• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Index of tables and figures
 Foreword
 Introduction
 A geographical and historical...
 Population geography
 Migration and labour
 International migration patter...
 Recent stocks and flows
 What the 1980 census will probably...
 What the future holds in store...
 Statistical annex
 References






Title: Demographic diagnostic of St. Vincent and the Grenadines
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Title: Demographic diagnostic of St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Bogan, Mark W.
Publisher: Organization of American States,
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Caribbean
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Index of tables and figures
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Foreword
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page vii
    A geographical and historical overview
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Population geography
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Migration and labour
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    International migration patterns
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Recent stocks and flows
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    What the 1980 census will probably say
        Page 36
        Page 37
    What the future holds in store for St. Vincent
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Statistical annex
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    References
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
Full Text





THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES


LABOUR AND MIGRATION PROGRAMME
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION PROJECT













DEMOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSTIC OF

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES











prepared by

Mark W. Bogan


December 1983

San Jose, Costa Rica


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


INDEX OF TABLES AND FIGURES ii

FOREWORD vi

INTRODUCTION TO ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES vii

1. A Geographical and Historical Overview......... 1

2. Population Geography........................... 5

3. Migration and Labour .......................... 13

4. International Migration Patterns............... 17

5. Recent Stocks and Flows...................... 32

6. What the 1980 Census Will Probably Say......... 36

7. What the Future Holds in Store for St. Vincent. 38

8. Statistical Annex ............................ 41

9. Reference Sources.............................. 52


'"-









INDEX OF TABLES AND FIGURES


TABLES:


TABLE No.l:


ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION BY SEX AND TOTALS FOR RECENT
CENSUSES WITH INTERCENSAL GROWTH RATES
1946,1960, and 1970.......................


ST. VINCENT AND THE
ESTIMATED BIRTH AND
OF NATURAL INCREASE
POPULATION) 1946 I


GRENADINES:
DEATH RATES, AND RATES
(RATES PER 1 000 MEAN
.980................... 7


TABLE No.3:




TABLE No.4:



TABLE No.5:




TABLE No.6:




TABLE No.7:




TABLE No.8:


TABLE
*


ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION BY SEX AND TOTAL AND SEX RATIOS
ACCORDING TO HEALTH DISTRICTS FOR 1981
AND 1982.................................. 10

ST.VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
NATIONAL HEALTH DISTRICTS BY NUMBER AND
NAME, 1983................................ 11

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
ETHNIC STRUCTURE OF THE POPULATION BY SEX
AND ETHNICITY 1960 CENSUS
(absolute and relative)................... 12

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION BY SEX AND
INDUSTRIAL GROUP, 1960 AND 1970 CENSUSES
(absolutes)............................... 14

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
ESTIMATES OF TOTAL NET MIGRANTS IN
DECENNIAL PERIODS 1950-1960, 1960-1970,
AND 1970-1980 (absolutes)................. 24

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADMITTED TO THE UNITED
STATES OF AMERICA FROM ST. VINCENT
1959-1979 (absolutes)..................... 24


No.9: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
NET MIGRANTS IN SELECTED AGE GROUPS
AND PROPORTION OF AGE GROUP MIGRATING
(ESTIMATE 1950) FOR DECADE 1950-1960...... 25


ii




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TABLE No.2:







TABLE No.10:



TABLE No.11:



TABLE No.12:



TABLE No.13:



TABLE No.14:


ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
NET MIGRANTS IN SELECTED AGE GROUPS
AND PROPORTION OF AGE GROUP MIGRATING
(CENSUS 1960) FOR DECADE 1960-1970........ 26

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
NET MIGRANTS IN SELECTED AGE GROUPS
AND PROPORTION OF AGE GROUP MIGRATING
(CENSUS 1970) FOR DECADE 1970-1980........ 26

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
ESTIMATED BIRTHS TO EMIGRANT WOMEN BY
PERIOD OF EMIGRATION AND INTERCENSAL
PERIOD 1950-60 TO 1970-80................. 31

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
OFFICIAL IMMIGRATION DEPARTMENT STATISTICS
ARRIVALS, DEPARTURES, AND BALANCES
1961 1980 (absolutes)................... 33

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
DISTRIBUTION OF BIRTHS BY AGE GROUP OF THE
MOTHERS AND BY BIRTH ORDER
(1970 1980)(relative)................... 39


TABLES IN THE STATISTICAL ANNEX:


TABLE No.A-1:



TABLE No.A-2:



TABLE No.A-3:



TABLE No.A-4:


ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX
1946 CENSUS (ADJUSTED)
(absolute and relative).................. 42

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX
1950 OFFICIAL ESTIMATES
(absolute and relative).................. 43

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX
1960 CENSUS (ADJUSTED)
(absolute and relative).................. 44

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX
1970 CENSUS
(absolute and relative).................. 45








TABLE No.A-5:



TABLE No.A-6:


TABLE No.A-7:


TABLE No.A-8:



TABLE No.A-9:


ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX
1980 (ESTIMATE)
(absolute and relative).................. 46

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
INTERCENSAL MIGRATION BY AGE AND SEX
1950 1960 (ESTIMATE)
(absolute and relative).................. 47

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
INTERCENSAL MIGRATION BY AGE AND SEX
1960 1970 (ESTIMATE)
(absolute and relative).................. 48

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
INTERCENSAL MIGRATION BY AGE AND SEX
1970 1980 (ESTIMATE)
(absolute and relative).................. 49

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
AGE SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES FOR
SELECTED CENSUS YEARS (1960,1970)
(births per 1 000 women 15-49)........... 50







FIGURES:


FIGURE No.l:



FIGURE No.2:


ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
GEOPHYSICAL MAP AND-ADMINISTRATIVE
DIVISIONS (HEALTH DEPT.)................ 9


ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION PYRAMID (PERCENT)
1946 CENSUS (ADJUSTED DATA)......


........ 18


FIGURE No.3:



FIGURE No.4:



FIGURE No.5:



FIGURE No.6:



FIGURE No.7:



FIGURE No.8:



FIGURE No.9:


ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION PYRAMID (PERCENT)
195.0 OFFICIAL ESTIMATES ................. 20

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION PYRAMID (PERCENT)
1960 CENSUS (ADJUSTED DATA).............. 21

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION PYRAMID (PERCENT)
1970 CENSUS (OFFICIAL DATA).............. 22

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION PYRAMID (PERCENT)
1980 (ESTIMATE) ......................... 23

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
AGE-SEX DISTRIBUTION OF THE
ESTIMATED "INTERCENSAL" MIGRATION
1950 1960......... ..................... 27


ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
*AGE-SEX DISTRIBUTION OF THE
ESTIMATED INTERCENSAL MIGRATION
1960 1970..... ......................... 27

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
AGE-SEX DISTRIBUTION OF THE
ESTIMATED "INTERCENSAL" MIGRATION
1970 1980.............................. 28












FOREWORD


This report is the result of an all too brief trip to the
Eastern Caribbean and later review and analysis of the data
compiled on that mission. While I was on-island, I had the
pleasure of meeting and working with Mr. Gilbert Telemaque of the
Central Planning Unit of the Ministry of Finance. He kindly
acted as liason putting me in contact with the other persons that
I had to deal with. Special thanks are due to Mr. Wilfred G.
Ollivierre, Chief Statistical Officer, for his ample information
about the problems within the statistical system and the reasons
for the delay in the Census. Mr. Coffey and Dr. Jesudason of the
Health Service offered ample commentary on the health
improvements and population programs active on the islands. Mr.
Winston Venner, the Labour Comissioner gave me a good deal of his
time to discuss the labour force problems and the known migration
streams, both legal and undocumented. Special thanks are due to
Mr. Alex Lewis and Mr. Rahman, of the Public Health Service and
the Aedes aegypti Control Program, who were able to provide
recent population estimates for the islands via their household
malaria eradication program. Finally, to Mr Ghosh, U.N.
Statistician, a very special thank you for the time and effort
expended on behalf of the project.

The trip to the Caribbean to gather the data for this report
was made while on leave from the Institute for the Social Study
of Population (IDESPO), Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa
Rica. I would like to thank IDESPO and its staff for their
ongoing support while employed there.









INTRODUCTION


In the eastern Caribbean one finds a long chain of
relatively small main islands and a large number of quite small
islets. This archipelago makes up what is now known as the
Organisation of East Caribbean States (O.E.C.S.). They are all
of a common heritage and culture, all of a common language, and
although the French are present in the chain of islands, they are
not of direct interest to us within the scope of this report.
This report does interest itself, however, with the population
movements that have occurred and are occurring in St. Vincent and
the Grenadines; especially with regard to the migration of the
Vincentian labour force.

In 1980 St. Vincent took part in the O.E.C.S. 1980 Census
effort. However, at this writing, there are no official results
from that Census effort. For this reason, the demographic bases
of this report are less than what would have been desirable.
Nevertheless, the figures for the prior censuses and some recent
government estimates (both official and unofficial) permit us to
draw a series of conclusions from the data gathered on the
island.

First of all, due to the slow economic growth of the islands
in general, and of St. Vincent and the Grenadines in particular,
the economy has not been able to absorb the increase in the
available manpower. Second, the non-absorption that is evident
on St. Vincent is endemic to the region, so that the workers
cannot expect to find jobs off-island, but within the O.E.C.S.
Third, the continuing reduction in the contract labour programs
with the United States of America has restricted further the
legal entry of the Vincentian worker to the U.S.A. And fourth,
the obviously important impact of remittance income from the
British Isles, Canada, and the United States indicates that the
emigration of the labour force has continued unabated, even
though it may not be registered in the migration statistics
either of St. Vincent or of the country of destination.
This report analyzes the prior migration patterns and the
structure of the streams, so that a series of educated guesses
can be made with regards to the present situation. It is to be
hoped that the Census data, when they become available, will put
this report to the test to see if the estimates and indications
included herein stand up to reality. As indicated in the Fore-
word, a most sincere thanks to all those persons in Kingstown who
made the data gathering both possible and pleasant. The author
is, however, completely responsible for the errors incurred in
this report, and would appreciate any and all commentaries that
the readers might offer.









1. A GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL OVERVIEW


A. Location and Geography.

St. Vincent and the Grenadines, a main island, known locally
as "the Island", and her chain of 14 little islands, form part of
that string of islands known geographically as the Windward
Islands, which stretch from north of the coast of South America
(Venezuela) to join the Leeward Islands, and finally the Greater
Antilles in Puerto Rico. Taken together, they are generally
known as the West Indies.

St. Vincent is the second major island from south to north
in the Windwards, the first being Grenada. The string of small
islands known as the Grenadines are shared between St. Vincent
and Grenada. The principal Vincentian Grenadines are: Bequia,
Mustique, Canouan, Mayreau and Union Island.

Kingstown, the capital of St. Vincent, is located at 610 13'
39" west longitude and 130 9' 4" north latitude. It lies approx-
imately 65 nautical miles due west from Bridgetown, Barbados.

St. Vincent is an island somewhat oval in shape, whose major
axis is approximately 29 kilometres (18 miles) north to south and
18 kilometres (11 miles) east to west. It has an area of 340 sq.
kilometres (133 square miles) of verdant volcanic slopes. On the
northern end of the island, La Soufriere, an active volcano, rises
to over 900 metres (3000 feet). The rest of the volcanic chain
reaches to a height of over 1200 metres (4000 feet). The island
has an attractive climate that could be considered maritime
tropical. The smaller islands are relatively low with many sandy
beaches mixed among craggy outcroppings. The interior of the
Island is heavily cultivated with banana and coconut plantations
and arrow-root fields. St. Vincent is popularly known as the
"Home of the Arrowroot."

The capital, Kingstown, is located on a sheltered bay on the
southwestern coast of the island. There are other settlements
spread around the island, principally along the coasts. It is
not presently possible to drive completely around the island on
the coast, as a section of the northern part of the island still
does not have a coastal highway.


B. The Historical Background.

Anthropologists have indicated that the first inhabitants of
the islands were from a race now called Siboney; they were re-
placed by the Arawaks, the largest Amerindian culture on .the
South American Continent. The Arawaks moved up the island chain

1


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and ended up settling on all of the Antilles. About 1 000 years
ago, the Yellow Caribs followed the Arawaks northwards through
the islands.

Since they were a substantially more bellicose race, the
Yellow Caribs ended up in complete control of the islands. It
was they that Columbus found when he "discovered" St. Vincent and
the Grenadines.

Columbus arrived in Vincentian waters in 1498, on his fourth
voyage to the New World. However, the islands were left
relatively untouched and the Amerindians retained their sway over
their homeland until the middle of the seventeenth century. From
1655 onwards, the French began making serious attempts to settle
on St. Vincent. These endeavous led inevitably to a series of
wars between the French and the Yellow Caribs. The Caribs
eventually overcame the French and drove them off the islands.

In 1675, during the height of the African slave trade, a
slaver was shipwrecked off one of the Grenadines. Some of the
surviving slaves made their way north across the channel-to St.
Vincent and were received by the Caribs and given refuge.
Through this settlement and miscegenation, a new race arose, the
Black Caribs.

Throughout the rest of the seventeenth century and the first
half of the eighteenth, St. Vincent and the Grenadines remained
French possessions. However, they remained neutral during the
Thirty Years War and were finally ceded to England by the Treaty
of Paris, in 1763. As a colony of the British Crown, the islands
were settled more successfully, and in 1765, the famous Botanic
Gardens-were founded. They were the first in the Western Hemi-
sphere. However, the Caribs were not easily overcome, and in
1772 they began a series of renewed wars. These are known as the
Carib Wars.

In 1796, the principal chief of the Black Caribs, Chatoyer,
died; and in 1797, the Caribs were finally overcome, being exiled
to the island of Roatan, off the coast of Honduras. The island
of Roatan is still home for the descendants of the first Black
Caribs that were exiled there, and they have maintained their
cultural identity to date.

For the next 150 years, St. Vincent and the Grenadines
existed more or less pacifically as an Crown Colony. The only
outstanding events in their history were natural disasters. La
Soufriere erupted in 1812 and again in 1902. There were serious
hurricanes in 1898 and in 1921.








C. Recent Factors in St. Vincent's Development.


St. Vincent's communications to the outside world were
greatly improved by the construction of the Arnos Vale Airport
very close by Kingstown, in 1962, and by the construction of the
deepwater port in Kingstown itself, in 1964.

In 1969, St. Vincent became an Associated State of Great
Britain. Ten years later, on 27 October 1979, St. Vincent became
an Independent State and gained membership in the British Common-
wealth. St. Vincent also pertains to the Caribbean Common
Market, CARICOM; the Organisation of East Caribbean States,
O.E.C.S.; the United Nations Organisation; and the Organisation
of American States.

Several months prior to the celebration of Independence, La
Soufriere again erupted, it was an especially violent occurence,
with 20 explosive eruptions between 13 and 20 April 1979. How-
ever, despite the suddenness and power of the eruptions, no human
lives were lost. Nevertheless, the economic toll of the volcanic
activity was a different story.

An average of 40 percent of the banana production was lost.
It is estimated that around 285 acres of the arrowroot crop
remained unharvested, and that by delaying the harvest, the
starch content dropped drastically, making its processing for
starch futile and unprofitable. Since the nation is very close
to a monoculture agricultural economy, any loss of productivity
takes a severe toll on both the general economic situation and on
the labour force participation picture.

Since the eruptions of La Soufriere, the Island was also
the target of Hurricane Allen, in 1980. The effects of the
hurricane were essentially the same as the eruptions, only that
they came at a time when the economy was still not back on its
feet.

D. The Economic Situation.

The Island is trying to develop both the light manufacturing
and the tourism industries. There were 900 jobs created in the
area of light industry in 1979-1980.(1) In 1978, before the
natural disasters, the real Gross Domestic Product had increased
about 15 percent.(2) The banana crop was at its highest level in
ten years. With the 1979 eruption, this advance was lost, and
the World Bank estimates that there was a 27 percent negative
growth for this sector, substantially less than local sources

1) World Bank Economic Memorandum on St. Vincent 'and the
SGrenadines, Report No. 2427 CRG, May 18,1981
2) St.Vincent. Ministry of Finance. Statistical Unit. Digest of
Statistics, No. 30, p. 50.






have informed. The Gross Domestic Product showed negative growth
in real terms from 1978 to 1979. After the exuberance of the
previous four years, there was a decline of -0,7 percent. This
was especially due to the agricultural sector's decline of -2,5
percent.(3)

In 1975, the unemployment rate was around 25 percent; the
government says that it was able to lower this to around 20
percent by 1978.(4) It may be supposed that the emigration of
manpower may also have had some effect on this decline in the
unemployment rate. During these years, the inflation rate held
steady around 11 percent. However, due to the negative impacts
of the natural disasters on the economy and the world economic
situation in general, inflation had risen to 17,5 percent by the
end of 1979. By the end of 1980, the inflation rate was up
again, to 18,9 percent.(5)

As is customary, in most of the world's free market econo-
mies, the wages of the private sector are more responsive to the
climbing prices due to inflation than are those of the public
sector. The economy of St. Vincent is a very small one, and one
that would be expected to show negative savings. Nevertheless,
as the experts of the World Bank have noted in one of their
Economic Memoranda, positive national savings have been achieved
because of the "high levels of remittances from abroad."(6)

In the five year period from 1976 to 1980, over $13 million
East Caribbean Dollars (EC$) entered St. Vincent as remittances
(Postal Orders). During the same period, EC$2,1 million from the
farm workers scheme entered the country.(7) Although this was a
period of limited activity in the contract labour area, in 1979,
these remittances signified approximately 2,8 percent of the
Gross Domestic Product. Thus, it can be seen that the impact of
the remittances is important on the limited economic movement of
the island.







3) Idem.
4) World Bank, loc. cit.
5) Idem.
6) Idem.
7) Min. Finance, op. cit., p. 28.







4



4 . . .








2. THE POPULATION GEOGRAPHY


A. Population Growth.

The population of St. Vincent and the Grenadines has
demonstrated a slow rate of growth during the last quarter of a
century. This is principally due to the negative impact of the
emigration of the work force that has been occurring ever since
the Second World War.

The Islands have had four censuses since the Second World
War, in 1946, 1960, 1970, and 1980. As was mentioned previously,
the data for the 1980 Census has not yet been made available.
The prior Census data are shown in Table No.l, which also
includes the intercensal growth rates.


TABLE No.l:
BY


ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: POPULATION
SEX AND TOTALS FOR RECENT CENSUSES
WITH INTERCENSAL GROWTH RATES
1946,1960, and 1970


SEXO 1946 1960 1970


Male

Female

TOTAL


28 030

33 750

61 780


Average Annual Intercensal
Growth Rates (%)


Sources: Univ. of the West Indies. Census Research Programme.
Publication No. 8. Estimates of Intercensal Population
by Age and Sex and Revisted Vital Rates for British
Caribbean Countries 1946 1960.
U.W.I., C.R.P. 1970 Population Census of the Common-
wealth Caribbean, Volume 3 Age Tabulations.




5




-- -..,----,..-..-


37 830

42 570

80 400


40 792

45 522

86 314


1,55


0,71


- 7- r 1--7^^. y








As can be seen in the foregoing table, the intercensal
growth rates are very low, for a nation considered to be a member
of the less developed family of nations. Nevertheless, the birth
rates belie these low intercensal growth rates. In Table No. 2
the Crude Birth Rates, Crude Death Rates and Rates of Natural
Increase are presented for the period covered in Table No. 1.
Furthermore, estimates are presented for the vital rates for the
years between 1970 and 1980 as well. The estimates for this last
decade are predicated on a continued level of emigration that
would bring the population growth to 98 000 Vincentians, in 1980.

As is clearly seen in Table No. 2, at no point between 1951
and 1979 does the Rate of Natural Increase go below 25 per thou-
sand, or 2,5 percent. This contrasts drastically with the inter-
censal rates which have been seen to vary between 0,7 and 1,6
percent. If the estimate of 98 000 persons for the 1980 Census
is correct, then the intercensal rate for 1970 1980 would be
1,28 percent, again demonstrating the the low real growth of the
population.

B. Population Distribution.

As has been seen earlier, the land surface area of the
islands is limited, 388,5 square kilometres. This would make for
a population density in 1980 of more than 252 persons per square
kilometre (150 square miles, 653 inhabitants per square mile).
This is a. fairly considerable density in an economy that can be
considered almost strictly agricultural. Among the members of
the O.E.C.S., only Grenada has a higher population density.
However, that island also has a more diversified tourism industry
and thus is not as strictly an agricultural economy.(8)

This population is distributed unevenly across St. Vincent
and the Grenadines, with the primary concentration in the capital
city, Kingstown, and its environs, as could be expected.

Due to this uneven distribution of the population, the real
or empirical density is much higher. The northern half of the
island is almost completely occupied by La Soufriere, and the
center of the island contains the massif of the Soufriere Moun-
tains. Thus, the available land for population settlement and
agriculture is reduced to around 200 square kilometres, making
for a real density of more than 490 persons per square kilometre
(77 sq. miles, 1269 persons per sq. mile).

8) Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States. Economic Affairs
Secretariat. Statistical Pocket Digest 1983.








TABLE No. 2: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
BIRTH AND DEATH RATES AND RATES OF NATURAL
(RATES PER 1 000 MEAN POPULATION)
1946 1980


ESTIMATED
INCREASE


RATES OF
YEAR BIRTH RATES DEATH RATES NATURAL
INCREASE


1946 38,7 .15,5 23,2
1947 40,2 16,5 23,7
1948 38,5 15,0 23,5
1949 39,6 13,7 25,9
1950 40,0 15,4 24,6
1951 42,7 15,4 27,3
1952 41,2 15,8 25,4
1953 42,7 15,7 27,0
1954 42,2 15,2 27,0
1955 47,8 14,6 33,2
1956 46,9 12,2 34,7
1957 54,4 12,6 41,8
1958 49,5 15,4 34,1
1959 50,7 14,3 36,4
1960 49,4 15,0 34,4
1961 44,0 12,4 31,7
1962 44,2 12,3 31,9
1963 44,3 12,3 32,0
1964 44,4 9,9 34,5
1965 45,3 10,0 35,3
1966 45,4 9,8 35,6
1967 42,3 9,2 33,1
1968 39,1 9,7 29,4
1969 36,1 10,3 25,8
1970 38,6 8,5 30,1
1971 42,5 8,4 34,1
1972 41,8 10,1 31,8
1973 36,2 11,0 25,1
1974 37,1 7,9 29,3
1975 36,9 9,1 27,8
1976 40,6 8,4 32,2
1977 33,4 7,8 25,6
1978 34,3 7,8 26,5
1979 35,2 7,2 28,0
1980 31,4 7,4 24,0

Sources: U.W.I. Census Research Program, Estimates..., years of
1946-1960.
Years 1960-1970 based on Vital Statistics and interpo-
lation of census data. Years 1970-1980 based on Vital
Statistics and estimate of 98000 in 1980, interpolated.







The most recent data available with regards to the spatial
distribution of the population is that produced by the Aedes
aegypti Control Program of the National Public Health Service.
The information that they were able to provide included the
household coverage surveys for 1981 and 1982. The 1982 data are
not completely updated, as several of the Public Health Districts
were managed with the same population data as in 1981.
In Table No. 3, the population data from this source is
presented by sex, according to Health District and year, and
includes the appropriate sex ratios. As can be seen, the sex
ratio is heavily biased in favor of females, in 1981, the total
sex ratio is 83,1 males per 100 females; in 1982, it improves
slightly to 84,1 males per 100 females. This is another im-
portant indicator of an emigratory situation, where the male
labour force has gone elsewhere temporarily or permanently in
search of work.
The Kingstown "metropolitan area" includes the urban centre
of Kingstown and the area to the east, around Arnos Vale Airport
and the zone of Calliaqua, which forms the suburbs of the capi-
tal. This urbanized zone contains more than 39 percent of the
population, according to the Health Department data. The western
slope of the island, especially around Barrouallie, is the arrow-
root producing centre, and holds a population oriented principal-
ly towards agriculture. This District makes up slightly more
than eight percent of the total inhabitants of the islands. The
population of the Grenadines accounts for just over seven percent
of the Vincentian total. The rest of the population is unevenly
spread along the coastal areas and the lower mountain valleys,
with heavier concentrations on the eastern (windward) coast than
those on the western (leeward) coast. As mentioned previously,
the north central part of the island and the north coast, where
La Soufriere is located, are quite sparsely inhabited.
The map on the following page presents the main island and
the distribution of the Health Districts. The Grenadines make up
District Number 9. Table No.4 presents the Health Districts by
name and number for comparison on the map.


C. Ethnicity.
St. Vincent and the Grenadines, along with the rest of the
English speaking Caribbean, are islands whose ethnic make-up has
been dictated by the vicissitudes of History. First, there were
the Amerindian tribes, in this case, the Yellow Caribs. With the
arrival of slavery in the Western Hemisphere, the Yellow Caribs
became the Black Caribs, through miscegenation with the African
slaves that arrived as the second racial factor.





I FIGURE 1: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
GEOPHYSICAL MAP AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS
J* (HEALTH DEPARTMENT)


WaST 0C.* r4e
S-,U .* A, ..* ...
.....t ',- ..... ... 1 .-'\ ... '.: "... ... .. 1- -

~C ."" "'. "ft
'74, ..' ,.-*v : ... ~> -. -


4 . ... ..*...*... ..- .
99.. I ..J ..
-'.4



U AT PT CAM ON A .o. ,


MA' AU i ..c..s


UNION I.
TUE1 TC*HOUA>1 " *" \ - *





QPEZITrT VINCENT
No..4 Parish of St. David


No.... ,o
X '4
.
.0 . 44 ,* , . I* ,w




.oI .* P .... a.sh of Char.-o
", -. _- ,.. ....._ ; . -. r \ _-- ., -- ,
. . . .... .. . ,' / .. -r "








-. ,--" ..
I.... .,%.. C -."" = 7. i O 1. -, ,-' =7.9-



*5*. ......... . . . .. .' ... .. -. ..... ,- ........- -,' ca'-- ..
... . ...... *


-"Par11sh oIf St. 'Patri t







No4- N.o .. 6 .. a -7









KING STOWN .,
S. -. .** -



.... .. about
...... ....."\ '-Andrei ...
,.., ."*.,:,,- ,. ,, ..' 1 ^ *"^,/ Marriaqua .. *-f
...^0'. .0 a y .
"^,",..,- '. .,!. "..\ '*
..^ .. .- N . .'^ j "-"-' ., .. d. ; -*- -




:.* ) .... .- 8 j-."

...... ...... / .--
.. ... . .r/-. ..


war
















TABLE No.3: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES POPULATION
BY SEX AND TOTAL AND SEX RATIOS ACCORDING TO
HEALTH DISTRICTS FOR 1981 AND 1982



HEALTH 1981 1982
DISTRICT MALE FEMALE TOTAL S.R. MALE FEMALE TOTAL S.R.


Kingstown 7 352 9 002 16 354 82 7 445 9 263 16 708 80
Dist. 2 3 749 4 225 7 974 89 3 850 4 375 8 225 88
Dist. 3 3 489 4 377 7 866 80 3 819 4 470 8 289 85
Dist. 4+ 3 441 3 623 7 064 95 3 441 3 623 7 064 95
Dist. 5+ 4 103 6 066 10 169 68 4 103 6 066 10 169 68
Dist. 6 5 248 5 840 11 088 90 5 345 5 946 11 291 90
Dist. 7 2 967 3 600 6 567 82 3 562 4 218 7 780 84
Dist. 8 10 003 11 812 21 815 85 10 458 11 889 22 347 88
Dist. 9+ 3 262 3 978 7 240 82 3 262 3 978 7 240 82

Total 43 614 52 523 96 137 83 45 285 53 828 99 113 84

Note: S.R. = Sex Ratio, the number of males per 100 females.
The code for the districts appears on the map, p.15.
+) These Districts do not have updated population figures
for 1982.
Source: St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Public Health Service.
Aedes aegypti Control Program, Office of Environmental
Health, Kingstown, St. Vincent.


-------------------- --,r..



















TABLE No.4: ST.VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
NATIONAL HEALTH DISTRICTS BY
NUMBER AND NAME
1983


HEALTH DISTRICT
NUMBER NAME


District No. 1 East & West City of Kingstown
District No. 2 Parish of St. Andrew
(Clare Valley)
District No. 3 Parish of St. Patrick
(Barrouallie)
District No. 4 Parish of St. David
(Northwest Coast)
District No. 5 Parish of Charlotte
(Georgetown)
District No. 6 Area of Biabou
District No. 7 Marriaqua Valley
District No. 8 Area of Calliaqua
District No. 9 Grenadine Islands


Source: Idem. Table No. 3.







With the French attempts, and then finally the English
success at a stable colonization of the islands, the third
factor, the whites, became a permanent presence on St. Vincent.
Finally, the fourth factor arrived with the growth of the English
presence and the shifting tides of geopolitics, the East Indians
came as the professional and bureaucratic classes.

The most recent data available on the racial structure of
the Vincentian population was published in the 1960 Population
Census. Table No. 5 offers the available data on ethnicity by
sex, totals, and proportional distribution.



TABLE No.5: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
ETHNIC STRUCTURE OF THE POPULATION
BY SEX AND ETHNICITY
1960 CENSUS
(absolute and relative)



ETHNIC GROUP MALE FEMALE TOTAL %


TOTAL 37 561 42 387 79 948 100,0

Black 26 188 30 019 56 207 70,3
Mixed 8 301 9 143 17 444 21,8
East Indian 1 177 1 267 2 444 3,1
White 901 939 1 840 2,3
Carib 621 644 1 265 1,6
Other 373 375 748 0,9

Source: U.W.I., C.R.P., 1960 Population Census, British ...


The overwhelming majority of the Vincentians are Black or of
mixed racial heritage, and very possibly the proportion of Whites
in the population has decreased since the exit of the British
Colonial Service in 1969.









3. MIGRATION AND LABOUR


A. Internal Migration Patterns.

Within a territory as small as the one under discussion at
present, it is relatively futile to seek internal migration
patterns, other than those which are oriented towards the large
urban area on the southern side of the Island. Furthermore,
there has been some movement towards and from the Grenadines.
Between 1970 and the estimated 1980 population, the average
annual growth rate for the Grenadines was slightly higher than
that for the whole nation, '1.34 percent vs. 1.28 percent. This
could be due to some internal migration from the main island, as
well as an effect of reduced emigration or foreign resident
immigration, especially into Mustique.

Mustique, as well as several of the other Grenadines, is a
privately owned resort island, so that the migration that might
occur from the main island is reduced. The only two islands with
a significant population base are Bequia, close by St. Vincent,
and Union Island, which is located about midway between St.
Vincent and Grenada. It is an international port of entry, and
as such, at least in theory, it could be important in a migration
pattern.

The most important population movements that occur in St.
Vincent are daily commuting and international migration and tour-
ism. The daily trip to work affects those who work in public and
private offices in Kingstown and commute from Mesopotamia and
Calliaqua. Kingstown itself offers little residential space, and
has no large attached suburbs, mainly due to the geographic
factors of fairly steep slopes behind the city and relatively
easy access to the neighboring valleys. The distances involved
in the journey to work of these persons is approximately five
kilometres from the Calliaqua area, and less than 10 kilometres
from the Mesopotamia zone and the Marriaqua Valley.

International migration, on the other hand, affects or has
affected a relatively large proportion of the families on the
islands. Tourism, an industry that St. Vincent is trying to
exploit, does not have the desired impact yet. In 1980, only
slightly more than 60 000 visitors came to the islands. Among the
Windward Islands, only Dominica received less visitors. St.
Lucia received more than twice the number, and Grenada handled
almost three times as many. The tourist infrastructure is weak,
both in transportation, and services. LIAT (Leeward Islands Air
Transport) offers a number of island-hopping flights every day,
but the connections to and from Brantley Adams Airport on Barba-
dos are not convenient. The hotels on the islands are few and
small, and the large resort-style hotels that attract tour groups





are missing. Thus, for there to be a further increase in the
number of visitor arrivals, there must be some concomitant devel-
opment of the tourist trade infrastructure.


B. The Labour Force.

Unfortunately, other than the data presented in the intro-
duction, the only labour force information available dates from
the 1960 and 1970 Censuses. The first important aspect of the
Vincentian labour force, that is worth mentioning, is the general
participation rate. According to the 1970 Census, 24,3 percent
of the population was economically active, 33,2 percent of the
male population and 16,3 of the female population. In 1960 the
comparable figures were: 37,9 percent of the males and 21,4
percent of the females active in the labour force.


During the intercensal decade, agricultural employment fell
off drastically, while the services sector grew. Table No. 6
presents what data there are that are comparable from the two
censuses in question.


TABLE No.6: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION
BY SEX AND INDUSTRIAL GROUP
1960 AND 1970 CENSUSES
(absolutes)

CENSUS YEAR
INDUSTRIAL 1960 1970
GROUP MALE FEMALE TOTAL MALE FEMALE TOTAL


Agriculture 6 335 3 619 9 954 4 401 1 710 6 111
Mining 107 23 130 43 3 46
Manufacturing 1 724 1 014 2 738 1 111 543 1 654
Construction 2 279 547 2 826 2 176 384 2 560
Electricity, 159 72 231 153 40 193
Gas,Water
Commerce 1 349 1 380 2 729 1 423 1 135 2 558
Transportation 923 54 977 895 50 945
Services 1 371 2 343 3 714 3 060 3 404 6 464

TOTAL 14 247 9 052 23 299 13 262 7 269 20 531


LUU I %.


0 691 P ul ati on Censu h


.F 9 . .I up
Caribbean Countries. Kingston, Jamaica.
U.W.I.,C.R.P.,1970 Population Census of the Commonwealth
Caribbean. Vol. 4, Economic Activity, Occupation and
Industry. Kingston, Jamaica.


C . 11 T r D








Perhaps the most outstanding aspect of Table No.6 is the
absolute reduction that occurred in the Economically Active Popu-
lation. There was an absolute decline of more than 2 700 per-
sons. During the same period, the total Vincentian population
grew by almost 6 000 inhabitants. Due to these two factors,
decline in the labour force and increase in the total population,
the previously noted change in the participation rates occurred.

The foregoing table demonstrates the important reduction in
the agricultural sector that occurred during the decade of the
1960's. While in the 1960 Census, 42,7 percent of the Economi-
cally Active Population was occupied in agriculture, by 1970 that
proportion had been reduced to 29,8 percent.

During the same period, the only occupational group that
grew in absolute importance was the tertiary sector, Services.
This sector increased from 15,9 percent of the labour force to
encompass 31,5 percent of the workers. Until this sector becomes
a foreign exchange producer in its own right, via a significant
increase in tourism, this increase will place a tremendous
burden on the more productive sectors.

If this sector presently consists of public employees, as
can be expected, the possibility of maintaining a pattern of
strong economic growth will be severely restricted, due to the
fiscal absorption of the public sector. The salary mass that
will be required will continuously consume a significant propor-
tion, if not all, of the output of the physically productive
sectors. There will be no funds left over for investment in
national development projects. This is a point that was made in
the Economic Memoranda prepared by the World Bank, where they
note that national savings have been achieved only via remittance
income received from abroad.

Needless to say, those foreign exchange earnings are very
important to the Island's economy, and every possible way of
increasing them must be explored. The one that is most obvious,
within the framework of this paper, is that of continuing to
foment the export of labour. Those programs that permit tempo-
rary workers to leave the islands for a period of time to work
in agriculture, either in Canada or the United States of America,
should be promoted. Unfortunately, it cannot be done unilater-
ally, as the host nations of the "guest-worker" programs are
those with the power of control over the programs. The fact that
it is the agricultural labour force that has been suffering the
largest reductions will also probably play a negative role in the
participation of Vincentians in the majority of these programs.
The greatest number of the contract labour efforts are related to
agriculture, and there are many more countries applying with
larger and more experienced agricultural labour forces so that
the Contract Labour Office must make every effort to fill the
requests with suitable workers.


15


' .


- 1


;


`~~'n" "' "








The unemployment rates of 20 or more percent are a factor
that the government must face up to in order to improve the
economic outlook of the whole country. Furthermore, this level
of unemployment is one of the principal causes of the continuing
emigration of the labour force. If they are unable to encounter
a worthwhile form of making a living on St. Vincent, they will
continue to go elsewhere looking for the livelihood they seek.
This will continue to occur with.the concomitant loss of talent
and investment in training that labour emigration signifies. One
does not advocate strict control of the migrants, rather, the
fostering of an employment situation that would offer them the
alternative of not leaving the islands.









4. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION PATTERNS


A. St. Vincent's Migration History.

As has been noted in an earlier chapter, St. Vincent and the
Grenadines have been both the origin and 'the destination of a
considerable number of international movements in the past. They
have been involved in the Siboney, Arawak, Carib, Spaniard, Black
African, French, English Colonial, Black Carib exile, British
Commonwealth, and United States Labour Market migrations. The
movements that are of present interest are the most recent ones.
The principal focus of this report will be on the migration
patterns from around 1950 to the present.

The data concerning this century's earlier migration
streams, if indeed there were any of note, are totally lacking.
The figures from the 1946 population Census demonstrate a
probable prior emigration of some of the males of working age.
The population pyramid that appears in Figure No.2 is based on
the 1946 Vincentian Census. As can be seen in that figure, there
was a small but definite effect on the males between ages 15 and
29. This "bite" that was removed from the masculine population
prior to the Census was most probably an effect of out-migration
of workers to the other islands of the the British Caribbean. As
will be seen, in comparison with the later Censuses, the impact
of the emigration that had occurred at this point was quite
small. Due to the fact that there are no prior Census data
available, no estimate of the numbers of persons involved will be
made.

The in-depth analysis of international migration from St.
Vincent will focus on the period from 1950 to 1970, for which
there are data available. The 1950 data come from the analysis
of the 1946 and 1960 Censuses that were carried out by the Census
Research Programme of the University of the West Indies. The age
sex data from the three censuses are found in the Statistical
Annex at the end of this report. The Annex provides the adjusted
Census data for the 1946 and the 1960 Censuses, and the official
1970 Census figures. It also includes the official estimate of
the 1950 population and an estimate of the 1980 population (not
official). All of these data are presented by age and sex for
five year age groups, totals, and proportions.

The Annex also provides estimates of the migration that has
occurred during each of the decades from 1950 to 1980. These
data are presented in a fashion similar to that of the census
figures.









FIGURE No.2:
ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINE!
POPULATION PYRAMID
1946 CENSUS. (ADJUSTED)
(N = 61 780)


.--



-.- I-
^0
I -





1i 1
L:


..j.ii -I--
.i- I I J 30.l~: i /



1 I -:: 1

--'~ ____: I 20 .


:-'
-T- :


-^~~ .. :


t^s9' :- ': -
** * I


-^ :]: :.: '.


Age Group


4 .1

a I


*~~ V~ ______ __


.Percent of the Population
Percent of the Population


j


'


. ... ... . ..


I







Passing from the relatively small impact due to interna-
tional migration that is visible in the 1946 population pyramid,
four years later, in the official estimates for 1950, the impact
continues to appear reduced. This pyramid appears as Figure
No.3. In the following Census, that of 1960, the pyramid shows a
significant difference. As can be seen in Figure No.4, the form
of the pyramid has changed, with a much greater constriction in
the age groups above 15 19. The migration continues to be felt
more among the males than the females, as would be expected.
However, the distaff side of the pyramid now shows an important
emigration of females, as well.

In the following Census, that of 1970, this emigratory
impact continues to increase. In Figure No.5, the very steep
sides of the upper part of -the pyramid demonstrate a history of
emigration, with greater sex selectivity towards males. The
reduction in the first age group is probably due to underenumera-
tion of the infant and toddler populations, a factor which was
corrected in the adjusted figures of the prior Censuses.

Due to the unfortunate situation that the 1980 Census
results are not available for analysis, in their stead the esti-
mates that are shown in the Statistical Annex are presented for
the population pyramid for 1980. These data are found in Figure
No.6. As can be seen, the impact of the departure of an impor-
tant proportion of the population is still felt. However, it
does not appear to show an increase over the prior years, and the
numerical estimates uphold this judgement, since there was a
reduction in the absolute numbers emigrating. According to the
estimates in the Annex, there was a drop in net departures of
about 3 000 persons.

Table No.7 offers estimates of the net migration, which in
this case is all negative, or emigration, during each of the
decades that have been under discussion, 1950-1960, 1960-1970,
and 1970-1980. In this table, the outstanding feature is the
immense growth in numbers emigrating in the decade 1960-1970. An
important proportion of this group of emigrants was made up of
entire families that moved to the British Isles, especially
England, before the new migration laws were put into effect in
the first part of the decade. As British citizens, Vincentians
were able to gain access to England with relative ease until the
law changed in 1964.

During the decade of the 1970's, the destination of the
emigrants changed from the British Isles to the American conti-
nent; although it had always been an alternate destination, it
now became the principal destination due to the English restric-
tions. Both Canada and the United States of America were, and
continue to be, destinations for Vincentian migrants. In Table
No.8, data on the number of legal Vincentian immigrants to the
United States of America are presented by year, from 1959 through









FIGURE No.3:
ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION PYRAMID
1950 OFFICIAL ESTIMATES +
(N = 67 120)

------ :

.... -{Age Group








w..o -w
20 5



I---- --








i i- i -: :'. -"- *.** ,
S ' i J 5 3



.... -..-.-4. .....---....- --...---.-.. .---,----/..- '. i*
, i


'i I i *.. i I o 3''


Percent of the Population









20


_









FIGURE No.4:
ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION PYRAMID
1960 CENSUS. (ADJUSTED) ....
(N = 80 600)




to

35.














___ ___
I I I : : I 3 5
,:- ..-.... I.. .i ... .... a: 3o





.-. .. i. .. ... . -I |;. .. ;. 7 L


Age Gr
"I



511A




-3'


3Y


7. 1 i...- :...


group


1^


o 3e I
Percent of the Population


A. Zi


i -









FIGURE No.5:
ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
POPULATION PYRAMID
.1970 CENSUS. i i ,
(N = 86 314)




_-_ L






Tr
:I /I









S-f
o-






4s-


-- '-.- .i- .... .--I .- _.t-- --- __L i ... .... ..

" : 1 . ... i i i -
: ..i . -: .. : :- . .. ...- :. i :. . i '



I I". : I I *..

ThTn I3-


S. ... .. ... ... .. ... ..
4-?






3y











S :' iI
Z.y
3! I:. .. .. : . . .


I


I
I ..;- I- i ..:~-.-
qI .1- i-:- i


|k U i i i j .
Percent of the Population









22


I


SI--


I -









FIGURE No.6:
ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADI
POPULATION PYRAMID
1980 (ESTIMATE)
(N = 98 000)


*' j# fl/:I.j.Ihi.. i


L:J ____


NES:



: :.':.:::



'-


.5



K95


I 40
: "-77.1


/;I i s"


-sq" i
-S,.


Age Group


I7Ti

3 I -- : -' . ..- .- i .. . ... e. ^e I. :
3 y '-" j i -; "I. I .. -
2 .: ..... ...i.. ........:... . ... ...
Y Ii
3~,I.....................I


2S-IZ9


-t --~L -


I
r i ::'
~ I:
~- :
~ ... ; i :- :.: : : ~ : ~ ~ -:
, (-.-... i.- '"-
-1: i i : i -
ii: ~ I: : I I


I
7 .:.i.:.... 1..~. i..
I
i ; : :
t I... : .. j-- I i : :
I:. i


* .


2c- IZ


f
.1


...... ..I


f ' i :. ... . . .

..:Lli97 *:jV! KL&&V
i:..y .::.Li ____________ I


~t1LLwU.'


Percent of the Population .
Percent of the Population


-, i 1:-


r


C 1- ~--- ~-----


-1


-----------~-~----


::


1


I
1








1979. As can be appreciated from this table, after the mid-60's
the number of immigrants to the United States increased. This
came as a reflection of the problems that they were having get-
ting into England.


TABLE No.7: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
ESTIMATES OF TOTAL NET MIGRANTS IN
DECENNIAL PERIODS 1950-1960,
1960-1970, AND 1970-1980
(absolutes)


PERIOD NET MIGRATION


1950-1980 -45 902

1950-1960 -9 941
1960-1970 -19 384
1970-1980 -16 577

Source: Estimates that appear in the tables in
the Annex.


TABLE No.8: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADMITTED TO THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
FROM ST. VINCENT
1959 1979
(absolutes)


YEAR NUMBER YEAR NUMBER YEAR NUMBER


1959 73 1966 114 1973 347
1960 126 1967 218 1974 332
1961 102 1968 509 1975 346
1962 107 1969 246 1976 456
1963 125 1970 297 1977 585
1964 111 1971 294 1978 679
1965 114 1972 294 1979 639

Source: U.S.Immigration and Naturalization Service, Annual Report
and Statistical Yearbooks for the years in question.


----









B. The Demographic Structure of the Migration.


The Annex provides the full tables on the estimated struc-
ture of the age-sex composition of the net migration streams;
nevertheless, it is worthwhile studying both graphically and
numerically the general characteristics of these streams. In
Tables No.9, 10 and 11 the estimated net migrants by age and sex
are presented. The data refer only to those age groups with
substantial net migrants. Together with the estimated number of
net migrants, the tables offer the proportion of the age group in
the prior census that were involved in the migration.



TABLE No.9: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
NET MIGRANTS IN SELECTED AGE GROUPS
AND PROPORTION OF AGE GROUP
MIGRATING (ESTIMATE 1950)
DECADE 1950-1960
(estimate)

AGE
GROUP MALES FEMALES
PRIOR ABS. % ABS. %
CENSUS

TOTAL -5 496 17,72 -4 445 12,31

5- 9 -558 12,42 -572 13,03
10-14 -1 689 37,62 -1 060 23,56
15-19 -1 936 48.77L -1 140 30 08
20-24 -888 33,26 -690 2,39
25-29 -281 14,95 -455 17,98
30-34 -141 9,10 -218 10,23

Source: Tables in the Annex.


On the pages following Tables No.10 and 11, Figures No.7 and
8 offer the graphic distribution of the same results that are
presented in the tables, in the case of the figures, however, the
proportion relates to the total net emigrants, and not to the
prior census population. This distribution facilitates the
comparison of the changing structure of the migration stream
over time.









TABLE No.10: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
NET MIGRANTS IN SELECTED AGE GROUPS
AND PROPORTION OF AGE GROUP
MIGRATING (CENSUS 1960)
DECADE 1960-1970
(estimate)


ABS.


-10 453


, 224
; 005
! 404
! 106
. 290
-500
-401
-288
-118


MALES


FEMALES
ABS.


-27,49

14,46
30,66
46,14

47,78
25,77
23,73
19,07
8,94


-8 931

-1 161
-1 551
-1 693
-1 557
-1 396
-583
-326
-368
-164


20,98

14,16
24,46
33,79
42,20

22,86
15,09
18,68
9,11


Source: Tables in the Annex.


TABLE No.11: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
NET MIGRANTS IN SELECTED AGE GROUPS
AND PROPORTION OF AGE GROUP
MIGRATING (CENSUS 1970)
DECADE 1970-1980
(estimate)


AGE
GROUP MALES FEMALES
PRIOR ABS. % ABS. %
CENSUS

TOTAL -9 267 22.72 -7 310 16,06

5- 9 -3 039 37,32 -2 622 32,73
10-14 -3 761 54,30 -2 987 44,37
15-19 -2 350 53,12 -2 090 44,69
20-24 -1 056 38,72 -899 27,76

Source: Tables in the Annex.


AGL
GROUP
PRIOR
CENSUS


TOTAL

0- 4
5- 9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44





FIGURE No.7:
ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
AGE-SEX DISTRIBUTION OF THE
ESTIMATED "INTERCENSAL"
EMIGRATION 1950 1960
(N = 10 625)





I I I
t/4Ie', | ,


53r-59y

*5-9sf;





5-34


;* ; '_, ,~


s n it is v 11 n i i i s i t i 6 i * s y
Percent of those emigrating
5, -s$

FIGURE No.8: u'
ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: *
AGE-SEX DISTRIBUTION OF THE
ESTIMATED INTERCENSAL


lMIbKAIIUN 19DU I/IU
(N = 19 844)


....."" .... .. .r 1

_, .. ._ _


.. .: I i t


Age Group
in 1950









le


Age Group
in 1960


F~e"1r /e.


Is- ./c~


1o0 1#7


F--I F F IC 91 '3 i


it iI" ,i 1 8 a I t ; i 1 i i .__


/03/4~


6, I


71


/1s


.. I i-


S4 1* It


t I


-r'
















FIGURE No.9:
ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES:
AGE-SEX DISTRIBUTION OF THE
ESTIMATED "INTERCENSAL"
EMIGRATION 1970 1980
(N = 18 804)


Age Group
in 1970


7:1.

.1~ ~ *... I


A


I


*i I; I 7
j..>...:

I-- :.: -
i. ... -. _____________________ ..i.......... .. 1..:. -


Percent of those emigrating





















28


SI.


''


m


''''
..~.~ .1...:1..1:1
:: :; : : : I-:: : ~
,,.....
...
~ :1


::I


: :: j : : : i:-f I~::i --~-1
j :
: .;.:~~ : i r








As can be seen in Tables No.9, 10, and 11, the principal
concentration of the migrants occurs in the age groups that are
between 10-14.20-24 and 20-24.30-34. Taking the mid-points of
these groups, it can be seen that the net emigration is concen-
trated in the 15-29 year old group. Needless to say, this is a
typical situation within the framework of labour migration, as
these are' the years when the young worker is most likely to seek
employment elsewhere either from lack of employment where he
lives, or due to a desire to find something different or
exciting.

Analyzing the three tables in more detail, there is a series
of characteristics that deserves emphasizing, first of all, the
sex ratio of the migrants. 'In the first decade, it was 123,6; in
the decade of the 60's, it declined slightly to 117; and in the
70's it climbed again to 126,8. In other words, there has always
been a very strong bias in favor of the male migrants. The
interesting fact is that in the decade when there was a slight
decline, there was also a greater tendency for whole families to
emigrate. It was also the only decade when the out-migration of
the youngest and the somewhat older age groups made an obvious
impact. The reasons behind this familial migration have already
been mentioned, the desire to emigrate to Britain before the door
was closed in the mid-60's to the citizens of the nations of the
West Indies.

The methodology utilized in the estimation of the net mi-
grants does not permit any estimate of the true flows that have
occurred, rather, it takes into consideration only the stocks at
the beginning and the end of the period. Thus, there may well
have been a much greater movement than that which is estimated,
but it was replaced by return migration,- either the estimated
age-specific death rates are incorrect and the true migration may
have been greater (if more deaths were thought to have occurred
than actually did), or the actual migration may have been less
(if the death rates are under-estimated).

In all three decades, the three age groups of 10-14, 15-19,
and 20-24 are those that demonstrate the largest proportion of
their members as net emigrants. This is true of both sexes,
except for females in the 70's. In this group there was a heav-
ier emigration among the cohort in the younger ages, 5-9, in the
preceding census. The emigration of the younger females ap-
parently is due to the need of families on some of the larger
islands for domestic help, in particular on Trinidad and Tobago.
In the conversations that this author had while on St. Vincent,
'it was made quite clear that Trinidadian housewives will go to
- somewhat convoluted lengths to obtain a Vincentian girl as a
domestic.




29




~I~~~3r~-~;-:~-----~"~ ~~1 __I---_---- _.-~- I~7~







The most outstanding figure in the tables is that for the
males aged 15-19 in the Census of 1960, more than 55 percent of
that population is estimated to have emigrated. Over one-half of
that cohort deemed it necessary to seek their livelihood else-
where. Between 1970 and 1980, apparently the same phenomenon
continued to occur, and the migration was more concentrated in
the younger age groups.


C. Indirect Effects of the Migration Streams.

While the egress of the young female population has a direct
effect on the size of the total population, it also has an indi-
rect effect that is often overlooked: the babies that these women
would have had on St. Vincent do not add to its population
growth. These children of the emigrants can be calculated using
the current fertility rates during the different periods under
-study. If those that left had stayed, they probably would have
maintained a reproductive behavior similar or equal to that of
the females that did not migrate. For the group that left be-
tween 1950 and 1960, that amounts to approximately 21 000 births.
For those that left during the 1960's, it is a little harder to
estimate, since many departed with their families already formed,
but an acceptable figure is in the neighborhood of 30 000. For
the most recent migrants, many of whom are still in their early
childbearing, and therefore most fertile, years; up to this point
they would probably have produced around 13 500 children. Thus,
if we were to sum all the offspring born to the emigrants during
the 30 year period, they would amount to around 64 500 (although
it may seem like an extraordinary number, during the same period
there were 107 150 births recorded on St.Vincent and the Grena-
dines). They make up a relatively young population, but there is
certain to have been some mortality, so the present number of
"foreign born Vincentians" would probably amount to 60 000
persons. Table No.12 presents the estimated numbers of children
born to each group of migrants in each period.

The actual number of surviving net emigrant Vincentians
would be in the neighborhood of 41 000. Adding this sum to that
of their children, the total of "overseas Vincentians" would be
101 000. Combining that figure with the actual population of
St. Vincent, the present population of the islands would be
something near 199 000. As can be seen with this simple arithme-
tic process, the islands needed the "safety valve" of emigration
in order to survive. The present infrastructures of the nation
simply could not support a population that large.








30














TABLE No.12: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
ESTIMATED BIRTHS TO EMIGRANT WOMEN
BY PERIOD OF EMIGRATION AND
INTERCENSAL PERIOD
1950-60 TO 1970-80


PERIOD OF INTERCENSAL PERIOD
EMIGRATION 1950-1960 1960-1970 1970-1980 TOTAL


1950-1960 9 554 8 921 2 663 21 138

1960-1970 --- 14 875 15 242 30 117

1970-1980 --- --- 13 598 13 598

TOTAL 9 554 23 796 31 503 64 853

Source: Tables in the Annex.


7 -- -f









5. THE RECENT STOCKS AND FLOWS


A. Problems With the Offical Migratory Statistics.

St. Vincent and the Grenadines, as a major island and four-
teen minor ones, present a special problem to the efforts of the
Immigration Department. First of all, the accessibility to and
from international waters makes the control of incoming and
outgoing vessels very difficult, other than the aircraft and
larger cruise and cargo ships that stop at Kingstown, Mustique,
and Union Island. To this must be added the actual interest of
the government in increasing the tourist traffic, so that the
Immigration Department, rather than cracking down, has become
more lenient.(9) In good weather, a small vessel can make Barba-
dos, St. Lucia or Grenada, with no trouble. The fact that there
is much movement of fishermen among the islands complicates even
more any attempt at management of the vessels that circulate in
Vincentian waters.

All of the foregoing to aid in the explanation of the
rationale behind the present migration statistics. Apparently,
there has been a fairly good coverage of arrivals, but not of
departures, during the last decade or so.

Table No.13 presents the extant information on the number of
arrivals, departures and the official migratory balance. These
data are from the last two decades. During the 1960's there was
a consistent negative balance, and between 1961 and 1970 there
was an annual average of -1 369. This number compares at least
reasonably with the estimates that have been used in the previous
chapter. However, starting in 1971 the official figures become
inconsistent, and finally, in 1978, 1979 and 1980, they become
unreasonable, showing a net immigration of over 17 000 persons.
This figure would make up about fifteen to twenty percent of the
population at that point in time. There are no indicators on-
island of anything of this nature occurring, rather, all of the
local indications are of a continuing emigration of Vincentians.

Another problem with the data is the inclusion of crew in
some of the years and not in others. At the same time, the crew
figures are very unrealistic, in 1979 they show a net immigration
of 5 613 crew members.

Thus, the researcher is left with the necessity of relying
on the census survival technique to come up with an estimate
that has a reasonably consistent basis in fact. The greatest
problem faced in this paper is the lack of the official census
data for the year 1980.

9) Conversations with local officials in the Statistics Unit.


~I~EEC~s~~P--------c,_~,____~____ ~___~__ __~~~~ __ ~












TABLE No. 13: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
OFFICIAL IMMIGRATION DEPARTMENT STATISTICS
ARRIVALS, DEPARTURES AND BALANCES
1961 1980
(absolutes)


YEAR ARRIVALS DEPARTURES BALANCE


1961 13 563 15 998 -2 435
1962 17 707 19 100 -1 393
1963 19 345 20 009 664
1964 17 615 18 791 -1 176
1965 26 882 28 370 -1 488
1966 23 945 25 063 -1 118
1967 22 813 24 224 -1 411
1968 42 166 43 931 -1 765
1969 52 027 52 752 545
1970 53 422 55 117 -1 695,
1971 45 532 45 720 188
1972 46 642 46 062 580
1973 46 022 46 092 70
1974 57 190 56 638 552
1975 52 806 50 750 2 056
1976 50 724 50 270 454
1977 66 225 65 123 1 102
1978a 113 095 107 609 5 486
1979a 144 942 140 924 4 018
1980 118 662 111 043 7 619

Note: a) includes crew, according to the Vital Sta-
tistics publication. No data available to
separate the 1978 figures. In 1979, the crew
figures were 60 743 and 55 130, which would
leave net passenger arrivals and departures
in 84 199 and 85 794, for a balance of -1 595.
Source: Digest of Statistics for the years 1970,
1975 and 1980.


/) 9/








B. Characteristics of the Recent Movements.


The Ministry of Labour is particularly interested in main-
taining and increasing the flow of contract labour to other
Countries for two principal reasons, one, it alleviates the
chronic unemployment extant on the islands; and two, the emi-
grants bring back substantial amounts of hard-earned foreign
exchange, which boost the national coffers.

The labour migrations from St. Vincent are varied in both
destination and type of work performed. First of all, there is a
movement of young workers to St. Lucia, those of whom are regis-
tered in the official migration statistics appear as "crew".
They ship on as deckhands only as far as St. Lucia, and then seek
jobs in Castries or elsewhere.

A second destination of labour migrants has customarily been
to Barbados. There was a standing contract for cane cutters,
approximately 600, to help get in the crop in Barbados every
year. This was stopped for several years in the 1970's, but was
back in operation in 1983.

Since 1968, there have been contract labourers going to the
American mainland. The Canadians have solicited fruit and
tobacco workers since that year, and some of the same workers
have returned year after year. However, they make up a relative-
ly small group, this year there were only 127 workers. The
United States of America have been receiving cane cutters for a
number of years. During the last cane harvest (October March),
450 labourers were contracted. About one-half of them by name, a
sign of the quality of the Vincentian worker. During the har-
vest, usually between 45 and 50 workers "go over the hill", which
is to say, do not fulfill their obligation to return to the
islands upon termination of the contract.

The U. S. Virgin Islands were, and continue to be, an impor-
tant destination for Vincentians seeking work. They would arrive
first in the British Virgins, and then cross legally or illegally
to the U.S.V.I., either staying there and working, or finally
finding their way directly or indirectly (via Puerto Rico) to the
United States mainland.

Another means of entrance to the United States in the early
1970's was via excursions that were set up from Kingstown to the
U.S. Once the tourists were in the United States, they would
drop out of the tour group and seek out friends or relatives that
were already more or less established so that they would help
them find housing and jobs. This is a methodology that is util-
ized by the citizens of many countries to gain admittance to the
United States (and other countries as well).




34








These unregistered movements of workers and even whole
families is sufficiently important that there are areas of the
western side of the the Island that have a "surprising number of
families" that live comfortably without working, due to
remittances that come in from family members in the U.S.A. and
Canada.(10)

Another destination for the specialized part of the labour
force is Saudi Arabia, where something under 100 skilled workers
went in 1980.

A few Vincentians have found jobs in the tourism industry on
Antigua, and also as policemen there.(11) However, due to the
unemployment rampant in the West Indies, in general, there are
few jobs to be found within the region.

Finally, the Vincentian population in Trinidad is quite
large. Part of this group is made up of the young Vincentian
women who have been contracted by Trinidadian families as domes-
tics, as was mentioned previously. However, there is also a
large group of Vincentians working illegally on Trinidad, and the
local government was preoccupied with their status during the
attempts of the Trinidadian government to round up the illegals
and imprison them.

Thus, as can be seen from the information presented in the
text, the data that appear in Table No.13 are insufficient or in
error, due to the problems with recording the outward movement of
the Vincentian population, especially the workers. With regard
to immigration, there is apparently only one group of any signi-
ficance, that is the French that have moved into the Grenadines
from Martinique. Some of them are locals,.from within the French
West Indies, and some are from metropolitan France. They come
seeking the privacy of Mustique, Union Island and Petit St.
Vincent. However, the numbers involved in this inmigration are a
minimal proportion of the numbers of Vincentians that have moved
off-island, making the real migration balance negative.







10) Mr. Winston Venner, Comissioner of Labour, Ministry of
Labour, Kingstown, in personal interview, July 1983.
11) Mr. Prince, Labour Comissioner, Ministry of Labour, St.
John's, Antigua, in personal interview, July 1983.









6. WHAT THE 1980 CENSUS WILL PROBABLY SAY


A. The Size of the Population.

The official estimates of the Vincentian population for 1980
were all in the neighborhood of 120 000 persons. This figure
takes into account the immigration that most probably did not
occur and leaves out the emigration that most probably did. The
provisional census figures of 98 000 that were presented to the
government (12),are certain to be quite close to the reality. It
is for this reason that throughout this report the figure of
98 000 has been used, as it -is the most logical.


-B. The Detailed Characteristics of the Population.

The labour characteristics will show a continued tendency
towards the urban industrial and services sectors, and in the
same sense, away from the agricultural sector. There will
probably be more clerical, administrative and managerial
personnel, and less agricultural labourers. The relative
distributions of the other occupational classifications will show
minor changes.

The educational levels will have increased during the de-
cade, especially the group that has had secondary education, this
is concomitant with the changing structure of the labour force.
Also, the numbers of university educated will have increased as
well, many having taken advantage of the University of the West
Indies campus in Barbados, others in the U.S.A., Jamaica and
Great Britain.

The marital status of the population will not show much
change, as the typical family structure of the West Indies still
reigns in St. Vincent. As long as it continues to be an emigra-
tory population with an unbalanced sex ratio, it remains almost a
necessity for the women to bear their childern out of wedlock as
the women out-number the marriageable males.

The average number of children per woman will begin to show
a decline, especially in the younger and middle-age groups of
women. The details of this decline are discussed in the next
chapter.


12) Brana-Shute, Rosemary and Gary Brana-Shute."The Magnitude and
Impact of Remittances in the Eastern Caribbean: A Research
Note", in Stinner et al., p.273.


36








Finally, the spatial distribution of the population will
have changed towards an even greater concentration on the south-
ern end of the island. The residential areas of Calliaqua and
Mesopotamia will show important increases in their populations
since the 1970 Census. Since the Census came so soon after the
eruption of La Soufriere, the density of the northern slopes will
probably appear even lower than the real population density of
that area. Again, the decline in agriculture and the increase in
urban based activities will be demonstrated by these changes.











































37




*-* -;*r* ....._r,`Ic-c- ~ l-









7. WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS IN STORE FOR ST. VINCENT


A. Summation.

Thus, as has been seen, the data point to a continued net
emigration from St. Vincent and the Grenadines during the thirty
year period under analysis. Furthermore, the demographic
characteristics of the migration indicate definitively that a
majority of young males have left the islands in search of work,
or of better prospects for work. The outstanding factor has been
the majority proportions that have left from the 15-19 year old
age group.

Figures No.7 and 8 demonstrated the age structures of the
estimated emigrant populations. In these figures, the varying
concentrations by age could be clearly observed. Whereas the
1950-1960 "pyramid" has a heavy concentration among the young
males, the 1960-1970 "pyramid" is more evenly distributed, most
probably as a result of the fact that there was a substantial
family migration during the decade. Finally, and of most inter-
est, the 1970-1980 distribution shows a certain stricture of the
emigrating cohorts towards the younger ages, especially among the
females.


B. What is to Come.

In-the future, if the actual family planning program attains
its hoped for impact, the emigratory situation will probably
begin to improve. The impact of the family planning program can
be seen in the changing relative distribution of the births by
birth order. It is to be expected that the first groups that are
affected by the family planning program are those women who are
high parity and in the older age groups. The proportions of
births to the higher parity and more senior mothers have
demonstrated a decline in the last years. Table No.14 offers
some illustrative figures of these effects.

As can be clearly seen in the table, there has been a
significant reorientation of the structure of fertility and of
the apparent family sizes. The proportions of births of seventh
and higher orders have been cut in half. In 1980, only about 22
percent of the births were of fifth or higher orders, whereas, in
1973, those orders made up almost 36 percent.

With regard to the ages of the mothers, the proportion of
higher ages (35 +) declined from 11,1 percent in 1970 to 5,3 per-
cent in 1980. However, the proportion of very young mothers also
increased, from 26,6 percent to 30 percent. The family planning
program will have to make a special emphasis on delaying the













STABLE No.14: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
DISTRIBUTION OF BIRTHS BY AGE GROUP OF
THE MOTHERS AND BY BIRTH ORDER
(1970 1980)
(relative)


CATEGORY 1970 1973 1975 1978 1980


AGE GROUP

15 19 26,6 27,3 28,4 28,4 30,0
20 24 32,1 31,8 33,5 33,7 35,8
25 29 18,5 18,3 18,5 18,4 19,2
30 34 11,9 11,6 10,0 12,2 9,7
35 39 8,1 8,0 7,1 5,0 3,7
40 44 2,6 2,6 2,1 2,0 1,3
45 49 0,4 0,9 0,4 0,3 0,3

BIRTH ORDER

1st -- 23,7 26,5 27,8 29,1
2nd -- 18,6 17,9 19,2 22,1
3rd-4th -- 21,9 23,5 25,4 27,1
5th-6th -- 14,1 14,4 13,6 12,4
7th-8th -- 10,9 8,5 7,4 5,3
9th + -- 10,7 9,3 6,5 4,1

Source: Vital Statistics Digest for the years 1975,1980. 1970
birth order data not available.






first births of the teenagers, since first births at early ages
will promote lower birth weights and more years of childbearing.
The family planning program will need to orient educational
programs towards methods other than the Depoprovera now used, and
also towards the fight against sexually transmitted diseases.

If the sterilisation programme manages to recruit more lower
parity women, the fertility rates will continue to descend. The
1 600 women already sterilized have had an obvious impact on
family sizes, especially since they are now accepted for sterili-
sation after three or four children.(13) Previously they were
only accepted for sterilisation after six children.

With regard to the population structure, with less children
being born, the relative age structures will begin to change,
there will be easier access to services for the infants, tod-
dlers, and then school age children. As these smaller cohorts
move through the different age groups, they will finally arrive
at the point where they will want to enter the labour force, and
if there really has been a significant decline in the size of the
population group, they will have less problems finding jobs on
the islands and ulitmately the necessity for emigration will be
reduced, although it probably will not disappear altogether.
Needless to say, these are long-term changes, they may take
anywhere from fifteen to twenty-five years to be visible. How-
ever, demographic kinetics work from generation to generation,
and as has been seen in this report, which covers thirty years,
population changes are slow but impressive.











13) Dr. H.A.Jesudason, Senior Medical Officer, Ministry of
Health, personal interview, July 1983.


mZ~I~aL~aCLPTp-~- -- ---- -I~^--c-cr~--~~-- ---r --.----. i -- -*------~.--rm~----~ I~.--r--s~-~--~n----I -; ~I*I~1

















8. S T A T I ST I CAL A N N E X














































41


~"" n"--~n~-~~- -- r-r------ ~ I;~~~-?~i'r-~ -TIT: I:I:TJ-~i~r~ ~' 7` I'~ `" -r~iZ ~`'~`-`-'--I~-~'-' :~`~'----rcrr-*"m













TABLE No.A-1: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX
1946 CENSUS (ADJUSTED)
(absolute and relative)


AGE TOTAL MALE FEMALE
GROUP ABS. % ABS. % ABS. %


-TOTAL 61 780 100,00 28 030 45,37 33 750 54,63

0- 4 9 550 15,64 4 850 7,85 4 700 7,61
5- 9 9 540 15,44 4 830 7,82 4 710 7,62
10-14 8 320 13,47 4 340 7,02 3 980 6,44
15-19 6 290 10,18 3 030 4,90 3 260 5,28
20-24 5 130 8,30 2 250 3,64 2 880 4,66
25-29 4 000 6,47 1 660 2,69 2 340 3,79
30-34 3 510 5,68 1 460 2,36 2 050 3,32
35-39 3 200 5,18 1 260 2,04 1 940 3,14
40-44 2 660 4,31 1 070 1,73 1 590 2,57
45-49 2 320 3,76 860 1,39 1 460 2,36
50-54 1 650 2,67 540 0,87 1 110 1,80
55-59 1 450 2,35 470 0,76 980 1,59
60-64 1 290 2,09 440 0,71 850 1,38
65-69 960 1,55 340 0,55 620 1,00
70-74 790 1,28 270 0,44 520 0,84
75 + 1 120 1,81 360 0,58 760 1,23

Source: U.W.I., C.R.P. Estimates of Intercensal Population by Age


and Sex


and Revised Vital


Countries 1946-1960.


Rates for British Caribbean














TABLE No.A-2: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX
1950 ESTIMATE (ADJUSTED)
(absolute and relative)


AGE TOTAL MALE FEMALE
GROUP ABS. % ABS. % ABS. %


TOTAL 67 120 100,00 31 020 46,22 36 100 53,78

0- 4 10 950 16,31 5 600 8,34 5 350 7,97
5- 9 8 880 13,23 4 490 6,69 4 390 6,54
10-14 8 990 13,39 4 490 6,69 4 500 6,70
15-19 7 760 11,56 3 970 5,91 3 790 5,65
20-24 5 620 8,37 2 670 3,98 2 950 4,40
25-29 4 410 6,57 1 880 2,80 2,530 3,77
30-34 3 680 5,48 1 550 2,31 2 130 3,17
35-39 3 330 4,96 1 410 2,10 1 920 2,86
40-44 2 970 4,42 1 230 1,83 1 740 2,59
45-49 2 430 3,62 990 1,47 1 440 2,15
50-54 2 120 3,16 780 1,16 1 340 2,00
55-59 1 520 2.26 510 0,76 1 010 1,50
60-64 1 320 1,97 440 0,66 880 1,31
65-69 1 080 1,61 370 0,55 710 1,06
70-74 930 1,39 320 0,48 610 0,91
75 + 1 130 1,68 320 0,48 810 1,21

Source: Idem. Table No.A-1.


--''' -ccr.~ -- .;iC7~'l;ln~~~V .r.-.~r. rln~-~~-rLp-~-~


~- "-~-1-m71-----rcl -------CI~----~IW~~1













TABLE No.A-3: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX
1960 CENSUS (ADJUSTED)
(absolute and relative)


AGE TOTAL -MALE FEMALE
GROUP ABS. % ABS. % ABS. %


TOTAL 80 600 100,00 38 030 47,18 42 570 52,82

0- 4 16 660 20,67 8 460 10,50 8 200 10,17
5- 9 12 880 15,98 6 540 8,11 6 340 7,87
10-14 10 220 12,68 5 210 6,46 5 010 6,22
15-19 7 490 9,29 3 800 4,71 3 690 4,58
20-24 6 030 7,48 2 700 3,35 3 330 4,13
25-29 4 490 5,57 1 940 2,41 2 550 3,16
30-34 3 850 4,78 1 690 2,10 2 160 2,68
35-39 3 480 4,32 1 510 1,87 1 970 2,44
40-44 3 120 3,87 1 320 1,64 1 800 2,23
45-49 2 850 3,54 1 250 1,55 1 600 1,99
50-54 2 510 3,11 1 110 1,38 1 400 1,74
55-59 1 910 2,37 780 0,97 1 130 1,40
60-64 1 730 2,15 610 0,76 1 120 1,39
65-69 1 080 1,34 360 0,45 720 0,89
70-74 960 1,19 320 0,40 640 0,79
75 + 1 340 1,66 430 0,53 910 1,13

Source: Idem. Table No.A-1.













"TABLE No.A-4: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX
1970 CENSUS
(absolute and relative)


AGE TOTAL MALE FEMALE
GROUP ABS. % ABS. % ABS. %


TOTAL 86 314 100,00 40 792 47,26 45 522 52,74

0- 4 14 390 16,67 7 321 8,48 7 069 8,19
5- 9 16 155 18,72 8 143 9,43 8 012 9,28
10-14 13 658 15,82 6 926 8,02 6 732 7,80
15-19 9 101 10,54 4 424 5,13 4 677 5,42
20-24 5 966 6,91 2 727 3,16 3 239 3,75
25-29 3 704 4,29 1 632 1,89 2 072 2,40
30-34 3 270 3,79 1 352 1,57 1 918 2,22
35-39 3 268 3,79 1 376 1,59 1 892 2,19
40-44 2 976 3,45 1 224 1,42 1 752 2,03
45-49 2 665 3,09 1 148 1,33 1 517 1,76
50-54 2 637 3,06 1 108 1,28 1 529 1,77
55-59 2 293 2,66 1 036 1,20 1 257 1,46
60-64 2 041 2,36 902 1,05 1 139 1,32
65-69 1 583 1,83 645 0,75 938 1,09
70-74 1 086 1,26 376 0,44 710 0,82
75 + 1 521 1,76 452 0,52 1 069 1,24

Source: C.R.P., U.W.I. 1970 Population Census of the Commonwealth


Caribbean, Vol


. 3, Age Tabulations.














TABLE No.A-5: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX
1980 (ESTIMATE)
(absolute and relative)


AGE TOTAL MALE FEMALE
GROUP ABS. % ABS. % ABS. %

TOTAL 98 000 100,00 46 305 47,25 51 695 52,75

0- 4 17 342 17,70 8 823 9,00 8 519 8,69
5- 9 17 829 18,19 8 986 9,17 8 843 9,02
10-14 15 507 15,82 7 864 8,02 7 643 7,80
15-19 10 333 10,54 5 023 5,13 5 310 5,42
20-24 6 774 6,91 3 096 3,16 3 678 3,75
25-29 4 206 4,29 1 853 1,89 2 353 2,40
30-34 3 713 3,79 1 535 1,57 2 178 2,22
35-39 3 681 3,76 1 562 1,59 2 119 2,16
40-44 3 179 3,24 1 290 1,32 1 889 1,93
45-49 3 000 3,06 1 278 1,30 1 722 1,76
50-54 2 916 2,98 1 213 1,24 1 703 1,74
55-59 2 525 2,58 1 131 1,15 1 394 1,42
60-64 2 238 2,28 979 1,00 1 259 1,28
65-69 1 797 1,83 732 0,75 1 065 1,09
70-74 1 233 1,26 427 0,44 806 0,82
75 + 1 727 1,76 513 0,52 1 214 1,24

Source: Estimates based on data from St. Vincent Health Dept.,
Vital Statistics, and prior Censuses.














'TABLE No.A-6: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
INTERCENSAL MIGRATION BY AGE AND SEX
1950-1960 (ESTIMATE)
(absolute and relative)


AGE TOTAL MALE FEMALE
GROUP ABS. % ABS. % ABS. %


TOTAL -9 941 100,00 -5 496 55,29 -4 445 44,71

0- 4.10-14 -24 0,24 -34 0,34 10 (0,10)
5- 9.15-19 -1 130 11,37 -558 5,61 -572 5,75
10-14.20-24 -2 749 27,65 -1 689 16,99 -1 060 10,66
15-19.25-29 -3 076 30,94 -1 936 19,47 -1 140 11,47
20-24.30-34 -1 578 15,87 -888 8,93 -690 6,94
25-29.35-39 -736 7,40 -281 2,83 -455 4,58
30-34.40-44 -359 3,61 -141 1,42 -218 2,19
35-39.45-49 -262 2,64 -58 0,58 -204 2,05
40-44.50-54 -220 2.21 -3 0,03 -217 2,18
45-49.55-59 -281 2,83 -100 1,01 -181 1,82
50-54.60-64 -86 0,87 -48 0,48 -38 0,38
55-59.65-69 -148 1,49 -41 0,41 -107 1,08
60-64.70-74 70 (0,70) 37 (0,37) 33 (0,33)
65-69.75-79 178 (1,79) 57 (0,57) 121 (1,22)
70-74.80-84 122 (1,23) 33 (0,33) 89 (0,90)
75 + .85 + 338 (3,40) 154 (1,55) 184 (1,85)

Source: Estimates based on census data from 1946 and 1960.


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TABLE No.A-7: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
INTERCENSAL MIGRATION BY AGE AND SEX
1960-1970 (ESTIMATE)
(absolute and relative)


AGE TOTAL MALE FEMALE
GROUP ABS. % ABS. % ABS. %

TOTAL -19 384 100,00 -10 453 53,93 -8 931 46,07

0- 4.10-14 -2 385 12,30 -1 224 6,31 -1 161 5,99
5- 9.15-19 -3 556 18,35 -2 005 10,34 -1 551 8,00
10-14.20-24 -4 097 21,14 -2 404 12,40 -1 693 8,73
15-19.25-29 -3 663 18,90 -2 106 10,86 -1 557 8,03
20-24.30-34 -2 686 13,86 -1 290 6,65 -1 396 7,20
25-29.35-39 -1 083 5,59 -500 2,58 -583 3,01
30-34.40-44 -727 3,75 -401 2,07 -326 1,68
35-39.45-49 -656 3,38 -288 1,49 -368 1,90
40-44.50-54 -282 1,45 -118 0,61 -164 0,85
45-49.55-59 -317 1,64 -92 0,47 -225 1,16
50-54.60-64 -164 0,85 -56 0,29 -108 0,56
55-59.65-69 41 (0,21) 33 (0,17) 8 (0,04)
60-64.70-74 -228 1,18 -74 0,38 -154 0,79
65-69.75-79 55 (0,28) 0 0,00 55 (0,28)
70-74.80-84 146 (0,75) 28 (0,14) 118 (0,61)
75 + .85 + 218 (1,12) 44 (0,23) 174 (0,90)
Source: Estimates based on census data from 1960 and 1970.













TABLE No.A-8: ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
INTERCENSAL MIGRATION BY AGE AND SEX
1970-1980 (ESTIMATE)
(absolute and relative)


AGE TOTAL MALE FEMALE
GROUP ABS. T ABS. % ABS. %

TOTAL -16 577 100,00 -9 267 55,90 -7 310 44,10

0- 4.10-14 1 261 (7,61) 616 (3,72) 645 (3,89)
5-.9.15-19 -5 661 34,15 -3 039 18,33 -2 622 15,82
10-14.20-24 -6 748 40,71 -3 761 22,69 -2 987 18,02
15-19.25-29 -4 440 26,78 -2 350 14,18 -2 090 12,61
20-24.30-34 -1 955 11,79 -1 056 6,37 -899 5,42
25-29.35-39 63 (0,38) 12 (0,07) 51 (0,31)
30-34.40-44 116 (0,70) 53 (0,32) 63 (0,38)
35-39.45-49 59 (0,36) 40 (0,24) 19 (0,11)
40-44.50-54 137 (0,83) 73 (0,44) 64 (0,39)
45-49.55-59 70 (0,42) 55 (0,33) 15 (0,09)
50-54.60-64 80 (0,48) 48 (0,29) 32 (0,19)
55-59.65-69 -3 0,02 -45 0,27 42 (0,25)
60-64.70-74 13 (0,08) -24 0,16 37 (0,22)
65-69.75-79 120 (0,72) 40 (0,24) 80 (0,48)
70-74.80-84 135 (0,81) 40 (0,95) 95 (0,57)
75 + .85 + 176 (1,06) 31 (0,19) 145 (0,87)
Source: Estimates based on the 1970 Census and the population estimate
in Table No.














TABLE No.A-9: ST. VINCENT AND THE
AGE SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES FOR
CENSUS YEARS (1960,1970)
(births per 1 000 women)


GRENADINES
SELECTED


AGE E N S U S Y E A R
GROUP 1960 1970


TOTAL (15-49) 232,9 194,4

15-19 210,0 179,0
20-24 371,3 344,2
25-29 339,1 285,7
30-34 269,1 216,9
35-39 192,3 135,8
40-44 61,0 51,9
45-49 22,5 6,6

Sources: 1960, United Nations Demographic Year
Book 1979.
1970, Vital Statistics and 1970 Census.










A. Methodological Note.


The estimates for the net migration in the intercensal years
were calculated through "census reversal" or "rejuvenation".
This is a technique in which the age groups of a later census,
here 1970'and 1960, are adjusted backwards in time by increasing
(reversing) each for the mortality that would have taken place.
Then, the adjusted age groups are compared with those from the
earlier, here 1960 and 1950, census or estimate.

Since mortality has been taken into consideration, any
difference between the earlier and the reversed, later census is
assumed to be from migration. However, censuses and the
reporting or estimating of mortality are imperfect and this
technique can provide only an approximation of the size and age
characteristics of migration population.

Census reversal estimates only net migration for the entire
study period (here, the decades of the sixties and fifties) and
takes no account of persons moving in and out of the subject
population or persons who move in and die during the period under
study. Neither does it give any indication of how many
indigenous out-migrants might have been replaced by in-migrants
from elsewhere.

The census reversal estimations for the populations in the
intercensal decades of 1950-1960 and 1960-1970 were accomplished
through the computer program REVR5, described in Arriaga,
Eduardo; Anderson, Patricia; and Heligman, Larry, Computer
Programs for Demographic Analysis, U.S. Bureau of the Census,
ISP-PR-2, Washington, D.C.

The estimates for the 1970-1980 decade were accomplished
through a similar, but less sophisticated, application of census
survival techniques.
















51


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9. REFERENCES
































































52
52


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II~ .' ~P










BIBLIOGRAPHY


Arriaga, Eduardo; Anderson, Patricia; and Heligman, Larry.
1978 Computer Programs for Demographic Analysis.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
ISP-PR-2, U.S.GPO: Washington, D.C.

Brana-Shute, Rosemary, and Brana-Shute, Gary.
1982 "The Magnitude and Impact of Remittances in the
Eastern Caribbean: A Research Note." In Stinner,
et al. Return Migration and Remittances,
pp. 267 290.

Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., and Mortimer, Delores M., eds.
1983 Caribbean Immigration to the United States.
Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic
Studies, Smithsonian Inst.: Washington, D.C.

Census Research Programme. University of the West Indies.
Roberts, G.W.; and Harewood, Jack.
1964 Estimates of Intercensal Population by Age and
Sex and Revised Vital Rates for British Caribbean
Countries, 1946 1960. C.R.P. U.W.I., Publication
No. 8: Bridgetown.


1974 1970 Population Census of the Commonwealth
Caribbean. Volume 3 Age Tabulations.
C.R.P. U.W.I.

LIAT, Ltd.
1983 LIAT Islander, Number 7.
Liat: Coolidge Field, Antigua.

Parry, J.H., and Sherlock, Philip.
1981 A Short History of the West Indies. Third Edition.
The Macmillan Press, Ltd.: London.

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States.
Economic Affairs Secretariat.
1893 Statistical Pocket Digest 1983.
O.E.C.S. Printery: Antigua.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Department of Tourism.
1982 About St. Vincent and the Grenadines.
The Voice Publishing Co.: Castries, St. Lucia.








Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Ministry of Finance,
Planning and Development. Statistical Unit.
1977 Digest of Statistics for the Year 1975.
Ministry of Finance: Kingstown, St. Vincent.


1982 Digest of Statistics for the Year 1980.
Ministry of Finance: Kingstown, St. Vincent.

Stinner, William F., de Albuquerque, Klaus, and
Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., eds.
1982 Return Migration and Remittances: Developing
A Caribbean Perspective.
Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic
Studies, Smithsonian Inst.: Washington, D.C.

United Nations Organization.
Department of International Economic and Social Affairs.
1981 United Nations Demographic Yearbook 1979.
U.N.O., New York.


1981 World Population Prospects as Assessed in 1980.
U.N.O., New York.

Wood, Charles H.
1982 "Migration Remittances and Development: Preliminary
Results of a Study of Caribbean Cane Cutters in
Florida." In Stinner, et al., Return Migration and
Remittances, pp. 291 308.

World Bank.
1981 Economic Memorandum on St. Vincent and the
Grenadines. Report No. 2427CRG, May 18 1981.
The World Bank, Washington, D.C




















54


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..


------~l----r~~-r---*----`


1 -ur--r - -











OTHER SOURCES


Directorate of Overseas Surveys. The Ordnance Survey.
1978 D.O.S. 417 (Series E703) St.Vincent. (map)
DOS, London.




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