 10001
(or) p.ox 144, West lHempstead 11552
(212) 947-9066
Philip C. Genthncr, Proprietor
Haworth Teachers Agency
Box 1803, Iligh Point 27261
(919) 883-602-4
Byron HI.worlh, Manager
Carroll II. Kennedy, Asst. Manager

Teachers Placement Service
209 S. High St., Suite 207, Columbus 43215
(614) 224-2882
Vernon M. Riegel, Manager
Fowler's Teachers Agency
1923 N. Meridian (P.O. Box 75414)
Oklahoma City 73107
(405) 946-1003
Paul R. Fowler, Manager-College Div.
Judy L. Stevens, Manager-Public School Div.
Northwest Teachers Agency
1101 Loyalty Bldg., Portland 97204
(503) 223-0564
Ruth B. Karges, Manager
Bryant Teachers Bureau, Inc.
1530 Chestnut St., Philadelphia 19102
(215) 735-1223 or 735-1224
Wilmer D. Greulich, Vice President
Fisk Teachers Agency
401 Juniper Bldg.,Juniper & Walnut St.,
Philadelphia 19107
(215) 545-1745
Joseph Newbold
E. F. Maloney,Jr., Co-Managers
Great American Teachers Agency
205 No. Seventh St., Allentown 18102
(215) 433-1133
Stanley M. Kurtz, Manager
W. S. Berger, Owner
Pittsburgh Teachers Bureau
516 Triangle Bldg., Pittsburgh 15222
(412) 281-5398
Edwin P. Addis
Jane Addis, Proprietors
College & Specialists Bureau and
Southern Teachers Agency
1420 Henderson St., P.O. Box 364,
Columbia 29202
(803) 254--5224-
Martin B. Joncs, Presidcrt
Blanche L. Davis, Director
College &- Specialists Bureau and
Southern Teachers Agency
215 Lincoln Arnerican Tower
Memphis 38103
(901) 526-6577
Martin B. Jones, President
Edward M. Carter, Director
Willie May Gary, Associate Director
Southwestern Teachers Agency
Box 1401, Austin 78767
W. L. Smith, Manager
Southern Teachers' Agency of Richmond
213 Broad-Grace Arcade, Ricihmond 23219
(703) 643-6314
C. D. Guess, Jr., Man.Iggr
Susan F. Guess, .Ast. Manager
Frank W. 1Iurley, Asst. Manager
Clark-Brcwer-Iluff Teachers Agency
505 Columbia Bldg., Spokire 99204
(509) 624-1-403
C.J. Cooil, Manager
Cora Gihring, Asst. Manager
Washington Teachers Agency
1319 Second Ave., 31-41 Arcade Bldg..
Seattle 9S101
(206) 623-3-78
R. R. Heinmbigner, Manager

U. U.o m bt lit mi jji'I


Admission of Professionals
to Be More Difficult

sccal to The New York Time.
a result of rising unemploy-
ment, the Department of Labor
plan to stiffen its regulations
for admitting alien profession-
als and several other groups
Who /wish to become .perma-
Snent residents of the United
Under a proposed regulation
G thangm In the immigrant labor
certification provision of the
Immigration act, which Labor
DoeparL-nent spokesmen say is
'"imminent," aliens who apply
'for visas on the sole basis of
professional skills would have
to submit applications for in-
'dlividual review by the depart-
Sment, Under present economic
conditions, they say, it is
unlikely that such applications
.would be approved.
According to the immigration
section of the department,
.which administers the certifi-
cations, only professionals in
the medical, paramedical and
religious fields would qualify
for issuance of this visa.
Dropped from the profes-
sional classification will be ac-
countants, auditors, architects,
chemists, physicists, metallur-
gists, mathematicians and in-
dividuals in the following eni-
ieerinig specialists: chemicals,
civil, electrical, electronic, in-
dustrial, mechanical, metallur-
gical mining, petroleum and
Seven Types' of Preference
Under present immigration
laws, "first preference" for
visas goes to unmarried sons
and daughters of United States
citizens, and "second prefer-
ence" goes to spouses and un-
married children of lawful per-
manent residents. Immigrants
who seek citizenship on the
basis of their professional skills
are "third preference." There
are seven preferences in all, the -
last of vwhch is for refugees.
"It's only recently that we've
been able to get enough in.or-
nation to remove engineers
from the preferential list," said
a Labor Department spokes-
man. "But this doesn't mean an
employer can't request an engi-
neer from abroad provided he
can prove he can't find one
here or that an alien engineer
still can't apply."

Preferential visas are being
denied unequivocably under the
new regulations to six addi-
tional occupations in the un-
skilled labor assification-
assemblers, clerk-typists, short
order cooks, key-punch opera-
tors, receptionists and men-of-
all-work, (men vho handle "a
combination 6f duties necessary
to keep a private home cleaned
and in good condition.")
Already prohibited for cer-
tification in the last category
because of the availability of
such workers here are 43 low-
skill occupations.
Lact February, another pref-
erence classification was sus-
pended. This included blue-
collar, highly skilled workers
at the sub-professional levelS
whose services became obsolete
as worker here were laid off
because of defense industry
Changes in Shortages
"We're not actually deactivat-
ing" said a Labor Department
spokesman, referring to the
move to reduce the professional
work force from abroad. "We're
ticular point of time these are
the only occupations left where
there is a nationwide shortage.
These things are reviewed from
time to time.
"Claangcs will be made as the
labor market shifts," he said,
pointing out that two years ago
aerospace einginers wrere'-
moved from the preferential
list because of the large num-
bers of them who had become
available here.
SOfficials involved said there
was no way of estimating the
exact numbers of engineers,
scientists, or members of other
professional groups who entered
the United States last year.
It is estimated that 350,000
aliens come here each year
and that labor certification is
involved with a very limited
number of them.
A State Department spokes-
man said that 17,000 visas were
issued last year under third
preference and that about 50
per cent were professionals. it
is assumed that aliens who ap-
ply for third preference will be-
come permanent residents and
cithe Labor Department noted
that the number of applications
for labor certifications at con-
sular offices overseas was
down, with fewer prospective
visa-slokers some of whom
bad probably already received
labor certification -turning up
for interviews. This was inter-
pr ted as -cognizance" that
three arvere fewer opportunities
here than in recent years. .
"We seem to be running
about 1,500 cases less a month
than we were 10 months a3o,"
said one sooesman. ,I thi ne
there's an indication that thec
immiGration process reacts atj
least to some degree to eco-
nomic conditions-"

~,-eg"-1c. ~~~

'lI)3)- II

; ',, !




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