• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Frontispiece
 Foreword
 Main














Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Dairying in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089089/00001
 Material Information
Title: Dairying in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 58 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Shaw, Alex G
Shoemaker, Jack
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Dairying -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Alex G. Shaw and Jack Shoemaker.
General Note: "August 1961R".
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089089
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AKD9655
oclc - 20231984
alephbibnum - 001962978

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
Full Text



DAIRYING IN


FLORIDA


1i r-


.... -- STATEF FLORIDA
Department 9f Agriculture
A PR 2 P01onner- -Commissioner
ST LLAHASSEE
I _, .







BULLETIN NO. 118-AUGUST 1961R


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA





By Alex G. Shaw, Director
Division of Dairy Industry
and

Jack Shoemaker
Chief, Agricultural Information
Department of Agriculture


STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

DOYLE CONNER, COMMISSIONER


TALLAHASSEE








FOREWORD


About the year 1000 A. D., the Norsemen sailed west from
iorway across the Atlantic Ocean and reached the lands of
celand, Greenland and later, what may have been a part of
,ur New England shore. These early explorers brought dairy
Ind beef cattle with them and the milk and cheese they made
vere traded to the Indians for furs.

Many years later, when Columbus discovered America, cattle
vere again introduced to American shores and the Spanish
olonists took their cattle with them wherever they went in
his country. And as some of the settlements here began to de-
line, the Spanish turned loose their cattle before they returned
o the West Indies.

Again in 1611, the English settlers brought cattle with
hem to Jamestown, Va., and the Dutch brought more than
00 head of livestock with them when they arrived on Man-
lattan Island in 1725.

After the Revolutionary War. people began to hear more
bout the land west of the Apalachians and long wagon trains
noved across the valleys, always westward, and with them
ooved long lines of cattle, both beef and dairy. And with the
ise in popularity of the territory of Florida, people began
)oking toward the South and many families brought cattle
long to furnish meat and milk and milk products.

This was the real beginning of the dairy industry in Florida.































Dairy cattle need plenty of shade and water





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA
Dairying in Florida has undergone many changes in the
ast few years and has developed into one of the largest in-
ustries in the State. Those who have not been closely asso-
iated with the dairy industry will find many new methods in
reduction and equipment.
There were very few cows in the State in 1900 and very
little interest in dairying even in the larger cities of the State
until 1910. The Jacksonville Ordinance was the first city ordi-
ance regulating the production and handling of fluid milk to
e put in force. The first State Law dealing specifically with
he dairy industry was passed in 1929.
By 1920 the industry had begun to grow and there were
bout 70,000 dairy cows in the State with a production of about















Holstein dairy cattle are invading the South



12,000,000 gallons per year. Each year others became inter-
ested and by 1930 there were about 75,000 dairy cows with a
production of about 25,000,000 gallons per year.
Prior to 1930 many dairymen and plant operators imported
large quantities of fluid milk and cream. Since 1932 very
little fluid milk has been imported into the State except for
use by the Military Personnel. It is true large quantities of
sweet cream and some milk are imported each year with the
amount depending upon the State's tourist business.



















A gooa rasture ana Abundant Water make cows haDDv


The dream of a rood dairyman





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 3


The State imports large amounts of butter, milk powder,
ondensed milk, cream, cheeses and evaporated milk. There
re no figures available to make a rough estimate as to the
amount of milk that would be necessary to make the State
lelf-sustaining in by-products. There are some folks who
;laim it will never come to pass because it will always be an
expensivee operation in both production and processing. This
createss a market problem because when surplus of fluid milk
Lrises there are no manufacturing markets to absorb the over-
'low. Producers prefer not to produce enough milk to supply
1ll that is needed to meet the peak demand during the tourist
season for fear of a large surplus after the season is over.
Phis makes it necessary to import an amount equal to about
wo per cent of the normal supply. About 11/2 million gallons
if 40 percent cream and about 18,000,000 pounds of cottage
:heese is imported annually, while the State dairymen make
Approximately five million pounds of cottage cheese each year.
In 1940 there were about 110,000 dairy cows with a pro-
luction of about 57,750,000 gallons of milk per year. The
commerciall dairies were recognized about 1942 as those dairy-
nen milking six or more cows. There were approximately
.200 commercial dairies at that time milking 85,000 to 90,000
ows, which was estimated to be a little more than half of
he total number of dairy cows in the State. Many commercial
fairies have been consolidated since the War and today we
ave about 876 commercial dairies. In these dairies there are
,bout 180,536 cows with a production of about 132,518,465
gallons per year. The dairy industry, with a production valued
t approximately 90 million dollars annually, has grown into the
fourth largest agricultural occupation in the State, which has
,een conservatively estimated to represent a billion dollar
industry. Florida is unique in that this huge industry repre-
ents Grade A milk for fluid or packaging purposes only,
Whereas other states would include a large amount of manu-
acturing milk, which is produced without any control or super-
ision of any kind as far as sanitation is concerned.
The owners of dairy farms and their employees whose liveli-
ood comes from Florida dairy farms are estimated to include





4 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


A modern Milk Plant in Florida


about 10,000 persons with an annual payroll of over 25 million
dollars. Hundreds of others make their living indirectly frorr
the industry through furnishing dairy feeds, supplies, equip.
ment and various services such as veterinarians and other
dairy specialists.

The best available records indicate that the milk producer-
distributors employ about 5,000 persons with a payroll of aboul
15 million dollars. The ice cream manufacturers have an addi.
tional payroll of two million dollars and over 1,000 employees.

The amount of land devoted to dairy farming is estimated
at approximately 190,000 acres, or about 200 acres per farm,
The invested value is conservatively estimated at $250 per acre
or approximately 50 million dollars. These dairies have an esti-
mated 223,000 cows with an approximate average value of
$200 or a total value of 44.6 million dollars. The equipment and
supplies on these farms would account for several million dollars
of additional investments. From these figures it can be easily
seen that the dairy industry has a great stake in the economy





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 5


)f the State when one takes into account the investments,
)ayroll and sales.
Dairying in Florida is a full-time occupation, which may
ieem strange to some who are not familiar with the system
ised in this State. To clarify the verbal picture of dairying
;he following terms may be of some help:
A milk producer is anyone who owns, operates a dairy farm
ind offers all his milk or milk products produced by him to
my firm or plant for processing for resale to the public in
i package form. All of this milk must be produced under
;he supervision of the Department of Agriculture and be of
1 grade that can be used for bottling or packaging purposes.
A milk producer-distributor is any person who owns, operates
a dairy farm and offers his milk or milk products produced
and processed by him for sale to the public in package form.
A processor is anyone who does not produce milk or milk
products, but purchases milk or milk products from a pro-
Jucer for the purpose of preparing for resale to the public
in package form by the different acts of processing, such as,


A modern refrigerated delivery fleet





6 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


pasteurization, cooling, packaging, etc. The plants are gen.
erally dual-purpose plants that processes both milk and mill
products and frozen desserts. The operation of these plants
must comply to all rules and regulations for Grade A pro.
cessing plants.
A distributor is anyone who offers milk or milk products
in package form for resale to the public, and who is not a pro-
ducer, producer-distributor or processor. All products sold by
him must be processed by a milk plant that complies with all
the rules and regulations covering processed Grade A milk and
milk products.

At one time animals and poultry on a farm were there for
several reasons. First, they consumed the surplus of farm pro-
duced products; second, they fertilized and built up the fer-
tility of the farms by the production of a large volume of
manure, rich in humus, organisms and fertilizing elements
including a few very important minor elements; third, most
of the animals and poultry produced a very much needed
revenue.

Cattle, both dairy and beef, and horses consumed large
amounts of roughage that otherwise would have gone to waste.
Hogs, sheep and poultry consumed large amounts of surplus
grain. The producer had a choice of selling his products as
such or, if the price is not attractive as such, he could feed
it to produce milk, beef, pork, lamb or poultry products. This
gave him a two price margin to work on and choose that which
appeared to be the most profitable. This system automatically
created a broadminded individual who operated an all-round
general purpose business.

The development of power machines for each operation on
the farm has created a specialist who donates his interest and
study to one operation. Today, we have dairy specialists, beef
specialists, hog specialists, sheep specialists, poultry specialists,
flower and garden specialists. Agriculture has become the
mecca of specialists. The State Universities and Experimental
Stations have a specialist for each subject or project.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 7


A green feed harvester


Agriculture today, regardless of type, is geared to power
machines and volume production. The best of land for grow-
ing so many tons of milk per acre must be just as good as
the land the specialized crop farmer uses. The days of using
poor cheap land for producing milk are gone forever. The
main research project in dairying today is to find ways and
means of producing more pounds or tons of milk per acre
from less number of cows per acre. There are also a number
of other projects involving pasture improvement, better and
cheaper feeds and insect and disease control measures. It is
important that a dairy herd has good management, supply of
good quality roughage, good water, and plenty of shade. Grain
is the most expensive part of a ration; therefore, the more
high quality roughage in the form of pasture, silage, and avail-
able hay; the cheaper will be production costs. There should
be a generous supply on hand for a full twelve months not
just for a few months. When it is dry, make hay; when it is
wet, make ensilage.





8 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Pasture brought to the cows


Florida has a wide variety of pasture grasses, hay and silagi
material. Some of the pasture grasses and legumes are whit(
clover, crimson clover, alfalfa, alice clover, hairy indigo, coast
bermuda, Suwannee bermuda, pangola, bahias, St. Augustine
carpet, para, rescue, kudzu, velvet beans, cow peas and pea.
nuts. For silage, such crops as sorghum cane, corn and millet
for grain, such crops as oats, vetch, rye, wheat and corr
thrive well.
Growing these crops depends upon the type of land, moisture
and location in the State. The County Agent or State Experi-
ment Station can supply you with information as to soil tests,
what crops are most suitable to the specific locality as well
as proper land preparation and fertilizers to use.
Good roughage plus a balanced ration, aboundant supply of
water and shade in hot weather will make dairy production
profitable. There are different ways of getting roughage intc
the cows, such are, hauling the cut grass to the cow instead
of pasturing it; however, it makes no difference how the cow
gets it as long as it is cheap and there is enough of it. There
are a lot of different methods of producing hay, such as, hay






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 9


Napier grass, a good soiling crop, grazing crop, or it may
be used for silage


A good crop of corn ready for the silo



























Ptl


U'.C

0
-4


Ganrl narmnlnpnf nnetiiroQ ora gmpwnfial ;n ilk- Aa;rr n., n





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 11


fA


Sorghum, a good silage crop


Millet is an excellent green feed






DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


A good grade of silage


driers of a variety. There has been developed a machine foi
every hard job on the dairy farm.
To produce the energy necessary for the production tha
would brand a good cow a profitable cow, the cow needs the
proper fuel to develop that energy. Hay, silage and pastures
are the best and cheapest forms, but these should be supple
mented with enough balanced grain ration to bring that com
to her peak production at the most economical diet. Feed ih
considered about one-half of the cost of production, so feec
costs should be watched carefully.


DAIRY CATTLE
The Jersey breed originated in the Isle of Jersey and is
the predominating cow in the herds in the State. She pro.
duces milk with more than five per cent butterfat. The fad
that she predominates most herds may be due to her pasi
record of having helped to fight the battle against insects
diseases, poor feed, poor management, hot weather and still:





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 13


rvive. She deserves credit for having done her part in the
ng struggle to overcome the many difficulties of the past
at have been eliminated.

The Guernsey breed originated on the Isle of Guernsey and
produces milk of about five per cent butterfat. These cows
ave become popular and are playing a big part in building
p Florida's dairy industry. Her popularity is due a great
eal to the natural yellow color imparted into her milk. The
uernseys have shown their ability to make themselves at
ome in this State and are fast becoming more important in
e total milk supply.

The Holstein breed originated in the Province of Frieland
cated in the northern part of the Netherlands and they pro-
uce milk of three and five-tenths per cent butterfat. The
olsteins are beginning to invade the South and are gradually
making their place in many herds. When the producer learns
o handle these cattle and produces the proper kind and amount
f roughage, they will be an important source of the State's
ilk supply.

The Ayrshire breed originated in Scotland and produces a
ilk of about four per cent butterfat. These cows are about
qual and are gradually pushing into a good many herds,
ut they like the Holsteins will neet to wait until the average
producer learns how to manage them and produces a satis-
actory feed program to their liking to take their place in
he production of the best of the dairy herds.

The Brown Swiss originated in Switzerland and produces a
ilk of about four per cent butterfat.

The replacement problem has been a very expensive thing
vith Florida producers. With improved pastures, roughage,
ierd management, and artificial insemination and control of
diseases and insects, it has become an important phase of
lairy production. The dairy world moves forward on the feet
Af little calves.





14 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


A Jersey Cow


A Jersey Bull






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 15


A Guernsey Cow


A Guernsey Bull






DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


A Holstein Cow


A Holstein Bull






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 17


A Brown Swiss Bull


A Brown Swiss Cow






18 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


.A" 0.
4W At'.
ck,~ ~


An Ayrshire Cow


An Ayrshire Bull






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 19


This brings up the question about bulls. Today, there are
rery few bulls on producing farms. The answer may be to
et the specialist breeder of purebred cattle produce the bulls
erom which will come the semen to be used by the average
warmer to bring about a superior, high-producing, profitable
Trade milk cow. By using Dairy Herd Improvement Associa-
;ion or any method of checking his herd first of production
ind then culling out the boarders, a dairyman can build up
i herd that means success as a milk producer.
It must be kept in mind that cows also produce considerable
n the way of by-products. Bull calves may be vealed or grown
)ut as steers; excess heifer calves may be sold to other pro-
lucers. The cow adds considerable fertility to the farm soil
becausee of her ability to consume large amounts of roughage.
She produces about 10 to 12 tons of manure per year.
Farmers can get the best by using good sires and good herd
management and by raising all the herd replacements. The
State Extension Dairyman and County Agent can be of val-
iable service by helping him in obtaining and maintaining a
profitable herd, more and better home grown roughage and
pastures, and better grain feeding practices.
Calf raising is usually left to the Northern farmer because
)f the cost involved. Florida farmers, especially in the southern
part, buy first calf heifers and find they are money ahead.
Where calves are raised they must be either pastured or housed
100 feet from the milking barn. Since the use of artificial
breeding has become so popular there has been more of a
tendency toward raising herd replacements.


This dairy barn is made of cement block with a metal roof






20 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


DAIRY BARN CONSTRUCTION

The mild climate of Florida is favorable to simple bar
construction. The original barns were constructed, due to th
mild climate, for maximum amount of ventilation. In othe
words no thought was given to making dairy barn walls an
columns to accommodate windows; however, in many of th
dairy barns built in the last two years the walls and column
have been so placed to allow windows to be installed.
With the exception of a couple of months out of the yea
the weather is mild; however, there are about two month
that milking in an open barn is a hardship.














The roof on this barn, made of cement block, is
galvanized iron
Barns in Florida for the most part are all concrete wit:
the exception of roofs, although, in some parts of the Stat
the walls, floors and even roofs are poured concrete.
All floors should be concrete with a pitch of 1 inch to ever:
10 feet. All manure is washed with the pitch of the barn int
a concrete sluice way, which runs away from the barn into
low area for evaporation. This area is then fenced off s,
cattle will be kept out.
The floor dimensions are standard 31/ feet for mangers
5 feet for the platform for the cow to stand on, 31/2 fee
between stanchions and 6 feet from gutter to outside wall. Th,
gutter should be 4 inches to 6 inches deep. In the case of ;
double line stalls 10 feet is required between gutter to gutter
The size of the milk room has been increased in the las




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 21


;0000


- I


A cement walk from cow lot into barn helps knock much
of the dirt off the cows' feet, preventing it being carried
into the barn





22 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


This shows lot and lane arrangements of a large operation


two years for the installations of farm tanks. There should
be three feet around all farm tanks for easy cleaning.
All dairy barns are required to have paper towels and soap
in barn, paper towels in milk room where farm tanks are
installed, three compartment washsink, necessary brushes and
cleansers (soap and detergents), two spigot outlet in barn-
one for hose connection and one for hand washing-, and a
metal table for storage of milk implements and dry storage
for all rubber parts.
If cans are used, a metal can rack is necessary and all barns
must be painted at least once a year and milk rooms as often
as necessary. Milk houses must have both screened and solid
doors which must face away from the barn. A cement lane
must lead from the barn to the door of the milk room.
All feed rooms must be sealed tight and have a self-closing,
tight door that opens into the barn. All mangers must be
constructed so as to be easily washed and drained after each
milking. In other words no feed is allowed to stand in mangers
or barns except during milking. All holding lots must be
located a distance of 100 feet with cement lanes leading from
the holding lots to the barns.


W"i~gJIS





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 23


Some of the requirements listed above are not required in
any other state, but it has been found they tend to improve
dairy operation and cut down time spent in the barn by
operators.
Dairy barns in Florida vary in size from 6-cow barns to
320-cow barns. In no cases are cows allowed to stay in barns
overnight. Some of the larger dairies have an additional barn
built for sick cows or maternity cases. These usually consist
of a cement frame barn with mangers, stanchions and washing
facilities.
Some of the larger dairies have found that a feed-mixing
mill helps to give a more balanced feed and a financial saving
in some cases. The result has been that some of the feed rooms
are larger than all other buildings put together and enables
the farmer to buy feed in carload lots and cut down one of
his biggest overheads. The dairymen furnish a house, milk,
water and electricity in addition to paying a salary of $50


Different types of silos found in Florida include concrete,
upper left; tile, center; metal, upper right; metal, lower
left; and pit silo, lower right


r
























O










Aerial view of a dairy farm, showing cross-fence pastures for rotation purposes






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 25


Scenes of trench silos used in Florida






26 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


to $100 for a six-day week for help where it is necessary. ThE
cost of feed and the expense of help are two reasons why the
price of milk has been kept at a high level.
Some farms have conventional type milking barns where
cattle are contained for feeding, prepared for milking, milkec
and turned back to pasture. The milk being conveyed to the
milk house by human effort. These milking barns may var3
in size from a capacity of six cows to as many as 300.
A large herd may be fed and milked in this type of barr
by turning in and out a number of shifts; however, it ma3
become very inefficient because of the amount of time lost
The milking parlor type barn is popular with small an(
medium sized herds. There are two types in use; the stal
type, which seems to be the most popular, and the walk
through type. They vary in size from two to as many at
12-cow stalls. These parlor type barns are designed to elimi
nate stooping and are very efficient and satisfactory if properly
operated. The milk is conveyed to the milk house by manua
methods or pipelines in these operations.


A stack silo of napier grass






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 27


Here's a ground silo built by scooping up land on either
side and piling into two parallel ridges with silage resting
on ground

Speed is one of the objects of the parlor and this cannot
be accomplished by feeding and preparing to milk in the parlor.
A convention stanchion type barn of sufficient size to keep
the parlor working at top speed arranged so as to synchronize
with the parlor is necessary. All feeding and preparation for
milk should be done before the cow goes to the parlor. Stimu-
lation with warm chlorine water and fast milking should be
performed in the parlor.

It was found a number of years ago that milk could be con-
ducted from the cow direct to the milk house through pipe-
lines. This operation was carried out mostly by three stall
parlors. The milk was carried directly over surface coolers or
into ten-gallon milk cans. These pipelines were generally short
and were taken down for cleaning after each usage. Since it
was discovered that milk could be conveyed through long lines
by vacuum and delivered at most any point desired, it was
also found that by connecting two lines together, they could
be washed and sterilized by circulation methods instead of























7 I II L I I
SECTION o . .. 31 n a


-- .; o e Ti o* .. .." .-T . .^ -
FEID ir ALLEY FEED ROOM







SATI' LI ALLEY L:E" "

ow s4 RO l ']14' .t'o 4 "



E-STMATE OF MATERtStL FLOOR PLAN
034-on is 'I cone.Block Foottings CU.l-d. ID- L3 4 Mix B .
30 -4" 4. I. " 2I Cuo. l osd I STATE OF FLORIDA
Mortor (l-: Il) 3 It C' yd. C nY vlO AMqN'o o
I1o CuYd Mortor Floor, aonqer ptform ol cu 1d-244-3 Mix DeOT.F&GRI. OA1 Y 0 VISION
e* nds 6-Socks PorIoondC.sm t 106 Socks cement
oondB. '- Rd .t -Li3 ,Cuyd roo l,. l
loCord sood S Co e. grool, ThoiScO N MIO 5 TO I5 095L .0
LorTlv. metolALLEY PAT ITIO5 U S 01R,.


Approved barn plan and bill of materials






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 29


Dairy cattle relaxing after a full meal on this
improved pasture


being taken apart for cleaning after each usage. This infor-
mation brought into use stainless steel and glass pipelines.

Today, large stanchion barns holding from a hundred to
300 or more cows at a time are built especially for and equipped
with modern pipeline installation. Florida is one of the leaders
in this type of operation. The proprietor likes it because it is
a paying investment. Labor likes it because it makes his work
easier and more pleasant.

A large per cent of the milk in Florida is produced by this
method today and in a short time, it is possible all milk in
the State will be produced by one of the pipeline methods.
These pipeline units are set up to pull a vacuum on ten-gallon
cans setting in cold water box coolers. The pipeline system
caught on fast with large producers because it was fast and
a labor saver. The washing powder and bactericide people got
busy and developed a method of washing and sterilizing pipe-






30 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Cattle feeding on a rich field of Crimson clover
in North Florida


lines regardless of length by circulating methods that save
many hours of labor and obtained better results.

There was one objection to pipelines by some producers who
wished to test and feed by production and butterfat records.
This system was very inconvenient and unsatisfactory to those
using the old method of hand operation. Recently a metering
device has been developed for the accurate weighing of each
cow's milk and for taking a drip sample of each sow's milk
for butterfat test. Some thought is in the planning for a
meter device synchronized with the milk meter that will feed
the cow automatically in the proper proportion to the amount
of milk she gives.
The quality of milk in Florida is unexcelled because it is
obtained from healthy cows by healthy people. All cows must
he tested for tuberculosis and brucellosis once a year. All





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 31


Here are two shots of registered Jerseys grazing on a
common bahia pasture
































Cows grazing White Dutch clover, a good winter pasture in many parts of Florida





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 33


Proper sanitation increases consumption of milk and
milk products


people processing the finished product must have health cards.
From a bacteriological viewpoint it is unexcelled because the
bacterial counts are kept very low and the different undesir-
able organisms are kept under control. Chemically, the average
milk of the State rates higher than other states because of a
long established custom of furnishing a milk rich in butterfat.
When this is a common practice it is natural to have high
solids not fat with a high mineral content.
Flavors of milk are very important because most consumers
judge milk by its flavor. Florida milk has a clean, rich, re-
freshing nutty flavor. This flavor is due largely to its high
butterfat and solids, not fat content, and also the type of
feed used.
The clean sanitary conditions under which milk is produced
keeps sediment to a minimum. All barns are open the year
round for fresh air; floors, mangers, walls and in many cases
ceilings are cement and are scrubbed twice daily. All cows
before milking are washed and sanitized. The milkers must
wear clean clothes. Handwashing facilities and flush toilets
are provided for all personnel.





34 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Washing the cow before milking


All commercial milk in Florida is taken from cows by
milking machines and a large amount by machines and pipe-
lines, which makes for a closed system. Within a short time
all milk in Florida will be handled in stainless steel or glass
pipelines, large storage tanks on the farms and transported
by large transport-truck tankers. This system practically elimi-
nates the possibility of barn odors, cow odors, silage odors,
etc., and keeps the sediment content to a minimum.
The quality of milk in Florida is outstanding due to low
bacteria counts, lack of off-flavors, and low sediment content.
This has been accomplished by the use of farm tanks, milk-
ing machines, and pipeline milking, which provides a closed-
system protection from dust and insects with fast cooling and
storage at a low temperature. Tank trucks have helped by
providing fast refrigerated transportation from farm to city
plants. Improvements are being made in this type of equip-
ment at a rapid pace.
The production of field crops and pastures has been improved
by new and better types of fertilizers. The field of minor
elements has played a large part in the successful growing of
crops that could not be grown without them.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 35


Attaching the milking machines to the cow's teats





36 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Irrigation has been an important link in the pasture and
crop program. Light aluminum pipe has made it possible to
irrigate large acreage that was not possible before.
The many new powerful fungicides and insecticides have
made it possible to control fungus diseases of crops and in-
sects that destroyed field crops and pastures, as well as para-
sites that stunted animals and in some cases caused death.
Tuberculosis, brucellosis and mastitis are under the control
of the State Livestock Board in cooperation with the federal
government agencies. An outstanding piece of control work
has been done in Florida on the control of diseases in dairy
herds.
The enforcement of the Milk, Cream and Milk Products Law,
and the Frozen Desserts Law, is administered by the State
Department of Agriculture. This work is carried on in coopera-
tion with the State Board of Health, City and County Health
Departments.
Anyone interested in engaging in the production or process-
ing of milk and milk products including frozen desserts should
contact a State Dairy Supervisor of the Dairy Division of
the State Department of Agriculture. Anyone interested in
the production of field crops, pastures, building silos or any
farm problem dealing with the reduction in the cost of feed
production should contact his County Agent.
Milk is said to be Nature's most perfect food, but some
authorities claim they can improve upon its values by the
addition of different vitamins and minerals. Milk is drawn
from the cow's udder by hand or milking machines and when
taken from a healthy cow is free from pathogenic organisms
or very few in number.
The milk is cooled immediately to less than 50 degrees F
and is generally pumped into a large tank mounted on a
truck, which transports the milk to the plant for processing.
The milk is again pumped into large holding tanks where it is
stored at a low temperature until ready to be pasteurized and
bottled or packaged.
Pasteurization has become necessary because milk and milk
products are ideal food for bacteria as well as humans. These
bacteria may be pathogenic because cows have diseases that
affect humans, and the people that produce and handle the






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 37


ilk may contaminate the milk with pathogenic organisms
rom diseases they may have. Pasteurization is the heating of
very particle of milk to a determined temperature and hold-
ing at that temperature for a definite amount of time. There
re two recognized processes, one of which the milk is heated
in a vat to 143 degrees F and held for 30 minutes, then cooled
and bottled or packaged. The milk is stored in cold storage
at 35 to 40 degrees F and distributed to stores and homes at
not more than 50 degrees F. The second method of pasteuri-
zation is the short-time high temperature process whereby the
milk is heated usually from 161 to 165 degrees at a minimum
time limit of 16 seconds.

BULK CONVERSION
The advent of the farm tank and farm tank pick-up truck
was the most unexpected revolution that has ever occurred
in the milk business. When the first model tank was made
ind exhibited, it was so ridiculed that it was almost forgotten.
But when it's real value to the industry became apparent it
spread over the entire country at such a rapid rate manu-
facturers could not fill their orders.
The first farm-owned tanks were mounted on trucks and
)wned by large operators. The milk was pumped from pipe-
lines through plate or over open surface coolers into the tank
)n the truck. When full, it was taken to the milk plant. This
operationn was so expensive that the little operator could not
afford it, but the manufacturers came to his rescue with the
Farm tank located in the milk house operated by pipelines
>r manual.
These tanks were of different sizes so that the small and
arge operators were taken care of; they were of different
;hapes and came refrigerated with direct expansion or cold
vater. The latest development was to install large tanks that
vere connected direct to the milking pipelines; the milk being
Irawn into the tanks by vacuum thereby eliminating pumping.
Before deciding to go to the farm tank and bulk milk
)ick-up truck, there should be close cooperation between the
)lant and all producers. The plant will have to make changes
n receiving; they may be interested in financing the tanks
Lnd help in the selection of a particular tank. A survey should
)e made to determine what the change to tanks will cost, what























U J


I ,ULL Lii(U L
,.,5&f II', i


JERSEYS
.uwl 1n


L 0


Various types of modern tank trucks whi ch transport milk from farm to the plants


C


. -M






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 39


ize, the costs, how much will be saved over the can system
y both parties. Electrical supply should be investigated as
) the amount available and the cost. The costs of hauling,
s to whether roads and barnyard in bad weather will permit
ie use of heavy tank trucks, whether the plant intends to pay
premium for tank milk and as to whether the plant will
ermit an increase in the production per farm.
The indications, after a number of markets have used this
Vstem for more than a year, are that it is very satisfactory
) all parties concerned. The quality of milk has improved
lore by the elimination of cans than any one improvement
ver made in the milk business. The bacteria counts have not
nly improved, but undesirable types of bacteria that effected
ie quality of milk have been eliminated.
Poor flavors and sediment have been practically done away
rith since discontinuing the use of tin cans. Tin cans in bad
mndition have caused more milk to be dumped and held down
ie consumption of milk and milk products by causing un-
esirnble flavors than any other fault to be found in milk
r milk products. The bulk tank has certainly been a revolu-
on from a public health point of view. There are 603 bulk
lilk tanks, 216 tank trucks and 500 pipelines operating in
'lorida now.


Short time high temperature pasteurizer






















U)


Comnlete un to date nrocessino ulant





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 41


MILK PLANTS

There are about 163 milk plants operating in the State of
lorida that process and distribute about 90 per cent of the
ilk in the State. These plants are what is known to the in-
ustry as combination plants. That is, they process both fluid
ilk products and frozen desserts. All frozen desserts must
e a pasteurized product. It is estimated that about 98 per
nt of the milk in the State is pasteurized. The milk process-
g plants are rated among the best in buildings, equipment,
methods and delivery fleets in the country.

Permanent buildings of masonry construction, tile floors and
alls are the usual materials used. All equipment is stainless
eel, which meets the latest sanitary regulations. There is
ery little fluid milk that is not pasteurized by the latest short-
ime high-temperature method. A large per cent of by-products
s pasteurized by the batch, 30-minute holding time method.
Ull milk products are required to be packaged and sealed by
machine. Glass bottles are used to a limited extent with most
markets demanding 100 per cent paper. All dispenser milk
nust be filled by machine and stainless steel cans are used.
,ottage cheese is required to be packaged by machine.

Many plants process and distribute many different products,
uch as, pasteurized milk, homogenized milk, Vitamin D milk,
Iulti-Vitamin milk, skimmed milk, lot-fat milk, chocolate milk,
chocolatee milk drink, buttermilk, sweet cream, sour cream,
;ottage cheese, yogurt and frozen desserts.

Most delivery vehicles are of the closed type, insulated and
Large number are refrigerated. A major portion of milk
,ales is wholesale through stores of different kinds. A large
volume of milk is sold through refrigerated 5-gallon can dis-
>ensers, especially in restaurants. All packages must be labeled
o show state of production, name and address of dairy or
)lant, and true contents of the package.






42 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


L


Showing sterilizing and pipe line hook up to farm tank


Receiving room picturing dump tank, drop tank, scale and
hand washer


mp


I- -- I


--4





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 43


Two types of bottle fillers and cappers
Top is for glass bottles while lower cut shows paper cartons





44 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


FROZEN DESSERTS

One of the outstanding developments in Florida has bee
the rapid growth of the small retail drive-in type of froze
desserts manufacturer. Florida can well be proud of he
retail outlets for frozen desserts because they fulfill the laE
word in sanitation by construction, equipment and methods.
The buildings are attractively designed of masonry and ti]
construction and equipped with modern stainless steel equil
ment, washing and sterilizing facilities and adequate cold stoi
age. The quality of their products are assured by the use c
100 percent pasteurized mixes. These small operators are
proud family of individualists that serve the public froze
desserts to their liking. There are about 862 of these estate
lishments that use millions of pounds of dairy products during
the year. The annual production of frozen desserts is ove
25,500,000 gallons.
Plain ice cream, like vanilla, must contain not less than 1
percent butterfat, not more than 50,000 bacteria per cc, nc
more than 10 coliform per cc, and not less than 1.6 pound
of food solids per gallon to comply with the State Frozen DeE
serts Law. Most ice creams are higher than 10 percent butter
fat, some as high as 16 percent butterfat. It will contain fror
eight to 12 percent solids, not fat, 14 to 16 percent sugar o
other form of sweetening agent, and about one-half of on
per cent of stabilizer.
The processor will start with a base of whole fresh mill
when available, and balance this with sweet cream, condense
milk or powdered milk, sugar and stabilizer to the formula
he wishes to use. The milk products used are the same a
used by the average consumer in other forms. The sweetenin
agent whether it be different sugars, syrups, honey or a mia
ture is the same as served on the table of the average family
The stabilizer may be of different origins, but all accomplish
the same purpose and are on sale at most grocery stores i
one form or another.
All components of a frozen desserts formula must comply
not only with State Pure Food and Drug regulations but wit
Federal regulations.
After all components have been decided upon and assembled
they are put into a vat pasteurized and heated to a tempers
ture of at least 160 degrees F for a period of 30 minutes. I






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 45


then homogenized, cooled and stored in large holding tanks
until frozen. The product at this point is known as frozen
asserts mix and is ready to be frozen. This mix is drawn
Lto smaller tanks where flavor is added and pumped through
continuous freezer, where freezing takes place and air is
corporated so that the finished product is about twice the
volume of the mix. The frozen ice cream is placed in cold
;orage at below zero temperatures to harden before it is
at on the market.
Other frozen desserts, such as fruit, nut ice cream, ice milk
ad sherbets are processed by the same methods. The main
difference being in the kind and amount of ingredients used.


FLORIDA MILK COMMISSION
1953 Legislature changed the membership of the Florida
commission to (1), three consumers, not connected with
il industry; (2), a producer of milk; (3), a distributor
Sproducer-distributor of milk; (4), the Commissioner of Agri-
ilture, or his designate; and (5), the State Health Officer,
r his designate. The Commission still consists of seven mem-
ers which are appointed by the Governor of the State of


Inspectors make a check on milk packaging operations






46 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Florida. The Governor also appoints the administrator of t
Commission.

The Florida Milk Commission cannot supervise an area
the State of Florida unless they are petitioned to do so by
representative group of producers supplying milk within
marketing area. The Florida Milk Commission has three esta
lished areas under its supervision. These areas cover 36 Counti
in the State of Florida, and approximately 65 percent of
milk produced and sold in Florida.

Public hearings are conducted in each area, where cost
production, processing and distribution are submitt.i und
oath, and from such evidence, the Commission deter. 4'*
minimum prices paid farmers for milk in any give,

The expense of operating the Florida Milk Commissl
borne entirely by the dairy industry. The distributors al


Inside view of Florida's mobile milk laboratory operated
by Department of Agriculture and which makes quick
scientific analyses of milk and milk products





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 47


roducer-distributors are required to purchase annual licenses
or their operations; truck licenses for all trucks operated (with
he exception of one) and licenses for each of their drivers.
n addition the distributor and the producer-distributor pay a
ax of 1/15 of 1 cent per gallon on all Class I milk sold, and
n the milk equivalent of cream sold.
The 1953 Act imposed a tax of 1/15 of 1 cent per gallon
n all Class I milk produced by the dairy farmer-this tax
o be collected by the distributor and forwarded to the Com-
aission with their monthly remittance.
The Law was amended to exempt milk sold to school lunch
ooms, charitable organizations and military use.

MOBILE LABORATORIES
The object of the two Mobile Laboratories is to act as a screen-
ng laboratory for the main Pure Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
laboratory of Tallahassee; to be of service to the industry
nd cooperate with other enforcement agencies. The Depart-
ent of Agriculture is charged with the enforcement of defini-
ions and standards of identity set-up under the Milk, Cream
nd Milk Products Law and the Florida Frozen Desserts Law.
These laboratories are equipped with Mojonnier and Gerber
rester for determining fats and total solids of all milk and milk
products The Cryoscope is used for detecting the addition of
vater to milk, which is a fraudulent practice. The acid tester
s used for checking the acidity of all milk and milk products.
The bacteriological equipment includes autoclaves, hot air ster-
lizers, incubators, microscopes, necessary glassware and other
equipmentt necessary for complete bacteriological examinations.
rhe trailers are air-conditioned and have a refrigerator, hot and
:old water, distilled water, both gas and electricity, cupboards,
storage space with formica table tops.
These labs are equipped and staffed so as to perform
my and all tests to determine as to whether any milk or
nilk products is satisfactory for human consumption.
Bacteriological examination by the plate method, microscopic
nethod, and coliform method are made at regular intervals.
n addition to checking equipment and methods of processing,
dll milk and milk products are examined to see whether they
iave been properly pasteurized by use of the Phosphatase Test.
Iilk and milk products are subjected to butterfat test, solids,





48 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


not fat, total solids and acidity determination. Special test
such as, for determining added water, reconstructed milk ai
the addition of fats other than butterfat are also perform
and frozen desserts are checked to see that they contain t
proper amount of food solids per gallon.
All tests are performed by graduate bacteriologists and chen
ists using standard method procedures. One of the labs is al
equipped to analyze milk and milk products for the presence
antibiotics and pesticides.


THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF DAIRY SCIENCE
The Department of Dairy Science is a part of the Agricultur
Experiment Station and the College of Agriculture, Universi
of Florida, at Gainesville, Florida. The dairy facilities a:
divided into two separate units, the Dairy Research Unit ar
the Dairy Products Laboratory.
The Dairy Research Unit is located 11 miles north of Gaine
ville on 1200 acres of land. This modern Dairy Research Un
includes a barn with 79 stanchions and complete laboratoi
facilities to conduct research in the Dairy Husbandry field


Milk pasteurization and processing equipment at the
University of Florida





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 49


herd of over 250 cows, Jerseys, Holsteins and Guernseys,
ovide animals for research in feeding, management and the
oduction of milk. The milk produced on this farm is utilized
Experimental work and in teaching in the field of Dairy
products Manufacture.

The Dairy Products Laboratory is centrally located on the
mpus of the University of Florida. It houses equipment for
e processing of milk and the manufacture of ice cream, con-
nsed milk, cheese and other dairy products. Complete facili-
es are available for research and teaching in the filed of
iry products. The Dairy Products Laboratory processes all of
e milk and manufactures all of the ice cream and other dairy
oducts sold to Food Service Units on the University of
lorida campus. Part-time employment is provided for several
udents in the manufacturing laboratories, which in addition
Sthe experience they gain, provides them with an income
while attending school. Short courses and conferences are off-
ed each year covering all phases of Dairying, including pro-
rams for dairy plant operators, sanitarians, herdsmen, labora-
ry workers and dairy farmers.


THE FUTURE

The future milk business will see fewer, but larger proc-
sing plants. These plants will distribute their products over
large area covering hundreds of miles. All products pur-
hased will be packaged in paper or large tanks. All small
Lems, such as butter, cheese, yogurt, sour cream, and sweet
ream will be purchased from the by-products manufacturer
packaged ready for resale.

All fluid products used will be pumped through meters into
large storage tanks and from there metered out in the right
proportions for the products to be processed. All will be pas-
eurized by the high temperature short time methods and all
rozen desserts will be frozen by continuous methods.

A large per cent of the clean-up will be by in-place cleaning
,nd most of the other cleaning will be accomplished by me-
hanical methods. New equipment, paved roads and modern





50 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


refrigerated transportation is changing the entire milk business
rapidly.

Producers like the plants will be less in number, but muc
larger than at the present time. The small farm dairy prc
ducer will be a thing of the past. It is possible that the herd
may become so large that all ideas of raising feed or replace
ments of the herd will be eliminated. The fact is there ai
some herds in the State that have reached that stage already:

In other words the idea of factory production has invade
dairy production as well as other branches of agriculture
Factory thinking has already been injected into the produi
tion by pipeline milking, cold-wall cooling, storage tanks, vacuum
storage tanks, farm pick-up bulk tank trucks, in-place cleai
ing, conveyor methods of feeding large numbers of cattle i
a short time, and the use of artificial breeding of cattle.

This means a large capital outlay and unless a considerab:
reduction is made in the cost of production, Florida will re
main in fluid milk production only depending on other state
for supplements of milk in the short period and all of ii
by-products.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 51


SELECTED MILK STATISTICS


FLUID MILK AND CREAM

country Pounds
Finland 653
Norway 522
Sweden 487
New Zealand 466
Switzerland 458
Canada 436
Austria 405
UNITED STATES 400
Ireland 371
Denmark 368
United Kingdom 344
Netherlands 329
Australia 279
West Germany 263
Belgium 210


CHEESE


auntry
Switzerland
Norway
Sweden
France
Italy
Netherlands
Denmark
Belgium
United Kingdom
West Germany
UNITED STATES
Canada
Finland
New Zealand
Australia


Pounds
17.9
17.8
16.8
16.7
16.0
15.8
14.6
11.3
9.4
9.3
7.8
6.6
6.6
6.1
5.2


WHOLE MILK EQUIVALENT

Country Pounds
1 New Zealand 1,591
2 Finland 1,543
3 Ireland 1,325
4 Sweden 1,102
5 Australia 1,069
6 Canada 937
7 Norway 931
8 Switzerland 924
9 Denmark 907
10 Belgium 853
11 United Kingdom 714
12 UNITED STATES 698
13 West Germany 690
14 France 658
15 Austria 648


BUTTER


Country
1 New Zealand
2 Ireland
3 Finland
4 Australia
5 Belgium
6 Sweden
7 Canada
8 Denmark
9 West Germany
10 France
11 United Kingdom
12 Switzerland
13 Austria
14 Norway
15 UNITED STATES


Pounds
44.9
43.7
35.8
31.0
24-1
24.0
20.6
18.7
15.2
14.8
14.7
13.9
10.5
9.3
8.9


In terms of whole milk equivalent of all dairy products, New
ealand surpasses all other nations in per capital consumption
Sdairy foods. In 1955, the rate of consumption was equivalent
1,591 pounds of whole milk. People of Finland, Ireland,
weden and Australia consumed dairy foods at rates exceeding
,000 pounds of whole milk. With a per capital utilization of
98 pounds, the United States ranked 12th in 1955.






52 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Northern Europeans are the world's leading consumers
fluid milk and cream. Rates of consumption of fluid produc-
in Finland and Norway, for instance, are from 30 to 60 p(
cent higher than in the United States.

Butter is a food identified primarily with the higher lev
of economic well-being associated with Western civilization:
Among these countries, however, per capital of butter is sil
nificantly higher than in the United States. Residents of Ne
Zealand and Ireland, for example, consume nearly five timi
as much butter per person as do Americans.


Europe leads all other areas of the world
sumption of cheese. Rates of use in many
are twice as high as in the United States.


in per capital col
of these countrii


Americans drank 822 million more pounds of fluid mil
in 1956 than they did in 1955 as a result of a two-quart p(
person increase in the consumption of fluid milk last year.

New records were set for both cheese and cottage cheese
consumption. Ice cream was purchased at a rate nearly doub]
the 1935-39 average. Butter consumption in 1956 dropped
tenth of a pound, but this figure was still second highest of th
last five years.

These facts were announced by the National Dairy Counc
with the publication of its annual statistical study, "Ho
Americans Use Their Dairy Foods." According to the publication
the specific quantities of various dairy foods consumed p(
person in 1956 as compared with 1955 were:


Product

Fluid milk
Fluid cream
Cheese (exclusive of cottage)
Cottage cheese
Ice cream
Butter
Evaporated and condensed milk
Dry whole milk
Nonfat dry milk


1955 Per Capita
Consumption
142 qts.
47 lbs.
7.8 lbs.
4.4 Ibs.
15.3 qts.
8.9 Ibs.
16.0 lbs.
.25 lbs.
5.5 lbs.


1956 Per Capiti
Consumption
144 qts.
47 lbs.
8 lbs.
4.5 lbs.
15.6 qts.
8.8 lbs.
15.5 lbs.
.26 lbs.
5.0 Ibs.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 53



On the production side, milk production in 1956 was 748
unds of milk for each man, woman and child in the United
rates. The dairy foods consumed last year were processed and
nufactured from an average 699 pounds of milk per person.
lis left a surplus of 49 pounds per person, one pound per
rson less than in 1955 and 22 pounds per person less than
e peak surplus of 71 pounds per person in 1953-an improve-
mt of 31%.





The following table summarizes the utilization of the total
SS. Milk supply during 1956 as compared with 1955:


Item


1956


1955


uid milk and cream1

utter
cheese
e cream and other
frozen dairy products2
Evaporated milk
ondensed milk
>ry whole milk


Total milk production


million per cent
pounds of total

64,937 51.7
31,482 25.0
13,648 10.9


8,450 6.7
5,453 4.4
804 .6
924 .7


125,698 100.0


million per cent
pounds of total

63,504 51.6
30,837 25.0
13,518 11.0


8,160 6.6
5,490 4.5
807 .6
812 .7


123,128 100.0


Includes milk used on farms where produced.
Net milk used.








PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF MILK


Total and Per Person, United States


Milk
Production
(million
pounds)
89,240
100,158
101,205

103,624
109,412
119,828
117,697
116,814
112,671
116,103
116,602
114,681
114,671
120,221
122,094
123,128
125,698


Production
Per Person
(pounds)
783
814
795

803
828
856
832
810
768
778
769
743
730
753
752
745
748


Consumption
Per Person
Milk Equivalent
(pounds)
790
808
789

791
807
777
775
758
714
724
731
705
691
682
691
698
900


Year
1925
1930
1935
1935-39
average
1940
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956


(1935-39-100)
Production
Per Person
86
97
98

100
106
116
114
113
109
112
113
111
111
116
118
119


Indexes
Total
Production
98
101
99

100
103
107
104
101
96
97
96
93
91
94
94
93


Consumption
Per Person
100
102
100


100
102
98
98
96
90
92
92
89
87
86
87
88


.nI -


749





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 55


The North Central regions annually produce about one-half
f the nation's supply of milk. In 1956, for instance, produc-
ion in the East North Central region made up 30 per cent of
he total supply. Output in the West North Central region rep-
esented 22 per cent of the annual total. Atlantic Coastal regions
upply about 25 per cent of the national output, with the North
Ltlantic region producing over two and a half times the quantity
f the South Atlantic region. The Western and South Central
egions each make up a little over a tenth of the national
utput of milk.



Shifts in Milk Production, by Regions, 1940 to 1956

Milk Production Change in production
regionn 1940 1956 between 1940 and 1956

billion pounds billion pounds per cent

forth Atlantic 17.4 22.2 4.8 27.6
last North Central 30.6 37.3 6.7 21.9
Test North Central 27.7 27.6 -.1 -.4
outh Atlantic 6.6 9.2 2.6 39.4
outh Central 14.5 14.6 .1 .7
Western 12.6 14.8 2.2 17.5
united States 109.4 125.7 16.3 14.9



Milk for fluid consumption is customarily produced relatively
lose to market. Consequently, the largest absolute increases
a production have occurred in the East North Central and
Torth Atlantic regions where urban populations have been
reatly expanded during the last 15 years. The South Atlantic
Plates have experienced the most rapid rate of growth of milk
reduction, however, with about 40 per cent more milk being
produced in 1956 than in 1940. A slight decrease in output
occurred in the West North Central region during the last
decade and a half. The net effect of these shifts in production
as been an increase of nearly 15 per cent in the nation's output.






56 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


PURE BRED DAIRY HERDS

FLORIDA JERSEY BREEDERS


NAME
Adams, Hal Jersey Farm
Alvarez, A. T., Sr.
Alpine Dairy Company
Agr. Exp. Station

Boyd, Herman

Brown, A. V.
DeBord, Frank L. & Son
Fairglades Jersey Dairy
Fischer, Ernest
Griggs, Carlos Summer Fields
Gulf Wind Dairy
Harlee Farms (H. F. Schollian)
Judge, B. W., Jr.
Magill, F. D. & Sons
Pennwood Farms
Page, John & Son
Paterson, Kenneth
Pennington, Miss Betsy
Rusterholz, A. J.
Schack, M. A.
Sellers, C. C.
Sessions, W. C.
Simmons, Steve Dexter
Simmons, W. J.
Sixma, George G.
Shadel, McKibbon, & Hall

Skinner, H. C.
Skinner, C. Brightman

Stevens, Wallace
Watkins, W. R.
Welkener, Mr. & Mrs. Walter
Willis, F. E., Jr.
Stuart, J. K.
Teal, Hilton
George Evatt


ADDRESS
Middleburg
Rt. 3, Box 628, Jacksonville
8020 Atlantic Blvd., Jacksonville
Dairy Science Department, U. of I
Gainesville
Airport Livestock Corp., Rt. 1, B(
1188, Miami 44
River Junction Station, Chattahooch
Box 467, Quincy
Geneva
Box 205, Windermere
Summerfield
Venice
Marianna
Rt. 1, Box 38-J, Orlando
Box 17, Grand Crossing
Jupiter
Box 535, Fernandina Beach
Rt. 1, Box 23, Winter Garden
Box 666, DeLand
Box 592, Apopka
Greenwood
Rt. 3, Box 111, Tallahassee
Rt. 3, Box 626, Jacksonville
Orangedale Route, Green Cove Sprin
Rt. 4, Box 574-B, Jacksonville 5
Box 212, Lake Helen
Christmas Acres, 325 Cherokee Drim
Orlando
6700 Bowden Road, Jacksonville 7
Meadow Brook Dairy, Rt. 8, Box 1C
Jacksonville
5225 S. W. 21st Ave., Ft. Lauderdale
Rt. 1, Box 49, St. Cloud
Rt. 3, Box 612, Jacksonville
Rt. 3, Box 348, Tallahassee
120 N. Central Ave., Bartow
Box 567, Winter Garden
Coleman, Florida






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 57


FLORIDA GUERNSEY BREEDERS


NAME
loutwell-Matheson
;asey, W. J.
one, John
)etjen's Dairy
)odd, Jack
)insmore Dairy
)onegan, C. E.
Iansdale Farm
,and O'Sun
largeant, John
Ichmid, Walter
sellers, L. H.

Valdrep, W. P.
Vard, Carroll Sr.
Vard, Carroll Jr.
Telda Dairy
;ellers, C. C.
,ee, T. G.
itebbins, Don
laselton, T. Stin
University of Florida Agr. Exp. Sta.

tax W. Zubler
'errine Ranch Dairy


NAME
Facobs, H. H.
,immerman, Mi
itevens, Walla
foder, Ray D:
rewton, Dr. C.
4merine, Mrs.
iernon, Melvin
rensen, Chris a
,ay, Albert
Patrick, George
.erman Boyd

E. Blackadar


ADDRESS
P. O. Box 649, Stuart
Rt. 1, Box 157, Clearwater
P. O. Box 1551, Plant City
7227 W. Taft St., Hollywood
Rt. 1, Box 28-A, Maitland
Rt. 1, Box 9, Dinsmore
Rt. 1, Box 206, Largo
Rt. 4, Box 104-W, Sarasota
101 Alton Road, Miami 39
P. O. Box 17, Lakeland
P. O. Box 822, Sarasota
P. O. Box 93, 22nd St. Sta., St. Peters-
burg 3
Rt. 1, Box 1015, Hollywood
P. 0. Box 446, Winter Park
P. O. Box 26, Goldenrod
P. O. Box 1196, Tallahassee
Rt. 3, Box 111, Tallahassee
Box 1191, Orlando
R. R. 1, Land O'Lakes
Box 507, Eustis
Dairy Science Bldg., U. of F., Gaines-
ville
Rt. 2, Box 102, Sarasota
Tarpon Springs


FLORIDA AYRSHIRE BREEDERS
ADDRESS
Rt. 2, Box 91-S, DeLand
r. & Mrs. C. R. Rt. 1, Box 1125, New Port Richey
ce 5225 S. W. 21st Ave., Ft. Lauderdale
Glades Dairy Moore Haven
K. Bradenton
F. I. Valrico
Jr. Rt. 6, Box 605, Tampa
nd Son 1325 East Fort King St., Ocala
Rt. 2, Palmetto
J. Rt. 2, Box 83, Manatee
Airport Livestock Corp., Rt. 1, Box
1188, Miami
Rt. 1, Box 229, Valrico







58 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


FLORIDA BROWN SWISS BREEDERS


NAME
Herman Boyd

Martin Brown Swiss Dairy
U. of F. Agr. Exp. Station
Beauchamp Dairy


ADDRESS
Airport Livestock Corp., Rt. 1, Bi
1188, Miami
Rt. 5, Box 39, West Palm Beach
Gainesville
Winter Haven


FLORIDA HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN BREEDERS


NAME
A. J. Rusterholz
Herman Boyd, Hall & Boyd, Inc.
R. K. Price, Asst. County Agent

Wendell Click
William Graham's Dairy
Dairy Science Dept.
Henry B. Ebersole
Dr. E. H. Myers
William Bixby
W. J. Leinwerber, Supt.
Tom Perry
Land-O-Sun Dairy
Durrance Tropical Dairy
John Maxwell
Galbraith Bros.
Jeffco Dairies, Inc.


ADDRESS
Box 592, Apopka
Rt. 1, Box 299, Miami 44
531 N. Military Trail, West Pal
Beach
Route 2, Box 25, Moore Haven
Hialeah
University of Florida, Gainesville
P. O. Box 328, Eustis
P. O. Box 428, DeFuniak Springs
Rt. 2, Box 499, Clewiston
Moose Haven, Orange Park
P. O. Box 6127, Sta. B, Miami
101 Alton Road, Miami Beach
Okeechobee
Rt. 3, Box 135, Pensacola
Rt. 1, Box 339M, West Palm Beach
Box 842, Okeechobee




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs