• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Introduction
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Part I: The principal vegtable...
 Part II: Citrus fruits, strawberries...
 Part III: Miscellaneous Florida...
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin New series no.
Title: From field to market with Florida vegetables and citrus fruits
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089081/00001
 Material Information
Title: From field to market with Florida vegetables and citrus fruits
Series Title: Bulletin New series no.
Physical Description: 193 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rhodes, Neill
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Department of Agriculture
Department of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1938
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Marketing   ( lcsh )
Vegetable trade -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Prices   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fruit trade -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Neill Rhodes.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: First published in 1931.
General Note: "October 1938."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089081
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AKD9632
oclc - 28552175
alephbibnum - 001962955

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 1a
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Acknowledgement
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
    Part I: The principal vegtable truck crops of Florida
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Part II: Citrus fruits, strawberries and watermelons
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
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        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
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        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Part III: Miscellaneous Florida farm crops
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
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        Page 181
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        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
    Back Cover
        Page 194
Full Text
A


NEW SERIES
NUMBER 88







FROM FIELD
TO MARKET


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BY
NEILL RHODES
Assistant Marketing Commissioner


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NATHAN MAYO
l 0 o. 8 1 Commissioner of Agriculture

L OCTOBER 1938 TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

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NEW SERIES
NUMBER 88


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BY
NEILL RHODES
Assistant Marketing Commissioner


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture

OCTOBER 1938 TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


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PREFACE

In presenting this edition of FROM FIELD TO MAR-
KET to the public I feel that we are offering the most
practical bulletin ever published on the economic side of
farming -not in the methods of production but in the
cost, handling, output, competition, sale price, and margin
of profit and loss. That is the kind of information that
Florida farmers and prospective immigrants want to know.
The statistics are from actual data and not estimates or
guess work. There is no better authority on the subject-
matter herein presented than the author of this publication,
Neill Rhodes, Assistant Marketing Commissioner.
NATHAN MAYO,
Commissioner of Agriculture.













.... . .:" : : .-...


'..:..' .-.......
.. . .. .. ...
** < J *j B* "








INTRODUCTION


In Part One of From Field to Market with Florida
Vegetables and Citrus Fruits will be found data showing
where the particular vegetable is produced, the acreage
by counties, in Florida; the principal commercial variety;
the method of planting, the quantity of seed ordinarily
planted, the time required for it to reach maturity, and
the average yield; the cost per acre of growing, and the
cost per packed unit delivered shipping point; the stand-
ard container; the pack requirements; the usual method of
loading packed containers in the car; the Florida shipping
season, the volume shipped by months and the State total,
and also the total by counties; the competition in carlot
terms the Florida vegetable has with United States domestic,
storage, or import shipments; the area of distribution; the
northern terminal market jobbing prices by months, by
seasons; the Florida home market prices by months; when
the peak price periods occur and why-all this information
is shown briefly under appropriate sub-titles, the same
sequence and arrangement running uniformly for each of
the following Vegetable crops of Florida: Green Beans,
Cabbage, Celery, Cucumbers, Eggplant, Lettuce, Green
Peas, Peppers, Potatoes and Tomatoes.
In Part Two the information is given in practically the
same style for: Oranges, Grapefruit, and Tangerines; and
for Strawberries and Watermelons.
Part Three is devoted to a number of less important
Florida farm crops, most of which have not yet reached
sufficient commercial importance to have established as
complete data as were available in the form shown for the
Vegetables and Citrus Fruits included in Part One and
Part Two: Lima Beans, Bunched Beets, Broccoli, Bunched
Carrots, Cauliflower, Green Corn, Escarole, Okra, Green
Bunched Onions, Spinach, Squash, Sweet Potatoes and
Bunched Turnips.
The contents of Field to Market are so written and
arranged that reliable information on any subject included
may be immediately located and readily comprehended.
The book is neither theoretical nor technical. Further in-
troductory comment appears unnecessary.
From Field to Market with Florida Vegetables and
Citrus Fruits was first published in 1931. The thousands
of requests for copies of the book made by growers, ship-
pers, agricultural authorities, schools, the trade, transporta-








tion agencies and many others, have completely exhausted
the supply. The favorable reception of the book, especially
by the Fruit and Vegetable Industry of Florida, as attested
by many letters and verbal reports, gratified me beyond
words of expression. The current demand for the material
that appeared in the original book, now unavailable, and
for other information that is featured in the present issue,
has inspired the revision. If this book helps growers and
shippers to more wisely market their shipments, and helps
if only in a small way to increase the farm income of the
State, the energy and time spent in its preparation will
have been a good investment. The reader's appreciation
of the work will be my only reward for its compilation.
NEILL RHODES,
Assistant Commissioner,
Florida State Marketing Bureau.












ACKNOWLEDGMENT


The author wishes to express his appreciation to the
clerical force of the Florida State Marketing Bureau for
the assistance rendered in the preparation of From Field
to Market with Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits. Typ-
ing the manuscript, and arranging and verifying the many
statistical tabulations included in the book, in addition to
discharging their regular arduous duties, made the task
all the more toilsome.
For the valuable assistance of my friend and associate
for many years, Mr. S. W. Hiatt, in offering suggestions
that were followed in the manuscript, and for his help in
verifying particularly the cost data with growers and ship-
pers in all the leading shipping sections of Florida, I am
greatly indebted. And to those who so courteously co-
operated with Mr. Hiatt in checking From Field to Market,
I am greatly obligated.
Gratefully acknowledging the assistance of all who in
any way contributed to the preparation of From Field to
Market, I assume full responsibility for the contents. Since
every word in the book was written by the author, it would
be most embarrassing for anyone else who may have kindly
supplied or verified some part of the raw material, to be
held chargeable for the final composition, and conclusions
of the author.










TABLE OF CONTENTS


PART ONE
The Principal Vegetable Truck Crops of Florida


Beans, Green ---..------ ..-------- ---------- ------
Cabbage __.--- ----------..--- --------- -
Celery ----....------------ ---------...--.--.------
Cucumbers --- --- -- ---------
Eggplant ... .. ..-- ----- --- -------
Lettuce ---------------
Peas, Green ------.---------------....- ------------
Peppers ..-------------------- ----------- ----------
Potatoes -.-------...
Tomatoes _--- -.- -------.-------------


Pages
9-16
17-24
25-31
32-39
40-47
48-52
53-60
61-68
69-76
77-85


PART TWO
Citrus Fruits, Strawberries and Watermelons
Oranges --.-.---.---. ---- 89-118
Grapefruit ...---.. ------------------ ------ -119-144
Tangerines ..------. --- ---------. 145-155
Strawberries _- -----_--- --- 156-163
Watermelons ...-- .----.------------ 164-170


PART THREE
Miscellaneous Florida Farm Crops
Beans, Lima ..---- --- ---------- ------ ---- -- 173-175
Beets, Bunched -. ...- ----..---------- ---- 176
Broccoli _.. . . .-____.. . 177-179
Carrots, Bunched .------------- --------- 180
Cauliflower --------_ 181
Corn, Green --------.---- --------- 182-183
Escarole __.----- ----- ----.------ -- --------- -184
Okra ----------- ---------- 185-186
Onions, Green Bunched ---------------------- 187
Spinach -_- ---- - -------- -------------- 188
Squash ------------ -.-----...-.------ 189-190
Sweet Potatoes ...- ---.- -- ------------ 191-192
Turnips, Bunched ---------.----------------- 193















From Field to Market with
Florida Vegetables and
Citrus Fruits



PART ONE



THE PRINCIPAL
VEGETABLE TRUCK CROPS
OF FLORIDA

BEANS, GREEN
CABBAGE
CELERY
CUCUMBERS
EGGPLANT
TOMATOES
POTATOES
PEPPERS
PEAS, GREEN
LETTUCE










From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 9


GREEN BEANS


The per-annum farm value of the Florida crop, ten-season
1926-27 through 1935-36 average, was $5,360,900. In the cal-
endar years 1933 through 1936 Florida led all States in the
shipments of snap beans, including limas, and shipped 70% of
the United States total.

Acreage.-The location of the commercial bean growing
districts in Florida is shown by the following county acreage
tabulation, ten-season period:

1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937
County -29 -30 -31 -32 -33 -34 -35 -36 -37 -38
Alachua .-.. 900 1,250 1,100 1,200 850 550 500 900 600 600
Bradford ..---. 400 410 250 350 300 200 200 300 200 200
Brevard .--- -- - 50 .
Broward .... 5,450 4,400 7,300 7,700 19,000 14,000 17,700 23,500 22,800 21,000
Collier -- __ --- 100 300 100 -..... 50
Columbia .-- -. 100 100 100 ---- .- 100 --
Clay ...--- 10 100 50 50 -
Dade .- ....... 850 1,100 1,000 500 1,500 750 2,300 2,200 1,200 500
DeSoto 50 150 50 ..... 100 100 50
Gadsden ..... 500 500 500 500 100 100 100 100 100 400
Glades ... 325 300 150 150 50 50 50 200 300 200
Hardee __ 650 300 250 100 75 75 50 50 50 50
Hendry -... 700 850 600 225 200 300 700 900 700 700
Hernando -.. 100 210 200 325 300 350 200 175 150 100
Highlands -50 300 300
Hillsborough 950 1,100 825 550 550 700 1,200 600 800 1,600
Indian River. 1,000 800 650 500 400 300 400 450 300 250
Lake .... 175 35 --- 100 ._ 100
Lee .---. 50 50
Levy -- 175 150 300 550 500 550 300 300 350 300
Manatee ..... 125 300 400 200 400 700 150 150 100 100
Marion ...... 2,075 4,100 2,950 3,000 4,000 2,500 1,900 2,000 .2,000 2,000
Martin 750 450 350 275 225 350 400 300 200 400
Okeechobee ... 325 500 300 700 700 1,300 1,300 1,100 1,300 800
Orange _.. 200 225 550 550 550 500 400 300 550 500
Osceola --..-. 15 75 100 50 25 50 50 50 50 50
Palm Beach 7,300 11,000 14,500 19,000 17,500 36,800 36,700 26,000 25,100 28,800
Pasco ___ 100 50 50 100 100 200 50 100
Polk ...... 350 50 200 125 125 100 100 100 100 100
Putnam ....... 100 35 50 50 ... .. 100 100 100
Saint Johns .._ 25 ... 50 25 .. ..
Saint Lucie --. 300 850 450 325 75 300 400 450 500 300
Sarasota -...... 35 20 150 50 50 50 50
Seminole ...... 300 465 650 875 300 700 250 325 450 450
Sumter ......- 2,400 4,000 5,200 2,700 1,250 1,150 650 300 250 400
Union ......- 315 450 125 100 150 100 100 50 100
Volusia ..... ...- ..- 25 .. .... -
Others ...--. 150 500 500 575 400 --.. 100 .. 50 100
State Total __27,000 34,900 40,000 41,500 49,625 62,625 67,000 61,200 58,800 60,700


Varieties.-The principal commercial varieties of green
beans grown in Florida are: Bountiful, Stringless Black Val-
entine, Giant Stringless. Kentucky Wonder and Wax Beans
are also grown in a number of sections.

Planting.-From three pecks to one bushel (45 to 60.1bs.)
of seed per acre is the usual amount. Beans are planted in









10 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

drills 3 feet apart, from 2 to 4 inches in the drills, covered about
2 inches deep. From the time beans are planted, crop will pro-
duce in from 45 to 60 days. The State's average yield is about
90 bushel hampers per acre. In the principal bean districts,
a much higher yield is realized, 125 hampers or more per acre.
Cost.-The cost of growing a crop of beans in Florida, not
including land cost, rental, taxes or depreciation, will range
from $40 to $75 per acre: Preparation and cultivation of land
$12.50-26.50; seed $6.50-9.00; fertilizer $15-30; spraying and
miscellaneous $6.00-9.50-or 40c-75c hamper, on a yield for
instance of 100 hampers per acre. To deliver beans at loading
station, the cost will average from 90c-$1.30 per hamper: Grow-
ing 40c-75c; picking 22c-25c; grading and packing (most beans
in South Florida are belt graded) 9c-10c; hamper 14c-15c;
hauling 5c.
Container.-The bushel hamper is the standard shipping
container in general use in Florida.
Pack.-The hamper should be well filled, tight pack, so
that settling and excessive shrinkage in transit will not result.
Only well formed, bright, fresh, young, tender, firm beans of
similar varietal characteristics, of uniform size, and free from
damage, should be placed in the package.
Loading in Car.-Beans in carlots are shipped under refrig-
eration. The hampers are usually loaded in each end of car,
8 stacks, 5 and 6 rows wide, 5 and 6 layers high on sides, with
hampers alternately reversed, or layers of hampers alternately
reversed. Irregular loading between doorways. The average
load per car is about 572, ranging from 446 to 660 hampers or
more per car.
Florida Shipments.-The shipping season of Florida green
beans is from October through June. The following table shows
the carlot shipments from Florida by months for ten seasons,
1928-29 through 1937-38:
Total
Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Season
1928-29--......-----. ...... 160 203 119 432 687 1,276 371 3 3,251
1929-30 _.._.._. 9 298 993 591 452 390 594 728 58 4,113
1930-31 ......... 224 1,019 333 214 272 433 760 995 65 4,315
1931-32 .......-. 330 1,330 1,403 1,254 876 456 264 987 41 6,941
1932-33- .....-...- 407 597 603 1,515 1,375 1,332 1,425 597 17 7,868
1933-34- .......--.. 204 1,522 1,279 1,454 1,049 1,321 1,429 1,007 63 9,328
1934-35 ......-..- 37 955 508 65 1,401 1,508 1,509 399 17 6,399
1935-36 --......-. 144 1,028 246 717 949 772 885 633 37 5,411
1936-37 ............ 271 1,145 1,185 1,262 470 537 841 363 65 6,139
1937-38........---.... 151 850 651 736 865 1,103 1,473 192 21 *6,044
Includes 2 cars in July.











From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 11


The following compilation of carlot bean shipments from
Florida counties, from the 1926-27 season through the 1937-38
season, will show definitely the commercial bean shipping cen-
ters. (Note the heavy increase in Broward and Palm Beach
counties) :


go a0 a '4 01 ca 0 i ao
a a a a a a a a a ci ci n
County a a 0
a a a a a a a a a a a a

Alachua 78 97 259 129 156 61 10 64 34 50 68 88
Bradford __- 32 26 43 14 28 10 - 2 4 17
Broward 453 203 658 667 745 1,610 2,102 2,067 1,352 1,223 1,431 1,322
Collier .__ .-- -- --- ---- 4 9 7 10 1 _--_ 1
Dade -. -- 2 80 27 20 38 160 78 118 87 83 80
DeSoto ------ -- -- ---- 1 _- ----. 2 -- 2
Flagler 21 3 ....... 3 3 .... ...
Gadsden 5 6 41 16 7 3 1 15 5 13
Glades 48 35 24 13 23 12 3 3 1 25-- 5
Hardee 2 3 7 3 20 .._ 2 3 ..- .-. 2
Hendry 394 51 94 149 73 12 15 24 4 16 1 --
Hernando -- 10 11 20 15 38 30 5 2 8
Highlands .. 24 11 ..-- -. -- ----.- 1 3 ..... 10 10
Hillsborough __ 67 47 44 25 18 25 29 6 13 16 14
Indian River 86 49 56 27 33 37 20 2 .....
Jackson .---- -- -.. -...--- 2 --- ------
Lake .s---. 39 23 22 1 4 5 -._ ...... 2 ......---- 4
Lee .....--- 48 5 ... ... 10 ---
Leon ....-----_--- .---- ---...... ..---- 1 ---- ----
Levy -1 22 7 26 36 14 27 16 10 13 2
Madison___ -.. ..-- 5 -- 5
Manatee .- 85 21 8 20 56 13 55 43 11 1 3 1
Marion .---- 178 389 540 231 316 140 153 158 99 22 46 75
Martin .__ _- .__ 35 9 14 9 20 39 14 3 ..- 5
Okeechobee 3 19 30 48 28 93 145 221 123 61 60 1
Orange 1 9 28 10 64 53 49 70 2 7 16 21
Osceola -.._ __ ..- ... 1 13 __--
Palm Beach 487 1,931 1,657 1,859 2,056 3,602 3,669 4,895 3,493 3,046 3,771 3,739
Pasco --- 2 7 5 3 .__ 3 7 ..._ _._ 2 1
Polk 14 10 4 2 5 1 2 ................
Putnam -.__ 4 -- 1 1 2 1 1 6
St. Lucie 38 5 5 4 14 6 3 3 5 11 16 10
Sarasota _. __ 3 -... 1 14 _.._ 6 2 --- .-
Seminole -- 12 41 44 22 112 96 36 100 9 19 10 1
Sumter -__- 675 362 353 183 318 109 55 52 37 6 35 48
Union ---. 14 13 29 8 6 ......--- .-... 4 3 6
Volusia ...-.._ 54 _.- ............ 1 4 -- -- ..... ..... .....- 1 ..
Others r.. .. 7 ... 1 13 ...... ....-...... ...
Total Rail .- ..-2,795 3,394 4,109 3,513 4,233 5,994 6,593 7,942 5,353 4,611 5,587 5,482
Boat- ..........--------- 138 86 148 297 329 260 180 219 319
Express 4_3-- __ _. .... 403 .._ 799 978 1,056 786 620 333 243
Grant Total -_2,795 3,394*4,109*4,054*4,319 6,941 7,868 9,327 6,399 5,411 6,139 6,044

* Total in Season 1928-29 includes express shipments allocated to different counties.
It will be noted that the totals for Seasons 1929-30 and 1930-31 vary slightly from
the State's total shown in the talAb of Florida Shipments immediately above, which
is due to final revision for season's total, and to boat and express shipments being
included.

Competitive Shipments.-The preceding table indicates the
local home competition bean growers must expect to meet every
season. There is competition to Florida beans from other States,
most pronounced naturally in the early fall and late spring









12 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

season of these outside States. Competition, is at the minimum
in January, February and March. Texas and Louisiana beans
are on the markets in more months of the Florida season than
those from other States, but Mississippi, North Carolina, South
Carolina and Virginia ship in October for instance, and as the
Florida season ends in June, in addition to these States, Ar-
kansas, Georgia, Maryland, New Jersey and Tennessee are ship-
ping beans. The imports of snap beans are not serious, and
are principally from Cuba, from 2 to 14 cars per season; from
Puerto Rico, about 10 cars per season; and Mexico with only
3 or 4 cars per season. The Cuban and Puerto Rican beans
are sold largely on the New York market. The following tabula-
tion will better emphasize the volume and time of the carlot
competition of Florida Green Beans:

U. S. Shipments, All States Except Florida, Nine Seasons, by months

Total
Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June_(9 mo.)
1928-29 -----... 406 163 15 ...- ... 44 325 2.196 1.256 4.405
1929-30 ....--. 809 160 .... 78 451 1,824 2,015 5,337
1930-31 ....- 405 83 1 26 341 1.545 1,915 4.316
1931-32 ..-.. 443 70 3 6 48 136 9 1,443 1,230 3,388
1932-33 - 544 149 --- -..- 31 382 895 610 2.611
1933-34 ...-- 197 170 19 4 1 17 135 1,554 1,053 3,150
1934-35 ..---- 465 145 2 .. 176 1,618 1,050 3,456
1935-36 .... 336 148 58 7 -- 1 136 858 1,059 2,603
1936-37 .----- 420 64 3 11 48 1,021 620 2,187

Distribution.-About 91% of the Florida bean crop (exclu-
sive of truck shipments) in the 1936-37 season was shipped by
rail in carlots compared to 85% in the 1935-36 season. About
5% was shipped by express compared to 12% in 1935-36, and
4% by boat compared to 3% in 1935-36. In the 1936-37 season
70% of the Florida rail carlot shipments moved into Eastern
territory, 24% into Western territory, and 6% into Southern
territory. New York City alone takes about 45% of the total
shipments of Florida beans, by rail, boat, l.c.l. express and
truck, which is considerably less in proportion than eight or
ten years ago. Considering the four-year period, 1932-1935
inclusive, the rail receipts on the New York market from Florida
have declined; the truck receipts have about doubled the pre-
vious year's total, each year.
Northern Market Prices.-The following compilation of
simple average destination jobbing prices, by months, of Florida
Green Beans, in bushel hampers, No. 1 or top grade basis, for









From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 13

thirteen seasons, 1925-26 through 1937-38, shows the period
of highest, as well as the months of lowest prices:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1925-26 __--. $4.05 $4.55 $7.85 $9.60 $8.85 $4.00 $4.61 $2.00
1926-27 ..--- 3.85 3.43 7.69 8.45 4.55 2.89 1.82 -
1927-28 ---- ...- 2.11 2.43 7.29 7.09 5.92 4.32 2.64
1928-29 ..---- 4.75 5.20 6.20 3.85 3.55 3.25 2.10
1929-30 --_... .. 3.92 2.63 3.85 4.46 5.66 4.47 2.72 1.28
1930-31 ..- 2.17 4.03 7.29 6.19 5.36 3.71 2.44
1931-32 --.-. ----- 1.88 1.79 2.01 2.39 4.20 5.54 2.15
1932-33 ----- 2.21 3.58 1.95 1.69 2.41 1.77 1.61
1933-34 ----- 1.48 1.50 1.96 2.35 2.51 2.37 1.63
1934-35 -------- 2.47 2.99 5.96 2.83 1.79 2.06 1.20
1935-36 -.... .---.... 1.84 4.02 3.10 2.53 2.96 3.08 1.88
1936-37 ....---------- 1.78 1.60 2.04 3.25 3.94 3.06 2.64 -
1937-38 -. ----- 2.30 2.70 2.52 2.43 2.19 1.72 1.32

Perhaps the best means of illustrating the price trends of
the different seasons and of determining whether there is con-
sistently every season a period of one or two months of the
highest prices, is by charting the data. If a table, or "price
field" is made up, the months November through June running
horizontally across the top, and the prices $1.00 to $10.00 run-
ning vertically up the left side, a line representing each season
can be quickly filled in. Part or all of the seasons can be charted,
as may be desired.
Destination jobbing prices by weeks reflect price fluctua-
tions in more detail than the monthly jobbing price averages
and show the trends within the different months. The following
tabulation of simple average jobbing prices of Florida Green
Beans in destination markets, bushel hampers, No. 1 or top
market basis, and the volume shipped by Florida, by weeks, for
three seasons, will show a clear picture of both individual short-
period price and shipment movements, and the trend for com-
paratively longer-periods or the entire season:










14 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

Week Season Season Season
Ending 1937-1938 1936-1937 1935-1936
Nov. 6 123 cars $2.84 230 cars $1.56 214 cars $1.69


13
20
27
Dec. 4
11
18
25
Jan. 1
8
15
22
29
Feb. 5
12
19
26
Mar. 5
12
19
26
Apr. 2
9
16
23
30
May 7
14
21
28


2.18
2.22
2.13
1.73
2.44
3.15
3.11
2.90
2.67
2.72
2.34
2.31
2.82
2.61
2.27
1.89
1.99
2.57
2.46
1.97
1.84
1.71
1.67
1.76
1.64
1.45
1.25
1.33
1.23


1.67
1.84
2.03
2.00
1.56
1.46
1.47
1.52
2.01
2.27
1.84
2.02
2.45
3.16
3.39
4.14
4.17
4.12
4.13
3.82
2.89
3.02
3.06
3.38
2.86
2.96
3.11
2.31
*1.65


1.41
1.93
2.37
3.47
3.36
4.09
5.12
4.44
3.42
3.00
2.69
2.84
2.67
2.30
2.66
2.44
2.29
2.50
2.87
3.92
3.48
3.65
3.13
2.76
2.29
2.15
1.89
1.92
*1.72


* Limited sales, part week.
Florida Market Prices.-Growers who use at some time of
the shipping season, especially those who ship largely by express
or truck to home markets, have use also for Florida market
quotation averages. The following table of monthly Jackson-
ville, Florida, simple average jobbing prices, best grade quoted,
bushel hampers, for the calendar years 1926 through June 1938,
will meet the requirements of those interested in home markets:


Tear


1926 -__-..
1927 9._. _
192830 ----
192 --....
1929 .
1930 .-
1931--
1932 -......
1933 ... ....
1935__-
1934 6
19375...
1938 --.....


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.


$5.15 -$ .. $7.30 $3.40 $2.97 $1.81 $2.14 $3.73 $3.54 $245 $2.23 $2.36
5.36 6.22 3.60 2.16 1.63 2.41 2.56 2.36 2.58 2.f0 1.63 1.78
4.40 5.07 3.59 2.61 1.57 1.60 2.17 3.61 4.23 J .50 3.32 2.52
3.54 2.62 2.51 2.20 1.10 1.27 2.33 3.02 2.801..55 2.74 2.28
2.93 3.02 4.10 3.56 1.85 1.24 2.87 2.37 2.71 1.58 1.55 2.85
4.82 4.05 3.90 2.55 1.52 1.33 2.95 1.85 1.93 1.93 1.51 *1.50
1.66 2.29 3.05 3.49 1.50 .70 1.27 2.04 2.01 1.36 1.88 2.99
2.05 1.54 1.70 1.29 1.74 2.11 2.89 1.05 1.41 2.34 1.18 .99
1.51 1.91 2.01 1.85 .98S .86S 2.07S 2.44S 1.788 L36S 2.12 2.31
5.33 2.36 1.60 1.68 .78 1.08 1.54 1.59 1.93 2.35 1.65 3.12
2.28 1.61 1.01 1.92 1.25 1.19 1.59 1.28 1.24, 1.00 1.27 1.25
1.24 2.32 2.62 2.16 1.46 1.18 1.34 1.56 1.67. 1.76 1.84 1.95
1.80 1.83 1.37 .84 .61 1.10


* Part month. S Southern offerings.









From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 15


The next table gives the total U. S. bean shipments for
each month of the Florida shipping season, and the correspond-
ing destination monthly jobbing price average for Florida beans.
In checking the relationship of average-price to total-shipment
supply, liberal views must be taken, for it does not always follow
that, on a monthly basis, slightly increased shipments result
in lower prices, or decreased shipments in higher prices. The
fluctuation in competitive product supply, the change in con-
sumer demand, the weather, economic conditions, are factors
along with others that affect the supply and demand, and the
price trend.


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1928-29
Total U. S. Shipments --...... 323 218 119 432 731 1,601 2,567 1,259
Northern Prices Fla. Beans- $4.75 $5.20 $6.20 $3.85 $3.55 3.25 $2.10 $ -..
1929-30
Total U. S. Shipments -...--. 458 993 591 452 468 1,045 2,552 2,073
Northern Prices Fla. Beans- $3.92 $2.63 $3.85 $4.46 $5.66 $4.47 $2.72 $1.28
1930-31
Total U. S. Shipments .-..-... 1,102 333 f14 273 459 1,101 2,540 1,980
Northern Prices Fla. Beans_ $2.17 $4.03 $7.29 $6.19 $5.36 $3.71 $2.44 $ ..
1931-32
Total U. S. Shipments .-...... 1,400 1,406 1,260 924 592 276 2,430 1,271
Northern Prices Fla. Beans- $1.88 $1.79 $2.01 $2.39 $4.20 $5.54 $2.15 $__
1932-33
Total U. S. Shipments ......... 746 603 1,515 1,375 1,363 1,807 1,492 627
Northern Prices Fla. Beans- $2.21 $3.58 $1.95 $1.69 $2.41 $1.77 $1.61 $
1933-34
Total U. S. Shipments ....--. 1,692 1,298 1,458 1,050 1,338 1,564 2,561 1,116
Northern Prices Fla. Beans- $1.48 $1.50 $1.96 $2.35 $2.51 $2.37 $1.63 $-
1934-35
Total U. S. Shipments ....-... 1,100 510 65 1,401 1,508 1,685 2,017 1,067
Northern Prices Fla. Beans- $2.47 $2.99 $5.96 $2.83 $1.79 $2.06 $1.20 $
1935-36
Total U. S. Shipments ....._ 1,176 304 724 949 773 1,021 1,491 1,096
Northern Prices Fla. Beans_ $1.84 $4.02 $3.10 $2.53 $2.96 $3.08 $1.88 $
1936-37
Total U. S. Shipments .... --- 1,209 1,188 1,262 470 548 889 1,384 685
Northern Prices Fla Beans-- $1.78 $1.60 $2.04 $3.25 $3.94 $3.06 $2.64 $__


Peak Prices, When and Why.-The market prices of Florida
beans fluctuate, as do prices of other vegetables. The early
fall shipments, if made before killing frost reduces the supply
in northern States, and the late spring shipments if made after
a number of other States begin their harvesting, bring low prices.
The mid-season, or January, February and March period, are
the ranking price months. In these months Florida bean shippers
have the least competition from other States. The high price
mid-winter period has its attendant risks, such as frost, and it
is not practical or possible for growers in all bean producing
centers to time their planting for harvesting in this period. The
producers in the less dangerous frost area who have had steady
supplies also in December and November have averaged well.









16 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


A large supply at fair prices yields as much or more revenue
some seasons as a limited supply at high prices.
Taking a twelve-season average of Northern market prices,
1925-26 through 1936-37, into consideration, the following table
is arranged to show the average price rank each month of the
Florida shipping season has taken:

Bank Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
First in .....-....- 0 Seas. 2 Seas. 4 Seas. 2 Seas. 3 Seas. 1 Seas. 0 Seas. Too
Second in --..... 0 Seas. 2 Seas. 2 Seas. 3 Seas. 3 Seas. 2 Seas. 0 Seas. Few
Third in .......... 2 Seas. 0 Seas. 1 Seas. 4 Seas. 3 Seas. 2 Seas. 0 Seas. Sales
Fourth in ....... 3 Seas. 1 Seas. 2 Seas. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 3 Seas. To
Fifth in --......... 0 Seas. 2 Seas. 3 Seas. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 3 Seas. 2 Seas. Quote
Sixth in ............ 2 Seas. 3 Seas. 0 Seas. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 2 Seas. 3 Seas. All
Seventh in ....... 5 Seas. 2 Seas. 0 Seas. 0 Seas. 0 Seas. 1 Seas. 4 Seas. Seasons


Rearranged according to price rank, the order of the above
months is: March, January, February, April, December, No-
vember, May. Note for instance March ranked first 3 seasons,
second 3 seasons, third 3 seasons, and fourth, fifth and sixth
only once. May, on the other hand, did not rank first, second
or third any season, and ranked seventh, the lowest place 4
seasons.











From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 17


CABBAGE

The per-annum farm value of the Florida cabbage crop,
ten-season 1926-27 through 1935-36 average, was $911,100. Flor-
ida ranks second to Texas in the cabbage shipments, rail and
boat, from the early States, and fourth in total shipments from
all States, shipping in the years 1933-36 slightly under 10o
of the United States total cabbage.

Acreage.-The amount of cabbage planted and where it is
grown in Florida is given in the following tabulation of acreage,
by counties, ten-year period:


County 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1036 1937 1938
Alachua --....-. 450 500 500 600 500 600 300 400 400 400
Bradford --..... 25 10 20 25 -.. .
Brevard ....... 10 10 20 20 ..... 25 25 .. 25
Broward .._ 150 50 200 150 50 200 25 100 25 50
Clay ...__. 75 30 20 20 .... 50 .
,Dade _......... 700 150 450 300 ..... 300 100 100 100 100
DeSoto ......_ 10 __ 50 50 100 25 25 .
Escambia ..._ 25 50 50 50 ---- --- 50
Flagler .......- 300 100 100 100 300 350 50 300 400 600
Gadsden ------ ... -- ----- -- __ 50 100 200 200 300
Glades --_. 100 40 100 100 50 100 50 100 100 100
Hardee ._..... 40 25 50 50 ..... 50_ ..
Hendry ..-- .... 30 150 100 100 300 100 500 300 300
Hernando -... ------ --. 50
Highlands .. 25 .- 30 30 .... 30 .. 50
Hillsborough 175 25 50 50 50 400 25 100 100 50
Indian River_ 25 10 50 50 150 25 50 50 50
Lake ---......_-- 375 250 300 150 250 450 250 300 350 400
Lee --..- --- --.. -- --- ....-- ___ 50 150 25
Levy .-..-. 20 10 20 -- 100 200 25 50 50
Madison .__ _... __ .. 100 __
Manatee ....._ 250 200 450 300 250 600 350 400 300 250
Marion _- ..... 1,100 500 700 900 600 900 400 700 400 400
Martin _.. .... 25 20 25 50 200 250 .. 100
Okeechobee _- 40 30 50 50 100 300 200 250 300 200
Orange --.. 550 325 650 500 800 900 300 350 550 500
Osceola ..-- - 20 50 50 200 150 150 50 100 100 100
Palm Beach 100 150 650 400 1,000 1,500 1,400 2,000 1,800 2,000
Pinellas __-_ 20 10 40 40
Polk _--.. ... 350 350 550 400 400 750 350 400 450 450
Putnam -..._... 200 30 30 40 50 50 100 300 300 1,000
St. Johns .._ 300 30 50 100 200 100 300 700 800 1,200
St. Lucie 40 10 75 50 100 100 100 100 50 50
Sarasota __ 15 ... 50 50 50
Seminole __ 370 250 450 400 300 600 300 400 500 400
Sumter -. 500 300 300 250 450 1,000 300 500 350 350
Volusia -- 140 150 225 200 200 250 50 50 200 200
Others ._ -- ...._ 50 150 ..- 75

State Total-.. 6,500 3,700 6,500 5,700 6,200 10,730 5,600 9,000 8,500 9,400









18 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

Varieties.-For many years pointed type cabbage has been
produced for commercial purposes in Florida. In recent years
there has been a tendency toward round type. The Early Jersey
Wakefield, Charleston Wakefield, and Copenhagen Market are
the principal commercial varieties.
Planting.-Cabbage plants are usually from 12 to 15 inches
apart in rows 21/2 to 3 feet apart. In planting seed-beds, about
6 ounces of seed will produce enough plants for one acre, double
or 12 ounces if seed is planted in the field, covered about 1 inch
deep. From the planting of seed, from 80 to 100 days will be
required for the plants to produce the crop. The State's average
yield is about 5% tons per acre, or about 200 hampers (11/
bushels).
Cost.-The average cost of growing cabbage in Florida-
exclusive of land cost, rental, taxes or depreciation-is from
$55-75 per acre. Broken down into individual items: Prepara-
tion and cultivation of land $25-30; seed $1.00-1.25; fertilizer
$25-35; spraying and miscellaneous $4.00-8.75. Delivered at
shipping station the cost per 11/2 bushel hamper is about as
follows (Basis 200 hampers per acre yield) from 50c-68c; grow-
ing 271/c-371/2c; harvesting and field packing 5c-10c; hamper
15c-16c; hauling 3c-5c.
Container.-The 1-bushel hamper is in more general use
in Florida than other containers, especially for pointed types
of cabbage. Several different crates are used, the barrel, half-
barrel, Western type lettuce crate, etc.
Pack.-The pack should be tight, and consist of heads of
cabbage of only one type, which are solid, and free from rot,
seed stems, and damage caused by any means. Florida cab-
bage in hampers will range from 1 to 5 lb., mostly 11/ to 2 lb.,
from 20 to 33 heads per hamper, mostly 26.
Loading in Car.-Cabbage is ordinarily shipped under re-
frigeration, the load top iced by many shippers. The hampers
are loaded in each end of car, lengthwise, side load with hamp-
ers alternately reversed, 5 stacks 5 x 6 or 7 x 7 rows wide,
5 to 6 layers high, loading irregular in doorway (3 x 3, 3 x 4,
4 x 5, 5 x 6, etc.). The average load ranges from 420 to 450
hampers.
Florida Shipments.-The Florida cabbage shipping season
is from December through the following May, a few cars some
seasons moving out in November. The following tabulation
shows the carlot shipments from Florida, by months, for the
seasons 1928-29 through 1937-38:











From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 19

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Total

1928-29 ------..... 35 547 1,076 1,390 76 12 3,136
1929-30 .......... .. -75 500 528 799 344 25 *2,272
1930-31 -----.... 1 200 617 718 1,106 569 46 t3,263
1931-32 .__.. 19 229 329 430 379 124 11 1,521
1932-33__ ... 17 141 414 732 1,054 418 97 2,873
1933-34 .-..... ..-. 184 952 916 981 221 70 t3,336
1934-35 ..--. 1 26 45 179 1,008 832 104 **2,196
1935-36 ---.. 24 201 295 606 685 35 1,846
1936-37 ... 3 139 311 402 455 221 8 1,539
1937-38 .... 1 72 252 709 1,710 565 26***3,342

Includes 1 car in June; f 6 cars in June; t 12 cars in June; ** 1 car in
June; *** 7 cars in June.

County shipments will better show the location of the prin-
cipal cabbage producing sections in the State. The seasons
1926-27 through 1937-38 are included:



Bradford 0 ... 3 2 _
N OI N a a e





DeSotoAlachua 304 2 270 2 143 52 94 73 35




Flagler 23 11 159 62 66 53 128 61 1 19 22
Badforden __ 2 -- .....- 12 37 21 6 46
GBrevard 4 3 623 9 23 16 11 13 1 15
Bardee -.. 2 9 1 6 2 14 8



Hendry 7 --- 16 45 2 30 67 18 18 6 11
Hernando ....------ ------ ..
DHighland s -1 3 139 34 7 21 2 34 5 .... 3 2
Hillsborough 21 8-- 37 9 19 3 3 68 -- -- ..






Indian River 5 1 1 23 26 --- 30 3 11 4
Escambia 7- -- - -- -- -- -- -.
Flagler___ 23 11 159 62 66 53 128 61 _. 1 19 22



Gades 77 89 165 143 193 59 23 16 1 1 13 1 15
Hardee -.- 4 12 14 8 ......



Henat 33 58 219 130 61 144 126 342 60 50 18 6 1
Hernandon 49 236 417 328 372 124 395 217 82 56 65 61
Highlands -- -- 1 -, 7 95 24 16
Okeeshorough 21 8 37 9 12 7 25 109 94 72 20
IndianRive 53 118 292 276 491 240 329 299 152 239 334 399
Osceola 89 165 1439 15 1650 11 16 4 5 6 71
Pinellas .... --- ---- 22 5 4



Polk --- 201 258 245 262 404 218 262 627 212 218 131 369
PutnLevy 7 1 1 78 9 2 9 6 18 5 ._ 2 4




Saint Johns- 4 19 262 21 34 19 52 27 78 35 107 246
Saint Lucie 33 58 219 130 361 144 126 342 60 50 10 183
Marion __ 49 236 417 328 372 124 395 217 82 56 65 61



Marasota -- 2 1 1 16 95 24 16
Okeechobee 31 89 118 15 2 203 110 82 109 94 72 42 60
SumtOrange 53 118 2 220 2491 240 329 299 152 239 334 399




Union ____ 2 3 ..... ..... -. 1 -
Oseolua .86 982 9 15 16 15 62 4 5 6 17
Palm Beach 7 25 35 102 200 239 429 411 915 726 247 1,577



Othineas --- 15
Polk -____ 201 258 245 262 404 218 262 627 212 218 131 369
Putnam --_ -- 134 18 9 2 9 6 18 5 45



T total Rail 1,162 1532 3,176 2,221 3,207 1,478 2,832 3,220 2,175 1,846 1,487 246
Sant Lucie- 20 5 14 17 33 47 11 1 52 55
Sarasota __ 3 6 7 22 1 1 16 --
Seminole _-_ 31 89 118 152 203 110 82 154 123 72 42 60
Sumter __ 351 213 264 220 243 83 331 230 104 78 84 80
Union ___- 2 3 1 .-
Volusia _u-s-ia 86 98 53 59 51 135 62 17 19 30 52
--er -- -- -- 15
Total Rail -1,162 1,532 3,176 2,221 3,207 1,478 2,832 3,220 2,175 1,846 1,487 3,287
Boat _____ -- 51 56 43 41 116 21 71 52 55
Grand Total-1,162 1,532*3,176 2,272 3,263 1,521 2.873 3,336 2,196 1,917 1,539 3,342
* Total in Season 1928-29 includes express and boat shipments allocated to different
counties.









20 From Field to Market With Florida vegetables and Citrus Fruits

Competitive Shipments.-Many of the Florida vegetables
have only the new crop competition, but cabbage has not only
the new crop, but the shipments from the late States and stor-
age stock with which it must compete. Cabbage from Louisiana,
South Carolina and Texas is shipped in almost every month
of the Florida season, and storage stock from New York and
Wisconsin competes with Florida offerings practically every
month from December through April. Alabama, Georgia, Mis-
sissippi, and North Carolina place new cabbage on the market
in April and May, and Tennessee and Virginia in May. There
are shipments from other States that at some time during the
Florida shipping season give competition, for instance, Arizona,
California, Minnesota, etc. Import competition is not serious.
Cuba occasionally exports one or two cars to the United States,
usually in February. Less than 30 cars per season have come
in from the Netherlands, usually in the period January to
April. The following table will show the extent of the com-
petition Florida has in every month of its shipping season:
Cabbage Shipments, total U. S., except Florida, nine seasons,
by months:

Total
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May (7 mo.)
1928-29 ..... .. 2,667 3,841 2,694 3,459 4.651 4,663 21,975
1929-30 ..- 3,564 3,145 4,020 2,299 1,562 2,821 3,979 21,390
1930-31 .-- 3,108 3.115 3,529 2,920 3,270 3,254 4,049 23,245
1931-32 ..- 3,149 2,843 3,082 2,359 2,319 2,508 2,841 18,601
1932-33 --- 2,213 2,502 2,311 2,116 1,809 2,114 2,670 15,735
1933-34 .- 2,213 2,197 2,594 3,166 3,007 3.731 16,908
1934-35 -... 3,176 3,143 2,342 1,178 1,748 3,113 14,700
1935-36 ...- 2,324 2,901 3,101 2,500 2.319 3.353 16,498
1936-37 .2,270 2,482 2,796 2,621 2,390 2,801 2,879 18,239

Distribution.-In the 1936-37 season, 80% of the Florida
cabbage shipments by rail went into Eastern territory, 13 %
into Western, and only 7% into Southern territory. In the
calendar years 1934-35-36, an average of more than 50% of the
rail and boat shipments went to New York and Philadelphia,
and about 69% to these cities and Baltimore, Boston, Newark,
and Washington, D. C., inclusive. New York City is the largest
receiver of Florida cabbage, and handles more than one-third
the total Florida commercial crop. Although New York State
ranks first in carlot shipments of cabbage, New York City in
1934 and in 1936 handled more rail and boat carlot equivalents
(exclusive of l.c.l. freight, express and truck receipts) from
Florida than from New York or any other State, and second










From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 21

only to New York receipts in 1935, and incidentally of rail and
boat carlot receipts, Jacksonville handled more cabbage from
New York than from any other State. The shipments by boat,
and by truck, have increased in the last few years.

Northern Market Prices.-Based on No. 1 grade of Florida
pointed or round type cabbage in 11/2 bushel hampers, the fol-
lowing are simple average destination prices by months, and
cover the period from the 1925-26 through the 1937-38 season:

Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May
1925-26 ---- $ -. $3.18 $3.21 $2.43 $1.62 *$1.25
1926-27 ----- 2.06 1.38 1.88 1.20
1927-28 1.60 2.05 1.50 2.00 2.80 *1.95
1928-29 2.25 1.30 1.40 *1.05
1929-30 *2.67 2.45 2.82 3.27 2.67 *1.72
1930-31 2.06 1.54 1.18 1.16 1.09 *1.08
1931-32 1.81 1.37 1.40 2.25 1.84 *1.63
1932-33 *1.16 1.00 1.21 1.21 1.33 *1.62
1933-34 *1.63 1.31 1.08 1.05 1.06 *1.12
1934-35 *1.19 *1.21 *1.96 2.94 2.76 *1.20
1935-36 *1.67 1.40 1.19 1.04 1.24 *1.00
1936-37 -. - .95 1.00 1.16 1.33
1937-38 -.--- -- 1.54 1.59 1.59 1.22 1.20 *1.26
* Part month.

The compilation below shows the simple average destination
prices, and also the shipments, by weeks, of Florida cabbage,
11/2-bushel hamper, No. 1 basis, for the seasons 1935-36 to 1937-
38 inclusive:


Season
1937-1938


$1.52
1.64
1.70
1.31
1.61
1.68
1.75
1.88
1.87
1.57
1.10
1.15
1.21
1.25
1.23
1.22
1.18
1.27
1.16
1.21
1.26


season
1936-1937


cars
"

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"


5
8
.91 5
.89 40
.88 54
.96 64
.98 50
1.08 57
1.04 105
.91 52
1.02 85
1.24 108
1.16 137
1.25 109
1.10 204
1.16 230
1.27 236
1.39 208
1.82 77
2.10 50
2.58 18
3


Season
1935-1936
cars $1.38
1.85
1.76
1.70
1.73
1.36
1.16
1.49
1.26
1.26
1.12
1.09
1.03
1.07
.98
1.03
1.13
1.15
1.29
1.27
1.32
S .99
.76


Week
Ending~


Dec. 18
25
Jan. 1
8
15
22
29
Feb. 5
12
19
26
Mar. 5
12
19
26
Apr. 2
9
16
23
30
May 7
14
21


Ending














Florida Market Prices.-In view of the heavy volume of cabbage sold on the Florida City
Markets, and the Farmers State Wholesale Markets, the local price trends are followed closely.
The Jacksonville simple average" jobbing prices will serve as a good index of the Florida home
markets, and the following table gives the data by months, for thirteen years, top quote basis,
container or unit of sale as indicated:

Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1926.......--. $3.02H $2.85H $2.62H $1.84H $2.58c $3.25c $4.09c $ .... $ .. $ $ $ .
1927 ------- 1.54H 1.14H 1.21H 2.22c 2.45c ....
1928---..... 1.26H 1.15H 1.19H 1.58H 1.55H 1.40H _
1929 ...... 1.15H 1.00H .85H .75H 2.15c 2.00C ---
1930.------. 1.10H 1.06H 1.39H 1.64H 1.12H 1.27H .. 1.01H 1.05H
1931..-----. 1.04H .92H .85H .80H .71H 1.16H __ -- .. 1.57H .99H
1932........... .70D .66D .75D .82D .66D .63D .52D .43D .33D 1.53A .62D .45D
1933...------. .27D .28D .66D .72D 3.22A 2.18A 1.91A __ .90D .83D
1934..------.. .48D .44D .39D .47D .59D .47D 1.20A 1.80A 1.45A 1.40A 1.75A 1.56A
1935...-----. 1.43A 2.87A 3.39A 3.20A 1.61A 1.24A 1.35A 1.12A 1.22A 1.29A 1.56A 1.76H
1936---- ---1.70A 1.40A .98A 1.13A 1.00A 2.11A 4.55A 3.88A 2.56A 1.78A 1.53A 1.55A
1937 -----... .77A .70A .97A .75A 1.65A 1.63A 1.24A 1.42A 1.26A 1.53A 2.15A 2.28A
1938 _---.... 1.76A 1.92A .97A .78A .78A 1.07A
H-Hampers. C-Crates. D-Per Dozen Heads. A-Per Hundred Pounds.










From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 23


In connection with the Florida cabbage destination prices,
the total United States and Florida individual shipments are
given below for the months December through May for the
seasons included:


Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May


1928-29
Total U. S. Shipments .....--........---
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage....
Florida Shipments ----.-_. -------
1929-30
Total U. S. Shipments --------....
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage....
Florida Shipments --- ----
1930-31
Total U. S. Shipments -----------
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage ...
Florida Shipments -.......................
1931-32
Total U. S. Shipments --..-...........
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage-...
Florida Shipments --------.....
1932-33
Total U. S. Shipments -----. -
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage_..
Florida Shipments -..------.... -
1933-34
Total U. S. Shipments .--.....--.....
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage ..-
Florida Shipments ---------
1934-35
Total U. S. Shipments --....
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage....
Florida Shipments ---------.................
1935-36
Total U. S. Shipments ---.----
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage ..-
Florida Shipments .---------------.... ------
1936-37
Total U. S. Shipments ......-----..
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage ..-
Florida Shipments -------.--------------...


4,388
$2.25
547
4,520
$2.45
500


3,770
$1.30
1,076


4,849
$1.40
1,390


4,727 4,675
$1.05
76 12


2,827 2,361 3,165 4,004
$2.82 $3.27 $2.67 $1.72
528 799 344 25


3,315 4,146 3,638 4,376 3,823 4.095
$2.06 $1.54 $1.18 $1.16 $1.09 $1.08
200 617 718 1,106 569 46
3,072 3,411 2,789 2,698 2,632 2,352
$1.81 $1.37 $1.40 $2.25 $1.84 $1.63
229 329 430 379 124 11
2,643 2,725 2,848 2,863 2,532 2,767
$1.16 $1.00 $1.21 $1.21 $1.33 $1.62
141 414 732 1,054 418 97
2,397 3,149 3,510 4,147 3,228 3,801
$1.63 $1.31 $1.08 $1.05 $1.06 $1.12
184 952 916 981 221 70
3,202 3,188 2,521 2,186 2,580 3,217
$1.19 $1.21 $1.96 $2.94 $2.76 $1.20
26 45 179 1,008 832 104
2,348 3,102 3,396 3,106 3,004 3,388
$1.67 $1.40 $1.19 $1.04 $1.24 $1.00
24 201 295 606 685 35
2,621 3,107 3,023 2,845 3,022 2,887
$1.54 $1.59 $1.59 $1.22 $1.20 $1.26
139 311 402 455 221 8


Peak Prices, When and Why.-The earlier Florida cabbage
shipments begin in the fall, the heavier the competition from
domestic late States, and the later Florida cabbage is shipped
in the spring, the heavier the increase in new cabbage from
early or second-early States. There is no month of the year
when some State other than Florida fails to ship cabbage, either
fresh or storage stock. Florida shipments do not any month
equal the total shipments from other States. In the winter









24 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

months, Florida competition narrows down to storage, and fresh
cabbage from only a few States. Further considering the freeze
damage occasionally to new crop cabbage, it is rather difficult
to prove a certain month, or months, have consistently been
higher in average prices. Based on a twelve-season period, 1925-
26 through 1936-37, the different months of the Florida cabbage
shipping season have in price average, ranked from first to
sixth the number of times shown:

Rank Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May
First in .--...... 3 Seas. 2 Seas. 1 Seas. 3 Seas. 2 Seas. 1 Seas.
Second in ..- 0 Seas. 5 Seas. 1 Seas. 3 Seas. 3 Seas. 0 Seas.
Third in .---.. 2 Seas. 0 Seas. 6 Seas. 3 Seas. 2 Seas. 1 Seas.
Fourth in ..-- 1 Seas. 3 Seas. 2 Seas. 1 Seas. 3 Seas. 2 Seas.
Fifth in -..-. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 2 Seas. 3 Seas.
Sixth in _-_ 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 0 Seas. 2 Seas.


In the five seasons, 1932-33 through 1936-37, an average of
more than three-fourths the Florida cabbage shipments moved
in three months of the season-February, March and April.
Including January, 92.6% of the total was shipped in the first
four months of the year, only 7.4% being shipped in November,
December, May and June. March has been the heavy month
in Florida cabbage shipments, followed next in order by Feb-
ruary, April and January. The destination price average these
same five seasons was top in April, next in order March, De-
cember, February, May (part month), January. The January
5-year average was $1.17, February $1.29, March $1.48, April
$1.54, but the fact must be stressed that these are average
shipments and prices over a five-year period. The total U. S.
shipments 1932-1936 inclusive average, declined in order in
February, March and April under the previous month's average
shipments, and as noted above the average five-season 1932-33
through 1936-37 price increased in February, March and April
over the previous month's average prices. Thus the monthly
average 'declining shipments in direct relation resulted in monthly
average increasing prices, and followed the U. S. shipment
volume more directly than the corresponding Florida total
shipments.








From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 25

CELERY
The ten-season, 1926-27 through 1935-36, per annum farm
value of the Florida celery crop, was $4,211,500. Florida ship-
ped in the years 1932-36 an average of about 40% of the total
U. S. celery shipments. Florida leads all States in the average
Florida shipping season's total, December through June, and
ranks second to California in the calendar year total.
Acreage.-The following county acreage of celery is given
for ten seasons:

County 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938
Brevard __ 50 100 100 100 75 100 35 -
Dade _.-.------ .--_ -- --- --- -- .. 20..
High'lands -- 25 25 30 50 50 40 30 10
Lake -- 5 5 5 5 5 5 _-- --
Lee --_ 5 ---- --- --- ---- -- .
Manatee -...----- 1,000 800 800 625 500 550 500 500 525 500
Marion -_--__--- -- 10 -- -.. 70 100 150 250 175 175
Orange --...---- 70 75 75 40 50 50 30 30 20
Palm Beach .--- 25 70 150 25 125 100 50 100 180 350
Putnam -... 75 15 5 5 -... 5 5 5 15 10
St. Johns --. ----- 65 50 -. -- -- ... --
Sarasota ______1,000 1,200 1,085 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,200 1,350 1,275 1,300
Seminole .- ---- 4,300 4,300 3,900 4,800 3,725 3,650 4,000 4,250 5,300 5,600
Others ---......- ......- .. .-----. --.-- --. 10 65
State Total -___--6,620 6,650 6,150 6,850 5,900 6,000 6,000 6,515 7,500 8,000

Varieties.-The principal commercial varieties of celery in
Florida are Golden Self-blanching and Special.
Planting.-In planting seed-beds, from 6 to 8 ounces of
seed should produce enough plants for an acre. Plants are
transplanted to the field when 5 to 6 inches high, in rows from
30 to 36 inches apart, set from 31/2 to 5 inches apart in the row.
As celery seed is very expensive, they should be selected with
great care from only the most reliable sources. Celery will
mature, from the planting of seed to harvesting, in from 85
to 120 days. The average yield for the State is 291 crates per
acre. The yield will average in principal sections from 400 to
600 crates, with 800 to 900 crates averaged by some farms.
Cost.-The average cost of growing a season's celery crop
in Florida outside the Everglades is from $260-$325 per acre,
not including cost of land, rental, taxes, interest on investment,
insurance, depreciation, or living acostsi" Tlh costs included,
itemized: Preparation, and. 'clHvliidn c'f lind L125-150; seed
.,. "a...

a .' .
'.:-:'. : i:" -- : -" ".'...
'*-".








26 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

$10-12; fertilizer $100-125; spraying and miscellaneous $25-
38. On the basis of 500 crates per acre of marketable celery,
the cost per crate at shipping point is from $1.00-1.20 per
crate: Growing 52c-65c; harvesting 6-8c; crate 17-20c; hauling
4c; grading, packing and precooling 21-23c.
Container.-The standard celery containers in Florida are
the 10-inch crate, 10x20x22, the small 16-inch 10x16x22, and
the wirebound standard 10x20x22.
Pack.-The celery pack should be tight and consist of well
developed stalks of celery, having similar varietal character-
istics, good heart formation, be well trimmed, not wilted or
badly spread, and be free from blackheart, decay and damage.
Most of the Florida celery is individually washed, individually
washed and precooled, or crate washed. Sizes range from large
21/2-4 dozen to small 8-10 dozen per crate, or XX's smaller than
10 dozen. In recent seasons the trade tendency has been more
towards the smaller sizes, some markets discounting the large
sizes.
Loading in Car.-Celery is shipped under refrigeration.
Crates are usually loaded in the car, 16 stacks long, 7 or 8 rows
wide, and 3 layers high. The 2 lower layers are double stripped,
top layer single stripped. Rows should be well spaced and
aligned. The average load is 352 crates, ranging from 336 to
384 crates.
Florida Shipments.-The Florida celery crop is shipped in
the period December through June. The following table shows
the total celery carlot shipments, and the proportion of the
season's total by months, for the seasons 1928-29 through 1937-
38:


Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1928-29 .----. 1 651 2,442 2,565 2,011 1,124 37 8,831
1929-30 ------ 102 1,329 2,563 2,338 2,154 1,219 147 9,852
1930-31 73 996 1,694 2,210 2,965 279 27 *8,245
1931-32 .... 336 1,223 1,649 1,476 1,987 1,175 85 7,931
1932-33 -.. 38 1,225 1,403 1,828 1,568 885 40 6,987
1933-34 ----. 34 901 1,351 2,173 2,313 1,527 44 8,343
1934-35 ... 15 336 1,514 2,136 2,003 1,218 29 7,251
1935-36 ---..... 1 681 1,601 1,940 2,131 1,068 158 7,580
1936-37 ---- 29 1,537 1,461 1,965 2,332 1,715 51 9,090
1937-38 --.---- 109 846 1,507 2,390 2,136 1,471 41 8,500
* Includes 1 car in Jqly. '.* .
.- '..'....' .. .. ....:.. :
S....., ".... -.-.
I . i. . . . *. **o'"
'.7*










From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 27


The celery shipping sections in Florida are concentrated,
the three counties of Manatee, Sarasota and Seminole shipping
most of the crop. The following tabulation of carlot shipments
by counties will show the extent of commercial production of
celery and the relative volume each county ships:


County f^ Q a j n ,

Brevard ...... 7 34 103 69 119 67 73 13 -
Broward .._ .... 1 ..
Clay _... 1 .... .. .
Dade -.... .... .... ... ... ... 6
Highlands ._ 1 7 7 18 24 53 25 22 11 2 --
Hillsborough 10 ---- 7 -_ _. 2 -
Lake ......-. 2 8 1 1 1 2 4 2
Lee - 3 3 ..
Manatee ..... 709 1,158 768 575 111 1,065 836 641 481 565 503 396
Marion ... -- -. .... 17 46 172 140 68
Martin ...-.. .. .. ... -- 1
Okeechobee- 5 .----
Orange .. 29 47 64 35 34 51 21 23 29 20 20 --
Palm Beach_ ... 6 36 148 40 99 54 57 82 191 347
Putnam .. 27 27 54 1 1 3 1 4 4 4 5 6
St. Johns _. 37 --.. 29 35 .. .... .. ..... ....
Sarasota 286 1,054 1,223 1,675 1,806 1,704 1,529 2,273 1,245 1,401 1,588 1,631
Seminole ...6,576 7,579 6,655 7,372 6,048 4,886 4,374 5,062 5,191 5,263 6,525 5,890
Total Rail 7,678 9,895 8,844 9,852 8,243 7,930 6,973 8,200 7,203 7,483 8,902 8,270
By Boat ---. .. .. -- 2 1 14 143 48 97 188 230
Grand Total.7,678 9,895*8,844 9,852 8,245 7,931 6,987 8,343 7,251 7,580 9,090 8,500
* Total in Season 1928-29 includes express and boat shipments allocated to different
counties.
Competitive Shipments.-Celery is another of the Florida
crops that has current new crop competition, and also storage
celery with which it must compete. California ships in heavy
carlot volume in every month of the Florida season and Flor-
ida shipments beginning in December have on the average the
most serious competition from California of any month of the
Florida season. Louisiana ships from 7 to 18 cars of celery
in May and June. The chief competition from old crop or late
State celery comes from New York in December and January,
and next from Michigan in these two months. The imports are
of no consequence. Bermuda occasionally ships in a car.
The time and extent of the competition Florida celery ship-
pers have had, in the seasons 1928-29 through 1936-37 is shown
in the tabulation below:









28 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


U. S. Shipments, all States except Florida, nine seasons:
Total
Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June(7 mo.)
1928-29 --- 3,329 2,692 788 599 412 653 581 9,054
1929-30 ..--- 3,075 1,522 650 599 426 728 759 7,759
1930-31.--.. 3,278 1,682 936 568 504 610 567 8,145
1931-32--.-. 2,422 1,298 691 1,058 397 554 723 7.143
1932-33----. 1,887 1,079 768 833 267 710 626 6.170
1933-34 ---- 2,041 1,450 790 565 70 195 451 5,562
1934-35 .. 2,325 1,533 406 236 107 437 672 5,716
1935-36 .-- 2,036 953 665 701 311 812 653 6,131
1936-37 ---- 2,106 1,261 509 802 269 575 574 6,096
Distribution.-In the 1936-37 Florida celery shipping season,
carlot quantities went into 144 cities in 35 States, the District
of Columbia, and Canada, which was about the same as in the
previous season. The boat movement of celery from Florida
ports in domestic trade showed considerable increase in the
1937-38 season in the total of 230 cars, compared to the 1936-
37 season, when 188 cars moved out by boat, to 97 cars in the
1935-36 season, and 48 cars in 1934-35. Practically all of the
boat movement goes to New York and Philadelphia. More Flor-
ida celery is shipped to New York than any other State, Pennsyl-
vania being next in order. Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Massa-
chusetts and Maryland are also ranking States in the use of
Florida celery. New York City, Philadelphia, Cincinnati and
Cleveland, Chicago, Detroit, Boston and Baltimore are the large
receiving markets in these States. Montreal and Toronto are
the two largest Canadian markets for Florida celery.
Northern Market Prices.-The following table is a compila-
tion of simple average destination price averages of Florida
celery in standard crates, No. 1 or top quotation basis, mostly
3s-6s, covering a thirteen-season, 1925-26 through 1937-38 period,
by months:
Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1925-26 ..--. $ .. *$4.03 $5.09 $4.50 *$3.36 $ $ -
1926-27 --...-- -- 2.74 2.18 2.65 2.46
1927-28 .------ *2.58 2.73 3.13 3.45 -
1928-29 .. ..- -- 2.70 2.40 2.55 --
1929-30 -- .. 2.65 2.80 2.85 3.60 3.70
1930-31 -..- 3.20 3.51 3.03 2.63 2.88
1931-32 2.64 2.43 2.64 3.46 3.59 2.80 *2.31
1932-33 ---- 2.44 1.91 2.10 1.74 3.22 *3.88
1933-34 - -- -- 2.10 1.97 2.11 2.22 2.92 *4.01
1934-35 ----- *2.86 *3.28 2.65 3.02 3.41 *3.75
1935-36.--- -- 3.35 2.85 2.74 2.89 3.08 2.77
1936-37 --- -- 2.76 2.52 3.18 2.18 2.73 *4.12
1937-38 ..--- *2.68 2.30 2.23 2.29 2.24 2.60 *3.23
* Part month.









From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 29


Price trends of Florida celery in the light of weekly aver-
ages are indicated in the following tabulation of destination
average prices, celery in crates, sizes mostly 3s-6s, No. 1 offer-
ings, for three seasons. The Florida shipments of celery by
weeks are also shown:


Week Season Season Season
Ending 1937-1938 1936-1937 1935-1936
Dec. 18 18 cars $ ..-- cars $ ---- --- cars $ --
25 9 "- --
Jan. 1 107 2.65 41
8 131 2.40 136 3.07 30 3.55
15 137 2.21 366 3.17 165 3.64
22 255 2.34 493 2.56 258 3.20
29 238 2.26 522 2.26 292 3.12
Feb. 5 365 2.32 272 2.09 344 3.17
12 386 2.20 294 2.22 377 2.99
19 335 2.16 406 2.72 420 2.68
26 418 2.23 481 3.15 376 2.98
Mar. 5 485 2.30 356 3.25 415 2.33
12 640 2.51 457 3.27 367 2.47
19 613 2.28 509 3.24 320 2.66
26 338 2.15 478 3.12 600 3.37
Apr. 2 505 2.15 508 2.77 732 3.04
9 612 2.23 549 2.33 643 2.89
16 582 2.36 445 2.05 442 2.80
23 486 2.31 510 2.06 285 2.90
30 330 2.11 561 2.06 335 2.91
May 7 375 2.12 518 2.26 243 2.92
14 413 2.37 404 2.35 263 3.06
21 366 2.51 404 2.86 316 3.28
28 255 3.26 254 3.55 155 3.13
June 4 97 3.42 77 3.06 119 3.01
11 6 3.22 4 4.16 22 2.91
18 ---- -- --- 21 2.80
25 --- --- -- -- 1.92


Florida Market Prices.-The carlot volume of Florida celery
outranks that of all other vegetables-average 1927-28 through
1936-37 8,402 cars per season-and the bulk of the crop must
be sold to outside markets. Only a few hundred cars are con-
sumed within the State each year. There is not the interest
therefore in home market prices of celery that there is in the
prices of beans for instance. The following average jobbing
prices of Florida celery in crates, top quote basis, on the Jack-
sonville market, by months and calendar years for 1926 through
June 1938 will supply the data to those who may have need
for the information:











30 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits



Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.


1926_
1927__
1928 --
1929_--
1930-...
1931 -...--
1932_
1933___
1934.-_-
1935 __
1936__
1937_
1938 ....


*$4.58 $5.03
*3.25 2.55
*2.63 2.25
. *1.90
3.04 2.65
2.88 2.98
2.48 2.59
2.17 1.37
1.92 1.37
*2.82 2.67
2.81 2.22
2.12 1.94
2.13 1.51


$5.04
2.73
2.61
1.85
2.43
2.62
2.92
1.44
1.42
2.28
1.91
2.74
1.47


$- 8---


$3.66 *5.07 $__
2.54 *2.86
2.74 4.20
2.24 2.85
3.14 4.04 *3.69
2.30 2.76 *3.85
3.38 2.20 2.17
1.20 2.24
1.74 2.09 *3.68
2.34 2.90 *3.35
2.58 2.91 '3.03
2.00 1.90 2.66
1.59 1.89 *2.67


* Part month.


The relation that exists between the U. S. total and Florida
celery supply, and the average destination market prices by
months, is shown by the arrangement below:


Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1928-29
Total U. S. Shipments --- 3,330 3,343 3,230 3,164 2,423 1,777 618
Northern Prices Fla. Celery -_ $- $.. $2,70 $2.40 $2.55 $ __ $
Florida Shipments -- ---- 1 651 2,442 2,565 2,011 1,124 37
1929-30
Total U. S. Shipments -- 3,177 2,851 3,213 2,937 2,580 1,947 906
Northern Prices Fla. Celery $-- $2.65 $2.80 $2.85 $3.60 $3.70 $ --
Florida Shipments 102 1,329 2,563 2,338 2,154 1,219 147
1930-31
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 3,351 2,678 2,630 2,778 3,469 889 594
Northern Prices Fla. Celery -- $ $3.20 $3.51 $3.03 $2.63 $2.88 $ _
Florida Shipments .....------- 73 996 1,694 2,210 2,965 279 27
1931-32
Total U. S. Shipments ._- -..- 2,758 2,521 2,340 2,534 2,384 1,729 808
Northern Prices Fla. Celery --_ $2.64 $2.43 $2.64 $3.46 $3.59 $2.80 *$2.31
Florida Shipments ---- 336 1,223 1,649 1,476 1,987 1,175 85
1932-33
Total U. S. Shipments --.... 1,925 2,304 2,171 2,661 1,835 1,595 666
Northern Prices Fla. Celery $.- $2.44 $1.91 $2.10 $1.74 $3.22 *$3.88
Florida Shipments 38 1,225 1,403 1,828 1,568 885 40
1933-34
Total U. S. Shipments 2,075 2,351 2,141 2,738 2,383 1,722 495
Northern Prices Fla. Celery $ $2.10 $1.97 $2.11 $2.22 $2.92 *$4.01
Florida Shipments 34 901 1,351 2,173 2,313 1,527 44
1934-35
Total U. S. Shipments 2,340 1,869 1,920 2,372 2,110 1,655 701
Northern Prices Fla. Celery $ *$2.86 *$3.28 $2.65 $3.02 $3.41 *$3.75
Florida Shipments ... 15 336 1,514 2,136 2,003 1,218 29
1935-36
Total U. S. Shipments --..__ 2,037 1,634 2,266 2,641 2,442 1,880 811
Northern Prices Fla. Celery $.-- $3.35 $2.85 $2.74 $2.89 $3.08 $2.77
Florida Shipments _1 681 1,601 1,940 2,131 1,068 158
1936-37
Total U. S. Shipments -- 2,135 2,798 1,970 2,767 2,601 2,290 625
Northern Prices Fla. Celery -_-*$2.68 $2.30 $2.23 $2.29 $2.24 $2.60 *$3.23
Florida Shipments .......___ 29 1,537 1,461 1,965 2,332 1,715 51
Part month.


Peak Prices, When and Why.-California celery competes
with Florida celery throughout the shipping season, and has
carlot celery on the markets from either the northern, southern
or central districts, every month of the year. Florida celery


-- ~~-- ~~-~~ ---








From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 31

is shipped from December through June, having practically no
carlot shipments in the five months of July through November.
The Florida celery crop enters the markets under strong com-
petition in December which continues, though usually in less
volume from California each consecutive month from Decem-
ber to May. In the 1935-36, 1934-35, 1933-34, and 1931-32
seasons the decline in monthly shipment volume from Califor-
nia was definite and regular; in 1932-33 the order was irregular,
but the California total in April was as in all seasons the light-
est of any month from December to July. (Note: The U. S.
total celery shipments are lowest in July, next in August, of
all the twelve months of the year). The U. S. total with Flor-
ida eliminated showed consecutive decline in shipments Decem-
ber to May in the seasons 1933-34 and 1934-35, and in 1935-36
except March exceeded February in 1936 by 36 cars. If Florida
shippers therefore do not fill the gap too rapidly and increase
their shipments in reasonable proportion to the declining volume
from California and storage celery, the months of March, April
and May should be those of top or uniformly good prices. Con-
sidering that Florida celery is shipped in such heavy carlot
volume, competition begins at home, and the price decline de-
pends probably as much on how orderly, and in what volume
the Florida crop moves, as that from California, and other
States. The quality of the crop, relative yield of trade preferred
sizes, aggressive distribution, the extending or spreading of
the normal peak shipping seasons, are important factors, even
if Florida celery had much less competition than it does. With
only one other State shipping new crop celery the first six
months of the year in strong competitive volume and with the
growing districts in Florida concentrated in only a few counties,
the Florida celery crop could it seems be much better marketed
than some of the other vegetables. With celery marketing agree-
ment or Control Committee in operation, progress and good
service has been accomplished. When prices of vegetables soar,
it is because of increased demand, existing or expected, and
far fewer shipments bring the extremely high prices than the
average or low prices. If the very low prices and adverse
market conditions can be avoided by orderly marketing the
celery crop so that fair and uniform prices can be realized
every month of the Florida season, the weighted average will
be greater for all shipments and returns higher to all shippers.
It is wiser for all shippers to bring about an average good or
high price each month of the season, and prevent the causes
that bring about disastrously low prices, than for all to attempt
to single-shot the peak weeks or months of the celery season.











32 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


CUCUMBERS

The ten-season, 1926-27 through 1935-36, per annum farm
value of the Florida cucumber crop, was $1,412,400. In the
1933-36 period, Florida shipped about 18% of the U. S. total
boat and rail cucumber shipments.

Acreage.-The amount of the Florida cucumber acreage,
and where it is produced in the State, is shown in the following
tabulation, covering ten seasons by counties:







Alachua ____ 1,825 1,750 2,050 1,225 900 650 350 300 800 800
Baker .... .. ...... 25 25 100 --- --
Bradford ............ 150 200 200 50 250 --------
Broward 10 - -- 0-
N 0 M 0 02 02 0 0 0 0
County o a a II a





Charlotte -------- 25 25 25 .....--- ------.- ------ -------- - 75 200
o N a>) s> a a n a





Clay ...40 50 50 50 --- -- - -- -----
Alachua___ 1,825 1,750 2,050 1,225 900 650 350 300 800 800

Collier ._ 25 25 250 250 200 200 3000
BradColumbia 1 50 200 200 50 250
Broward 10..._ --- _-.- 10- -
Charlotte -- 25 25 25 _-.- --- ------ ----- 75 200
Clay 40 50 50 50 -- -- 2 --- Yo6 250
Collier 25 25 50 _250 200 200 300 250
Columbia 150 140 200 50
DeSoto ____ 150 200 200 225 300 50 -- ---
Gadsden ___ 20 __. --- 50 ..- -
Gilchrist __ 100 35 25 --- -- ---- -
Glades ___25 ----- -
Hamilton 20 25 25 --- 1 -
Hardee -.-. 1,940 1,925 1,800 1,150 750 900 1,300 1,050 850 950
Hendry 175 70 50 50 50 50 100 100 100 100
Hernando__ 35 10 100 50 75 -
Hillsborough_ 300 500 150 200 100 150 150 150 200 375
Holmes -. --- 300 .-. ---
Indian River 50 50 17,0 100 100 125 50 200 200 100
Jackson -- ------- -- -- 50 ..- -
Lake ... ... 250 110 100 50 50 --- 25 50 -- 100
Lee .. ... 450 350 300 200 500 525 600 1,050 609 500
Levy _. ..- 1,425 1,420 825 725 450 550 450 200 200 200
Madison _. --... 150 25 25 -- 50 50 .
Manatee 100 100 160 260 210 250 200 350 359 525
Marion 940 1,050 575 360 200 225 200 200 100 300
Martin 50 70 20 -- -- -- --
Nassau --- 50 --.. --- -........
Orange _-- 900 1,000 530 420 75 150 200 250 225 400
Osceloa 40 110 30 35 10 15 .--- --
Pasco __ __ 25 20 50 300 25 ..
Pinellas __ 100 50 25 -- -- --- .- ---
Polk -... 60 110 160 60 10 10 --------. -- --
Putnam 100 _.... ... 100
St. Johns__. 300 50 --- ---- -- 60 .- --
St. Lucie 50 50 50 75 100 100 200 200 250 200
Sarasota -.- .. __-- -- --.- ----- 100 100 100 150 300
Seminole -. -- 10 20 25 ----- -------- --
Sumter __- 1,700 2,050 1,520 1,120 720 550 600 600 600 1,000
Suwanne _- 135 25 150 100 -- -
Union ___ 200 280 130 100 50 50 .
Volusia _.. 20 50 20 25 .. 6 -.
Washington- -- -- ____ __ 150 600 .
Others __ 75 25 100 50
State Total 11,350 12,110 9,650 7,350 5,000 5,000 5,150 5,760 5,600 6,300








From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 33

Varieties.-The principal market varieties of Florida cu-
cumbers are Early Fortune, Davis Perfect, Improved White
Spine, and Kirby's Improved Straight-8.
Planting.-Cucumber seed is planted in rows from 4 to 6
feet apart, in hills in the rows from 2 to 3 feet apart, about 6
seed to the hill, covered about % of an inch deep. From 2 to 3
pounds of seed will plant an acre. From planting the seed to the
first picking, from 50 to 60 days will be required. The average
yield for the State is about 80 bushels per acre, though under
normal growing conditions the yield in the principal sections
will range from 200 to 250 bushels per acre, with higher yields
reported.
Cost.-Exclusive of taxes, interest, rental, depreciation, it
will cost from $70 to $95 per acre to grow cucumbers in Flor-
ida: Preparation and cultivation of land $20-30; seed $3.00;
fertilizer $35-40; spraying and miscellaneous $12-22. On the
basis of a yield of 125 bushel hampers per acre, the cost per
hamper delivered at shipping point is from 95c to $1.30 as
follows: Growing 56-75c; harvesting 10-15c; hamper 14-15c;
hauling 5c; grading and packing 10-20c.
Container.-The tub type bushel basket and the bushel
hamper are the principal containers used in the carlot ship-
ments of cucumbers from Florida.
Pack.-The pack should be tight and the contents consist
of cucumbers that are well formed, fresh, firm and mature
enough for slicing, but not full grown or ripe, and that are
free from damage or decay. The minimum length should be
not less than 5 inches, and the cucumbers be carefully arranged,
especially if shipped in baskets.
Loading in Car.-Cucumbers from Florida are generally
shipped under ventilation, in dry refrigerator cars. The baskets
are usually loaded lengthwise the car 21x22, or 22 stacks in
each layer of each row, end-to-end offset method, 3x3 rows,
3 layers sometimes 4 layers high. Average load 421-450 bas-
kets, range from 400-500 baskets. Hampers are loaded alter-
nately on ends full length of the car, 7 rows wide, 2-3 layers
high, reverse order in layers with tops against tops, bottoms
against bottoms. Average load 450 hampers per car, range
from 420 to 520.
Florida Shipments.-Carlot shipments begin moving from
Florida in October, and continue until the season ends in June.
The following record of monthly carlot shipments shows the
movement from Florida for the seasons 1928-29 through 1937-38:











34 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits



Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1928-29 ..--- .. 63 16 5 397 1,221 483 2,185
1929-30_ .. 5 106 54 9 202 581 30 987
1930-31 _--- 66 215 20 -- -.- 154 1,097 83 1,635
1931-32-_.--- 37 82 10 22 85 14 379 49 678
1932-33 -..---. 39 98 13 97 201 101 4 553
1933-34----- 57 151 68 5 5 200 338 4 828
1934-35.----- 26 127 30 ._ 19 438 255 -.-- 895
1935-36 ___-.. 19 210 46 5 1 256 273 26 836
1936-37 --- 31 38 14 1 63 228 155 14 544
1937-38. ------- 20 93 26 .. 109 920 275 1,443


The principal Florida cucumber shipping counties are indi-
cated in the following twelve-season record of carlot shipments:



County i i a
a a a a a a a a a a a a

Alachua 496 289 489 246 277 135 51 125 54 44 48 115
Baker - 2 12 14 ..-- -
Bradford .- 12 2 14 35 7 10 14 ..--
Brevard .- -- 5 -- --__
Broward 8 3 -- .. .1.. .
Charlotte .-- -- -- -- --- -- -.- 12 15
Clay 1 --- -- -.
Collier 2 32 3 3 1 14 19 15 28 37
Columbia ..-- ---- 28 25 11 .. 6 --
Dade --- - -- ------- 1 --
DeSoto ------..-- 3 -- 7 22 5 11 -- -- --.....
Gadsden 23 2 -- 15 3 1 -
Gilchrist -- --- 2 ----- --- 2 1--
Glades -- 4 ...-- --
Hamilton .... 3 8 3 1 4 --- --- -------
Hardee ... 431 320 372 177 406 96 161 192 158 120 47 234
Hendry ... 19 7 5 12 3 3 11 11 4 2 3
Hernando ._ 2 ------ 14 4 10 ---
Hillsborough.. 8 14 31 5 2 4 10 23 8 1 35
Holmes .........- 8 -----
Indian River ...-. 5 4 12 20 3 11 15 2 1
Jackson ... . . . . .. 3
Lake 12 8 41 8 12 8 4 3 7
Lee 23 17 18 54 88 50 67 110 118 169 49 66
Levy 452 332 424 175 175 66 37 85 52 7 3
M adison --- ----.. 2 --_ 1 4 ---- --
Manatee -... 39 32 45 6 37 14 27 28 24 47 37 164
Marion .... 29 54 77 38 64 51 9 22 10 3 6 44
Orange .. 566 202 138 31 153 34 31 30 65 43 49 134
Pasco .--.....-. 6 5 15 -- --.. .
Pinellas --..-- -- 8 -- -- --
Putnam 4 13 -- -- 10
St. Johns --- 27 -- -2 71 18 12
St. Lucie .---.-- 25 48 71 18 12
Sarasota -- 12 21 --- 32 68
Sem inole 4 1 2 ---- --- ---- --- ---
Sumter 517 399 439 151 285 106 111 119 253 186 184 414
Suwannee -- -- -- 12 18 5 ....
Union.....-- 33 4 1 1 2 -. --
Volusia ...... 1 2 4 5 --
Washington -. ------ 13 9 --
Others --..--.-- 6 3 -- -- --- 4 -
Total Rail _2,631 1,718 2,206 981 1,634 677 553 826 886 759 515 1,351
By Boat .- -- -- 6 1 1 2 9 77 29 92
Grand Total.2,631 1,718*2,206 987 1,635 678 553 828 895 836 544 1.443
*Total in Season 1928-29 includes express and boat shipments allocated to different
counties.









From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 35

Competitive Shipments.-If the Florida cucumber season
starts in October, growers have fall domestic competition with
Louisiana, Georgia, New York and northern home-grown local
supplies. In November supplies fade out from these sources
and Florida ships in December practically all of the domestic
volume. Import competition from Cuba and Puerto Rico be-
gins in a limited way in November and by the end of December
reaches good volume, December imports ranging in the last
four years 1933-36, from 24 to 62 carlot equivalents. Florida
has competition in January, February and March with hot-
house supplies mainly from Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, and the
Cuban and Puerto Rican imports, which are heaviest of the
season in January and second in February declining in March
with an average of about 23 cars, ending in April, but largely
dominating the market in the first three months of the year.
April marks the beginning of the early domestic shipments
from Texas, the peak movement from which State is reached
in May. During May, Alabama, South Carolina and Georgia
cucumbers roll in carlot volume, and the Florida cucumber sea-
son ending in June must meet competitive shipments from
Arkansas, Maryland, Mississippi, Texas, Virginia, and heavy
shipments from Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina and South
Carolina, and a few scattering cars from other States.
The following record will show the total domestic competi-
tion from the United States-total shipments excluding Florida
-in each month of the Florida shipping season, for nine seasons:

Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June (9 mo.)
Total
1928-29 --- ------ 26 3 22 36 207 1,480 2,107 3,881
1929-30 ----.-- 88 18 1 ---. 20 33 154 1,798 2,445 4,557
1930-31._...... 137 14 2 -- .... 37 91 958 1,053 2,292
1931-32 .._..._ ... 106 ._ ._. .. 61 961 1,513 2,641
1932-33 -----.. --.. 130 4 .... 1 13 13 141 665 925 1,892
1933-34._-_..... 165 3 .... 2 15 16 18 890 1,327 2,436
1934-35 --.. 107 ..- ...--- 2 10 12 157 1,738 1,318 3,344
1935-36...---- 79 2 ._ 2 4 1 28 890 1,334 2,340
1936-37...... ..- 156 2 ...._ .__ 1 -- 506 1,044 1,709

The following record shows the imports by months of the
Florida season, from Cuba and Puerto Rico, for seasons 1933-34,
1934-35, 1935-36, 1936-37:









36 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Total
1933-34
Cuba .. ...- ... 1 23 28 13 8 -- 73
Puerto Rico ..----- 1 22 37 23 7 7 97
1934-35
Cuba ------- 24 45 29 15 1 114
Puerto Rico ..- 37 44 17 16 114
1935-36
Cuba _..____ __ 33 48 32 8 1 122
Puerto Rico ____.. 2 31 40 21 25 5 124
1936-37
Cuba ------ 1 47 53 31 16 -__ 148
Puerto Rico ..--.... 1 15 28 40 52 5 141

Distribution.-About two-third the Florida cucumber ship-
ments go to New York City. About 77% of the rail shipments
moved to Eastern territory, 22% to Western, and less than 1%
to Southern territory in the 1936-37 season. The boat ship-
ments in carlot equivalents in 1933-34 amounted to only 2 cars,
9 cars in 1934-35, 77 cars in 1935-36, 29 cars in 1936-37, and
92 cars in 1937-38, which went largely to New York and eastern
ports. The increase in truck shipments accounts for the low
percentage of the rail shipments into Southern territory.

Northern Market Prices.-The following simple average
destination prices by months are based on No. 1 grade or top
quote, of Florida cucumbers in bushel hampers or baskets.
Thirteen seasons in order through 1937-38 are given:


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1925-26 -..--- $3.54 *$5.94 $8.49 $---- $ ..-. *$6.46 $3.92 *$1.55
1926-27 --....- 5.01 4.97 5.24 _.. 6.96 3.35 2.66
1927-28 -__-- 4.25 4.30 --... --- 5.95 4.20 *2.45
1928-29 ----- 5.40 5.35 8.25 8.00 *6.60 3.55 2.40
1929-30 ------ 5.25 4.60 *5.25 ... *8.05 6.20 3.35 1.15
1930-31 .---. 2.61 4.81 -- .. -- -. *3.26 2.58 *1.31
1931-32 .----- 4.01 5.48 *4.82 3.99 *6.55 3.97 *1.25
1932-33 ...--- 2.68 4.92 4.54 3.36 2.59
1933-34 ..... 1.93 2.63 *3.00 --- *5.82 4.32 2.96 -
1934-35 .... *3.05 *3.22 ---- -- *4.98 3.59 *1.56
1935-36 .---. 2.85 3.02 *4.38 ---- *6.30 4.77 *2.96 *2.12
1936-37 ...-- 3.40 5.45 *5.14 ... *5.15 4.33 4.86 *2.29
1937-38 ...-. 3.37 3.25 *5.28 --- 5.78 2.35 2.81
* Part month.

Weekly destination simple average jobbing prices, and ship-
ments, of Florida cucumbers for three recent seasons, are given
below for those who may require more detailed data than shown
above in the monthly averages:










From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 37


Week
Ending
Nov. 6
13
20
27
Dec. 4
11
18
25
Jan. 1
8
15
22
29
Feb. 5
12
19
26
Mar. 5
12
19
23
Apr. 2
9
16
23
30
May 7
14
21
28
June 4
11


Season
1936-1937


Season
1937-1938
13 cars $3.58
21 3.51
28 3.28
18 3.18
28 2.98
6 3.01
2 3.07
1 3.95
3.57
2.26
3.75
5.05
6.65
6.52

6.63
6.53
5.96
6.49
4 6.28
2 5.26
129 3.83
249 2.41
255 2.04
185 2.14
165 2.52
139 2.81
96 2.66
42 2.87
4 2.88
- -- -
__ f


12 cars
15
6 "
4
5 "
2

3 "
2
1 "







21
7



9 2
69
63
6 "
21
21 "
32 "
52 "
43 "
19 "
3 "


Florida Market Prices.-The shipper who has only a few
dozen hampers of cucumbers and the trucker who patronizes
the State Farmers Markets, or privately owned and managed
farmers' markets inside the State, like to know how the home
markets range in price, and how these prices compare with
outside market averages. The following tabulation of the Jack-
sonville, Florida, market, simple average jobbing prices, top
quote, per bushel basis, will supply an index of home market price
trends, thirteen years ending with part of 1938, are shown:


Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1926 $5.22 $ .... $ $5.76 $2.86 $1.21 $1.69 $ ..- $ .-.- $2.51 $3.48 $3.67
1927-- 4.20 .--- *5.67 3.06 1.43 *1.67 *1.36 1.91 2.56 2.06 2.50 2.54
1928 ....------ -- .. _. *4.06 4.44 2.82 1.28 1.15 _-_ 3.14 2.75 3.42
19299-__ _. 3.50 2.15 1.42 1.73 2.73 3.10 2.70 2.51 2.89 2.76
1930 .----... 3.79 2.90 5.98 5.08 2.69 1.01 2.19 2.79 3.38 2.39 2.24 2.84
1931 .--- ._ 3.62 4.14 4.54 4.71 2.03 1.03 2.00 1.87 2.27
1932 ...--.__ 4.80 5.23 3.59 *4.58 *1.93 .70 _ 1.60 2.29S 3.46
1933.._ ._ 3.78 2.34 1.69 -- 1.50S 1.62S 1.92S 1.62S1.39 1.77
1934 ...---- *1.99 *3.19 *4.68 3.76 1.97 .82S 1.54S 2.21S 2.58S 2.05S 2.26 2.56
1935 ... .... 3.85 2.93 .89 .74 1.32 1.87 2.41 2.66 2.07 2.12
1936 .__ 2.10 *2.19 4.25 3.31 1.57 1.08 1.41 1.60 1.56 1.20 1.48 2.58
1937--...__ 3.04 4.29 3.87 2.45 2.38 .97 1.06 1.55 2.08 2.15 2.27 2.60
1938.... 3.33 4.66 4.30 1.62 1.24 1.00 ..- -
* Part month. S Southern offerings.


$2.64
2.99
3.66
4.22
5.15
5.43
5.38
5.48
5.83
5. 6
5.05





5.66
5.50
5.33
5.04
4.04
4.22
3.85
4.36
5.07
6.14
5.68
4.26
3.29
2.63
1.63


Season
1935-1936
58 cars $3.32
53 2.85
38 2.50
47 2.56
14 2.54
18 2.77
8 3.14
4 3.59
1 3.61
5 4.56
4.39
4.76






S 5.94
6.61
5 5.84
29 5.67
47 4.74
90 4.05
123 3.41
95 2.97
55 3.00
45 2.95
33 2.89
21 2.47
7 1.56










38 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


The following compilation will give the total United States
shipments of cucumbers and the northern market simple aver-
age jobbing prices of Florida cucumbers by months, and the
Florida shipments and Jacksonville jobbing prices for the months
common to the Florida shipping season, for nine seasons end-
ing with 1936-37:


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1928-29
Total U. S. Shipments -...-- 89 19 27 433 1,428 1,963 2,107
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes- $5.40 $5.35 $8.25 $8.00 *$6.60 $3.55 $2.40 $ ...
Fla. Shipments Carlots .....-- 63 16 5 397 1,221 483
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices .. $2.75 $3.42 $ .... $ -._ $3.50 $2.15 $1.42 $1.73
1929-30
Total U. S. Shipments -..-- 124 55 .. 20 42 356 2,379 2,475
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes.. $5.25 $4.60 *$5.25 $ ... *$8.05 $6.20 $3.35 $1.15
Fla. Shipments Carlots _. 106 54 .. 9 202 581 30
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices .._ $2.89 $2.76 $3.79 $2.90 $5.98 $5.08 $2.69. $1.01
1930-31
Total U. S. Shipments _._ 229 22 37 245 2,055 1,136
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes- $2.61 $4.81 $ $ $ ___ *$3.26 $2.58 *$1.31
Fla. Shipments Carlots 215 20 .... 154 1,097 83
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices $2.24 $2.84 $3.62 $4.14 $4.54 $4.71 $2.03 $1.03
1931-32
Total U. S. Shipments ... 82 10 ... 22 85 75 1,340 1,562
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes.. $4.01 $5.48 $ .. *$4.82 $3.99 *$6.55 $3.97 *$1.25
Fla. Shipments Carlots ....... 82 10 22 85 14 379 49
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices .. _.. $4.80 $5.23 $3.59 *$4.58 *$1.93 $ .70
1932-33
Total U. S. Shipments ..... 102 13 1 13 110 342 766 929
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes_ $2.68 $4.92 $ - $ -.... $4.54 $3.36 $2.59 $ ..--
Fla. Shipments Carlots _.._ 98 13 .... .. 97 201 101 4
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices $2.295 $3.46 $ __ $ ._ $3.78 $2.34 $1.69 $ .--.
1933-34
Total U. S. Shipments ___ 154 68 7 15 21 218 1,228 1,331
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes- $1.93 $2.63 *$3.00 $ .. *$5.82 $4.32 $2.96 $ .-
Fla. Shipments Carlots ___ 151 68 5 5 200 338 4
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices $1.39 $1.77 *$1.99 *$3.19 *$4.68 $3.76 $1.97 S$ .82
1934-35
Total U. S. Shipments ___ 127 30 2 10 31 595 1,993 1,318
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes.*$3.05 *$3.22 $ $....-- *$4.98 $3.59 *$1.56 $ .-_
Fla. Shipments Carlots -....... 127 30 ..- 19 438 255
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices $2.26 $2.56 $ ... $ ...... $3.85 $2.93 $ .89 $ .74
1935-36
Total U. S. Shipments .....-. 212 46 7 4 2 284 1,163 1,360
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes_ $2.85 $3.02 *$4.38 $ .._ *$6.30 $4.77 *$2.96 *$2.12
Fla. Shipments Carlots .... 210 46 5 --..... 1 256 273 26
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices .... $2.07 $2.12 $2.10 *$2.19 $4.25 $3.31 $1.57 $1.08
1936-37
Total U. S. Shipments ....--- 40 14 1 1 63 228 666 1,058
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes. $3.40 $5.45 *$5.14 $ ..__ *$5.15 *$4.33 $4.86 *$2.29
Fla. Shipments Carlots --...... 38 14 1 ...... 63 228 155 14
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices .._ $1.48 $2.58 $3.04 $4.29 $3.87 $2.45 $2.38 $ .97
* Part month. S Southern offerings.

Peak Prices, When and Why.-The Florida cucumber ship-
ping season, commercial movement to northern markets, includes
nine months of the year, yet the mid-winter three months of
the nine, is the period of the lowest movement from the State.
January, February, March and to April 15th are likewise the
months of the lightest total domestic U. S. shipments. The
retarding influence on Florida cucumber prices in this period








From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 39

comes from hothouse shipments, and from imports. From strict-
ly a price position rank in the twelve season 1925-26 through
1936-37 period, March is first, January second, February third,
April fourth. On the basis of average prices, same twelve-
year period, February, March, April and December are in the
order named the high price months. Taking the more recent
five season average, 1932-33 through 1936-37, March, January
(February too few sales reported regularly to establish market),
April and December rank in the average price order named.
Prices have in the last five seasons 1932-33 through 1936-37
started the decline in April from March levels, continued with
May lower than April (exception May, 1937) and with June
prices under those of May. This is natural with Texas shipments
reaching their peak in May, considering also the additional num-
ber of States that begin their shipping season in May. June
is invariably the lowest average-price month of the season, for
not only the volume but the availability of fresh receipts from
so many different States brings down the prices. In the recent
five-year period November is next to June the lowest in average
price rank of the season. The October and November Florida
shipments as the season begins must compete with the finishing
supplies shipped as the season ends in other Southern and
Northern States, while the May and June Florida shipments
as the season ends must compete with supplies shipped as the
season begins in other early and second early States.











40 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


EGGPLANT

The per annum farm value of the Florida eggplant crop,
1926-27 through 1935-36 ten-season average, was $374,100. In
rail and boat shipments, Florida leads all States and shipped
91.5% of the United States total in the five-year period 1932-
1936.

Acreage.-The Florida eggplant acreage is limited, com-
pared to that of the major truck crops. The acreage is dis-
tributed among a number of counties as the following tabula-
tion of country acreage for ten seasons will show:




County I I I I I t
ci c c iW M o w
CS o & -


Alachua -_ ...._. 110
Brevard ... 10
Broward .... 50
Charlotte ... 5
Clay ..- ..- _.
Citrus ... 60
Collier .. 10
Dade ...... 60
DeSoto ...... 10
Gilchrist .. 20
Glades __ 5
Hardee ---.- 90
Hendry __. 10
Hernando __ 20
Hillsborough_ 50
Indian River 10
Lake .... 25
Lee ..___-.. 270
Levy ------
Manatee -..._- 220
Marion --- 30
Martin _....... 25
Okeechobee .... 5
Orange ....... 20
Osceola .-..._
Palm Beach __ 75
Pasco .. 5
Polk --_-- .. 20
St. Lucie _------ 20
Seminole ....... 80
Sumter .-. 5
Union ......
Volusia -..... 5
Others ----- -


120 70 35 35 60 75 50 50 250/
.....- ------ ------ -----..... ... . ......
.... 25 .... 200 50 25 25
30 30 15 15 40 40 40 40 25
25 25 .- ...... .
25 25 25 50 50 50 25
25 105 125 25 50 25 25 75 25
50 50 100 100 25 25 25 25 25
30 20 ---- ......
55 60 25 50 50 ..
5 5 .. -
60 200 175 225 150 150 75 225 225/
30 25 -
265 300 250 350 325 180 60 100 100
45 40 100 100 150 100 100 100 100
25 25 15 15 ...... 25 25
20
280 100 450 400 350 300 300 275 400"
10 __ ...... 20
250 150 175 125 200 100 150 125 150
55 90 50 25 50 75 50 225 22
25 10 ---- ...... ...
5 25 -
15 35 75 175 25 25 25 25
70 40 _..
20 70 50 25 25 50 25 75 75
25 100 50 .... 50 60 .
25 25 50 50
30 30 -
40 60 50 50 50 45 50 45 45
5 5 25 ......--
10 50 110 50 --- -- -- -
5 5
85 75 .. 25 40 35


State Total -. 1,325 1,680 1,800 1,950 1,950 1,925 1,350 1,050 1,450 1,750



Varieties.-The Black Beauty, Ft. Myers Market, Manatee
Special, New York Improved Purple Spineless, Florida High-
Bush and New Orleans Market are the leading Florida varieties
of eggplant for shipping purposes.








From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 41

Planting.-About 6 ounces of seed in the seedbed should
produce enough seed for an acre, should be planted about 1/,
inch deep in the bed. In transplanting to the field, about four
weeks after seed planted, plants should be set about 3 feet apart
in rows 5 feet apart. For plants to reach maturity it will take
from 115 to 120 days. The Florida State's average yield is
about 162 bushels, or 108 crates per acre, although the yield in
leading sections will range to as high as 500 bushels per acre.
Cost.-Not including cost of land, rental, taxes, interest,
depreciation, the average cost per season of producing eggplant
in Florida will average from $95 to $125 per acre: Preparation
and cultivation $35-50; seed $2-3; fertilizer $50-55; spraying
and miscellaneous $8-17. On a yield of 200 bushels per acre,
the cost per crate delivered shipping point is from $1.13-1.45:
Growing 70-93c; harvesting 10-15c; crate 18-20c; hauling 5c;
grading and packing 10-12c.
Container.-The principal container used in shipping Flor-
ida eggplant is the 11/2 bushel crate, inside dimensions 11x13-
%/x22 inches. Shipments are also made in bushel baskets and
hampers.
Pack.-Only eggplants of similar varietal characteristics,
that are smooth, firm, well colored and shaped and that are
free from damage, should be packed. Sizes packed, from 24s
to 60s.
Loading in Car.-Crates are loaded full length of the car
16 stacks long, usually 6 rows wide, and from 4-5 layers high.
Bottom layers are double stripped, top layer single stripped.
The number of crates per carload ranges from 426 to 496, aver-
age about 448 crates per car. Shipped in straight or mixed
cars under refrigeration.
Florida Shipments.-The Florida carlot eggplant shipping
season begins in October and ends in July. The following record
shows the volume shipped in each month of the Florida season,
from 1928-29 through 1937-38:

Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
1928-29 ... 1 14 45 88 48 5 201
1929-30 21 42 2 4 2 2 11 53 61 9 207
1930-31-_ 40 72 7 6 1 3 4 9 40 25 *208
1931-32_ ._- 13 21 25 18 28 57 61 41 21 **286
1932-33-_ 26 30 2 1 5 51 90 73 53 9 x342
1933-34__ 13 6 9 18 11 8 56 102 47 3 273
1934-35 15 9 20 -_ 2 31 55 42 6 180
1935-36 ..-_ 4 2 6 2 39 78 79 18 228
1936-37.... 14 15 18 19 5 15 28 39 69 18 240
1937-38 -- 9 11 4 4 3 52 119 66 xx276
*1 Car in Sept. **1 Car in Aug. x 2 Cars in Sept. xx 8 Cars in July, 1937.










42 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


The table given below shows the carlot shipments of egg-
plant, by counties, from Florida for the seasons 1926-27 through
1937-38:



County o IG
a a 4 2
Alachua---- 19 17 16 15 4 5 1 .. ... 2
Broward 17 3 1
Charlotte ----- -- 1 ....-- -
Citrus -- -6 9 2 1 2 .--. --. --
Collier ..3- 6 23 6 .... 2 .
Dade --- 16 5 .. 2 3 ....
Gilchrist 35 --- 8 2 ... .... ....... 1
Glades 11 -- -- --
Hardee 42 13 1 -- 3 1 .... 3 1
Hendry -.- 1 ---- 1 -- --
Hernando 23 70 16 44 16 7 1--
Hillsborough -.-- 1 3 5 23 30 20 9 18 7 3
Indian River .. -.. 11 1 1 .. .. .. .. 1
Lee ..--......----- 22 39 68 43 11 52 120 66 16 33 13 10
Levy I ..-...-....-... 1
Manatee --.--- 41 73 114 81 42 64 41 51 21 38 22 6
Marion 10 8 8 3 1 1 --
Martin I_-- 1 -- 1
Okeechobee 5 -
Orange 1 1 12 8 .... .
Palm Beach 14 -. 6 1 3 16 3 3
Pasco _2 2 2 16 3 -- 1 .
Polk .- 1 5 -- -. 10 ._ ... .. ... 1
St. Lucie 3 1
Seminole i..-- 39 11 1 3 2 5 8 2 1 S 2
Sumter 1 7
Union 16 9 20 .. 4 4 --
Volusia 1 --
Total Rail ..... 199 234 *240 194 186 235 268 175 80 106 56 26
By Boat --....... 13 22 51 74 98 100 122 184 250
Grand Total ...-. 199 234 *240 207 208 286 342 273 180 228 240 276
* Total in season 1928-29 includes express and boat shipments allocated to different
counties.

Competitive Shipments.-Since Florida has in the five
years 1932-1936 shipped more than nine-tenths of the total
U. S. rail and boat supplies, it appears that Florida eggplant,
especially during its shipping season, controls the markets.
Domestic carlot competition is negligible until Virginia ship-
ments begin in June and July, as the few cars from Texas,
Louisiana or South Carolina are not serious. However, imports
account for about 45% (in the yearly average 1932-1936) of
the total rail and boat supply, the total U. S. shipments amount-
ing to only 55% of the total. Cuba is the chief competitor,
Mexico next and occasionally Puerto Rico places eggplant on
the U. S. markets. Cuban shipments usually begin in December,
or latter November, increase in January, and in February, to
reach the peak in March. The Cuban receipts drop off sharply
in April, and end in May. Mexico ships mostly in the period









From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 43


January to May inclusive, but in much less volume than Cuba.
The following table shows the total U. S. shipments by months,
excluding the Florida shipments, for nine seasons:

Season Oct. Nov. Dnc. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
(10 mo.)
l 928-29__ .-- 4 103 107
1929-30 _..--. --- 8 --- -- 4 69 81
1930-31..-- ... -S . 3 105 111
1931-32---..-..... 1 8 1 .- .--- -- 2 56 68
[932-33 ..----- - -- -- .- -- 2 40 42
1933-34...-----------... --- - ---- 30 30
1934-35__--__ --- 1 1 19 21
1935-36- ...-.. -- -- --- 1 1
1936-37 ---- -- -. ---- - -- 3 3

Since imports are relatively of such importance, a tabula-
tion is given below of the monthly volume each source has
supplied in the seasons 1932-33 through 1936-37:


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Total
1932-33
Cuba _..._ -. 4 15 28 36 11 1 95
Mexico --- __ -- 1 2 2 4 1 10
Puerto Rico- -- -- -- --- --- ---
1933-34
Cuba -.---------- -- 7 20 47 62 43 2 181
Mexico -__- 1 2 1 2 6
Puerto Rico -.- -- -- -- 1 1
1934-35
Cuba - -- 13 33 57 84 52 2 241
Mexico --- ---- 1 4 5 2 3 2 16
Puerto Rico -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -
1935-36
Cuba .--------.-.--- 23 88 107 132 43 3 396
Mexico -- 1 4 7 3 -- 15
Puerto Rico -. -- -- ----- -- -- -
1936-37
Cuba -. 3 52 61 62 85 20 2 285
Mexico --. -- 3 5 7 7 3 25
Puerto Rico --- ------ -- ------ -- *1
* Aggregate total of I.c.1. shipments.

Distribution.-Although the Florida carlot shipments of
eggplant are rather limited, not averaging 1 car per day for
the year, about 78% the shipments rail and boat are sent to
New York City. Cuba the principal Florida competitor in egg-
plant shipments, likewise dumps the most of its shipments to
the United States on the New York market, about 88% of the
U. S. imports from Cuba going to the market that also uses
more than three-fourths the Florida outside commercial crop.









44 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


This condition is largely a result of transportation, Cuban ship-
ments being by boat, and in the 1936-37 season of the total
rail and boat movement 76% of the Florida total going out by
boat. This about reverses the method used in Florida in the
1932-33 season, only five years difference in time, when 78%
of the total eggplant movement went out by rail, compared to
only 22% by boat. The truck movement is increasing, from
25 to 30 carlot equivalents going from Florida to the New York
market each year by truck.
Northern Market Prices.-The following eight-month, thir-
teen-season simple average destination jobbing price record will
show the market trend of Florida eggplant throughout the
shipping season, No. 1 offerings in standard crates:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1925-26 -_-.. $4.20 $3.61 $5.45 $6.68 *$6.79 *$6.65 $5.67 *$4.99
1926-27 -.-.-- 4.79 5.08 5.07 5.08 5.14 3.75 3.42 3.22
1927-28 .-__-. 2.78 1.96 3.73 3.62 *4.68 3.86 3.45 2.89
1928-29 --.. 6.65 8.20 *7.35 6.00 4.30 3.45 2.90 2.30
1929-30 -- 4.20 3.88 4.37 4.13 4.11 4.33 4.20 2.66
1930-31 ---. 2.11 2.20 3.35 4.36 4.88 4.50 4.15 3.48
1931-32 -- 3.69 2.98 2.95 2.75 2.86 2.65 2.24 1.99
1932-33---- 2.09 3.26 3.35 3.26 2.85 1.94 2.33 2.02
1933-34.__ 3.23 3.44 2.63 2.89 2.85 2.82 2.30 2.02
1934-35_ 2.32 2.29 *3.74 *5.02 *4.20 3.13 2.50 2.38
1935-36 ..--- 3.66 3.44 2.94 *3.74 3.68 2.97 2.47 2.19
1936-37-...-- 2.41 2.27 2.11 2.50 2.87 2.95 3.09 2.18
1937-38_-_. 3.48 3.44 3.56 3.31 2.95 2.33 2.05 1.72
* Part month.

The following compilation of destination jobbing price aver-
ages by weeks of Florida eggplant will further break down the
above monthly average data. Shipments by weeks are also
included for the three seasons shown:


Week Season Season Season
Ending 1937-1938 1936-1937 1935-1936
Nov. 6 LCL $4.07 5 cars $1.71 .... cars $3.52
13 1 cars 3.83 3 2.41 -- 3.44
20 2 3.19 3 2.84 1 3.66
27 6 2.99 4 2.76 1 3.97
Dec. 4 3 2.97 3 2.32 3.78
11 2 3.32 3 2.20 2 3.47
18 1 3.65 4 2.29 .. 3.30
25 4 3.81 3 2.41 3.30










From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 45


Week Season Season Season
Ending 1937-1938 1936-1937 1935-1936

Jan. 1 4 3.36 8 2.19 .. 3.11
8 3.46 3 2.10 1 2.93
15 3.51 2 2.03 3 2.88
22 1 3.63 4 2.07 2 2.89
29 2.58 2 2.25 2.88
Feb. 5 3.90 3 2.22 3.23
12 1 3.86 2 2.44 4.11
19 1 3.97 -_ 2.54 -- 4.05
26 2 3.42 2.45 3.89
Mar. 5 2.67 1 2.88 3.83
12 2.77 2 2.88 3.66
19 3.33 2 2.84 3.49
26 3.05 9 2.90 1 3.74
Apr. 2 3 2.80 3 2.86 3 3.29
9 9 2.44 6 2.81 7 2.98
16 12 2.24 6 2.93 11 2.89
23 17 2.27 10 3.06 10 3.04
30 14 2.22 7 3.08 13 2.79
May 7 29 2.05 8 3.20 23 2.69
14 37 2.06 8 3.31 19 2.45
21 27 2.06 4 2.97 15 2.35
28 23 2.03 15 2.87 15 2.22
June 4 17 1.95 15 2.65 27 2.25
11 21 1.80 18 2.45 22 2.19
18 17 2.14 11 2.14
25 ----- 17 1.73 16 2.13


Florida Market Prices.-The record of monthly jobbing
prices on the Jacksonville, Florida, market is given by calendar
months, for thirteen years, crates, top quote basis:


Year


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dee


1926__ ..._ $3.85
1927. 3.88
1928 .- ... 2.69
1929__..__ 4.38
1930 .. 2.84
1931__ 2.22
1932 _.... --
1933__.- 1.33
1934 __.-..- 1.21
1935 2.25
1936 __.... 1.36
1937-- .92
1938 ....... 1.65


$ ... $5.50
4.77 4.18
2.67 2.78
4.34 2.61
2.66 2.60
2.07 2.71
1.27 1.34
1.66 1.45
*1.22 1.25
2.71 1.65
1.34 1.71
1.04 1.10
1.74 1.53


$5.52 $ $4.39
3.46 2.68 2.28
2.41 2.06 2.25
2.35 2.15 1.88
2.65 2.56 2.12
2.72 1.94 1.83
1.20 1.13 .88
.98 .76 .74
1.09 .97 .78
1.40 1 03 1.11
1.34 1.06 .92
1.26 1.20 .95
1.33 1.06 .84


$1.91 $1.98 $2.28 $2.41 $2.90 $3.31
__ 1.72 1.71 1.66 2.04 1.70
1.52 2.08 1.81 3.16 3.21 3.03
1.74 1.87 2.15 1.73 2.03 2.72
1.94 1.65 1.63 1.69 1.77 2.17
1.03 .84 1.03 1.30 1.29 1.16
.__ .85 .71 .95 1.28
.63 .59 *.88 1.28 1.31 1.61
.77 .90S 1.17S .86S 1.03 1.42
.65 .65 1.23 1.64 1.84 1.66
.80 .57 .77 .80 .85 1.01
.63 .71 1.54 ....--
. . ._.. . .. . .


* Part month. S Southern offerings.

Since so large a proportion of the total shipments of egg-
plants consists of imports, and the Florida total is such a large
percentage of the U. S. total, the U. S. shipments, Florida ship-
ments, imports (beginning with the 1932-33 season), and Flor-
ida terminal market jobbing price averages by months are shown
together in the following table:


Year











46 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July


1928-29
Total U. S. Shipments -..... .... _
Florida Shipments _-..-...... - -
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant $6.65 $8.20*$7.35
1929-30
Total U. S. Shipments ....-_ 50 2 4
Florida Shipments ---....- 42 2 4
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant $4.20 $3.88 $4.37
1930-31
Total U. S. Shipments __- 72 10 6
Florida Shipments ..__ 72 7 6
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant $2.11 $2.20 $3.35
1931-32
Total U. S. Shipments 21 22 25
Florida Shipments __ 13 21 25
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant $3.69 $2.98 $2.95
1932-33
Total U. S. Shipments .--._... 30 2 1
Florida Shipments ---_---------_ 30 2 1
Imports ------- -- --.. ... ..... -..... 4 16
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant $2.09 $3.26 $3.35
1933-34
Total U. S. Shipments -------_ 6 9 18
Florida Shipments -._..-----_ 6 9 18
Imports .-- ...- .. 7 21
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant $3.23 $3.44 $2.63
1934-35
Total U. S. Shipments .... 9 20 1
Florida Shipments 9 20 ---
Imports _. .. ____ .. 14 37
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant $2.32 $2.29 $3.74'
1935-36
Total U. S. Shipments _. 4 2 6
Florida Shipments .__._ -_ 4 2 6
Imports ..--.. .. 23 89
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant $3.66 $3.44 $2.94
1936-37
Total U. S. Shipments --......_ 15 18 19
Florida Shipments --.....__ 15 18 19
Imports ---....... .-....__ 3 52 64
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant $2.41 $2.27 $2.11


1 14 45 88 52 108
1 14 45 88 48 5
$6.00 $4.30 $3.45 $2.90 $2.30 .
2 2 11 53 65 78
2 2 11 53 61 9
$4.13 $4.11 $4.33 $4.20 $2.66 --.
1 3 4 9 43 130
1 3 4 9 40 25
$4.36 $4.88 $4.50 $4.15 $3.48 _
18 28 57 61 43 77
18 28 57 61 41 21
$2.75 $2.86 $2.65 $2.24 $1.99


5 51 90
5 51 90
30 38 15
$3.26 $2.85 $1.94


11 8
11 8
49 63
$2.89 $2.85


73 55
73 53
2 .
$2.33 $2.02


56 102 47
56 102 47
46 2
$2.82 $2.30 $2.02


2 31 55 43
2 31 55 42
62 86 55 4 -
*$5.02*$4.20*$3.13 $2.50 $2.38


2
2
111 139
$3.74*$3.68
5 15
5 15
67 92
$2.50 $2.87


39 78 79
39 78 79
46 3
$2.97 $2.47 $2.19
28 39 69
28 39 69
27 5
$2.95 $3.09 $218


* Part month.

Peak Prices, When and Why.-On either the six-season aver-
age beginning with the 1925-26 season, or the twelve-season
average ending with the 1936-37 season, the average high price
months of the Florida shipping season are January, February
and March, with February and March very close for top rank,
January third, April fourth, December fifth with November
averaging about as good, May next to lowest and June at the
bottom. However, in the 1936-37 season May was the top
Florida price month, April second, March third and February
fourth, and shipments from Florida beginning with February,
increased in March, April and May, as they did also in 1936
and in 1935. On the average May is the peak month of the
Florida shipping season and April second, the Cuban peak im-
ports being in March with February second. Had the Florida
and Cuban peak shipments both been made in the same months,
prices would have been less. All of the Cuban imports being by
boat, and in later seasons the greater portion of the Florida
shipments by boat, which port shipments are not made on daily








From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 47

schedules, and which boat shipments from both principal sources
of supply are destined so largely to New York City, with the
result of supplies piling up abnormally on boat-arrival dates, the
Florida eggplant shippers should spread out their heavy or peak
shipments all possible, yet they cannot reasonably be expected to
yield their principal market outlet to Cuban shippers.









48 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


LETTUCE

The per-annum farm value of the Florida lettuce crop in
the ten-year period, 1926-27 through 1935-36 seasons, was
$359,800.
Acreage.-The Florida lettuce acreage, by counties, for
ten seasons ending with 1937-38 is shown below:





Highlands 5 0 ....
Lee . ... 5
Manatee 0 0 CO O
-ei 1- -o o l- o -o oo -o
Alachua--- 100 100 150 100 100 50 25 50 125 125k
Highlands -_- __ -- -- 5 50 -
Lee _- _-- -- -.- 5 -
Manatee ___ 350 300 300 115 150 325 400 100 300 350>^
Marion ... 300 150 250 100 100 250 100 50 75 1001
Orange ...--.. 300 185 200 175 25 75 25 50 25 25
Palm Beach .._ 15 60 25 25 100 50 25 25 75
Polk 2-...0..--. 40 25 -- --- ---
Seminole 430 220 300 210 75 250 250 200 200 200t
Sumter -....... -- .. 50 25 25 25 25
Volusia ..-..- 20 40 ....... ..
Others -...- .. 10 40 50 .. 25 .... 25 .
State Total .... 1,500 980 1,380 800 475 1,100 900 555 800 900


Varieties.-Big Boston is the principal variety of lettuce
grown in Florida for shipping purposes, and Iceberg is grown,
but less extensively.
Planting.-From one-half to one pound of seed in seed-bed
or from one to two pounds in field, will be required per acre.
Should be planted about one-quarter inch deep, or rolled lightly
into the soil. Plants are transplanted usually when from 2 to
3 inches high, and are set in the field, level culture, 14x14,
15x15 or 16x16 inches. Big Boston and Iceberg lettuce will
reach maturity in ten or eleven weeks. The average yield for
the State as a whole is about 240 crates per acre; up to 600
crates per acre are produced in the leading sections.
Cost.-Not including taxes, rent, interest, depreciation, it
will cost about $97.50 an acre to grow lettuce in Florida: Prep-
aration and cultivation $55; seed $1.50; fertilizer $35; miscel-
laneous $6. The cost per crate delivered at shipping point, on
a yield in the principal sections of 300 crates per acre, is about
60c crate: Growing 32c; harvesting, field packing, 10c; crate
15c; hauling 3c.
Container.-The 1 bushel hamper is more generally used,
but the 2-dozen crate, 7/x16x19 inches inside, is preferred by
some shippers.









From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 49

Pack.-The lettuce container should be well filled, have
tight pack, consist of heads of similar varietal characteristics
that are fresh, not split or burst, and that are free from damage
by any means. The 11/2 bushel hamper, Big Boston type, usu-
ally contains from 24 to 30 heads (large), 30 to 40 heads
(medium), or if small-weighing less than 1/2-lb.-more than
40 heads. The crate usually holds 24 uniform heads, or from
24 to 36 heads.

Loading in Car.-Lettuce is shipped under refrigeration.
Loaded full length the car, side load with hampers alternately
reversed, 5x6, 6x6, 6x7 rows wide, 4 to 6 layers high. Average
load range, from 400 to 500 hampers.

Florida Shipments.-The Florida lettuce shipping season
begins in November and usually ends in the following April.
The following report shows the amount of lettuce shipped from
Florida each season, and the monthly shipments, for the seasons
1928-29 through 1937-38:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Total
1928-29 .._ 61 378 363 146 169 -- 1,117
1929-30 68 189 145 56 98 4 560
1930-31 -.___ 52 244 189 205 221 29 940
1931-32 -..... 147 123 89 69 12 440
1932-33 _...- 43 84 113 120 86 17 *465
1933-34 39 132 120 54 68 7 420
1934-35 __- 55 50 72 82 53 4 316
1935-36 __ 38 125 59 35 63 4 324
1936-37 __ 13 96 116 53 42 1 321
1937-38 __--__----- 42 83 82 66 84 3 360
* Includes 2 cars in May.

The segregation of the State's total lettuce shipments ac-
cording to counties for several different seasons will better
show the producing centers in Florida:










50 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


1" as -( a a i a a a
County C aA a a
a a cc a a a a co a a a

Alachua de. 104 111 42 39 46 .. 43 22 15 19 43 50
Hillsborough 6 27 3 ..- ---- 14 .. ... .... 25 ..
Indian River _. .... 1 ..- .- -...... .
Lake ---.- --- ..- ---... .- -- ----- .... --- --..1 ..
Manatee.. 230 299 440 218 399 215 215 158 170 100 160 163
Marion _-- .- 151 221 157 50 128 16 73 70 22 27 26 36
Okeechobee .- -...-- --- -- --- ---- --- .. 1 ......---
Orange .__. 417 337 285 122 120 32 19 13 5 12 3 6
Palm Beach -. ...--. 7 36 ___ 20 9 15 7 1 5
Polk. ......- ... 21 12 - _. 20 5 .-- .. ..... ... ..
Sarasota --- .-------...- -- --- -.-- .--.-- --... ... ... 2 .--
Seminole __ 456 619 471 120 186 158 93 143 73 123 74 94
Sumter .._. 5 4 2 4 4 5 12 10 10 1
Union ...... 1 ... ... ... ..... 1 ........ ....---
Volusia ..-----..-- 1 .. -- ......

Total Rail -- 1,391 1,630 1,402 560 940 440 464 420 313 324 319 355
By Boat -..- --. --1 .. 3 ... 2 5

Grand Total_1,391 1,630*1,402 560 940 440 465 420 316 324 321 360
* Includes Escarole shipments.

Competitive Shipments.-Florida is outranked in lettuce
shipments by several states, and has very strong competition.
California, shipping more than 70% of the total U. S. lettuce,
is the strongest competitor, and moves more lettuce in every
month of the year than Florida ships in the entire season. Ari-
zona has about the same shipping season as Florida, but much
heavier volume. The Iceberg type of lettuce shipped by Cali-
fornia and Arizona is well established, and preferred by most
of the trade. Georgia occasionally ships a few cars in March
or April. North Carolina and South Carolina ship in March,
April and May in good carlot volume, and Texas has a few cars
in January or February. Most of the southern states ship the
Big Boston type. There is no import competition.

The following table will show the competition Florida let-
tuce has in every month of the shipping season, November
through the following April:

Lettuce shipments, total United States, except Florida, for
nine seasons:









From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 51

Total
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. ,Mar. Apr. (6 mo.)
1928-29--...... 4,021 4,183 4,613 5,090 4,702 5,646 28,255
1929-30 .....- 3,313 3,712 4,832 5,863 5,712 5,593 29,025
1930-31 .....- 3,196 4,750 4,774 4,007 5,423 5,237 27,387
1931-32 .-__. 3,675 3,000 4,734 4,591 4,539 5,457 25,996
1932-33 .... 3,913 2,989 3,854 3,786 3,028 4,647 22,217
1933-34 ......- 3,313 3,740 4,092 3,863 4,257 5,047 24,312
1934-35 --... 3,336 3,470 4,283 4,339 4,192 5,171 24,791
1935-36 ..... 3,542 4,565 3,961 4,492 4,886 5,435 26,881
1936-37 _---... 3,982 4,408 3,822 3,618 4,096 6,176 26,102

Distribution.-About 75% of the Florida lettuce shipments
are absorbed by New York City, and 10% by Philadelphia. In
the 1936-37 season more than 90% of the Florida lettuce went
into eastern territory. The competition from the Western
States, and the Big Boston type lettuce selling to better advan-
tage in the eastern markets, results in most of the Florida ship-
ments moving into only a few markets, which can be done to
advantage in view of the limited Florida shipments spread over
a shipping season of several months. In the calendar year 1935
Florida shipped out to eastern markets 366 cars of mostly Big
Boston lettuce, while only two of the Florida markets, Jackson-
ville and Tampa, used from the Western States 421 cars of Ice-
berg. In 1936 calendar year, Florida shipped out 262 cars, and
brought into Jacksonville and Tampa 439 cars of lettuce. Flor-
ida shippers have competitive distribution not only in every
month of their shipping season in the outside markets, but also
in the home markets.
Northern Market Prices.-The table below will show the
simple average jobbing prices Florida lettuce, principally Big
Boston in the 11/2 bushel hamper, top quote, has brought at
destination mostly New York and Philadelphia from the
1928-29 through the 1936-37 season. The total United States
lettuce shipments, and those also from Florida, are given by
months of the Florida shipping season, together with the des-
tination jobbing prices.

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.
1928-29
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce --... $ ..-- *$1.55 $1.45 $1.95 *$1.80 $ ._
Total U. S. Shipments 4,082 4,561 4,976 5,236 4,871 5,646
Florida Shipments ------ 61 378 363 146 169 -
1929-30
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce- __- $ --_ $2.80 $3.10 $3.41 $2.76 $2.96
Total U. S. Shipments --- -- 3,381 3,901 4,977 5,919 5,810 5,597
Florida Shipments ------------- 68 189 145 56 98 4









52 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.
1930-31
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce--..-... $ -____ $1.13 $1.12 $1.33 $1.69 *$1.37
Total U. S. Shipments ----............ 3,248 4,994 4,963 4,212 5,644 5,266
Florida Shipments ....----------.......... 52 244 189 205 221 29
1931-32
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce ..-- *$1.75 $1.62 $1.92 $2.56 *$1.90 $ --...
Total U. S. Shipments .---........----. 3,822 3,123 4,823 4,660 4,551 5,457
Florida Shipments ....---- ....- 147 123 89 69 12
1932-33
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce...- $ --_-- $1.63 $1.39 $1.59 $1.61 $ ...
Total U. S. Shipments ------ 3,956 3,073 3,967 3,906 3,114 4,664
Florida Shipments ..............---------....------... 43 84 113 120 86 17
1933-34
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce --.. $ -__ $1.30 $1.24 $1.82 $1.62 *$1.89
Total U. S. Shipments -----......- ... 3,352 3,872 4,212 3,917 4,325 5,054
Florida Shipments ...--- ---........ 39 132 120 54 68 7
1934-35
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce.- $ $1.95 $1.67 $1.63 *$1.87 *$2.14
Total U. S. Shipments --...----- 3,391 3,520 4,355 4,421 4,245 5,175
Florida Shipments ...-----. 55 50 72 82 53 4
1935-36
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce .....- $ *$1.32 *$1.65 *$2.53 *$2.49 *$1.45
Total U. S. Shipments --..--- .. 3,580 4,690 4,020 4,527 4,949 5,439
Florida Shipments ................-------. 38 125 59 35 63 4
1936-37
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce--_ *$1.18 $1.36 $1.07 $1.19 $1.57 $1.74
Total U. S. Shipments --....--- 3,995 4,504 3,938 3,671 4,138 6,177
Florida Shipments .------_..... -------. 13 96 116 53 42 1
* Part month.
Peak Prices, When and Why.-Florida Big Boston lettuce
shipments, with the total Big Boston from all other southern
states, are not sufficient to control or seriously affect the mar-
ket prices of the total supply, as the volume is negligible com-
pared to shipments of Iceberg lettuce from other states. At
least 2 cars of Iceberg lettuce are shipped into Florida itself
for every one of the Big Boston shipped out. Western and cen-
tral market demand for Iceberg has practically eliminated
Florida Big Boston. April is the month of the heaviest United
States lettuce shipments, the lightest in Florida shipments. Flor-
ida usually ships out more lettuce in December than in any
other month, in 1932 and 1934 January leading. If the total
Florida shipments were of the Iceberg type, the price relation
would probably follow the United States total shipments, but
since the Florida crop of Big Boston is absorbed mostly by New
York and Philadelphia, the price trend on Florida lettuce would
follow more closely the Florida shipments than the U. S. total.
On the average, February, March and April are the months of
the highest Florida lettuce prices, and on the average ship-
ments from Florida decline in regular order in these months,
in fact from December through April the average monthly de-
cline is regular.










From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 53


GREEN PEAS

The per-annum farm value of the Florida green pea crop,
ten-year 1926-27 through 1935-36 average, was $287,300. Flor-
ida ships an average (1933-1936) of about one car in every
eight of the United States total.
Acreage.-The largest acreage of green peas in Florida
is grown in Palm Beach County, in which county the increase
has been rapid in the last few years. The sections producing
peas in Florida are shown in the following county acreage data,
ten seasons:

County 1929 1930 1981 1932 1933 1934 1933 1936 1937 1938
Alachua -----. 100 50 50 50 50 -.. ... --
Dade ..._-- 30 --- 50 ..------..-- -- --
Hardee .------. 60 10 50 50 50 .. -----
Hendry ..-... 25 25 300 50 50 50 100 100 100
Hernando. --- ----- -- 100 50 200 100 --
Hillsborough. 150 50 100 75 100 .. -- 25 25
Indian River.. 75 25 25 25 .- --
Lake .........---- 40 25 25 25 .- -- --
Manatee .....- 30 --... 25 50 50 -- -
Marion ..._.- 130 50 50 50 --- ----
Martin ....- -- -- -- ---- --- 100 100 100
Okeechobee ..-- ------ ----- 50 500 350 200 200 100 ..
Palm Beach 300 300 1,000 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 7,700 5,800 5,800
Polk .....-- ...... 200 50 50 50 50 50 100 100 100
St. Lucie ---- ---- -- ---- ----- -- ---- 100 50 50
Sumter ..---. 30 75 200 200 50 -
Others -..--- 180 40 75 25 50 50 100 -. 25 25
State Total._ 1,350 700 2,000 3,800 4,;10 4,800 5,000 8,200 6,200 6,200


Varieties.-The principal varieties grown in Florida for
shipping purposes are Little Marvel, Telephone, and Laxtonian.
Planting.-If planted in single rows, about 1 bushel, (56-
60 lbs.), double rows about 1/ bushels per acre, of pea seed
will be required. Rows are from 21/2 to 4 feet apart, seed
planted 1, 11/, 2 inches apart in rows, covered about 2 inches
deep. Peas will reach maturity in Florida in from 50 to 65
days, according to variety and growing conditions. The yield
on a State average basis is 60-65 bushels per acre, in some sec-
tions from 100 to 200 bushels have been harvested.
Cost.-Without allowance for rental, taxes, interest, depre-
ciation, the average cost of growing a season's crop of peas in
Florida will average in the Everglades District from $38-63









54 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

per acre: Preparation and cultivation $15-25; seed $8-10; fer-
tilizer $10-18; spraying and miscellaneous $5-10. The cost de-
livered at shipping point, on an average yield of 75 bushel
hampers per acre, is from $1.05 to $1.50 per hamper: Growing
51c-84c; harvesting 25c-35c; hamper 16c; hauling 5c; grading
and packing 8c-10c.
Container.-The bushel hamper is the standard container
used for shipping Florida green peas.
Pack.-The hamper should be well filled, and the pack
tight. Should consist of pods of peas of similar varietal char-
acteristics, not too small, not badly misshapen. The pods should
be well filled, fresh, tender, firm and free from decay and
damage caused by any means.
Loading in Car.-Green peas are shipped under refrigera-
tion. Top ice, crushed or chunk, is used by many shippers of
fresh peas. Loaded upright alternative inverted method, full
length the car, 7-8 rows wide, 3 layers high; upright load with
alternate stacks inverted 5-6 rows wide, 3 layers high; side
load with hampers alternately reversed 8 rows wide, 4-6 layers
high; side load with layers of hampers alternately reversed,
6-5 rows wide, 5-6 layers high. Load generally ranges from
550 to 650 hampers per car.
Florida Shipments.-Carlot shipments are made from Flor-
ida from November to April. January and February are the
average peak months; in 1936-37 December and January. The
amount shipped by months is shown by the following tabulation:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Total
1928-29 --_.._- ..- 11 18 1 ---- 30
1929-30 ---.-- -- -- 3 3 6
1930-31_____ -__ 1 5 56 49 19 130
1931-32_____. 4 19 58 56 6 2 *146
1932-33 - 1 16 119 144 51 331
1933-34 -- --- 99 285 262 93 5 t745
1934-35 --- 1 23 66 266 126 4 486
1935-36 6 25 298 363 35 727
1936-37 -- 7 152 185 23 35 12 414
1937-38 ---1 34 356 172 102 1 666
* Includes 1 car in June. t Includes 1 car in June.

Shipments, carlot rail and boat, from counties have been as
follows in the different seasons shown:










From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 55




County 01 a o A B
1. 0. 4b Ce C n n

Alachua -_...-- 1 1 1
Broward -..-. 1 .. 3 -- -_1
Dade ... 1 ---- -- -- .. 1
Hardee --- .----.. 1 -
IIendry ...... 1 9 1 7 12
Hernando ..- ...- 4 11 ..
Hillsborough .. .... ...... 5 _- .. .
Indian River.- 4 1 -.- ---
Jackson -.-. -- 1 -
Levy ____- .... 1
Manatee __._ --...... 1
Martin _...... ... 1 ---- 5 19 3 2
Okeechobee --__ 2 ..._. 3 3 39 35 22 13 2
Palm Beach 19 5 100 134 276 659 458 697 410 656
Polk __ .. 2 ..... 1 3 4 ... 1 ..
St. Johns _- 1 -.. -- .__ .. ...
St. Lucie .... -....- ---- -- 1 1 -- 1 5
Sumter ----- -- 6 1--

Total Rail 31 6 129 146 330 737 484 724 413 663
By Boat -.... .... 1 -- 1 8 2 3 1 3

Grand Total *31 6 130 146 331 745 486 727 414 666
Includes boat shipments allocated to different counties.

Competitive Shipments.-Shipments of green peas from
California far exceed the shipments from any other State, about
58 % the total United States shipments moving from California.
This competition continues with Florida during every month of
its shipping season, and with other States every month of the
year. Mentioned in the order of the quantity of green peas
they ship, the States of the South and East competitive to Flor-
ida are North Carolina, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas.
Florida has import competition, Mexico principally, shipping
December through March, January and February the peak
months. Puerto Rico averages about 2 cars per month in Janu-
ary, February and March, beginning shipments in November.
Mississippi ships in April and May, North Carolina April and
principally May, South Carolina April and May, Texas from
December through March, Alabama and Georgia occasionally
have carlots out in April. Virginia carlot shipments do not
begin until May. In the season proper Florida competition
comes therefore mostly from California, Texas and Mexico, at
least until April.









56 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


The following table will show the total United States com-
petition Florida has (Florida shipments deducted from total)
every month of the shipping season, for several recent seasons:


Total
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. (6 mo.)
1928-29 .....- --- .. 84 301 265 929 1,579
1929-30 ...... 18 243 32 158 379 1,199 2,029
1930-31 .... 39 170 46 588 1,781 2,624
1931-32 ..- 46 1 14 10 710 1,245 2,026
1932-33 --.. 501 261 6 8 177 1,320 2,273
1933-34 ... 555 236 48 285 883 1,155 3,162
1934-35 ._____ 345 155 185 374 302 870 2,231
1935-36 --- 314 409 74 294 431 1,095 2,617
1936-37 -- 777 253 28 44 197 821 2,120

Imports are given below for four seasons, 1933-34, 1934-
35, 1935-36, 1936-37:


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Total
1933-34
Mexico 80 180 34 3 .- 297
Puerto Rico ..- 2 2 1 .---_. 5
1934-35
Mexico ....- .. 28 189 31 3 -... 251
Puerto Rico -- ..... 1 --.. ... 1
1935-36
Mexico -___ 30 91 72 6 ..- 199
Puerto Rico .-...... 2 3 2 1 8
1936-37
Mexico 16 138 85 123 15 377
Puerto Rico 1 2 2 1 2 .__ 8


Distribution.-Florida green peas are distributed almost
exclusively in the larger Eastern markets, New York City alone
taking three-fourths the Florida shipments.

Northern Market Prices.-Based upon the leading variety
in different markets, No. 1 grade or top quote, bushel hamper,
the following simple average monthly destination (mostly New
York and Philadelphia) prices will show the market trends,
the high, and the low market price months, for eight seasons
ending with 1937-38:










From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 57


Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.

1930-31 *$2.73 $4.75 $2.74 $2.69 $2.27
1931-32 ---4.03 2.77 2.95 *2.89 *1.44
1932-33 2.17 2.54 2.76 3.00 *1.54
1933-34 2.04 2.29 2.03 1.49 *1.56
1934-35 3.13 2.81 1.93 2.06 *2.23
1935-36__ *2.52 *1.98 1.72 *2.14
1936-37. *1.54 2.07 3.63 4.07 *2.49
1937-38 *1.97 2.00 1.45 2.19 *2.70
* Part month.

On the same basis as the above monthly average prices,
weekly averages of Florida green peas are given below for three
seasons, along with the shipments of Florida offerings by weeks:


Week Season Season Season
Ending 1937-1938 1936-1937 1935-1936

Nov. 13 __ cars $...- 2 cars $ -. cars $...


20
27
Dec. 4
11
18
25
Jan. 1
8
15
22
29
Feb. 5
12
19
26
Mar. 5
12
19
26
Apr. 2
9
16


1.75
1.89
2.10
2.31
2.17
1.96
1.62
1.70
1.84
1.97
2.02
2.03
1.99
2.15
2.37
2.60
2.66


1.88
1.75
1.59
1.82
1.59
1.49
1.36
1.71
2.01
2.02
2.56
3.07
2.98
4.23
4.69
5.04
4.84
3.89
3.27
2.52
2.57
2.40


2.63
3.15
3.14
2.25
2.38
2.12
2.05
1.89
2.05
1.79
1.75
1.72
1.77
1.67
1.73
1.95
2.40
2.53
2.29
2.27
2.06


Florida Market Prices.-For the purpose of comparison
with northern prices, and as an index of price trends for the
smaller shipper using the home markets for part or all of his
express or truck shipments, the following record of the Jack-
sonville, Florida, jobbing prices by months, arranged by cal-
endar years, from January 1926 to July 1938, is shown:


to

to
to
ft





22
to


F 9
P P
"
"
ff
"t
"
"
ff
tt
ft
tt
ff
"
"
tt
ff
ft
"t
"
",










58 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

1926 ....__ $4.36 $4.72 $3.94 $3.10 $ .._. $ _. $ -... $ $ -- ..$... $ ._. $2.33
1927 ----.. *3.36 ...- 2.82 2.08 1.21 .92 .90 .90 .98 1.03 ... 1.87
1928 -..-..- 3.49 3.91 2.84 2.80 ..... 2.37 ..... ..----. *3.43 2.83
1929 ....._ 3.03 1.65 2.23 2.02 2.23 ..... 1.03 .97 --- *2.88
1930 -....-_ 2.75 2.54 3.23 2.95 *2.21 .- .. .. .... *2.72 2.72
1931..---- 3.69 2.06 2.77 1.74 1.54 .--. .. -... 3.09 2.42
1932 .__ 2.53 2.36 2.80 2.07 1.61 .... 2.54S 2.42
1933._____ 1.68 2.10 2.18 1.63 ..- .- -- .... 2.34 1.39
1934--- 1.38 1.60 1.41 1.51 1.33 ..- ...... .. ...... 3.26
1935 ..__ 2.99 1.90 1.70 2.21 1.55 -_ ... .... ........ 2.67 2.83
1936.--_ 1.90 1.40 1.81 1.82 1.39 --- ...... .. --..... 1.77 1.38
1937 ....... 1.26 2.43 3.30 1.89 1.41 *1.63 ...._ .- ...... ...... '3.18 2.34
1938.....---- 1.80 1.60 1.75 1.67
* Part month. S Southern offerings.

The following arrangement is given in summary of fore-
going tables, to show the United States and Florida shipments,
and imports by comparison (from the 1932-33 season), and
the northern prices with the corresponding Florida home mar-
ket price averages:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.

1930-31
U. S. Shipments ------------ 39 171 5 102 637 1,800
Florida Shipments --- -1 5 56 49 19
Northern Prices Fla. Peas--. $ -.- *$2.73 $4.75 $2.74 $2.69 $2.27
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices .--- *2.72 2.72 3.69 2.06 2.77 1.74
1931-32
U. S. Shipments ---..---------- 50 20 72 66 716 1,247
Florida Shipments -----. 4 19 58 56 6 2
Northern Prices Fla. Peas--- $ ... $4.03 $2.77 $2.95 *$2.89 *$1.44
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices .- 3.09 2.42 2.53 2.36 2.80 2.07
1932-33
U. S. Shipments ....-------.---.. 502 277 125 152 228 1,320
Florida Shipments ....--....---. 1 16 119 144 51
Imports, c/1 equivalents -- -- 96 278 124 1
Northern Prices Fla. Peas__ $ ..... $2.17 $2.54 $2.76 $3.00 *$1.54
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices ---- 2.54S 2.42 1.68 2.10 2.18 1.63
1933-34
U. S. Shipments ......----....- 555 335 333 547 976 1,160
Florida Shipments .---- ---.... 99 285 262 93 5
Imports, c/1 equivalents -- ---- 80 182 36 4 -
Northern Prices Fla. Peas_- $ ---- $2.04 $2.29 $2.03 $1.49 *$1.56
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices ---- 2.34 1.39 1.38 1.60 1.41 1.51
1934-35
U. S. Shipments _..---.---- 346 178 251 640 428 874
Florida Shipments .---..-----. 1 23 66 266 126 4
Imports, c/1 equivalents ..----.--. 28 190 31 3 -
Northern Prices Fla. Peas-.. $ --.. $3.13 $2.81 $1.93 $2.06 *$2.23
Jacksonvile, Fla., Prices --------- 3.26 2.99 1.90 1.70 2.21









From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 59

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.
1935-36
U. S. Shipments ..-. 320 434 372 657 466 1,095
Florida Shipments ..--.. 6 25 298 363 35
Imports, c/1 equivalents -. .. 30 93 75 8 1
Northern Prices Fla. Peas--. $ _- *$2.52 *$1.98 $1.72 *$2.14 $ ..
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices .--.. 2.67 2.83 1.90 1.40 1.81 1.82
1936-37
U. S. Shipments ------- ---784 405 213 67 232 833
Florida Shipments _.....- 7 152 185 23 35 12
Imports, c/1 equivalents ..-.. 1 18 140 86 125 15
Northern Prices Fla. Peas- $ -_ *$1.97 $2.00 $1.45 $2.19 *$2.70
Jacksonville, Fla. Prices -....- *3.18 2.34 1.80 1.60 1.75 1.67
* Part month. S-Southern offerings.

Peak Prices, When and Why.-In the five-year (1932-36)
average, the total United States shipments of green peas have
been lightest in January, second lightest in December, third in
October, fourth in February. With imports added to the total
U. S. domestic shipments, December, October, January and No-
vember are first, second, third and fourth light supply months.
Ranked according to months of heaviest U. S. total shipments,
the order is:
May, April, July, August, June, March, September, Novem-
ber, February, October, December, January. With imports in-
cluded:
May, April, July, August, June, March, February, Septem-
ber, November, January, October, December.
As the Florida season ends in April, Florida shipments
must compete with the average second heaviest monthly volume
of the season, and shipments if continued into May would
strike the season's largest monthly total. Imports averaging
heaviest in January meet the least competition from U. S. sup-
plies in that month, after beginning in December, the second
lightest shipment month. As Florida shipments usually in-
crease in February over January, the imports decline in Feb-
ruary and usually end in March. With January and December
being the months of lowest U. S. domestic shipments, and with
imports included, the total volume likewise being lowest in
December and third lowest in January, it would appear natural,
this being the mid-winter period, for these two months to be
those of high price ranking averages. On the basis of the
six-seasons, 1930-31 through 1935-36 period, December, Jan-
uary and February were the peak price months for Florida









60 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

green peas. In the 1936-37 season, however, December was
the low price month of the season, prices advancing each month
until the peak in March, but the Florida peak shipments were
in December and January which was exceptional. Since Cali-
fornia is the largest domestic competitor, and Mexico the largest
import competitor, both these sources having priority in western
and central markets-Florida shipments ending before the spring
movement begins in other southern and eastern states, it is
natural that Florida distribution is mostly in the eastern markets.











From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 61


PEPPERS

The per-annum farm value of the Florida pepper crop,
1926-27 through the 1935-36 ten-season average, was $1,844,300.
Florida leads all States in the rail and boat shipments of peppers,
shipping in the years 1932-36 average 77% of the total United
States shipments, and 69% of the total carlot supply with
imports included.

Acreage.-The following table of county acreage of pep-
pers for ten seasons, 1928-29 through 1937-38, will show the
principal commercial producing sections in Florida:


County O z u ,- .
N a a a a a a aM

Alachua -- 100 250 200 200 200 300 300 300 300 300
Brevard .-.. 25 -- -- -- ----- -- -
Broward 1,800 2,000 3,100 2,600 3,000 1,700 2,050 2,900 2,800 2,000
Charlotte 100 95 70 250 100 100 50 75 100 100
Clay -..- 50 50 100 25 25 25 25 50 --
Collier ---- 75 25 100 275 125 150 125 50 50 100
Dade _..- 10 _.- 100 50 50 50 50 75 --
DeSoto --..- ---- 50 50 50 25 ---
Gadsden .... 25 25 -- --- -- --
Hardee -_ 75 150 730 275 600 300 1,100 350 500 700
Hendry __ 45 10 45 50 25 .. -
Hernando _- 20 25 50 50 50 50 35 25 25
Hillsborough_ 950 1,150 700 1,500 1,200 775 1,225 900 1,000 1,150
Indian River_ 125 20 120 50 25 .. 25 25 .... 25
Lee 700 700 500 300 325 300 475 475 650 600
Manatee --.- 500 500 825 800 900 500 750 300 550 600
Marion _. 65 45 45 -- 25
Martin ..-- 25 70 25 -- -- -
Okeechobee 25 .. -- --- 25 --
Orange ....--. 140 250 510 325 300 250 350 400 450 550
Osceola -...--. 25 70 70 25 25 -.. 25 250 400
Palm Beach_ 250 325 200 500 250 125 175 75 --- -
Pasco ..--_-_ 15 25 25 25 25 ....
Polk --__ 25 75 125 50 75 50 ...... 25 75 50
Putnam -.... 10 20 20 25 25 25 ...
St. Johns.....- 25 .---- -- --
St. Lucie ....- 75 75 50 --- -- 25 ....-- 25 50 100
Sarasota ......_ 25 25 20 50 100 75 50 -... 25 125
Seminole ...-- 165 430 300 350 300 300 235 215 125 175
Sumter ..-... 50 20 20 125 350 400 200 200 200
Volusia .---. 150 50 50 50 25 25 25 ....- .. 25
Others --..-..- 25 75 225 100 125 90 25 ...... 75
State Total .._ 5,650 6,550 8,200 8,100 8,050 5,600 7,575 6,450 7,200 7,400


Varieties.-The principal commercial varieties of peppers
grown in Florida are World Beater, Ruby King, Ruby Giant,









62 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

and California Wonder. Other varieties are quoted on some
markets.
Planting.-From one-half to one pound of seed in bed, cov-
ered about 1/2 inch deep, should produce enough plants to set
an acre. Plants are set when 5-6 inches high about 20 inches
apart in rows 36 inches apart. It will take from 110 to 120 days
for plants to reach the first picking stage. The average yield for
the State is about 228 bushels or about 152 crates per acre,
from 250-300 crates per acre are taken in the special growing
districts.
Cost.-The average cost of growing peppers in Florida,
exclusive of rental, taxes, interest, depreciation, will average
from $90 to $132.50 per acre: Preparation and cultivation $35-
50; seed $5; fertilizer $40-60; spraying and miscellaneous $10-
17.50. The cost delivered to shipping point on the basis of 175
crates per acre yield averages from 93c to $1.33 per crate:
Growing 50-75c; harvesting 10-18c; crate 18-20c; hauling 5c;
grading and packing 10-15c
Container.-The 11/ bushel crate is the principal package
used for shipping Florida peppers, the bushel hamper and basket
also being used.
Pack.-The container should be well filled, tight pack.
The pack should consist of sweet peppers having similar varietal
characteristics, which are green, not immature, well shaped,
firm and which are free from decay and damage caused by
any means.
Loading in Car.-Peppers in carlots are shipped under re-
frigeration. Crates are loaded full length of car, 16 stacks
long, 6 or 4-6 rows wide, 5 or 4-5 layers high, bottom layers
double stripped, top layer single stripped. The usual loading
ranges from 432 to 498 crates per car.
Florida Shipments.-The Florida pepper season is a long
one, carlots beginning in October and continuing through the
following July. The following tabulation shows the monthly
shipments, rail and boat, for the seasons 1928-29 through 1937-
38, from the State as a whole:
Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
1828-29 .-..-.... 8 26 78 225 415 412 524 184 7 1,879
1929-30 --... --- 28 98 77 80 242 344 473 318 11 1,671
1930-31 18 204 263 260 282 213 272 229 376 37 2,154
1931-32 -- 6 139 313 273 368 262 301 232 108 6 2,008
1932-33--- 2 93 119 351 389 438 515 376 101 1 2,382
1933-34- 39 184 180 89 162 296 463 194 1 1,608
1934-35 .- 5 113 169 33 82 193 305 383 132 9 1,424
1935-36 ..---- 39 56 87 21 127 510 731 386 24 1,981
1936-37 .. 11 90 172 368 279 303 268 220 144 21 1,876
1937-38 5 102 159 141 207 463 568 603 209 -.. *2,482
* Includes 25 cars in July, 1937.












From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 63


The table given below shows the carlot shipments, by coun-
ties, of Florida peppers for the seasons 1926-27 through 1937-38:



a a a o ao a a a a a o a
County a z aq a a 0 a


Alachua .... 28 15 32 55 25 13 38 10 10 19 33 14
Brevard -..... 1 34 9 ..... 1 -- -- --- -- --
Broward ..- 757 1,020 868 501 623 641 803 294 302 467 284 319
Charlotte ... 16 77 17 7 8 13 13 18 5 2 14 5
Clay ....... 14 ...... 14 9 15 ...... 1 .- .- .- 2 1
Collier --... --- --- 18 3 29 8 15 2 .-- 1 4 5
Dade ......----- --- ----. 200 ...- 5 4 3 12 .
DeSoto -....- 9 --- ----- 5 12 7 1 ...- .
Gadsden .--..... ..-- 1 4 -- -- -- -- -
Gilchrist ...... ..-- -. 3 -- -- --- ------ ----
Glades --..- ------------ ----- --- -- ------ ----- --- --.- -.- ------ 2
Hardee 7 .- 7 20 45 38 46 49 37 9 26 16
Hernando .. -- -------- ---- 1 7 7 5 .....- -.. .--.
Hendry --- 11 9 1 -- -- -- -- --
Highlands ... ------ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- 1
Hillsborough ...... 88 203 239 230 228 381 361 279 376 164 188
Indian River 59 46 19 2 22 3 3 1- -
Jefferson .... 1 --- -- -----
Lee .-.----. 66 102 67 158 162 75 53 72 33 69 76 65
Manatee .. 243 249 200 165 353 323 195 271 156 89 155 143
Marion ... 1 2 ............ --- 7 ....-- 1 --
Martin ............ --- 2 3 9 3 --- --- -- --- -- -
Okeechobee 1 ----- 5 .... -- 1 4 1 1
Orange ----.... 196 319 22 40 61 128 59 82 57 23 128 62
Osceola --....-. ---------- 6 -- -- ------ ----. 1 -...
Palm Beach. 8 149 99 64 44 57 38 16 18 64 11 74
Pasco _----... 1 2 .... -- -- -- -- -. -- -.
Polk ...___.... 11 11 7 14 10 --.. 12 26 1 --. 1 .
Putnam --...... .-- ---- ---- -- -- -- --- 1 -. -- --....
St. Johns .. .. .... 3 4 -- -- -
St. Lucie ...... 2 2 .. 6 7 -.. 1 2 ..1 2 1
Sarasota .... 3 ... 3 -.... 5 18 6 9 -.._ ..__ _-. 1
Seminole .... 187 127 107 145 99 15 34 65 21 26 8 13
Sumter ....... 2 8 3 -- ---- 15 27 15 30 13 26
Union ..... 6 .--- 47 ..--- --- -- ..
Volusia .......... 26 1 16 14 2 3 .--..--. .. --

Total Rail .._1,630 2,283*1,965 1,471 1,776 1582 1,734 1,311 948 1,178 920 937
By Boat .... -- -.. -- 200 378 426 648 297 476 803 956 1,545

Grand Total 1,630 2,283*1,965 1,671 2,154 2.008 2,382 1,608 1,424 1,981 1,876 2,482

* Total in Season 1928-29 includes express and boat shipments allocated to different
counties.

Competitive Shipments.-August and September are the
two months of the twelve in which the lightest total United
States shipments are made. The importing sections ordinarily









64 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

place no carlots of peppers on the U. S. markets until November.
The Florida carlot shipping season begins with little carlot
competition in October, California, New Jersey and Texas ship-
ping; in November, California, Georgia, New Jersey, and Texas
are shipping; and in December supplies are more limited, mainly
from Texas. Imports begin from Cuba, Mexico and Puerto
Rico in December. Texas has few cars out in January, but
with that exception Florida supplies the total carlot domestic
pepper shipments from January through February, March and
April, to May in which month shipments begin from Louisiana
which give Florida peppers the only domestic competition in
this month. In June the season is under way in several States
-Georgia, Louisiana (peak shipments), Mississippi, North
Carolina, South Carolina-which States ship in July and the
New Jersey season starts in July. The imports increase in
January, February, and reach peak in March, then start de-
clining in April, in May, about fade out in June, seldom any
imports in July. Thus in the first four months of the year
Florida supplies its own domestic competition, and has only
the imports to offer competition, which are timed to meet the
least competition in the eastern markets. In the five years
1932-36 Florida shipments averaged the heaviest in May, in 1934,
1935, 1936 increasing March over February, April over March
and May over April. No State, nor any section from which
peppers are brought into the United States, has a shipping
season common entirely to that of Florida. The following table
shows the total U. S. shipments by months, excluding the Florida
shipments, for nine seasons:

Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
(10 mo.)
1928-29---. 323 1 -- 11 249 249 833
1929-30 ... 386 151 4 194 243 978
1930-31--- 324 97 -- 1 137 227 786
1931-32 -...... 132 43 .- -- 55 53 283
1932-33 .... 118 70 1 -- 6 249 146 590
1933-34 -...- 62 124 18 1 178 89 472
1934-35 --... 95 71 10 4 .. 5 311 140 636
1935-36---.. 132 106 24 4 _- -- 1 222 88 577
1936-37_..-.- 119 138 15 5 156 99 532

Since imports are relatively of such importance, a tabula-
tion is given below of the monthly volume each source has
supplied in the seasons 1932-33 through 1936-37:









From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 65


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1932-33
Cuba 3 3 1 1 1 9
Mexico 12 7 18 8 13 .- 58
Others 1 .... -- 1
1933-34
Cuba 1 3 17 46 20 1 88
Mexico --. 2 7 8 4 10 4 1 36
Others --_ -.- -- ---- *1
1934-35
Cuba .-..- 5 31 61 80 35 3 .... 215
Mexico -------- -- 3 23 51 33 31 17 7 165
Others -... 2 -- ... ... 2
1935-36
Cuba .----- 11 66 96 96 18 1 ... 288
Mexico 14 51 61 72 40 8 2 248
Others -- 1 --- --- 1
1936-37
Cuba 1 14 66 26 42 10 2 .... 161
Mexico ..- -- 24 37 51 55 32 34 6 239
Others --- 1 1 1 3
* Aggregate total of I.c.l. shipments.
Distribution.-In the 1936-37 season, about 64% of the
Florida rail pepper shipments went into eastern territory, 27%
into western, and 9% into southern territory. In the four
calendar years 1932-35 inclusive, 60% of the rail, boat and
truck shipments combined were shipped to New York City, the
largest individual market for Florida peppers.
Northern Market Prices.-When prices are high or low,
how high or low, and the uniformity of price and the con-
sistency of trends in different seasons, is indicated by the fol-
lowing thirteen-season tabulation of simple average destination
prices of Florida peppers by months on the basis of No. 1 grade,
in crates:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1925-26__ $3.67 $4.77 $5.12 $6.88 $8.13 $7.36 $7.35 $5.91
1926-27__ 3.47 4.95 4.26 6.21 4.65 3.23 4.83 3.81
1927-28__ 2.50 2.10 3.80 5.15 4.05 4.45 4.15 3.50
1928-29--. 7.25* 10.65 6.95 3.85 3.20 4.20 3.70 2.90
1929-30---- 6.55* 6.35 6.10 6.20 5.75 3.90 4.55 2.40
1930-31__. 2.26 2.39 3.06 2.96 4.77 6.04 5.09 3.66
1931-32__ 2.90 2.86 2.71 2.67 3.31 4.35 3.55 4.01
1932-33 -- 2.43 4.11 2.55 1.91 1.87 1.82 1.99 2.09
1933-34_ 3.59 4.10 2.76 5.06 4.84 3.60 3.02 1.94
1934-35 __- 2.10 2.67 4.88 6.69 3.46 4.57 3.16 1.85
1935-36 __- 3.36 4.86 4.32 4.84 4.95 2.60 2.27 1.85
1936-37 __-. 2.47 3.03 2.18 2.37 3.42 3.55 4.74 3.45
1937-38-__- 3.01 3.62 3.77 3.14 2.15 2.19 2.17 1.71
* Part month.










66 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Following the above compilation of monthly average prices
of Florida peppers in destination markets, the table below will
give the seasonal trends of prices by weeks, and the volume
shipped from Florida in the corresponding weekly periods:


Week Season Season
Ending 1937-1938 1936-1937

Nov. 6 14 cars $2.82 17 cars $1.99


13
20
27
Dec. 4
11
18
25
Jan. 1
8
15
22
29
Feb. 5
12
19
26
Mar. 5
12
19
26
Apr. 2
9
16
23
30
May 7
14
21
28
June 4
11
18
25


27
36
14
46
64
25
10
35
25
31
40
32
26
38
64
74
73
74
134
91
137
120
76
159
155
160
154
156
109
62
90


9 "
36 "
22 "
32 "
47 "
43 "
9 "
72
80
46
58
94
112
47
59
56
64
43
52
94
78
81
46
63
36
58
59
50
32
35
42
35
24


Season
1935-1936

3 cars $2.88
9 3.34
15 3.51
11 4.11
10 4.54
5 4.82
25 5.03
12 5.02
7 4.98
28 4.71
24 4.27
17 3.97
14 3.70
5 4.25
4 4.57
5 5.27
5 5.52
16 5.31
14 4.96
31 4.85
41 4.90
126 3.94
98 2.81
99 2.31
130 2.27
102 2.15
128 2.33
231 2.60
190 2.28
159 1.55
148 1.73
138 1.78
72 1.67
27 2.00


Florida Market Prices.-On the basis of top quote, crates,
the following Jacksonville simple average jobbing prices, will
serve as an index of home market trends of Florida peppers:












From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.


$1.83 $1.65 $1.76 $2.58 $2.42 $3.19
2.18 2.04 1.63 1.65 1.66 1.49
1.90* 2.51 2.75 2.55 4.22 7.21
1.61 1.96 2.17 2.78 3.24 4.61
1.75 1.82 1.95 1.84 1.70 2.07
1.17 .79H .89H 1.35 2.10 2.21
---- ----- ---- 1.04 1.08 1.64
.35 .52 1.07 1.60 1.47 1.82
1.11 1.09S 1.10S 1.05S 1.24 1.55
.61 .79 1.32 1.64 1.72 2.26
.87 .83 1.04 1.01 1.11 1.52
.74 .83 1.09 1.10 1.55 2.03


* Part month. H-Hampers. S-Southern offerings.

The table following shows the Florida shipments, the U. S.
shipments, imports (beginning with the 1932-33 season), the
total carlot rail and boat shipment supply, by months, and the
destination jobbing monthly price averages of Florida peppers
for several seasons:


Season Nov. Dec.
1928-29
Fla. Shipments .------- 8 26
U. S. Shipments .---.. 9 26
Northern prices Fla.
peppers ---.-- $7.25*$10.65
1929-30
Fla. Shipments --...--. 28 9B
U. S. Shipments -. 179 98
Northern prices Fla.
peppers --.._.... --....$6.55* $6.35
1930-31
Fla. Shipments --...-..... 204 263
U. S. Shipments ...--... 301 263
Northern prices Fla.
peppers .-...--......-----$2.26 $2.39
1931-32
Fla. Shipments ..-....... 139 313
U. S. Shipments -----. 182 313
Northern prices Fla.
peppers ..............---- $2.90 $2.86
1932-33
Fla. Shipments ._.-..._ 93 119
U. S. Shipments --...... 163 120
Imports --- - 4
Total U. S. & Imports 163 124
Northern prices Fla.
peppers -....---. --... $2.43 $4.11
1933-34
Fla. Shipments --........ 39 184
U. S. Shipments ..-__ 163 202
Imports .-. --_..- ---- 3
Total U. S. & Imports 163 205
Northern prices Fla.
peppers --................. 3.59 $4.10
1934-35
Fla. Shipments -.......... 113 169
U. S. Shipments ........_ 184 179
Imports .._.._-- ...... ... 10


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July


78 225 415
78 225 415
$6.95 $3.85 $3.20


412 524 184 7
412 535 433 256
$4.20 $3.70 $2.90 $ ..--


77 80 242 344 473 318
77 80 242 344 477 512

$6.10 $6.20 $5.75 $3.90 $4.55 $2.40


11
254

$ --..----


260 282 213 272 229 376 37
260 282 213 272 230 513 264

$3.06 $2.96 $4.77 $6.04 $5.09 $3.66 $ ...-

273 368 262 301 232 108 6
273 368 262 301 232 163 59
$2.71 $2.67 $3.31 $4.35 $3.55 $4.01 $....-


351
351
15
366
$2.55

180
181
10
191

$2.76


389
389
8
397
$1.91

89
89
25
114

$5.06


438
438
19
457
$1.87

162
162
50
212
$4.84


515
515
9
524
$1.82

296
296
30
326
$3.60


373
379
13
392
$1.99

463
463
5
468
$3.02


101
350
350
$2.09

194
372
1
373
$1.94


33 82 193 305 383 132
37 82 193 305 388 443
54 112 113 66 20 7


1
147
147

$ --...

1
90
90

$ .-----

9
149


Year


1926 -........--
1927 -..........
1928 ..........-
1929 -...........
1930 ...........-
1931 -.........-
1932 ----...
1933H --......
1934H ----
1935H--.......
1936 ....-
1937 ........
1938 ---..-


$4.48
4.36
2.29
6.17
4.75
2.16
1.88
1.28
1.42
2.28
2.38
1.31
1.93


67









68 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July
Total U. S. & Imports 184 189 91 194 306 371 408 450 149
Northern prices Fla.
peppers ...---.....-$2.10 $2.67 $4.88 $6.69 $3.46 $4.57 $3.16 $1.85 $ -
1935-36 / \
Fla. Shipments _... 39 56 87 21 127 510 731 386 24
U. S. Shipments ... 145 80 91 21 127 510 732 608 112
Imports _.. - 25 118 157 168 58 9 2
Total U. S. & Imports 145 105 209 178 295 568 741 610 112
Northern prices Fla.
peppers .- ----.-- -----$...3.36 $4.86 $4.32 $4.84 $4.95 $2.60 $2.27 $1.85 $ --
1936-37
Fla. Shipments --........ 90 172 368 279 303 268 220 144 21
U. S. Shipments ...._ 228 189 375 279 305 268 221 298 21
Imports -...._..-- ... 1 38 103 78 98 43 36 6 --
Total U. S. & Imports 229 227 478 357 403 311 257 304 21
Northern prices Fla.
peppers .--. -----.... $2.47 $3.03 $2.18 $2.37 $3.42 $3.55 $4.74 $3.45 $---
* Part month.
Peak Prices, When and Why.-As several States are ship-
ping peppers, and the season in other States, especially if mild,
favorable weather prevails, is drawing to a close, prices of
Florida peppers would naturally not be as high in November
as they would be in the later months of the season. As competi-
tive domestic supplies are light in December and Florida ship-
ments are moderate in volume, as are import supplies, prices
are very good in this month. In the next four months, January
through April, Florida supplies practically all the domestic
shipments, but imports continue to increase in January, Feb-
ruary, reaching top volume in March, while Florida shipments
on the average likewise increase each month in February, March
and April, and in May reach their peak. January does not as
it might appear lead in average price rank; this month has
the disadvantage of slack demand following the Christmas holi-
days, along with usually a sharp increase in Florida and import
supplies. It seldom averages in price rank as high as December,
on a multiple season average. February and March are on
the average the high price months of the Florida pepper ship-
ping season. In April prices have ranged from the lowest to
the highest of the season, much depending on how heavy the
increase over previous months the Florida-import total supply
is in this month. Prices fall in May, not every season (exception
in 1936-37 when May was high month), but as an average, and
June is the low month. It must be understood in connection
with analyzing seasonal prices, that averages rather than indi-
vidual seasons are taken into consideration. Florida dominating
the mid-winter domestic supply of peppers, and placing the
heaviest proportion of the total market receipts, can easily
largely control, or by excessive shipments seriously break the
prevailing pepper market, even in the top-price months. Florida
shippers, however, cannot control the weather which is a very
determining factor in some seasons.











From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 69


POTATOES

The per-annum farm value of the Florida potato crop, 1928
through 1936 average, was $3,571,450.

Acreage.-Where the commercial potato crop is grown in
Florida is shown by the following table of acreage by counties,
ten seasons:



County a C o a
a a a a e a a a a a

Hastings Dist.:
Clayg Ds 900 1,900 1,250 750 400 300 350 400 500 400
Flagler 2,100 3,100 2.800 2,700 2,800 3,000 3,200 3,000 3,500 3,500
Putnam 1,635 3,500 2,500 2,750 1,500 3,500 2,500 2,600 2,800 2,600
St. Johns ...__10,820 13,000 11,600 8,450 7,200 7,000 9,250 8,500 8,800 8,200
Volusia --. 365 1,000 450 350 300 700 300 300 400 300
Total __.---15,820 22,500 18,600 15,000 12,200 14,500 15,600 14,800 16,000 15,000
LaCrosse Dist.:
Alachua 900 2,500 2,200 1,800 1,100 1,400 1,600 1,200 2,100 1,400
Bradford- 25 200 300 200 200 200 100 100 125 125
Union 265 500 500 400 200 200 100 100 275 275
Total __.-- 1,190 3,200 3,000 2,400 1,500 1,800 1,800 1,400 2,500 1,800
West Fla. Dist.:
Escambia -. 275 500 875 500 450 700 600 600 800 600
Holmes --_.-.. -- --.. -- 25 50 --
Santa Rosa ... 75 _... 100 50 50
Total __- 350 500 1,000 600 500 700 600 600 800 600
South Fla. Dist.:
Brevard -. 50 50 50 50 --. 25 25
Broward -- 20 25 100 50 50 250 100 200 300 200
Charlotte -- 50 100 50 50 50 20
Dade 825 1,200 800 800 850 3,000 3,700 4,500 6,500 8,000
DeSoto 175 200 200 150 350 300 350 300 300
G la d e s . . . 2 0 .. - .... 2 5 -
Hardee __- 200 175 300 200 150 125 100 100 150 150
Hendry 100 50 50 50 --
Hernando ___ --.- 10 25 ..-- .-- -
Hillsborough 550 350 200 150 150 350 200 200 250 200
Indian River 300 400 250 300 25 200 50 300 250 100
Lake ___--- -- 10 .... 25 _.
Lee ___ __ 300 350 800 350 400 800 650 600 650 750
Levy ___. _. 40
Manatee 50 100 50 125 50 175 100 100 450 200
Marion 10 10 100 100 100 230 -- -
Martin ____ 265 300 100 50 50 25 25 .. 100
Okeechobee 100 50 35 50 25 25 50 50 100
Orange 25 -. -___---.. 10 .--. 25 25 25
Osceola ____ 60 125 40 50 50 100 50 50 150 150
Palm Beach___ 600 600 800 600 350 400 1,150 900 2,400 3,000
Pasco -- -... 100 50 -- -
Pinellas __10 __ .-
Polk --200 25 25 --0 50 100 50 50 50 50
St. Lucie 700 600 300 150 25 75 25 100 100 400
Sarasota 40 10 25 25 --- 50 50 50 100 100
Seminole ---- --- 50 100 50 25 100 100 100 75 100
Others _..- 150 175
Total __ 4,640 4,800 4,400 3,500 2,800 6,400 6,800 7,325 12,000 14,000
Hastings Dist.15,820 22,500 18,600 15,000 12,200 14,500 15,600 14,800 16,000 15,000
LaCrosse Dist. 1,190 3,200 3,000 2,400 1,500 1,800 1,800 1,400 2,500 1,800
West Fla. Dist. 350 500 1,000 600 500 700 600 600 800 600
South Fla. Dist. 4,640 4,800 4.400 3,500 2,800 6,400 6,800 7,325 12,000 14,000
State Total-_22.000 31,000 27,000 21,500 17,000 23,400 24,800 24,125 31,300 31,400








70 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

Varieties.-Spaulding Rose and Red Bliss are the principal
commercial varieties of potatoes grown in Florida. The Katahdin
variety has gained rapidly in popularity in Florida during the
last season.
Planting.-On an acre basis a minimum of 10 bushels, or
600 to 700 lbs. of seed will be needed. The usual requirements
in North Florida are 5 bags, or about 800 lbs. Seed potatoes
are planted from 12 to 15 inches apart from 4 to 6 inches deep,
in rows from 3 to 4 feet apart. Maturity will be reached in from
75 to 85 days. The State's average yield per acre is about 110
bushels per acre, with yields running in fields in the principal
sections from 50 to 100 barrels per acre.
Cost.-The cost of growing a crop of potatoes in North
Florida will average from $60 to $80 an acre, this cost not in-
cluding taxes, interest, property depreciation or rental: Prep-
aration and cultivation of land $15-17.50; seed $16-20; fertilizer
$25-36.50; spraying and miscellaneous $4-6. The cost delivered
to shipping point will average from $2.20-2.82 per barrel: Grow-
ing, basis yield of 40 barrels per acre, $1.50-2.00; harvesting
15-20c; barrel 35-40c; hauling 5-7c; grading and packing 15c.
The cost in Dade County of growing the early crop of potatoes
is about $88.06 per acre: Cultivation $15; seed $38.75; fertilizer
$31, spraying $3.32. The cost per bushel crate delivered at
shipping point will range from 75c to 80c: Growing (basis of
175 crates yield per acre) 50c; harvesting and hauling 6c;
grading, packing and container 221/2c.
Container.-The double head barrel, the bushel crate, the
bushel basket, and the 100 lb. sack, are principally used in
shipping Florida potatoes, depending to some extent on the
variety and the section from which shipped.
Pack.-Potatoes packed should have similar varietal char-
acteristics, be fairly well shaped, and free from damage caused
by freezing, decay, insects, or mechanical or other means.
Loading in Car.-Potatoes are shipped under ventilation.
Double head barrels are usually loaded alternately straight full
length the car, 3 rows wide, 3 or 4 layers high, on bilge. Aver-
age load about 200 barrels, from 185 to 216 barrels. Bushel
crates are usually loaded 25 stacks long, 7 rows wide, 3 or 4
layers high, average load 550 crates, range from 518 to 644.
In 100 lb. bags, the average load is 300, loaded in each end of
car, first layer on end 7 rows wide, on top of which 3 layers
crosswise, ventilating aisle through load, irregular between
doorways.










From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 71


Florida Shipments.-The Florida shipping season begins
with the South Florida crop in November and ends in the North
Florida districts in June, occasionally few cars out in July. The
following tabulation will give a good picture of the volume of
Florida potatoes shipped out each season:


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
1928-29 ... .... 5 37 1,013 2,932 1,061 7 8 5,063
1929-30...--. 2 .. 30 183 543 1,906 2,068 23 23 *4,781
1930-31-_ 1 17 24 80 303 2,186 4,042 183 39 t6,877
1931-32.-- .. 7 7 39 204 887 647 721 62 31 2,605
1932-33 .. .. 11 195 751 1,927 1,107 35 8 4,034
1933-34. -------- 9 52 399 1,086 2,399 1,704 43 13 5,705
1934-35. 41 106 386 732 923 1,718 21 5 3,932
1935-36 ___ 20 84 439 661 1,659 1,D88 34 3,985
1936-37 ........ 4 119 372 976 1,506 2,709 1,060 24 6,770
1937-38- ...... .... 95 207 777 1,804 3,352 1,180 2 ._ **7,420
* T\cludes 3 cars in August. t Includes 1 car in August, 1 in September.
** Includes 3 cars in July, 1937.

The table below shows the carlot shipments of Florida
potatoes in the light of county volume, and will present a good
picture of the principal producing sections:


a a 9 0 a -



Alachua --.... 298 263 284 497 767 85 262 295 147 214 431 353
Bradford _- 31 22 4 34 93 17 56 27 17 13 15 13
Brevard ........ 14 7 5 7 7 1 --
Broward ..... 1 ...... 3 2 3 1 2 29 13 13 24 11
Charlotte ..... 1 2 6 17 3 ..... _. .... .. .. .. .._ 3
Clay ....-.... 86 446 260 272 408 48 11 74 9 42 76 38
C ollier ....- .. ._ 13 . - ---- --- --. -- --.- -
Dade -..----- --....... 14 44 81 77 143 228 738 820 735 1,773 2,071
DeSoto -...--. 27 10 19 30 25 19 46 58 29 12 29 43
Duval -......- 2 -... ..... 4 .- -- -.-- -.-
Escambia ... 45 115 47 79 251 128 137 149 109 80 53 99
Flagler .._.. 347 709 390 429 514 501 556 397 287 399 626 437
Gadsden .- 9 ...... --- ..... .. -- .--. --- --- --..
Glades ..---.1- 20 11 1 ... --- .... 1 --.
Hardee .... 15 9 8 18 17 4 8 23 4 2 2 3
Hendry ..o 13 11 17 5 12 --- ...
Hernando ...- -.. 1 2 1 2 2 2 --. -
Highlands .. .. _- 5 ...... ------ --.. . 12 .
Hillsborough.. 20 36 30 24 15 10 18 40 6 8 7 5
Holmes .... 1 ..-. .... ... 2 4 -- ... ....
Indian River 29 13 26 59 66 36 --.--- 47 __ 20 31 13
Jackson ..- .--- ..._------- ... -- ---- -- -.. .. 1
Lake .._ _- .... .. .. ... .. .
Haenr -- 13-- 11 17 5- 12------ -


Lee .-.... 19 33 31 88 96 57 81 166 83 107 84 125
Levy .. ._... 229 .....-
Madison -..-.... _- 1 -- ..
Manatee -... 5 31 15 24 8 8 2 24 20 7 11 13
Marion .... .... ..- 2 1 1 24 22 1 23 ..
Martin ....... 1 27 17 43 5 .. 1 ..... ....-.... 13










12 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits



County 0 I I

Okaloosa ..__ 6 --.
Okeechobee 13 12 8 2 2 5 4 12-
Orange ... 1 1 1 -- -- --- 1
Osceola -- 1 3 14 9 6 -- 5 4 .. 1
Palm Beach_ 1 268 38 61 105 56 7 60 70 149 301 245
Pasco -- ---- 1 5
Pinellas 1-- --
Polk .. 11 17 2 3 3 7 -- .- 1
Putnam 728 920 578 506 799 141 257 308 81 238 392 472
St. Johns _3,198 4.445 2,896 2,050 3,166 1,070 1,904 2,463 1,203 1,105 1,428 1,399
St. Lucie 93 70 64 39 10 5 12 __
Santa Rosa .- 7 -- 9 -- -
Sarasota .... 42 5 1 4 __ __ 5 --_ 4 10 12
Seminole 5 __-_ -- 16 18 2 1 3 7 -.- 10
Union ._ 15 31 44 99 101 15 39 26 14 28 47 26
Volusia 206 298 176 191 181 53 47 56 24 10 4 16
Total Rail_5,384 7,899 5,042 4,729 6,842 2,441 3,665 5,031 2,954 3,190 5,393 5,411
By Boat 24 52 35 164 369 674 978 795 1,377 2,009
Grand Total_5,384 7,899 5,066 4,781 6,877 2,605 4,034 5,705 3,932 3,985 6,770 7,420


Competitive Shipments.-Florida potato shippers cannot
select a period, nor in fact a month when they will have no
competition from old stock or late producing States. The two
largest shippers, Maine and Idaho, ship potatoes in carlot vol-
ume every month in the year, as do also the States of California,
Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Washington, Wisconsin and
others. New crop potatoes are shipped from Louisiana and
Texas, along with the Florida crop, November through June,
the shipments especially from Louisiana being light until April.
Alabama begins in April and South Carolina, Mississippi, Geor-
gia, and North Carolina are shipping in May and all these early
States named continue shipments in June. Alabama, Louisiana
and South Carolina and Texas usually reach peak shipments in
May, North Carolina in June. In the five years, 1933-1937 April
was the peak month of Florida shipments with one exception,
May was first in 1935. Florida potatoes meet severe compe-
tition therefore every month of its shipping season from old
stock late States production potatoes and has also competition
from the new crop, particularly in May and June. Potatoes
comprise about one-fourth of the total carlot shipments of fruits
and vegetables in the United States, and this does not include
the import volume. Canadian potatoes lead in import volume.
Cuba and Bermuda imports are placed on the markets in much
the same season as the Florida crop, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and
other sources account for the remainder of the import volume.
The following tabulation is presented to show the extent of the
domestic competition in the United States, all shipments in-









From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 73


cluded except those from Florida, shipments by months, for
nine seasons:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
(8 me.)
1928-29_ 14,272 13,207 20,033 20,435 22,046 17,221 19,299 24,806 151,319
1929-30__ 15,704 15,158 20,232 19,550 21,565 17,864 20,736 24,981 155,790
1930-31... 16,501 15,092 20,879 19,966 23,299 18,846 19,853 26,901 161,337
1931-32_- 14,361 13,259 17,728 18,719 23,989 20,789 17,664 22,033 148,542
1932-33-- 11,941 12,118 16,733 16,323 23,480 16,279 17,098 21,344 135,316
1933-34_._ 13,685 12,238 21,872 16,924 22,753 17,488 19,907 25,709 150,576
1934-35- 14,922 12,147 18,616 20,687 20,321 17,067 14,920 21,228 139,908
1935-36. 14,027 11,426 16,890 19,244 23,877 17,248 16,250 18,593 137,55
1936-37._ 14,570 15,118 17,007 16,736 19,320 17,041 20,871 29,592 150,255

To round out the total competition from all sources, the
following record of imports, by months of the Florida season, is
shown for the seasons 1933-34, 1934-35, 1935-36, and 1936-37:


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1933-34
Bermuda 9 25 7 7 4 52
Canada 521 664 258 437 988 323 56 4 3,251
Cuba 2 2 _.. .. __ 4
Others 2 7 30 23 47 1 110
1934-35
Bermuda ..... .. 4 2 4 3 13 4 30
Canada 304 60 54 8 67 30 514 1,037
Cuba --- -- 16 9 1 53 79
Others .- ....---. .. 10 26 7 43
1935-36
Bermuda .-..--- 10 7 8 4 1 .- 30
Canada --__-- 213 93 51 25 318 291 110 362 1,463
Cuba .-- .... 6 4 19 31 40 ..... 6 106
Others 12 39 25 ...- 6 82
1936-37
Bermuda ----- 1 5 5 2 2 6 1 22
Canada .-- 522 107 33 113 669 264 149 30 1,887
Cuba -- -- 14 16 18 1 . 49
Others -_ 2 1 -. 3 91 42 ....--- 139


Distribution.-New York City is the largest receiver of
Florida potatoes. On the basis of official carlot unload and
shipment records of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for
the calendar years 1934, 1935, 1936, New York received one-
third of the total Florida rail and boat shipments. Philadelphia
the second largest purchaser, handled more than one-fifth the
Florida total. Together these two important market outlets
for Florida potatoes absorbed more than one-half the Florida
shipments. Chicago normally takes about 5%; Baltimore and
Pittsburgh each about 4%; Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit each









74 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

between 2% and 3% ; Boston about 2 7 of the Florida potatoes.
About one car out of every five shipped by rail and boat moves
by boat, which naturally places a large proportion on the New
York and Philadelphia markets.
Northern Market Prices.--The following record of simple
average destination prices by months, based on No. 1 or the
top-price quote, in container specified, will show the drift of
the market for a long period of time:

Barrels
Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1925-26___ $ $ $ $ ..-- $15.06 $10.59 *$8.12
1926-27 __ __ -_ 12.32 7.07 7.60
1927-28 ... *12.10 11.30 5.15 *3.75
1928-29 ..._ 9.01 6.92 6.99
1929-30 ____ 9.65 8.06 7.31
1930-31 -___- 9.11 8.03 4.43 *3.21
1931-32__- 5.06 6.91 7.42 *3.61
1932-33 - -- -- *4.90 4.17 3.84
1933-34_____ -- *5.94 5.67 5.39 4.32
1934-35_--__ .. -. *7.62 3.30
1934-35-___ 1.66 1.85 1.84 2.69 *1.30
1935-36:$ 1.95 1.92 2.07 *1.76 2.28
1936-37- *1.94 2.00 1.97 2.10 2.02 1.69
1937-38$._ *1.92 1.91 1.45 1.37 1.40 *1.31
* Part month. t Bliss in bu. hampers. $ Bliss in bu. crates.
Destination simple average jobbing prices by weeks of
Florida potatoes in bushel hampers or crates, No. Is, together
with the weekly volume shipped by Florida, are shown for three
seasons in the following table:

Week Season Season Season
Ending 1937-1938 1936-1937 1935-1936
Dec. 4 cars $ 5 cars $_ 1 cars $ _-
11 15 47 5 "
18 40 1.97 35 2.00 6 2.26
25 15 1.93 17 1.93 5 "
Jan. 1 27 1.92 57 1.86 7
8 26 1.82 55 1.86 12 2.03
15 32 1.91 66 2.09 15 2.13
22 44 2.01 93 1.97 22 2.20
29 80 1.89 136 2.07 37 2.05
Feb. 5 148 1.69 221 2.04 45 2.03
12 166 1.47 111 1.98 70 1.99
19 200 1.40 331 1.93 140 1.97
26 240 1.32 304 1.77 172 1.78
Mar. 5 305 1.25 384 2.13 189 1.63
12 400 1.26 267 2.10 92 1.68
19 399 1.25 405 2.07 114 1.88
?6 348 1.49 340 2.10 228 2.33













From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 75



Week Season Season Season
Ending 1937-1938 1936-1937 1935-1936

Apr. 2 624 1.64 345 2.14 114 2.43
9 767 1.54 462 2.16 274 2.31
16 761 1.45 845 2.10 99 1.68
23 669 1.25 596 1.89 525 1.98
30 934 1.29 658 1.87 581 1.64
May 7 789 1.31 465 1.89 573 1.68
14 246 __- 349 1.66 245 1.77
21 98 __ 99 1.51 34 1.55
28 24 33 1.49 35 2.43
June 4 -- .29 1.18 31 2.39
11 .-- 9 1.24 5 2.15


Florida Market Prices.-An index of Florida home market
prices is shown by the following tabulation of simple average
jobbing prices of potatoes on the Jacksonville market, top quote
used, Red Bliss variety, in bushel hampers or crates, by months,
1926-1938 inclusive:


Year


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.


1926 ----_ $__
1927_--- --
1928 -
1929 - -
1930.____ 2.33
1931 ___- 2.02
1932_.__ 1.71
1933 __- 1.67
1934___- 1.70
1935 __ 1.51
1936 ._ 2.17
1037___ 1.77
1938 .....--- 1.75


$...--- $


$ .... $ .....
.._ *4.07
2.50 3.08
-- *2.92
2.94 2.78
2.04 2.28
1.92 1.87
1.66 1.49
1.74 1.47
1.61 1.43
1.81 1.53
1.65 1.72
1.48 1.12


$ -- $3.34
2.62 1.60
3.04 2.20
1.89 1.23
2.63 2.15
2.48 1.27
1.98 1.98
1.52 1.05
1.50 1.21
2.02 1.14
1.66 1.27
1.77 1.47
1.17 .84


$2.50
2.35
1.38
1.51
1.88
.97
1.18
.99
.87S
.98
1.83
.94
.92


$ $ _$ -..$ $__
---- ---- a~~- ------

*1.75 -
1.59 1.47 1.46
.87 .. ...
1.22 1.36 1.38 1.47S
1.69S 2.33S 2.48S 1.92S
.83S .86S .90S .90S
.99 1.04 1.34 1.39
1.76 - .
1.06 1.13 1.15 1.35
.98


* Part month. S-Southern offerings.

The following compilation gives the total United States
shipments, the destination jobbing monthly price averages of
Florida potatoes, and the Florida carlot shipments of potatoes
by months for the seasons 1928-29 through 1936-37:


Season


Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June


1928-29
U. S. Shipments .. .. 14,272 13,207 20,038 20,472 23,059 20,153 20,360 24,813
Northern Prices Fla.
Potatoes .._._._.__- $ -_._ $-----....... $ ....... $9.01 $6.92 $6.99 $ _.
Florida Shipments -.__. -_- 5 37 1,013 2,932 1,061 7
1929-30
U. S. Shipments ...._- 15,706 15,158 20,262 19,733 22,108 19,770 22,804 25,004
Northern Prices Fla.
Potatoes ..- ..._.---- $ -__ $ $ ...---- $ _..- $9.65 $8.06 $7.31 $ ..-_-
Florida Shipments .--__-_ 2 30 183 543 1,906 2,068 23
1930-31
U. S. Shipments ..__-. .. 16,502 15,109 20,903 20,046 23,602 21,032 23,895 27,084
Northern Prices Fla.
Potatoes ....-$ - .__. $ $ .- $ ...---.. $9.11 $8.03 $4.43 *$3.21
Florida Shipments -_.---_ 1 17 24 80 303 2.186 4.042 183


--- $-----

*2.49 2 33

1.29 1.35
1.85 1.78
1.63 1.48
1.75 2.14
2.14 1.71
2.12 1.81


I











76 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Season


Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June


1931-32
U. S. Shipments _.. .. 14,368 13,266 17,767 18,923 24,876 21,436 18,385 22,095
Northern Prices Fla.
Potatoes -....------ -- $ -$ -- $ -$ $5.06 $6.91 $7.42 *$3.61
Florida Shipments -. 7 7 39 204 887 647 721 62
1932-33
U. S. Shipments 11,941 12,118 16,744 16,518 24.231 18,206 18,205 21,379
Northern Prices Fla.
Potatoes $____. $ $ ...$ ------. *$4.90 $4.17 $3.84 $ ...--
Florida Shipments . 11 195 751 1,927 1,107 35
1933-34
U. S. Shipments .__ 13,685 12,247 21,924 17,323 23,839 19,887 21,611 25,752
Northern Prices Fla.
Potatoes $ $ $ -___ *$5.94 $5.67 $5.39 $4.32 $-.
Florida Shipments 9 52 399 1,086 2,399 1,704 43
1934-35
U. S. Shipments -. 14,922 12,188 18,722 21,073 21,053 17,990 16,638 21,259
Northern Prices Fla.
Potatoes --- $ ----- $ -- -- $ $ $ *$7.62 $3.30 $--
Florida Shipments ...... 41 106 386 732 923 1,718 21
1935-36
U. S. Shipments ---.....-- 14,027 11,446 16,974 19,683 24.538 18,907 17,338 18,627
Northern Prices Fla.
Potatoes _$ --___ -_ .._. $ $1.95 $1.92 $2.07 *$1.76 *$2.28
Florida Shipments ---- 20 84 439 661 1,659 1,088 34
1936-37
U. S. Shipments 14,574 15,237 17,379 17,712 20,826 19,750 21,931 29,616
Northern Prices Fla.
Potatoes _$___- $1.92 $1.91 $1.45 $1.37 $1.40 *$1.31 $ _
Florida Shipments ....- 4 119 372 976 1,506 2,709 1,060 24
*Part month. 1935-36 prices Bliss in bushel crates.


Peak Prices, When and Why.-Bliss potatoes in bushel
crates from Florida, in the months January through May, have
in the last three seasons, 1934-35, 1935-36, 1936-37, averaged
the highest prices in April, March, February, January and May
in the order named. The North Florida potatoes in barrels
have in the months March, April and May, averaged top in
March, next in order in April and May. There are seasonal
exceptions, and variations because of weather conditions, ab-
normally heavy monthly shipments of old crop potatoes, and
other factors. Considering the total U. S. supply, shipments
are very heavy in March, the month in which the North Florida
crop begins to move. As the supply of new stock increases in
latter April and May the prices on Florida barrel potatoes de-
cline, price trends corresponding more closely to the supply of
new potatoes than the total U. S. supply-as the new crop
supply increases, a number of early States reaching peak ship-
ment in May, Florida potato prices are relatively lower. The
lowest price level is reached in June.











From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 77


TOMATOES

The per-annum farm value of the Florida tomato crop, 1928
through 1936 average, was $6,849.225. Florida ranks first
among all States in the carlot shipments of tomatoes, and ships
an average of 28 % of the United States total.

Acreage.-Where tomatoes are grown in Florida and in
what volume is shown by the following table of county acreage,
for ten seasons ending with 1937-38:


a a a a- a
WN o c W 1 0
County I ; 4
S0 a a a a a a a
a a a 2 a a a a a

Alachua __ 100 125 100 25 25 175 -- 50
Brevard -_ 100 20 30 -- _.._. 10 100 500
Broward 3,200 2,550 1,675 1,200 1,500 2,500 2,500 2,200 4,200 4,000
Charlotte 200 100 50 100 100 250 300 100 300 500
Citrus 25 100 --- ---- 100 -- --
Collier 350 2,500 1,150 1,925 3,350 2,800 2,550 840 3,400 1,900
Dade ... 14,000 5,900 7,000 5,250 5,300 10,900 12,100 7,700 12,700 11,500
DeSoto 25 _. 200 50 .. 50 -- 100
Glades _-.. 50 -- .- - - - 100
Hardee 700 700 600 450 1,500 1,375 900 1,000 1,000 1,600
Hendry 500 300 300 300 300 250 200 600 350 1,100
Hernando -- 50 25 40 25 50 300 --
Highlands -_ -- 50 50 50 150 100 200
Hillsborough 1,000 1,500 1,000 1,500 100 1,425 700 525 600 1,500
Indian River_ 2,025 1,750 1,560 1,050 1,000 500 450 700 700 1,000
Lake -- .. 50 250 200 100 100 175 100 500
Lee 600 800 900 300 500 550 1,000 1,100 1,250 1,000
Madison -- -- -- -- 50 50
Manatee 3,500 4,000 4,025 3,575 2,400 2,350 3,250 2,400 1,900 4,000
Marion 4,000 3,500 1,500 500 800 1,500 500 1,000 1,100 1,800
Martin 750 400 570 175 __ 325 50 100
Monroe ___ 225 100 150 50 ---
Okeechobee 600 100 125 200 200 200 100 100 100 100
Orange 100 250 150 300 150 125 50 50 100 100
Osceola 100 100 100 -- ... 25 .. -- .. -
Palm Beach_ 2,300 2,200 2,600 4,000 6,400 2,000 4,750 10,500 3,800 8,800
Polk ._ 200 200 .. 200 50 400 175 50 50 100
St. Lucie 1,500 1,340 760 1,050 800 550 1,100 2,200 2,500 3,000
Sarasota 50 ... 125 25 25 75 -- -. 100
Seminole 25 50 40 25 _-. ..-
Sumter ___ 2,200 2,500 2,000 1,000 600 1,700 1,200 1,000 1,200 2,000
Volusia 100 _- 25 25 50-
Others 75 200 125 25 __ 25
State Total-38,700 31,260 26,800 23,700 25,600 30,500 32,500 32,200 35,700 45,300


Varieties.-The principal commercial varieties produced in
Florida are Grothen Red Globe, Livingston Globe, Marglobe,
Break O'Day. Several other varieties are gaining in popularity
in certain shipping districts.

Planting.-An average of a half-pound of seed will be needed
to produce enough plants to set an acre. Plants are set when
about 6-8 inches high, 18 to 36 inches apart in rows 3 to
4 feet apart. Plants should bear in from 90 to 100 days after









78 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

setting. The state's average yield is about as follows: fall crop
72 bushels, South Florida 115 bushels, and other Florida 63
bushels per acre, or about 130 lugs per acre. Compared to
leading sections this yield is low, where from 225 to 275 lugs
are produced.
Cost.-Without taking into consideration allowance for
rental, taxes, interest or property investment and depreciation,
the cost of growing a crop of tomatoes in Florida will range
from $70 to $103 per acre: Preparation and cultivation of land
$20-37.50; seed $2.50-3.00; fertilizer $40-50; spraying and
miscellaneous $7.50-12.50. Cost delivered at loading station will
average from 83c-$1.12 per lug: Growing, basis 175 lugs yield
per acre, 40c-58c; picking 10c; lugs, 13c-14c; hauling 5c; grad-
ing, packing and loading 15-25c.
Container.-The principal container used in shipping car-
lots of tomatoes from Florida is the lug, the 6-basket crate is
used for few shipments.
Pack.-The pack should be tight and consist of tomatoes
of similar varietal characteristics, which are mature, fairly well
formed and smooth, and free from decay or damage caused by
any means. The large size packs in lugs are 4x4, 4x5, 5x5, 5x6,
6x6; medium size 6x7, 6x6 top with 6x7 bottom, 7x7.
Loading in Car.-Lug boxes are loaded tops up, crosswise
the car, should be loaded 5 rows wide, not more than 6 layers
high. Usual loading 27 or 28 stacks long, 5 rows wide, 4 or 5
layers high, each layer double stripped, and rows well spaced
and aligned. Load ranges from 560 to 675 lugs per car, usual
load, 560 lugs. Tomatoes from Florida are shipped mostly in
ventilated refrigerator cars.
Florida Shipments.-Florida tomatoes in carlot volume start
moving out in October and continue through June. The volume
of monthly shipments, and the total each season for the period
1928-29 through 1937-38 is shown by the following table:

Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1928-29 392 586 1,235 1,589 1,971 2,036 125 7,934
1929-30 4 47 177 638 1,379 1,437 2,560 215 6,457
1930-31 130 400 387 457 562 494 2,495 502 5,427
1931-32 35 310 559 909 1,890 1,541 1,016 24 6,284
1932-33 28 308 608 1,059 1,824 1,971 398 5 6,201
1933-34 27 398 768 1,114 1,955 2,057 1,342 36 7,697
1934-35 4 219 314 9 16 1,119 3,732 1,748 14 7,175
1935-36 75 352 249 341 961 1,008 2,918 140 6,044
1936-37 4 176 233 555 1,117 1,351 1,306 829 56 *5,630
1937-38 .... 76 214 181 1,079 3,597 4,474 2,053 7 11,681
* Includes 3 cars in July.












From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 79



The following tabulation breaks down the State's total of
tomato shipments in the light of county shipments, seasons
1926-27 through 1937-38 being included:



S Ct N CO IO ? N C CO I M
County 4t 4; a oA O 4 t
N Ci Os oa a a N a a N a a

Alachua -- 25 -- 21 2 5 ..
Bradford -- 5 -- -- --
Brevard 30 3 12 2 -- 2 1 46 80
Broward -- 222 560 668 559 235 443 512 619 699 846 589 2,116
Charlotte -- 11 9 17 3 1 14 10 3 25 .-... 19 35
Citrus 1 -- 9 ---- .. ..
Collier -_- -- 7 194 411 226 978 1,248 1,111 580 209 475 899
Dade ..- -- 5,791 3,696 3,610 2,066 1,285 2,005 2,001 3,180 3,489 1,361 2,357 4,209
DeSoto -. 24 -- 48 __ 11
Glades .... 187 15 3 --- -- -. -- _ 15 1
Hardee 362 158 138 166 58 139 128 127 22 50 68 171
Hendry 264 155 43 40 21 20 10 7 16 130 36 94
Hernando 1 -- 10 1 2
Highlands -- -- -- --- 8 --
Hillsborough 172 222 173 156 49 123 7 97 34 69 78 81
Indian River 286 633 360 311 407 264 74 63 128 167 88 235
Jefferson .- 7 -- -- ------- -- --
Lake.. -- -- 5 18 9 2 14 ___ 4 -__ ... 11
Lee .. 28 64 75 61 106 54 68 155 143 176 106 70
Levy ---. 27 -- -
Madison -- -- 13 3 --
Manatee -- 1,412 1,298 1,181 930 1,043 795 390 890 789 1,082 528 1,275
Marion __-- 187 315 474 308 128 30 14 56 27 34 69 147
Martin -_ 9 9 93 44 67 18 1 1 3 --
Monroe -- 30 -- -- 11 21 --
Okeechobee -- 43 73 5 22 10 31 24 42 15
Orange 2 7 13 33 41 14 7 -- 7 23 7
Osceola ..-- --- 9 9 --
Okaloosa _- 7 -- ---
Palm Beach_ 423 826 202 112 451 549 431 344 474 1,015 488 1,343
Polk -- 14 1 9 -- 10 6 19 ..- 1 13
Putnam -- -- 2 -- -- 3
Sarasota 6 6 32 3 2 .... 20
Seminole 39 6 5 6 .. ..- -- ---
St. Lucie 9 124 200 133 153 187 151 85 207 527 369 513
Sumter .-- 541 221 429 325 187 52 104 101 78 98 118 137
Volusia -- 8 -- -- -- 1
Others 1 1 -. .

Total Cars__10,078 8,391 8,042 5,718 4,582 5,723 5,230 6,883 6,763 5,827 5,469 11,460
By Boat 7 39 845 561 971 780 412 217 161 214
Express -- -- -- -- 34 -- -- 7

Grand Total 10,078 8,391*8,042 6,457 5,427 6,284 6,201 7,697 7,175 6,044 5,630 11,681

* Total includes boat shipments allocated to different counties.









80 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

Competitive Shipments.-While only a few cars of tomatoes
are shipped from Florida in October, they have competi-
tion with offerings from California, New York, Ohio, Penn-
sylvania, Texas, and several other States. In November and
December, the fresh tomato competition comes mainly from
California and Texas carlot shipments. By January the do-
mestic competition has practically faded out, Texas and Cali-
fornia occasionally having but few cars in this month. In Feb-
ruary and March, Florida supplies the domestic tomato ship-
ments. In April, Texas and California are shipping fresh to-
matoes. In May, Texas shipments increase tremendously and
reach peak in June. Mississippi begins shipping in May, reaches
peak in June. Georgia, Louisiana, and South Carolina also be-
gin shipping in May, striking peak in June. In June, Arkansas,
California, Maryland, North Carolina, Tennesssee and other
States are also moving out tomatoes, the total U. S. shipments
being heaviest of all.months in June, next in May.
Import competition is very pronounced on tomatoes. Cuba
and Mexico are the chief sources of import competition-Ba-
hamas, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands and other countries ship-
ping in only a few cars each season. The import season runs
with that of Florida beginning in November, continuing in
each following month until the import season ends in May.
The Cuban imports are heaviest in December, January and
February, those from Mexico usually after the Cuban peak has
passed, in March and April.
The following summary will show the monthly domestic
competition Florida tomatoes must meet, total United States,
with Florida shipments deducted:

Season Oct Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June (9 mo.)
Total
1928-29 1,005 71 30 2,578 7,583 11,267
1929-30__- 2,949 1,118 128 -_ 9 3,247 8,548 15,999
1930-31__ 3,753 957 168 .- .... 43 2,808 8,654 16,383
1931-32_ 2,169 736 144 2 1 _. 1,114 6,868 11,034
1932-33 __ 2,353 1,229 110 2 .... --_ 184 2,960 6,388 13,226
1933-34__ 2,132 1,014 129 5 43 3,106 7,114 13,543
1934-35.__ 1,836 810 115 27 -- 2 2,653 5,929 11,372
1935-36__ 2,067 404 84 6 __ 1 57 2,203 6,664 11,486
1936-37_ 2,114 601 108 3 -. .-- 75 2,919 6,292 12,112

Since imports of tomatoes provide such strong competition
to the Florida crop, a record of the monthly total by sources is
given below:










From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 81


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1931-32
Cuba _-___ 5 221 354 338 341 149 5 1,413
Mexico 94 273 407 635 1,458 1,545 169 4,581
Others 28 46 31 2 6 3 116
1932-33
Cuba, 91 427 354 226 50 2 1,150
Mexico 101 181 160 214 622 502 6 1,786
Others ____ 2 10 __ 2 14
1933-34
Cuba --.--_ 1 126 295 405 295 217 7 ___ 1,446
Mexico 21 107 98 142 262 208 12 850
Others___ __.. _._ __ __ 5 1 6
1934-35
Cuba --... .. 25 527 611 412 397 109 1 __ 2,082
Mexico ___ 43 187 407 465 474 169 13 1,758
Others __- 1 2 5 7 2 -__ __ 17
1935-36
Cuba __ 13 559 691 489 266 103 3 __ 2,124
Mexico 112 186 286 419 767 211 1,981
Others ____ ._ 1 9 3 7 __ 20
1936-37
Cuba 88 561 616 479 347 48 1 1 2,141
Mexico ..--. 27 239 229 172 519 1,577 455 9 3,227
Others ..... 1 6 3 __ 3 3 16


Distribution.-Slightly less than one-fourth, about 23%,
of the rail and boat shipments of Florida tomatoes go to New
York City. To the cities of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore
Boston and Washington, more than one-half the Florida tomato
crop is shipped. The cities of Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland,
Detroit, St. Louis and Pittsburgh combined handle less than
one-fourth the Florida total shipment volume-or but little less
than New York City alone absorbs. These named markets, to
which Mexico ships so heavily, and Cuba especially in the east,
take about three-fourths of the Florida total carlot shipments.
Tomatoes shipped from Florida ports are destined to practically
the same eastern markets that receive Cuban imports, and be-
cause of the heavy Cuban distribution being limited to a few
eastern port cities, Florida boat shipments dropped to 161 cars
in 1936-37 compared to 971 cars in 1932-33.

Northern Market Prices.-The following tabulation of sim-
ple average jobbing prices of Florida tomatoes, by months, for
thirteen seasons, basis No. 1 or top quotation, in crates 1925-26
through 1931-32, in lugs 1932-33 through 1937-38, will show
the high and the low market price trends:










82 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Season


Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June


1925-26C _.. $- $__ *$4.62 *$5.05 *$5.78 *$6.06 $6.22 $3.20
1926-27C -__ -- 6.59 5.77 4.43 2.88 3.06 2.76
1927-28C0 .. .. *5.50 *3.76 *4.02 *6.46 5.01 3.85 3.22
1928-29C- -- *4.20 4.85 2.80 3.25 4.00 5.50 4.15 *3.50
1929-30C-_ --- -- *5.25 4.76 3.47 3.32 4.52 *1.93
1930-31C_---- *2.62 3.77 2.78 4.12 4.68 4.23 3.93 1.76
1931-32C --- *5.53 3.32 2.78 2.52 2.51 3.04 -
1932-33L --- *1.53 *2.44 2.35 2.03 1.64 2.14 2.13 -.
1933-34L .___ -- 2.48 2.30 1.99 1.89 2.50 2.81 *1.34
1934-35L -.-.-- *2.44 2.50 *2.46 *3.35 1.80 2.24 *1.51
1935-36L.._ -- *3.90 2.96 1.83 2.23 2.90 3.16 2.67 *1.47
1936-37L ----- *2.72 *2.34 2.30 2.24 2.63 3.08 2.94 *2.05
1937-38L-- *3.59 3.09 2.40 2.21 1.62 1.90 1.73 --
* Part month. C-Crates. L-Lugs.

The above monthly averages are divided into weekly price
averages in the following table, and Florida shipments by weeks
are also included, for three seasons:


Week Season Season Season
Ending 1937-1938 1936-1937 1935-1936


12 cars $2.48
35 2.69
60 2.69
51 2.98
63 2.87
68 2.33
55 2.30
28 2.18
50 1.92
62 2.27
86 1.26
168 2.44
198 2.24
235 2.21
259 2.29
352 2.31
274 2.15
314 2.30
312 2.63
307 2.64
314 2.99
248 2.93
197 3.09
289 3.19
359 3.26
356 2.83
251 2.87
296 3.00
165 2.97
77 2.96
32 2.18
20 2.39
10 2.02
3 1.46


cars $_

18 3.99
50 3.82
74 3.46
113 3.25
73 2.77
53 2.56
84 2.20
83 1.93
67 1.66
28 1.74
31 1.78
34 2.09
38 2.29
90 2.21
171 2.39
208 2.56
219 2.87
171 2.92
298 3.14
217 3.22
157 3.27
234 3.21
217 3.04
365 3.03
695 3.07
703 2.86
771 2.39
614 2.17
137 1.72
16 1.30
6 1.39
5 1.34


_ cars $--


13
20
32
60
33
65
15
68
40
33
35
49
110
282
297
358
517
735
837
837
1030
957
1033
1063
1108
930
678
367
63


Nov. 6
13
20
27
Dec. 4
11
18
25
Jan. 1
8
15
22
29
Feb. 5
12
19
26
Mar. 5
12
19
26
Apr. 2
9
16
23
30
May 7
14
21
28
June 4
11
18
25


" Q nn










Florida Market Prices.-For the purpose of comparing Florida home markets with northern
markets, and for reference purposes for those who ship in small lots mostly to Florida cities, the
table of Jacksonville, Florida, jobbing prices of Florida tomatoes, in crates, lugs or as other-
wise noted, top price basis, is given below for a thirteen-year period:


Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1926_______ $5.31 $5.51 $5.25 $4.31 $4.69 $2.83 $2.24 $ $.. $2.81 *$2.75 *$6.50
1927____ 5.65 3.70 3.13 2.24 2.06 1.68 2.09 2.26 1.92 1.90 ... *3.85
1928__ 3.03 2.83 4.45 3.28 2.28 1.82 1.88 2.81 *2.68 *3.25 2.92
1929.. ._ 2.07 1.73 2.52 2.88 2.45 1.48 2.36 2.46 2.47 2.16 *3.43 *3.74
1930..-----.4.26 3.65 2.89 2.62 3.13 2.35 1.91 2.00 2.59 2.20 2.19 2.98
1931-... __ 2.36 2.34 2.87 3.16 2.84 1.30 1.50 ---- -. 3.09 3.48 -
1932.___ 2.59 1.96 1.87 1.59 2.12 2.03 t.04 t.047 .04% .04% .04% .05
1933_ ... .05 .04% .04 1.96 1.71 1.79s 1.51s 1.64s 2.01s 2.40s 2.19s 2.37
1934 .---- 2.35 2.02 1.82 2.58 2.24 1.45s 1.72s 2.00s 1.89s 2.12s 2.75 2.69
1935 -- 3.33 4.25 3.83 2.63 1.87 1.32 1.41 1.41 1.83 2.53 2.38 3.18
1936 ___ 2.21 2.75 3.38 3.69 2.54 1.34 1.62 1.87 1.87 1.83 1.91 1.96
1937 ..... 1.92 1.98 2.40 2.88 2.45 2.06 1.23 1.40 2.04 2.31 3.69 3.40
1938 .------.. 2.44 2.25 1.49 1.69 1.31 1.01 .96
* Part month. Crates 1926 through June 1932 and April 1933 through July 1938. t In lugs per lb. basis July 1932
through March 1933. S-Southern offerings.









84 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Peak Prices, When and Why.-It has already been shown
that Florida ships practically the entire domestic supply of fresh
tomatoes in January, February and March, and generally speak-
ing in April also. Were it not for imports, therefore, and Flor-
ida marketed its tomato crop wisely, these four months should
be those of high prices and top ranking months. The imports
exceeded the total U. S. supply however in January and Feb-
ruary in the 1934-35 and 1935-36 seasons, and in January in
the 1936-37 season. Therefore, the Florida, the total domestic
and import, and the grand total of all supplies must be taken
into consideration in analysing the peak and low price months,
and the average price relation. A compilation is given below
that shows the Florida shipments by months throughout the
entire Florida shipping season, the total United States with
Florida included, the total imports, the grand total of the U. S.
domestic and import supplies, and the northern market average
jobbing prices per lug, for five seasons, 1932-33 through 1936-37:


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1932-33
Florida Shipments 28 308 608 1,059 1,824 1,971 398 5
Total U. S. Domestic 1,257 418 610 1,059 1,824 2,155 3,358 6,393
Total Imports .._ .. 2 192 618 514 440 672 506 6
Grand Total All 1,259 610 1,228 1,573 2,264 2,827 3,864 6,399
Northern Prices Fla.
Tomatoes *$1.53 *$2.44 $2.35 $2.03 $1.64 $2.14 $2.13
1933-34
Florida Shipments ..-. 27 898 768 1,114 1,955 2,057 1,342 36
Total U. S. Domestic .-. 1,041 527 773 1,114 1,955 2,100 4,448 7,150
Total Imports 1 147 502 503 437 479 220 13
Grand Total All -- 1,042 674 1,275 1,617 2,392 2,579 4,668 7,163
Northern Prices Fla.
Tomatoes ----- -- $2.48 $2.30 $1.99 $1.89 $2.50 $2.81 *$1.34
1934-35
Florida Shipments .___ 219 314 9 16 1,119 3,732 1,748 14
Total U. S. Domestic 1,029 429 36 16 1,119 3,134 4,401 5,943
Total Imports _26 572 803 826 864 583 170 13
Grand Total All 1,055 1,001 839 842 1,983 4,317 4,571 5,956
Northern Prices Fla.
Tomatoes ..... ..... *$2.44 $2.50 *$2.46 ... *$3.35 $1.80 $2.24 *$1.51
1935-36
Florida Shipments ....- 75 352 249 341 961 1,008 2,918 140
Total U. S. Domestic .....-- 479 436 255 341 962 1,065 5,121 6,804
Total Imports .. 13 671 878 784 688 877 214
Grand Total All ...__. -.... 492 1,107 1,133 1,125 1,650 1,942 5,335 6,804
Northern Prices Fla.
Tomatoes ____ *$3.90 $2.96 $1.83 $2.23 $2.90 $3.16 $2.67 *$1.47
1936-37
Florida Shipments ....._ 176 233 555 1,117 1,351 1,306 829 56
Total U. S. Domestic _._ 777 341 558 1,117 1,351 1,381 3,748 6,348
Total Imports .____ 116 806 848 651 869 1,628 456 10
Grand Total All ___ 893 1,147 1,406 1,768 2,220 3,009 4,204 6,358
Northern Prices Fla.
Tomatoes .__ *$2.72 *$2.34 $2.30 $2.24 $2.63 $3.08 $2.94 *$2.05
* Part month.

The reciprocal trade agreement which the United States
concluded with Cuba Sept. 3, 1934, should be taken into full
consideration in studying the above tabulation. Three seasons







From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 85

have since elapsed, but two, 1935-36 and 1936-37, provide a
clearer picture since in both these seasons shippers generally
knew of the provisions of the Cuban trade agreement. (Note:
Duty on Cuban tomatoes reduced in the 3-month period Decem-
ber, January, February from 2.4 cents to 1.8 cents per pound.
During the reduced duty months Florida ships about one-fourth
its crop while about three-fourths the Cuban imports come in
during the period). It will be noted that in 1935-36 the Florida
prices dropped from a $2.96 per lug range in December to $1.83
in January, and did not again reach the December average
until March and April. Similarly in the 1936-37 season, the
Florida November average of $2.72 per lug declined to $2.30
in January, and did not rise above the November level until
latter March and April. In these two more recent seasons,
May was higher in average price than January or February;
and in November before the Cuban imports became so heavy;
and in March, April and May after the Cuban imports declined,
the Florida prices were higher on the average than during the
December-to-February period. In the 1925-26 through 1931-32
7-year average, by way of contrast November next to June was
the month of lowest prices, and May was at the bottom next to
November. Thus without duly considering the imports, and their
distribution, a distorted picture of Florida tomato prices, and
the reasons therefore, will develop.














From Field to Market with
Florida Vegetables and
Citrus Fruits



PART TWO


CITRUS FRUITS, STRAWBERRIES
AND WATERMELONS
ORANGES
GRAPEFRUIT
TANGERINES
STRAWBERRIES
WATERMELONS









From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 89

ORANGES
The world's production of oranges averaged in the 1931-32
through 1935-36 seasons about 183,000,000 boxes per season,
of which about 54,000,000 boxes are summer oranges. Prac-
tically all tropical and semi-tropical countries produce oranges
to some extent. The principal producing countries are the
United States, Spain, China, Japan, Brazil, Italy and Palestine.
About two-thirds of the world's oranges are produced in the
winter season. The United States is the largest producer of
oranges in the world, Spain the most important exporter of
oranges. The relative position of the United States orange pro-
duction to that in the principal producing countries of the world
is shown by the following tabulation of the United States
Department of Agriculture:
(Note: Marketing season in Southern Hemisphere coun-
tries starts between May and July.)
Average
1926-27 to
Country 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36
1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs.
United States__ 43,166 50,164 51,368 47,289 64,241 55,850
Spain- 37,368 37,900 36,109 34,400 35,000 27,000
Italy --___-- 8,760 10,110 15,778 10,110 11,180 7,500
China ___ 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000
Japan -... -- ..... 11,200 11,200 12,400 13,300 13,000 13,000
Palestine -_ 2,860 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,500 8,500
Brazil --------- 9,800 11,600 11,000 11,500 12,000 15,000
Un. of S. Africa 1,862 2,500 2,600 2,800 3,000 3,200
Mexico ____ 3,262 3,950 3,558 2,885 3,000 3,000
Australia .__ 2,243 2,712 2,603 2,713 2,800 3,000
Algeria___ 1,880 1,809 2,400 2,247 2,300 2,500
Uruguay --_--. 2,700 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000
Greece ---------_ 641 885 968 1,180 1,200 1,200
South Rhodesia. 204 180 130 170 165 170
Mozambique 140 150 175 145 150 150
Philippines __. 254 350 368 350 350 350
Tunis --___- 60 110 79 100 100 100
Italian Aegean Is. 25 25 31 30 330 30
France _24 33 41 43 40 40
Egypt ---- 180 400 500 750 800 900
Cyprus .-- 200 200 225 250 275 300
Puerto Rico __ 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
Cuba 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000
Jamaica 500 500 500 495 300 400
Argentina 500 600 600 650 700 700
Dominia, British
West Indies __ 10 10 10 10 12 10
Paraguay 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000
Syria ... 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
Others 15,161 14,912 13,557 12,581 11,859 12,098
Approximate world
production -__ 165,000 180,000 185,000 175,000 195,000 180,000








Following the above world production table of oranges, the United States orange production
is given below by States to show the relation of the Florida production to the United States total,
census years 1889, 1899, 1909, and seasons 1919-20, to 1937-38 inclusive-source Bureau of Agri-
cultural Economics: (In the 1937-38 season, the total production of oranges, grapefruit and tan-
gerines in the United States, for the first time in the history of the industry, exceeded 100,000,000
boxes).


Season
1889-90._..---_
1899-00. ___
1909-10_____
1919-20____ _
1920-21.... ----
1921-22.... --_._. _
1922-23.- ----
1923-24 -_... -__- -
Average ------._._
1924-25 -__
1925-26 ...___
1926-27 -- -..--
1927-28 ..- _.. __
1928-29-____ ---.
Average --------
1929-30 __
1930-31 ----... -
1931-32_____
1932-33 .-_ ___
1933-34 _____...
Average_ ...
1934-35- --
1935-36 ..--.....
1936-37 -. _____- _
1937-38


Calif.
1,000 bxs.
1,245
5,882
14,440
15,528
22,547
13,921
21,286
24,324
19,521
18,535
24,200
28,167
22,737
38,994
26,527
21,483
35,470
34,900
34,265
28.439
30.911
46,086
33,049
29,827
42.766


Florida
1,000 bxs.
3,147
273
4,888
7,533
9,457
8,871
10,897
13.262
10,004
11,639
10,344
11,512
9,933
15.116
11,709
10,304
19,211
14,220
16,200
18,100
15.607
17,600
18,000
22,500
26.000


Texas Arizona Alabama Louisiana Miss. Total
1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs, 1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs.


11
9

4
6
4
12
10
41
70
115
49
261
250
520
315
390
347
560
747
2,000
1,440


11
33
80
60
80
81
86
77
60
86
75
54
99
75
137
139
145
147
143
142
170
240
220
323


1
20
82
82
190
225
120
2
130
75
110
85
80
212
3
80
120
3
84
140
2
56
76


1
152
37
42
50
60
75
53
75
100
150
200
220
149
187
195
245
241
212
216
293
244
309
238


5
31
25
30
45
55
37

27
42
50
30
30
37
2
54
80
2
35
88
1
26
67


4,392
6,167
19,530
23,238
32,213
23,034
32,563
38,033
29,816
30,323
34,897
40,062
33,154
54,659
38,619
32,621
55,270
50,164
51,368
47,289
47,342
64,937
52,283
54.938
70,910


~


--


--






The following data, compiled by the Associated Growers and Shippers of Florida, from report i
of Forrest C. Graves, State Co-ordinator, will show the total Florida citrus plantings, by counties,
based on survey made during the late summer and early fall months of 1934:

ORANGES GRAPEFRUIT
COUNTY Early & Early & TANGER- TOTAL
Mid-Season Late Total Mid-Season Late Total INES (Trees)
(Trees) (Trees) (Trees) (Trees) (Trees) (Trees) (Trees)
Alachua 5_ 9,396 2,235 61,631 4,102 150 4,252 7,287 73,170
Brevard 432,653 219,541 652,194 137,824 83,402 221,226 34,051 907,471
Broward 25,348 207,203 232,551 6,631 5,574 12,205 6,755 251,511 3
Charlotte 28,730 10,193 38,923 9,325 1,798 11,123 5,394 55,440
Citrus 44,122 4,663 48,785 5,605 48 5,653 4,927 59,365
Collier - -- 4,349 5,158 9,507 11,307 100 11,407 3 20,917
Dade ------- 14,031 99,666 113,697 172,149 2,156 174,305 15,170 303,172
DeSoto 274,518 109,111 383,629 76,120 6,905 83,025 41,120 507,774 M
Flagler .~_ 10,825 3,116 13,941 698 192 890 7,246 22,077
Glades 1,043 804 1,847 273 10 283 74 2,204
Hardee --.. .. 347,251 153,767 501,018 44,296 6,871 51,167 49,301 601,486
Hendry __.. 18,356 17,777 36,133 10,468 764 11,232 397 47,762
Hernando .__- 47,629 25,921 73,550 21,056 4,639 25,695 64,052 163,297
Highlands ____ 166,218 373,536 539,754 190,166 117,696 307,862 54,822 902,438
Hillsborough 507,055 400,521 907,576 126,654 93,248 219,902 77,181 1,204,659
Indian River 99,748 120,849 220,597 143,825 232,717 376,542 28,519 625,658
Lake .-------- 855,163 486,611 1,341,774 262,126 235,421 497,547 159,816 1,999,137
Lee -------. 76,577 98,305 174,882 120,434 45,475 165,909 5,445 346,236
Levy ____. 1,171 1,171 45 45 42 1,258
Manatee ___ 114,492 122,821 237,313 260,589 62,880 323,369 6,058 566,740
Marion 577,672 47,794 625,466 420,203 13,167 55,370 47,891 728,727 "
Martin _-_- 50,648 1,065 51,713 22,638 589 23,227 1,574 76,514
Orange --- --- 1,140,527 692.349 1,832,876 151,763 77,635 229,398 208,161 2,270,435
Osceola ____-. 133,175 57,871 191,046 35,786 11,148 46,934 30,172 268,152
Palm Beach 17,631 28,130 45,761 6,003 15,291 21,294 6,125 73,180
Pasco __-- 134,236 172,284 306,520 49,273 41,639 90,912 33,277 430,709
Pinellas --__-.- 175,613 212,933 388,546 312,049 206,413 518,462 37,963 944,971












The following data, compiled by the Associated Growers.and Shippers of Florida, from report
of Forrest C. Graves, State Co-ordinator, will show the total Florida citrus plantings, by counties,
based on survey made during the late summer and early fall months of 1934:

ORANGES GRAPEFRUITTAN
TANGER-
COUNTY Early & Early & INES TOTAL
Mid-Season Late Total Mid-Season Late Total (Trees) (Trees)
(Trees) (Trees) (Trees) (Trees) (Trees) (Trees)
Polk ............ . 1,232,679 2,058,281 3,290,960 1,151,000 618,754 1,769,754 371,279 5,431,993
Putnam 219,140 40,195 259,335 22,813 4,437 27,250 43,358 329,943
Sarasota -- .. 55,741 86,338 142,079 27,427 38,777 66,204 688 208,971
Seminole ..-..... ... 332,763 77,846 410,609 39,861 15,571 55,432 47,982 524,023
St. Lucie -......---- 130,216 232,282 362,498 91,810 149,669 241,479 57,033 661,010
St. Johns -__...__.. 15,497 2,036 17,533 1,046 175 1,221 532 19,286
Sumter _..... 106,187 12,861 119,048 5,342 2,846 8,188 5,345 132,581
Volusia ---...... 525,096 212,256 737,352 70,622 17,745 88,367 164,114 989,833
Total Trees ........-...... 7,975,496 6,396,319 14,371,815 3,633,230 2,113,902 5,747,132 1,633,153 21,752,100
Total Acres .-..-..- 125,292 100,483 225,775 57,076 33,206 90,282 25,663 341,720
Estimated Boxes
Per Tree .---- 1.5 1.2 1.4 3.1 2.3 2.8 1.6 1.8
Total Grove Properties 33,201. Average No. Trees per Property 665. Average No. Acres 10.3.













FLORIDA CITRUS PLANTINGS
Showing in percentage, the relative proportion of trees of various stages of maturity.

ORANGES GRAPEFRUIT Total TOTAL
Tree Ages Ey & TANGER-
Inclusive Mid-Season Late Total Mid-Season Late Total INES ALL

% % % % % % % %
20 Yrs. & Over .... 26.9 7.1 18.1 24.5 6.8 18.0 10.3 17.5
16 to 19 Yrs ....... --- 11.5 15.7 13.4 29.5 14.0 23.8 11.0 15.9
11 to 15 Yrs. 20.1 29.2 24.1 22.5 24.7 23.3 32.7 24.6
6 to 10 Yrs..- 19.1 26.4 22.3 11.1 27.7 17.2 37.3 22.1
4 to 5 Yrs. -.... 7.4 8.5 7.9 .5.9 11.6 8.0 6.0 7.8
Bearing -.. 85.0 86.9 85.8 93.5 84.8 90.3 97.3 87.9
Non-Bearing -.....-- 15.0 13.1 14.2 6.5 15.2 9.7 2.7 12.1
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Not Full Bearing
10 years and younger 41.5 48.0 44.4 23.5 54.5 34.9 46.0 42.0












The following tabulation of carlot shipments of oranges from Florida, by months, for the
seasons 1920-21 through 1937-38, will show the volume of the crop shipped from the State as
a whole:


Season


Sept Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Total


1920-21_._____ -._ 487 3,695 4,001 3,870
1921-22-_ .__. .. 3 491 2,097 4,131 2,901
1922-23 -- 78 1,254 2,723 4,890 4,139
1923-24 .._ 23 1,091 6,173 5,175 4,217
1924-25 --- 245 4,269 5,749 5,265
1925-26___ ....--- 447 2,969 4,061 3,153
1926-27 .__ -- 525 3,073 5,225 3,790
1927-28- 6 834 2,953 4,174 3,145
1928-29 __ 5 890 3,735 5,025 5,390
1929-30-___ _- 5 266 2,117 3,564 3,645
1930-31_ .. 8 1,789 3,464 4,118 4,377
1931-32 ___- 311 2,107 3,551 3,258
1932-33-__ _.-- 40 1,454 4,185 3,943
1933-34____.- 2 221 2,358 4,115 4,875
1934-35 -___ 1 1,203 3,914 3,923 3,194
1935-36---_.- --2 486 2,574 3,764 3,649
1936-37 ____. 2 1,855 3,834 4,121 4,922
1937-38 ...-------- 37 2,311 3,834 4,702 4,665
*Includes 122 cars in July, 1937; 1 car in August, 1937.


3,352 2,832 1,981
2,750 1,804 1,086
3,854 2,713 1,798
4,653 5,428 4,222
4,220 2,664 1,682
3,005 2,778 2,545
3,954 2,759 2,212
1,987 1,867 1,049
4,826 4,466 4,452
3,480 2,594 789
4,732 4,515 3,463
3,421 2,926 2,467
3,562 3,880 3,477
4,025 5,256 3,853
3,338 3,391 2,702
4,200 4,584 3,819
3,785 4,318 4,400
5,996 6,542 6,074


620
413
1,231
1,973
867
592
821
410
2,977
6
3,392
1,685
3,657
2,377
2,095
2,467
3,858
4,704


21 20,859
41 1 15,718
309 13 4 23,006
467 8 1 33,431
129 1 -- 25,091
75 _- 19,625
162 13 2 22,536
27 1 --. 16,453
762 16 6 32,550
3 -___ 6 16,475
934 19 ... 30,811
267 1 --. 19,994
2,428 337 --- 26,963
257 __-_ 9 27,348
1,010 140 24,911
514 1 8 26,066
1,548 1 -_ 32,644
1,940 _- *40,928






The tabulation below shows the State's shipments of oranges (including proportion of mixed
cars) in the light of weekly volume, rail and boat, for the seasons 1928-29 through 1937-38 as
arranged by the Florida Citrus Exchange:


Week 10-Yr.
Ending 1937-38 1936-37 1935-36 1934-35 1933-34 1932-33 1931-32 1930-31 1929-30 1928-29 Average


Sept. 11 -...---.-- 1 0
Sept. 18 2 0
Sept. 25 ---.- 15 0
Oct. 2 .___ 94 15
Oct. 9 --- 145 83
Oct. 16 ------ 651 323
Oct. 23 ----- 822 672
Oct. 30,---- 956 925
Nov. 6 ... 1,089 1,102
Nov. 13-------_ 830 1,033
Nov. 20__- 1,355 1,302
Nov. 27-- 817 713
Dec. 4 -- ---1,159 1,308
Dec. 11...__. 1,701 1,610
Dec. 18....-- 1,948 1,665
Dec. 25 ----__.. 653 482
Jan. 1 858 571
Jan. 8--.- 1,212 1,103
Jan. 15 ------- 1,264 1,340
Jan. 22-..__ 1,199 1,412
Jan. 29 ..----- 1,206 1,482
Feb. 5 ._ 1,379 1,380
Feb. 12_.._ 1,859 1,011
Feb. 19 ....-__ 1,752 1,093
Feb. 26 ...__- 1,702 968
Mar. 5 1,587 1,053
Mar. 12 ...---- 1,974 1,048
Mar. 19 1,606 1,232
Mar. 26-___- 1,495 1,245


0 0
0 0
0 4
0 12
6 15
52 104
225 642
336 992
376 837
711 956
936 1,248
760 1,025
986 849
1,478 1,676
1,330 1,113
539 594
1,054 1,128
1,062 695
1,038 827
900 698
847 917
974 983
1,064 1,006
1,268 897
1,274 907
1,054 871
992 869
1,451 925
1,252 817


0
1
4
26
41
60
73
299
547
736
849
797
1.293
1,728
1,021
662
1,088
1,488
1,308
1,319
1,112
1,311
1,372
1,133
878
1,414
1,488
1,374
1,232


0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 3 0 0 1
0 0 5 0 5 3
1 0 8 6 52 21
1 1 59 22 197 57
8 15 393 65 252 192
44 133 855 115 187 377
73 254 1,008 219 750 451
118 256 1,140 305 1,216 699
788 639 1,125 528 1,136 848
644 1,005 1,063 827 736 997
530 643 871 940 567 766
1,678 819 1,520 1,088 1,340 1,204
1,660 1,443 1,910 1,765 2,163 1,713
714 1,717 1,189 1,214 717 1,262
773 465 620 419 414 562
751 686 1,399 1,135 1,331 1,000
1,079 1,283 1,035 1,195 1,175 1,133
1,126 869 1,122 1,021 1,157 1,107
1,187 826 1,317 1,042 1,240 1,114
948 980 1,693 911 1,218 1,131
774 1,085 1,687 849 1,184 1,161
1,161 1,133 1,529 1,012 1,270 1,242
1,234. 1,108 1,564 1,184 1,334 1,257
1,061 834 1,526 1,285 1,018 1,055
708 856 1,222 885 1,099 1,075
1,003 827 1,245 819 1,171 1,144
1,322 724 1,307 741 1,167 1,185
1,159 724 1,296 586 1,224 1,103










The tabulation below shows the State's shipments of oranges (including proportion of mixed
cars) in the light of weekly volume, rail and boat, for the seasons 1928-29 through 1937-38 as
arranged by the Florida Citrus Exchange:


Ending 10-Yr.
Week 1937-38 1936-37 1935-36 1934-35 1933-34 1932-33 1931-32 1930-31 1929-30 1928-29 Average
Apr. 2_. 1,544 1,006 1,023 793 1,051 904 734 885 579 1,190 971
Apr. 9 __ 1,804 1,056 1,164 866 921 780 693 816 390 1,078 957
Apr. 16_____ 1,857 1,114 922 759 898 861 660 906 91 820 889
Apr. 23----- 1,289 1,121 849 543 1,094 977 648 963 26 1,448 896
Apr. 30_---- 1,250 1,113 913 455 930 965 601 1,291 12 1,217 875
May 7 ----1,313 1,139 751 593 674 1,014 474 1,058 7 878 790
May 14___ 1,527 1,014 589 603 576 885 396 748 0 909 725
May 21 __ 1,236 824 586 452 311 720 527 800 0 885 634
May 28___ 797 841 392 378 271 759 356 650 4 737 519
June 4_ 736 635 305 442 121 860 191 418 2 395 411
June 11 592 482 183 265 35 577 111 334 0 399 298
June 18__ 487 351 56 191 20 476 71 216 0 0 187
June 25 _.. 301 195 8 89 18 257 19 75 0 0 95
July 2__ 239 109 0 62 0 207 0 13 0 0 63
July 9__ 101 54 0 71 0 123 0 7 0 0 35
July 16__ 71 0 0 23 0 25 0 1 0 0 12
July 23 _--.- 8 0 0 14 0 3 0 0 0 0 2
July 30_..- 12 0 0 9 0 9 0 0 0 0 3
Aug. 6 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Totals --.. 46,490 37,225 29,706 28,215 31,574 30,948 24,806 38,892 21,289 35,276 32,442







The following compilation will give the carlot shipments of oranges from Florida, by coun-
ties, for the seasons 1926-27 through 1937-38:


County 1926-27 27-28 28-29 29-30 30-31 31-32 32-33 33-34 34-35 35-36 36-37 37-38
Alachua ...-----.-.... 175 123 216 183 84 74 34 51 91 118 111
Baker ---------------1 ---- -- -- -- -
Bay .--------------- 1 -- ---- 5 ... ... ----
Bradford -...... --.. 2 .---- ----- -- ---- ---- ------
BrevaTd -.-. 897 923 1.574 607 1,215 547 956 112 222 141 104 198
Broward -- -- 2 1 9
Charlotte 1 --- -- --- ---- --
Citrus 44 3 17 5 4 1 1 1 1
Dade 23 7 12 6 13 2 10 12
DeSoto ------ 560 344 963 646 1,214 481 520 644 321 143 401 499
Escambia --------- --- ----- 16 1 20 25 42 -- 26 10
Flagler --. 18 17 54 25 34 8 31 24 --- -- -- -
Hardee .--- ... 1,044 518 941 517 1,179 576 704 535 214 143 349 164
Henry 10 - ---- --- --
Hernando --...... 177 131 243 77 114 140 143 90 27 16 31 77
Highlands ----__- 222 192 526 232 1,003 604 625 635 373 404 438 802
Hillsborough .... 1,552 735 1,434 920 1,444 991 955 913 457 236 592 890
Indian River -.... 88 125 112 65 103 48 66 7 17 51 42 68
Jackson --- -- --- -34 7 65 60 28 109 ... 26 5
Jefferson --- - - -- 1 --
Lake -- 3,151 1,575 3,462 1,488 2,546 1,771 1,915 910 1,167 1,592 2,183 2,908
Lee ------- 81 88 281 217 389 270 176 258 139 37 152 87
Manatee---- 434 234 581 446 548 279 204 241 93 98 188 20P
Marion --- -- 1,245 790 1,634 745 1,096 831 733 234 202 295 562 595
Okeechobee .....--- 12 9 2 2 7 2---- -------- ----- --
Orange -- 3,856 2,984 5,781 2,410 5,193 3,509 4,580 2,102 2,726 3,712 4,877 8,132
Osceola ...-------. 172 129 305 94 262 153 139 84 48 9 67 55
Palm Beach ... 2 3 5 3 --- --- -- -- 6
Pasco -- 218 172 555 293 452 240 154 103 119 222 179 136
Pinellas ----- 534 524 1,078 834 1,027 589 421 393 298 370 497 813
Polk -.--. ---- 4,023 4,353 7,024 4,558 8,634 5,197 5,792 4,407 3,624 4,965 6,723 9,412














The following compilation will give the carlot shipments of oranges from Florida, by coun-
ties, for the seasons 1926-27 through 1937-38:


County 1926-27 27-28 28-29 29-30 30-31 31-32 32-33 33-34 34-35 35-36 36-37 37-38
Putnam --_ ...- 696 309 1,088 347 434 182 175 115 53 152 71 125
Santa Rosa _--- ------- __- --- 1 --. 3 -
arasota 6 29 40 22 83 69 43 15
Seminole -- 920 474 1,204 376 1,008 798 1,025 1,522 945 653 731 356
St. Johns 30 29 59 33 36 25 38 18 7 .. .. 8
St. Lucie ---..-. 113 190 154 188 332 157 255 67 93 84 25 71
Sumter ---------- 87 34 131 84 69 41 76 4 1 ---- 34
Union 1._ ...-- - . .. ....
Volusia ----...--. 1,974 1,289 2,578 800 1,284 714 905 337 181 314 444 350


Total Rail -_-.... 22,332 16,348 32,045 16,294 29,812 18.325 20.805 13.845 11.543 13.728 18,826 26.131
By Boat ---__. 68 102 430 181 999 1,670 6,158 13,503 13,368 12,338 13,818 14,797
Grand Total --- 22,400 16,450 32,475 16,475 30,811 19,995 26,963 27,348 24,911 26,066 32,644 40,928









From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 99

The principal varieties of oranges in Florida are divided
into Early, Mid-season and Late. The early varieties are Ham-
lin, season October, November and later; Parson Brown, season
October and November. The outstanding mid-season varieties
are Seedlings, the Pineapple and Homosassa, season December
to February. The principal late variety is the Valencia, season
March to June.
Florida oranges have been shipped in several different types
of containers. For instance, the two-bushel Bruce box, the 4/5-
bushel box, the one-bushel box, the 1/ box bag, the 8-pound bag,
the 5-pound bag. The standard container is the 1 3/5 bushel
box, 12x12x24. It is estimated that the 1936-37 Florida citrus
crop was shipped in the following containers, in about the per-
centage shown:
Standard 1-3/5 bushel _____67.00%
Two-bushel Bruce box _____ --22.50%
4/5-bushel box ___________- 9.00%
Bushel box
1/2 strap
1 box bag 1.50%
8-pound bag
5-pound bag
100.00%
The cost of producing a season's orange crop in Florida on
the tree up to picking, such as cultivation, fertilizing, spraying
and pruning, not including proportionate cost of property taxes,
rental, depreciation or interest, ranges from 42c-44c per box
(1936-37 season). Delivered f.o.b. shipping point from $1.18-
1.22 per box: picking 7c-8c, hauling 6c-7c, packing house cost
63c, (box 19c, paper, etc., 9c; labor in packing, grading, etc.,
15c; miscellaneous 20c). Selling charges 15c box (shipping
agencies 10c, auction charges 5c)-included, $1.33-1.37 box.
These charges do not include Commission assessments of adver-
tising, pre-cooling, color-added royalties, etc., which would
roughly speaking amount to 6c-10c per box.
Federal and Florida grades on citrus fruits provide that
the standard pack of fruit shall be fairly uniform in size and
arranged in the boxes according to the approved and recognized
methods. The fruit should be tightly packed and the wrap
show at least one-half twist. Each fruit should be enclosed in
individual wrapper, except in packs of size 250 and smaller,
only fruit in top and bottom layers and fruit exposed at the




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