• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 From planets to Florida
 Sources of farm information
 1954 agricultural census
 Agricultural credit
 Agricultural gross values...
 Weights and measures
 First aid and farm safety
 Grown in Florida
 Fruits and vegetables
 Livestock data
 Flowers and shrubbery
 Aids to farmers
 Miscellaneous information














Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Ready reference for Florida farmers
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089076/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ready reference for Florida farmers
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 207 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Shoemaker, Jack
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1956
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: revised by Jack Shoemaker.
General Note: "February 1956".
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089076
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMT3321
oclc - 06871003
alephbibnum - 002561037

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    From planets to Florida
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Sources of farm information
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    1954 agricultural census
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Agricultural credit
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Agricultural gross values 1954-55
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Weights and measures
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    First aid and farm safety
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Grown in Florida
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Fruits and vegetables
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Livestock data
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Flowers and shrubbery
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    Aids to farmers
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    Miscellaneous information
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
Full Text



Bulletin No. 80 February 1956


READY REFERENCE

FOR

FLORIDA

FARMERS


Revised by JACK SHOEMAKER
Director, Bureau of Immigration




13JUL 6 1956)



STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee, Florida






Bulletin No. 80 February 1956


READY REFERENCE

FOR

FLORIDA

FARMERS


Revised by JACK SHOEMAKER
Director, Bureau of Immigration









STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee, Florida








TABLE OF CONTENTS

rom Planets to Florida....-------------..................----------------- 1


)urces of Farm Information-....-..--------------.................. ---------- 7

)54 Agricultural Census------......-----------.............--- -------- 62

agricultural Credit ---------------......................----------------- 72

agricultural Gross Values 1954-55......................------------------. 77

'eights and Measures-... .....--------- .........----- ......-------------....... 79


rst Aid and Farm Safety....... ......------- --------..........------------ 95

rown in Florida-- ......----------........ ----............------------- 143

-uits and Vegetables-------------.......................--------------- 162

vestock Data ...........------------- ............--------------------- 175

owers and Shrubbery ....-----------------............------------183

ids to Farmers-----------.........................-----------------------..... 186

miscellaneous Information ......----..............-------------.. 197










READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 1


THE PLANETS AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Name Approx. Dist. from Earth
Name Distance from Sun in Miles Millions of Miles
of
Planet Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum
Mercury ........... 43,355,000 28,566,000 136 50
Venus ......................... 67,653,000 66,738,000 161 25
Earth ........................ 94,452,000 91,342,000
Mars........................... 154,760,000 128,330,000 248 35
Jupiter....................... 506,710,000 459,940,000 600 367
Saturn ..................... 935,570,000 836,700,000 1028 744
Uranus 1,866,800,000 1,698,800.000 1960 1606
Neptune..................... 2,817,400,000 2,769,600,000 2910 2677
Jupiter has 4 large and 5 small satellites, or moons, revolving around it; Saturn has
10; Uranus, 4; Neptune, 1; the Earth, 1; Mars, 2.



Sun ij I.
iSun ,' -. Axial >3 S 2 B
and "S S = | | ||
Planets > XX X X Rotation rU0X Na. "lE

D I1 M S Pet. F
Sun ......................432196 1300000 331950 0.26 25 9 7 12 27.9 .... +12,000
Mercury ............. 1504 0.055 0.04 0.70 87 23 15 43 0.3 7 + 450
Venus .. 3788 0.920 0.81 0.88 224 16 49 9 0.9 59 68
Earth 3959 1.000 1.000 1.00 23 56 4 1.0 44 59
Moon .................. 1080 0.020 .012 0.60 27 7 43 12 0.2 7 -- 50
Mars ....................2108 0.150 0.108 0.72 24 37 23 0.4 15 60
Jupiter ....... 43341 1312. 316.94 0.24 9 55 41 2.6 56 270
Saturn ................. 36166 734. 94.9 0.13 10 14 24 1.2 63 330
Uranus ................ 15439 64. 14.66 0.23 11 5 .... 0.9 63 380
Neptune............. 16466 60. 17.16 0.29 7 42 .... 1.1 73 400

The planet Pluto was an object of search, for many years in accordance with predic-
tions made by Dr. Percival Lowell, founder and director of the Lowell Observatory, Flag-
staff, Arizona. It was finally located by Mr. C. W. Tombaugh of that observatory and
public announcement made on March 13, 1930. Its body is about 10,000 miles in diameter,
its mass and weight approach those of the earth.
Pluto travels through space at the rate of two or three miles a second and moves
across the sky in one year a distance equal to nearly three diameters of the full moon.
Pluto will continue to grow in brightness until 1989 and then gradually dim. Its average
distance from the sun is forty times that of the earth, or about 3,800,000,000 miles.
X Earth

THE MOON

The mean distance of the moon, our nearest celestial neigh-
bor, is 238,862 miles, though it may approach us as near as
221,466 miles, and it may recede as far as 252,715 miles. Its
diameter is 2,160 miles. It would take 49 moons to make a
body as large as the earth. A body weighing 150 pounds on
the earth would weigh only 25 pounds on the moon. The moon
always keeps the same side towards us. No one ever saw the
other side of the moon.
The moon has no atmosphere, no water, no fire, no animal
life and no vegetable life. It is a dead world. It has a day two






2 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


ith intense sunshine, and a nigh


with many extinct volcanoes, sorr
and more than fifty miles acro
cracks in the surface many mile!
no light of its own. Its light is r
The moon has no appreciable
table life, nor does it affect the i

THE E2
The earth is a sphere slight
regarded as circular although the
somewhat elliptical. The diametc
is 7926.68 miles while at the pol(
The circumference at the equ
Total area is 196,950,284 sq
mately 57,000,000 or 29 percer
water.
Volume of land above sea leve
cubic miles while the volume of wi
cubic miles.
There are six great continue
South America in the Western I
Africa and Australia in the Easte
The equator is an imaginary
earth at an equal distance from t
into the Southern and Northen
of the earth's surface lies north of
southern Hemisphere is covered N
The highest point of land is
the Himalayas in Asia which is 2
lowest depression is the surface
which is 1,290 feet below that of
The greatest known depth o


ie of which are five miles high
ss. The telescope shows huge
s long. It is a dark body with
elected from the sun.
e effect upon animal or vege-
veather in any way.

MRTH
ly flattened at the poles and
re is some indication that it is
:r of the earth at the equator
es it is a bit smaller.
ator is 24,902.37 miles.
uare miles of which approxi-
it is land and the remainder

1 is calculated to be 29,300,000
iter is estimated at 320,000,000

nts . North America and
hemisphere and Europe, Asia,
rn Hemisphere.
y circle described around the
he poles and divides the earth
n Hemispheres. Three-fourths
the Equator while most of the
vith water.
at the top of Mt. Everest in
19,141 feet above the sea. The
of the Dead Sea in Palestine
the sea.
f the oceans is off the coast






READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 3

DIMENSIONS OF THE WORLD
Equatorial diameter ...........--------......-.....-.......------.------....... 7,926.68 miles
Polar diameter ------...-........----------..... --........ --------. 7,899.99 miles
Difference .....-..------.--.---........-...---- ---------------- 26.69 miles
Mean diameter .........................--------...... ---....---..-- 7,918.00 miles
Equatorial circumference ..--------......--.--....--..-..--..-------- 24,902.37 miles
Meridional circumference ....-----...........---------.....---. 24,860.44 miles
Difference ....----.------------............. ----..... --------.......... 41.83 miles
Area of surface .........-----....---...........------- 196,950,284 square miles
Water area ..-......---...-----..-.---.---.-----... 139,950,284 square miles
Land area .--.--..-.---.. ---.-- ...---..------- 57,000,000 square miles
Volume of land .--.....----------.......-----........ 29,300,000 cubic miles
Volume of water ......--..---...........--.------.....---.. 320,000,000 cubic miles

Continent Area Square Miles
Africa --..........-..-- ....-------------...--..----------.....-----....-.- 11,500,000
Asia .....-------........--.--..----.. --.....-.............. -- ----- 17,000,000
Europe ---.----.-.----.....-- ---------..------ 3,750,000
North America -----...--....--...-..-....-- --------- 8,000,000
Oceania ..--.-------------................---------------.. -----...-- 4,000,000
Polar Regions --..--..---------.................-------------...--..---...---- 6,205,000
South America .................-----------------.........----.....--------- 6,800,000

Seas Area Square Miles
Andaman .-..---.....-------..--..--..--..-... ----.. ----.. --------.......... -- 300,000
Baltic --.-------..........-----------------... ----...----------.. 160,000
Hudson Bay .-----..-...-....--------...........-.--..--....------.....------- 472,000
Japan ..----.-----------....--.... -...--......-.....--...--.....----- ---------... 405,000
North ......---------------------------.......--..-......-----...- -220,000
Okhotsk --......-------------.......---..--...-----..... ----....---------...... 580,000
Red .-..------......---.... -------------------------.................... 178,000
Yellow ------.. -------------------.......... .........-----...---------...... 430,000

Oceans Area Square Miles
Atlantic .........-----.......--------------------..............................------........----...... 41,321,000
Indian --- --- ----------------------.......................-------...... 29,340,000
Pacific --......---. ---......------------------------............. 68,634,000
Artic -
Antartic -






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


UNITED STATES STATISTICS
The USA is the foremost nation of the western hemisphere
in the number and wealth of its people and the second largest
in area. On the north it is bordered by the Dominion of Can-
ada, on the west by the Republic of Mexico and by the Pacific
Ocean, on the south by the Gulf of Mexico and on the east by
the Atlantic Ocean.

The United States consist of 48 separate and theoretically
sovereign States, joined together by a Federal Government to
which the original 13 delegated certain powers as outlined in
the 1789 Constitution.
The total area of the United States is 3,026,789 square
miles and the estimated population as of January 1956 is
165,000,000.
The east to west continental length is 3,100 miles, with the
Canadian border of 3,700 miles, a Mexican border of 2,105
miles and a water boundary of 11,075 miles.

FLORIDA FACTS
Population-- 2,771,305 (1950 Census), 3,658,990 (1955
Estimate Board of Health).
Total Area 58,666 square miles.
Total Land Area 54,861 square miles, 34,727,680 acres.
Total Water Area 3,805 square miles.
Coastline--2,276 miles, Longest in the U.S.
Average Temperature--68.8 to 72.3.
Named "Florida Land of Flowers" by Ponce de Leon.
First Florida City St. Augustine, Oldest City in the
United States.
First Military Governor Andrew Jackson, July, 1821-1822.
First Territorial Governor--William Duval, 1822-1834.
First Florida Governor--William D. Mosely, 1845-1849.
Acquired by United States From Spain by treaty, 1819.






READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 5

Admitted to Union--March 3, 1845, 27th State to be
Admitted.
Nickname Sunshine State.
State Motto -In God We Trust.
State Song Suwannee River.
State Flower Orange Flower.
State Bird Mocking Bird.
State Tree Sabal Palm.
State Seal Approved by Legislature of 1868 and Gover-
nor Harrison Reed: ". .. ., The size of the American Silver
Dollar having in the center thereof a view of the sun's rays over
a highland in the distance, a cocoa tree, a steamboat on water,
and an Indian Female scattering flowers in the foreground,
encircled by the words, 'Great Seal of the State of Florida: In
Good We Trust.' . Adopted in Constitution of 1885.
State Flag--First Florida Flag, used at inauguration of
Governor William D. Moseley in 1845, had five horizontal
stripes in blue, orange, red, white and green, and scroll in center
with words: "Let Us Alone." Changed in 1861 to half blue,
stripes of red, white, and red, with motto "In God We Trust -
Florida," and picture of live oak tree, Gulf of Mexico, field
artillery piece, stacked muskets, cannonballs, drum and state
and Confederate Flags. Flag with design of Great Seal on white
ground adopted in Constitution of 1868; red bars added and
present State Flag adopted in 1900.
State Capitol -Started in 1839 and completed in time for
first session of General Assembly in 1845. Small cupola added
in 1891. Additions to north and south ends and dome erected
in 1902. Erection of east and west wings in 1923, north wing in
1937 and south wing in 1948.
ODDS AND ENDS-Florida lies between 31 and 24th
Parallels, north Latitude. No point in Florida is more than
70 miles from the Atlantic Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico. Winds
from the Ocean and Gulf blow across the state making it warm
in the winter and cool in the summer. Florida has 310 different
kinds of trees growing in this State. There have been four ships
of the United States Navy named for Florida.






T'fPARTXIMMTT 0T: A'.RT(PTT.TTTR .


FLORIDA POPULATION
(Estimates 1955 State Board of Health)
Alachua 62,441 Lake 45,055
Baker 6,262 Lee 31,142
Bay 54,711 Leon 58,551
Bradford 11,444 Levy 10,412
Brevard 42,400 Liberty 2,512
Broward 146,320 Madison 14,421
Calhoun 7,599 Manatee 44,123
Charlotte 5,347 Marion 45,010
Citrus 6,127 Martin 9,729
Clay 19,710 Monroe 49,380
Collier 10,300 Nassau 15,131
Columbia 20,400 Okaloosa 40,422
Dade 713,757 Okeechobee 4,188
DeSoto 9,288 Orange 176,402
Dixie 3,996 Osceola 13,158
Duval 396,502 Palm Beach 164,177
Escambia 157,385 Pasco 24,852
Flagler 4,133 Pinellas 217,066
Franklin 5,386 Polk 156,167
Gadsden 39,493 Putnam 27,287
Gilchrist 2,960 St. Johns 29,378
Glades 2,719 St. Lucie 26,482
Gulf 9,444 Santa Rosa 22,050
Hamilton 9,151 Sarasota 37,402
Hardee 11,731 Seminole 33,847
Hendry 6,724 Sumter 11,153
Hernando 7,977 Suwannee 16,407
Highlands 15,459 Taylor 13,618
Hillsborough 323,023 Union 8,247
Holmes 12,750 Volusia 90,524
Indian River 15,156 Wakulla 4,988
Jackson 35,659 Walton 15,116
Jefferson 9,964 Washington 11,597
Lafayette 3,278 Total 3,658,990






R1ATnV RPR V.'.R r1. FT.TlRTnA TVARTMAPR


)URCES OF FLORIDA FARM INFORMATION(


a. GC
b. H
3. Agric
4. Futui
5. 4-H
6. Floric
7. Floric
8. Floric
9. Florih
10. Florii
11. Floric


EaM J.|jXLICIVIIIU
y Agent
Demonstration
re Experiment
armers of Ame
) Program
'arm Bureau
,ivestock Board
citrus Commissi
tate Cattlemen
Avocado and L
4/ilk Commissic
+-+t -r-Prc


13. Florida Forest Service
14. Florida Fruit and Vege
15. U. S. Department of A
16. U. S. Weather Bureau
17. U. S. Soil Conservation
18. Agricultural Stabilizatioi
Committee
19. Florida Nurserymen am
20. Florida State Marketing
21. Florida Plant Board
22. UF College of Agriculti


SOURCES OF ADVICE
As mentioned in the 1956
Strohm for the Ford Motor Cor
sources of advice available to I
cupation.

These include all of the abov
teacher in the local high school, i
and power companies, tractor ,
(for tax problems), insurance r
programs.


3-1ivicr

a Agent
Stations
:rica




ion
's Association
ime Commission
,n
vlarkets

table Association
agriculture

Service
i and Conservation

i Growers Association
; Bureau

ire


AND INFORMATION

Ford Almanac, edited by John
npany, there are probably more
armers than for any other oc-


e plus the vocational agriculture
nany banks, feed, seed, fertilizer
and implement dealers, lawyers
nen, farm magazines and radio






8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


We would suggest persons inter
almanac to get a copy of the above
$1.00 and the book is published by
York, N. Y.

AGRICULTURAL EXTE1N
UNIVERSITY OF
GAINESVILLE, F
FARM AND HOME DE
IN FLORI[
Since the beginning of Extension 'w
found it necessary from time to time tc
ing conditions. In most instances,
gradually and the necessary adjuster
little attention.
Farm families have undergone m;
editions of agricultural production an
World War II. For example, many f
mechanized farms and homes that
non-mechanized prewar units. This
created new problems to a relatively i
personnel.
On July 1, 1954, we received addit
funds provided an opportunity to emp
al workers and for concentrated ei
recent farm and home problems.
We are calling this new work F
ment. With it, we are taking another s
Service work to meet the ever-changil



WHAT IS FARM A1
DEVELOPMENT
It is a method of doing Extension
the farm, home and family as a unit. N
connections between the problems of
money and getting the most enjoymen


ested in reading a good
mentioned book. Cost is
Simon and Schuster, New


'SION SERVICE
FLORIDA
LORIDA
DEVELOPMENT
)A
'ork, we in Extension have
adjust methods to chang-
conditions have changed
ients have attracted very

major changes in their con-
d living since the end of
arm families now operate
are vastly different from
and other changes have
fixed number of Extension

.ional Federal funds. These
loy some needed addition-
fforts toward these more

arm and Home Develop-
;tep in adjusting Extension
ig conditions in our State.
H. G. CLAYTON
Director of Extension
qD HOME
NT?
work. This method views
Vith it are brought out the
making money, spending






READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS


, the farm, home and family as a unit rec
peoplee work as a team. Extension Service
.ty make up the team that works with the
y units. The remainder of the Land-Grai
:he U. S. Department of Agriculture, and


ItIIilail l1 Iltn uaci
WHAT AR]
ANI
The goals of F,
families recognize
portunities; plan a
put their plans int
situation demands.
These goals arc
Agricultural Exten
Development is th;


unI1U.
THE OBJECTIVES OF FAR]
HOME DEVELOPMENT?
a and Home Development are to
id think through their problem
)und system of farming and hon
Action; and adjust these plans wi,

o different from the traditional a
n Service. The reason for Farm ;
if offers a chance to reach these


lIp farm
Ind op-
naking;
y as the

s of the
I Home
ils more


WILL EX'IElNSIUON EKSUINNEL W
WITH SPECIFIC FARM FAMILIES?
C __ _ -_1 1 ^^ 1 _*1 _ .


end enough time witl
and problems. The
ormation and assist t
wvn situation. Each fa

, FARM AND HO]
7 HELP FARM FA
he basic tool in Fart
r team will bring as
available information
county team and the
lis information to the

Latest information ar
1 be able to make be


1 eacr family to uncer-
county team will then
he family in fitting this
rm family will make its

vME DEVELOP-
MILIES?
n and Home Develop-
quickly as possible to
in relating to its prob-
farm family will work
particular needs of the

id considering its value,
better decisions about its


I VV U1 Il V w
nd its situa
emble need
formation to
n decisions.
HOW N

Information
nt. The ext
farm fami
is. Besides,
ether in fitt
lily.
After gettir
farm family






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


WHY IS FAI

Changes in far:
agricultural pro
m families to coi
satisfactory level
wv research develi
e the problem
)blems.
Farm and Hot
nilies to keep abr
* the information

WILL FARI
WORK BI

Experience gait
:t farm families
:ular Extension
opment approach]
1 also largely gui
This approach r
ie for this. Curre
s training while
making plans to
e newly employee
inties.
If you and you]


RM AND HOME
NEEDED?
ming, in family livi
ducts during the pa;
rtinually adjust thei:
of living. Many far
opments and econor
of applying this in:

ne Development is
east of the latest tech
to their advantage.
M AND HOME E
EXPANDED TO
COUNTIES?
led in working wit
will determine how
program toward the
h. The desires of fa
ide our steps in this
requires some special
ntly employed Exten
carrying on their r
introduce Farm and
ed workers before t

- f -rnhl- lt rYh+lrt


DEVELOPMENTT

ig and in the demand
t few years have forced
operations to maintain
n families are aware of
ic trends, but they still
formation to their own

designed to help farm
iical information and to


DEVELOPMENT
THE OTHER

* a limited number of
far we should shift the
Farm and Home De-
m families in the State
direction.
raining-we must allow
ion people must receive
gular duties. Extension
Home Development of
ley begin work in the

formation about Farm


)ment, contact your Cou:


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University and
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director


10







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 11



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE

H. G. CLAYTON, Director
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua Loonis Blitch Seagle Bldg., Gainesville
Alachua (Asst.) Adam T. Andrews Seagle Bldg., Gainesville
Baker Aubrey L. IIarrell P. 0. Box 186, Macclenny
Bay Horace M. Carr P. 0. Box 1041, Panama City
Bradford George T. Huggins P. 0. Box 267, Starke
Brevard James T. Oxford P. 0. Box 1346, Cocoa
Brevard (Asst.) Harrell W. Cunningham P. 0. Box 1346, Cocoa
Broward Robert S. Pryor Court House Annex, Ft. Lauderdale
Broward (Asst.) Matthew W. Collier Court House Annex, Ft. Lauderdale
Broward (Asst.) Lewis E. Watson Court House Annex, Ft. Lauderdale
Calhoun homas B. lones P. 0. Box 192, Blountstown
Calhoun (Asst.) Russell S. Rudd P. 0. Box 192, Blountstown
Charlotte Nathaniel II. McQueen P. 0. Box 628, Punta Gorda
Citrus Quentin Medlin 1'. 0. Box 67, Inverness
Citrus (Asst.) Charles E. Rowan P. 0. Box 67, Inverness
Clay Emmett D. McCall P. 0. Box 193, Green Cove Springs
Collier Donald W. Lander P. 0. Box 155, Everglades
Columbia Neal M. Dukes P. 0. Box 192, Lake City
Columbia (Asst.) Edward J. Cowen P. 0. Box 192, Lake City
Columbia (Assoc.)* Winton 0. Whittle P. 0. Box 192, Lake City
Dade John D. Campbell 2690 N.W. 7th Ave., Miami 37
& 1102 N. Krome Ave., Homestead
Dade (Asst.) Douglas M. Knapp 2690 N.W. 7th Ave., Miami 37
Dade (Asst.) Roy J. Champagne 2690 N.W. 7th Ave., Miami 37
Dade (Asst.) Harry F. Roberts 2690 N.W. 7th Ave., Miami 37
Dade (Asst.) Nolan L. Durre 1102 N. Krome Ave., Homestead
Dade (Asst.) William R. Llewellyn 1102 N. Krome Ave., Homestead
DeSoto W. Lile Woods P. 0. Box 787, Arcadia
Dixie Donald E. Adams Court House, Cross City
Duval James N. Watson Box 4696, (Fed. Bldg.), Jacksonville
Duval (Asst.) William E. Kloeppel Box 4696, (Fed. Bldg.), Jacksonville
Duval (Asst.) James R. Yelvington Box 4696, (Fed. Bldg.), Jacksonville
Duval (Asst.) Howard Taylor, Jr. Box 4696, (Fed. Bldg.), Jacksonville
Escambia E. Norbert Stephens P. 0. Box 252, Court House, Pensacola
Escambia (Asst.) Calvin A. Winter P. 0. Box 252, Court House, Pensacola
Escambia (Asst.) James H. Walker P. 0. Box 252, Court House, Pensacola
Escambia (Asst.) P. 0. Box 252, Court House, Pensacola
Flagler Frank L. Polhill P. 0. Box 288, Bunnell
Franklin William C. Zorn P. 0. Box 276, Apalachicola
Gadsden Albert G. Driegers P. 0. Box 426, Quincy
Gadsden (Asst.) Bernard H. Clark P. 0. Box 426, Quincy
Gilchrist Leonard C. Cobb P. 0. Box 13-H, Trenton
Glades Harold H. Cook P. 0. Box 398, Moore Haven
Glades (Asst. -
Indian Work) Fred Montsdeoca Moore Haven
Gulf Cubie R. Laird P. 0. Box 514, Wewahitchka
Hamilton Rance A. Andrews P. 0. Box 392, Jasper
Hardee Johnnie F. Barco P. 0. Box 606, Wauchula
Hendry Frederick M. Shuler P. 0. Box 157, LeBelle
IIernando Harry J. Brinkley P. 0. Box 265, Brooksville
Highlands Bert J. Harris, Jr. P. 0. Box 209, Sebring
Highlands (Asst.) Jack C. Hayman P. 0. Box 209, Sebring
Hillsborough Alec White Court House, Tampa 2
Hillsborough (Asst.) William L. Hatcher Court House, Tampa 2
Hillsborough (Asst.) Jean Beem Court House, Tampa 2
Hillsborough (Asst.) Clarence F. O'Quinn Court House, Tampa 2
Hillsborough (Asst.) Jadie 0. Armor Growers Building, Plant City
lHillsborough (Asst.) Verne M. Caldwell Growers Building, Plant City
Hillsborough (Asst.) Milford C. Jorgensen P. 0. Box 274, Ruskin
Holmes John C. Russell P. 0. Box 268, Bonifay
Holmes (Assoc.)** Cleveland U. Storey P. 0. Box 268, Bonifay
Indian River Forrest N. McCullars Court House, Vero Beach
Jackson Woodrow W. Glenn Box 530, Liddon Bldg., Marianna
Jackson (Asst.) Lawrence D. Taylor Box 530, Liddon Bldg., Marianna
Jefferson Albert H. Odom P. 0. Box 387, Monticello
Lafayette Shelby L. Brothers P. 0. Box 186, Mayo
Lake Robert E. Norris P. 0. Box 1165, Tavares
Lake (Asst.) James C. Burkhalter P. 0. Box 1165. Tavares
Lee Carl P. Heuck P. 0. Box 1107, Ft. Myers








12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


COUNTYY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
.eon James L. Rhoden P. 0. Box 587, Tallahas-ee
.eon (Asst.) James E. Thomaston P. 0. Box 587, Tallahassee
.eon (Asst.) Lenzy M. Scott P. 0. Box 587, Tallahassee
.evy Wilburn C. Farrell P. 0. Box 176, Bron-on
.evy (Asst.) Oscar L. Joiner, Jr. P. 0. Box 176, Bronson
.iberty Charles R. Smith- P. 0. Box Q, Bristol
Madison Oliver R. IIamrick, Jr. P. 0. Box 269, Mad'son
Madison (Asst.) Harvey T. Paulk P. 0. Box 269, )Madison
Manatee Wilson H. Kendrick P. 0. Box 338, Palmetto
Manatee (Asst.) Robert G. Curtis P. 0. Box 338. Pa'metto
lanatee (Asst.) Earl M. Kelly P. 0. Box 338. Palmetto
vlarion Edsel W. Rowan P. 0. Box 511, Ocala
vMarion (Asst.) Cecil A. Tucker, II P. 0. Box 511, Ocala
rfartin Levi M. Johnson Bin 9. Stuart
Nassau Gordon B. Ellis P. 0. Box 177, Hilliard
Okaloosa Fillmore A. McMillan, Jr. P. 0. Box 248, Crestview
Okaloosa (Assoc.)* Jack D. Patten P. 0. Box 248, Crestsiiw
Okcechobee Clifford R. Boyles P. 0. Box 365, Okeechob-e
)range Fred E. Baetzman 122 Wall Street, Orlando
)range (Asst.) Henry F. Swanson 122 Wall Street, Orlando
Orange (Asst.) Albert F. Cribbett 122 Wall Street, Orlando
)sceola James B. Smith P. 0. Box 193. Kissimmee
'alm Beach Marvin U. Mounts Rt. 5, Box 36-B, W. Palm Beach
'alm Beach (Asst.) John H. Causey Rt. 5, Box 36-B, W. Palm Beach
'alm Beach (Asst.) Ilcrb-rt L. Speer Box 326 (Sanders Bldg.) Belle Glade
Palm Beach (Asst.) Raleigh S. Griffis Rt. 5, Box 36-B. W. Palm Beach
'alm Beach (Asst.) Rayburn K. Price Rt. 5, Box 36-B, W\. Palm Beach
'asco James F. Higgins I'. 0. Box 248, Dade City
'asco (Asst.) Carlisle A. Byrd, Jr. P. 0. Box 248. Dade City
'inellas John H. Logan Box 267, Fair Grounds, Largo
Pinellas (Asst.) Lemuel E. Cunningham Box 267, Fair Grounds, Largo
'inellas (Asst.) Herbert A. Williams Box 267, Fair Grounds, L reo
'olk W. Paul Hayman P. 0. Box 711, Bartow
'olk (Asst.) Paul A. Daly P. 0. Box 711, Bartow
Polk (Asst.) Robert Yates P. 0. Box 711. Bartow
?olk (Asst.) Jackson A. HIaddox P. 0. Box 711, Bartow
Putnam HIubert E. Maltby P. 0. Box 305, Palatka
Putnam (Asst.) Ralph T. Clay, Jr. P. 0. Box 305. Palatka
Saint Johns Phillips R. McMullen P. 0. Box 517. St. Aust-tine
Saint Johns (Asst.) Paul L. Dinkins, Jr. P. 0. Box 517, St. Auzustine
Saint Lucie Charles D. Kime P. 0. Box 232, Fort Pierce
Santa Rosa Steiner C. Kierce P. 0. Box 152. Milton
Santa Rosa (Asst.) Charles T. Dozier P. 0. Box 152, Milton
Sarasota Kenneth A. Clark Court House, Sarasota
Sarasota (Asst.) Donald A. George Court House. Sarasota
Seminole Charles R. Dawson Court House. Sanford
Sumter Orlando M. Maines, Jr. P. 0. Box 275, Bushnell
Summer (Asst.) James R. Connell P. 0. Box 188. Bulhnell
Suwannee Julius P. Crews Agricultural Blde., Live Cak
Suwannee (Asst.) A. Kent Doke Agricultural Bldg., Live Oak
Taylor Henry P. Davis P. 0. Box 389. Perry
Union William J. Cowen P. 0. Box 116. Lake Butler
Volusia Thomas R. Townsend 1P. 0. Box 574. DeLand
Volusia (Asst.) James N. Luttrell P. 0. Box 574. DeLand
Wakulla A. Shuler Laird P. 0. Box IM. Crasfordvile
Walton I1. Oscar Harrison P. 0. Box 352, DeFunoak Sprinz,
Washington Johnnie E. Davis P. 0. Box 218. Chipley







KRAD Y ULi trtfl ut: ILtJKIIA XKNLIS


riLUKIIJA ArJKKIUUL 1UKA1L

EXTENSION SERVICE

H. G. Clayton, Director, Gainesville

Office of Home Demonstration Work


Miss Anna Mae Sikes State Home Demonstration Agent Tallahassee
Miss Eunice Grady Assistant to the State Home Demonstration
Agent, Training Program Tallahassee
Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus District Home Demonstration Agent Tallahassee
Miss Joyce Bevis District Home Demonstration Agent Tallahassee
Miss Helen D. Holstein District Home Demonstration Agent Tallahassee
Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter Home Improvement Specialist Tallahassee
Mrs. Gladys Kendall Home Industries and Marketing Specialist Tallahassee
Miss Elizabeth Dickenson Clothing and Textiles Specialist Tallahassee
Miss Alice Cromartie Extension Nutritionist Tallahassee
Miss Susan Christian Economist Food Production,
Farm & Home Devel. Tallahassee
Miss Lena Sturges Food Conservation Economist Tallahassee
Miss Alma Warren Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist Tallahassee
Miss Frances C. Cannon HIealth Education and Recreation Specialist Tallahasses
Miss Emily King State Girls' 4-H Club Agent Tallahasses
Miss Bronna Mae Elkins Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent Tallahassee


NOTE: Ba indicates SW Florida District- Mrs. Barrus
Be indicates NW Florida District Miss Bevis
H indicates E Florida District Miss Holstein



Ba Alachua Mrs. Josephine McSwine Seagle Building, Gainesville
Ba Alachua, Asst. Mrs. Dolores Y. Shamsedin Seagle Building, Gainesville
Be Bay Miss Emma Stevenson P. 0. Box 385, Panama City
H Bradford Miss Dorothy Ross P.O. Box 267, Starke
H Brevard Mrs. Sue B. Young P.O. Box 288, Cocoa
H Broward Miss Louise Taylor 205% SE 5th Ct., Ft. Lauderdalh
H Broward, Asst. Mrs. Laura W. Williams 205/2 SE 5th Ct., Ft. Lauderdali
Be Calhoun Mrs. Annie W. Finlay P.O. Box 122, Blountstown
Ba Citrus Inverness
H Clay Mrs. Sue P. Glennan P.O. Box 193, Green Cove
Springs
Be Columbia Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell P.O. Bldg., Lake City
H Dade Miss Olga Kent 2690 NW 7th Ave., Miami 37
II Dade, Asst. Mrs. Ruth T. Penner 2690 NW 7th Ave., Miami 37
H Dade, Asst. Mrs. Helen B. MacTavish 2690 NW 7th Ave.,.Miami 37
H Dade, Asst. Mrs. Camille N. Helgren 2690 NW 7th Ave., Miami 37
H Dade, Asst. Mrs. Erma L. Butcher 1116 N. Krome Ave., Homestead
Ba DeSoto Miss Virginia Holland Arcadia
H Duval Mrs. Nellie D. Mills P.O. Box 4696, Jacksonville
H Duval, Asst. Mrs. Josephine M. Cameron P.O. Box 4696, Jacksonville
H Duval, Asst. Miss Demetra Tarrant P.O. Box 4696, Jacksonville
Be Escambia Miss Ethel Atkinson P.O. Box 641, Pensacola
Be Escambia, Asst. Mrs. Helen A. White Room 308, Court House,
Pensacola











Be Gadsden Mrs. Marjorie Gregory P.O. Box 231, Quincy
Be Gadsden, Asst. Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson P.O. Box 231, Quincy
Be Gulf Wewahitchka
Be Hamilton Mrs. Wylma B. White P.O. Box 184, Jasper
Ba Hardee Mrs. Sallie R. Childers P.O. Box 786, Wauchula
Ba Highlands Miss Catherine Brabson P.O. Box 527, Sebrine
Ba IIillsborough, W. Miss Lora Kiser New Court House, Tampa
Ba Hillsborough, W., Asst. Mrs. Mamie A. Bassett New Court House, Tampa
Ba Hillsborough, E., Asst. P.O. Box 190, Plant City
Ba Hillsborough, S., Asst. Miss Virginia Ruth Hill P.O. Box 274, Ruskin
Be Holmes Bonifay
Be Jackson Mrs. Alyne C. Heath P.O. Box 649, Marianna
Be Jackson, Asst. Mrs. Jane R. Burgess P.O. Box 649, Marianna
Be Jefferson Miss Fern Nix Perkins Bldg., Monticello
Be Lafayette Mrs. Helen B. Hunerwadel Mayo
Ba Lake Mrs. Marian B. Valentine P.O. Box 1041, Tavares
Ba Lake, Asst. Miss Joe Ann Mills P.O. Box 1041, Tavares
Be Leon Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry P.O. Box 1234, Tallahassee
Be Leon, Asst. Mrs. Evelyn C. Presley P.O. Box 1234, Tallahassee
Ba Levy Mrs. Linnie Ruth Coburn P.O. Box 27, Bronson
Be Liberty Mrs. Camilla R. Alexander Bristol
Be Madison Mrs. Almon Zipperer P.O. Box 269, Madison
Ba Manatee Mrs. Ethel W. Hanson Palmetto
Ba Manatee, Asst. Miss Wilma Reichert Palmetto
Ba Marion Miss Allie Lee Rush P.O. Box 227, Ocala
Ba Marion, Asst. Mrs. Charlotte W. Drane P.O. Box 227, Ocala
H Martin Mrs. Gertrude P. Harrell Stuart. P.O. Box 283
H Nassau Mrs. Betty Mizell P.O. Box 195, Hilliard
Be Okaloosa Mrs. Ray Baxter P.O. Box 262, Crestview
H Orange Miss Marjorie Ludeman P.O. Box 1828, Orlando
H Orange, Asst. Mrs. Mary A. Moore P.O. Box 1828, Orlando
Ba Osceola Miss Marilyn Dietrich Kissimmee
H Palm Beach Miss Mary Todd Rt. 5, Box 36-B, IV. Palm Beach
H Palm Beach, Asst. Mrs. Elizabeth H. Pierce Rt. 5, Box 36-B, IV. Palm Beach
Ba Pasco Mrs. Mary R. Stearns P.O. Box 157, Dade City
Ba Pasco, Asst. Miss Elzora Christian P.O. Box 157, Dade Cit)
Ba Pinellas Mrs. Charlotte Lattimer P.O. Box 268, Largo
Ba Pinellas, Asst. Miss Jo Ann Tilley P.O. Box 268, Largo
Ba Polk Mrs. Ruth Elkins P.O. Box 1049, Bartow
Ba Polk, Asst. Miss Sue Johnson P.O. Box 1049. Bartow
H Putnam Mrs. Elizabeth Starbird P.O. Box 654, Palatka
H St. Johns Mrs. Anita B. Davis P.O. Box 1517, St. Augustine
H St. Lucie Mrs. Mildred Marsh P.O. Box 1103, Ft. Pierce
Be Santa Rosa Miss Lora Botts P.O. Box 348, Milton
Be Santa Rosa, Asst. P.O. Box 348, Milton
Ba Sarasota Mrs. Laleah B. Brown Court House, Sarasota
H Seminole Miss Myrtie Wilson Court House, Sanford
Ba Sumter Mrs. May Ola Fulton P.O. Box 56, Bushnell
Be Suwannee County Agr. Bldg., Live Oak
Be Taylor Perry
H Volusia Mrs. Edna S. Eby P.O. Box 1316, DeLand
Be Walton Miss Betty Duckett DeFuniak Springs
Be Washington Mrs. Dorcas L. Payne Court House. Chipley
Indian Extension Mrs. Edith Boehmer P.O. Box 415, Okeechobee
Work
Trainee:
Mrs. Helen Hardiman (Jan. 9-13)


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICES

NATHAN MAYO BUILDING, Tallahassee.-Houses the ma-
jority of the offices of the State Department of Agriculture. The
Offices of the Commissioner, Bureau of Immigration, Land Of-
fice, Field Notes Division, and Prison Division are located in the
State Capitol. The Mayo Building has a series of laboratories
in which samples of food, drugs, oil, kerosene, weights and
measures, feeds and seeds, insecticides, are analyzed and inspect-


1~ YUIIII~II*IYIII I VI I~UI\IUVY I Ul\lr










section Bureau and Mailing Division.
-X-*
*LORIDA STATE MARKETING BUREAU, Jacksonville.--
'his office gathers, compiles, assembles, and disseminates a
tremendous volume of information relating to marketing, price
uotations, market trends, and crop production and movements
3 market, by wire and daily press.
*
'LORIDA CITRUS BUILDING, Winter Haven.-Houses the
headquarters of the Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division
rough which the Department of Agriculture serves the citrus
nd vegetable producer and the consuming public by way of
regulatory provisions and voluntary requests in inspections. Its
activities facilitate state and interstate marketing of Florida
products.
This building is also the headquarters for the Florida State
armers' Markets where administration of 14 vegetable and
ruit markets, five livestock markets and nine educational pavil-
ons is carried out. Such markets help the Florida Farmers sell
ieir products at good prices.
This building also houses Nora Mayo Hall, named for the
rife of the veteran Florida Commissioner of Agriculture. Visitors
re also invited to look over the diorama displays of the history
nd progress of the citrus industry located in this building.

)AIRY DIVISION, Gainesville.-Located in the Seagle Build-
ig, this office is concerned with regulations governing produc-
ion, processing, labeling and marketing of milk and milk prod-
cts. It also handles inspection work on dairies, frozen desserts
nd marks and brands of cattle.

LOAD GUARD STATIONS.-Are located in Wilcox (U.S.
9), Branford (U.S. 27), Ellaville (U.S. 90), Suwannee Springs
U.S. 129), White Springs (U.S. 41), Hilliard (U.S. 1), Yulee
U.S. 17), Lake City (U.S. 441), Luraville (Fla. 51), and
:len St. Mary (Fla. 125) for the purpose of maintaining a
heck on all principal highways leading out of Florida for proper










coming and outgoing products.
*- *
VEGETABLE INSPECTION OFFICE, Orlando.-The work
n this branch has grown so in recent years that it became neces-
ary to have additional space for housing this branch in Orlando.
Gives information on inspection as to quality of melons, vege-
ables and nuts and also helps farmers by giving data on harvest-
ng, methods of packing, storing, precooling, loading and trans-
)orting.

FLORIDA STATE PLANT BOARD, Gainesville.-Adminis-
ration offices are at 507 Seagle Building, Gainesville, with the
laboratory on the campus of the University of Florida. This
3oard has headquarters in Central Florida for OPERATION
SPREADING DECLINE, which is ravaging Florida's Citrus
groves.

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
There are a number of agricultural experiment stations in
he State of Florida. Some of them relate to research in field
:rops, others in fruits, others in vegetables, while others still
n cattle. Some are a combination doing research in several
ields, but all are open to visitation by the public.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION,
Gainesville This is the main station where research in practi-
:ally everything but citrus is going on daily. Such projects include
ruits, vegetables, field crops, pasture, lawn grasses, shrubs, trees,
)eef cattle, dairy laboratory, etc. This station is located right on
he campus.

NEST FLORIDA STATION, Jay-Research in field crops
Lnd vegetables of that area. Located between State Highways
19 and 197.

NqORTH FLORIDA STATION, Quincy- Field crops, par-
icularly shade tobacco,'and cattle. Located on State Highway
!67 south of Quincy.










n pecan, pests, growth rate, etc. Located on U. 3. IS south.

UWANNEE VALLEY STATION, Live Oak Field Crops
nd vegetables of area. Located on State Highway 135 north.
*-x- -* *
'OTATO AND CABBAGE INVESTIGATIONS LAB., Has-
ngs Located on State Highway 207 near Spuds.
-*
WATERMELON AND GRAPE INVESTIGATIONS LAB.,
,eesburg Office located on U. S. 441 at south edge of city,
arm is State Highway 44, on road to Wildwood.
*
V'EST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, Brooksville --Re-
earch on cattle. This is a cooperative program with Federal
government Located on U. S. 41 north.
*
TRAWBERRY INVESTIGATIONS LAB., Plant City--
,ocated southeast of city.
*
CENTRALL FLORIDA STATION, Sanford Research on
vegetables and crops of area, particularly cabbage and celery.
.ocated just off State Highway 415 at Celery Ave.

"ITRUS STATION, Lake Alfred All possible research on
itrus, including packing, processing and marketing. Discovered
reading decline nematode here. U. S. 92 east of town is
location.

VEATHER FORECASTING, Lakeland Frost warnings are
ent from here throughout the state during the season for below
reezing temperatures. Located on 2nd floor of City Hall.

}ULF COAST STATION, Bradenton Research on vege-
ables and crops in that area, especially tomatoes and also
;ladioli. Located South of State Highway 64.

LANGE CATTLE STATION, Ona--Located off of State
highway 64.










.1 crops grown in the hverglades area, including sugar cane,
bers, such as ramie, various types of cattle and pastures. Lo-
ited on U. S. Highway 441 east.

NDIAN RIVER FIELD LAB., Fort Pierce--Vegetables of
iat area. Located between State Roads 68 and 70.
*
LANTATION FIELD LAB., Fort Lauderdale Mostly ex-
eriments on fibers and water control. Located off U. S. High-
ay 441 north of city.
*
UB-TROPICAL STATION, Homestead--All fruits and
vegetables grown in South Florida area. Speciality seems to be
irious experimental tropical fruits. Located west of State High-
ay 27.

FUTURE FARMERS OF AMERICA
The Future Farmers of America, or "FFA" as it is common-
known, is the national organization of, by and for boys
udying vocational agriculture in public secondary schools un-
:r the provisions of the National Vocational Education Acts.
As an integral part of the program of vocational educa-
on in agriculture in the public school system of America,
ie FFA has become well known in recent years. No national
udent organization enjoys greater freedom of self-government
under adult counsel and guidance, than the Future Farmers of
merica. Organized in November 1928, it has served to motivate
id vitalize, the systematic instruction offered to students of
nationall agriculture, and to provide further training in farmer-
tizenship.
The FFA is an intra-curricular activity having its origin and
lot in a definite part of the school curriculum vocational
agriculture. Among other things, members learn through active
participation how to conduct and take part in a public meeting;
speak in public; to buy and sell cooperatively; to solve their
vn problems; to finance themselves; and to assume civic re-
ionsibility. The foundation upon which the Future Farmers of







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS


Amenca organization is built, includes leadership and character
development, sportsmanship, cooperation, service, thrift, scholar-
ship, improved agriculture, organized recreation, citizenship and
patriotism.
The Future Farmers of America is a non-profit, non-political,
farm youth organization of voluntary membership, designed to
take its place along with other agencies striving for the develop-
ment of leadership, the building of a more permanent agricul-
ture, and the improvement of country life. It constitutes one
of the most efficient agricultural teaching devices that has been
discovered up to the present time. The FFA is 100% American
in its ideals and outlook and has no outside affiliations. There
is no secrecy in connection with any of its activities.
National headquarters of the Future Farmers of America
is located in the Agricultural Education Branch, Office of Edu-
cation, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Na-
tional conventions are held annually in Kansas City, Missouri.
The Future Farmers of America exists today because of a
co-operative spirit and a desire on the part of farm boys, 14 to
about 21 years of age, preparing for farming through vocational
agriculture, to have a national organization of their own in
which they may secure practical business experience, act as
their own instructors, and enjoy the fellowship of one another.
It is organized vocational education on a farm youth level.
Improved agriculture, better local communities, a more satis-
fying farm home life, and more efficient farmer-citizens are
emerging as a result of the boys' experiences.
There are approximately 9000 Chapters with nearly 400,000
members in the national organization; and in Florida, 144
chapters with approximately 8500 active members.
HIGH SCHOOL FARMERS GROW BIG CROPS
Florida teen-agers with a green thumb are working their
way into the big money. Some members df the FFA have
been so successful with their farming projects that they are
acknowledged to be among the state's top dollar-earners on a
part time basis.
Although the youths don't boast of their financial triumphs,
their school advisors say they know of standout instances where
$15,000 and $20,000 profits have been recorded. But most of







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Starting as ninth graders, almost all the boys in rural com-
munities join the FFA, since the organization is well integrated
into the school program. It provides incentive levels so that the
industrious boy can advance from the rank of "greenhand" to
Chapter Farmer and if he is really aggressive, perhaps to
State Farmer and National Farmer.
In many cases the father will agree to lend a plot of ground
to his son in exchange for the boy's services in helping out with
the crops on the remainder of his acreage. Returns from the
land farmed by the boy usually go into a fund which someday
will help him obtain more land. And, often times, by the end
of the high school course, the boy is a full fledged fanner with
land and machinery of his own.

4-H CLUB PROGRAM
The 4-H Club program is a nation-wide system of education
for boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 21 years organized
into clubs and engaged in farming and homemaking activities
under the guidance of the United States Department of Agri-
culture, Land Grant Colleges, Cooperative Extension Workers
and trained local leaders.
Purpose of the program is to provide a systematic plan of
agricultural education that prepares young people for more
abundant farm and home living and more useful and purposeful
leadership and citizenship.
Aims and objectives are to instill an intelligent understanding
and appreciation of real nature and environment, to teach value
of research and to develop a scientific mind toward home and
farm problems, to provide training in cooperative action for
increased accomplishments through associated efforts, to help
in the development of desirable ideals and standards for farming,
homemaking, community life, and citizenship, and a sen-e of
responsibility for their attainment.
Also to teach skills and information in farming and home-
making, to provide an opportunity to "learn by doing" through
conducting certain farm or home enterprises and demonstrating
to others what has been learned, to develop habits of healthful
living, to provide information and direction in the intelligent
use of leisure time and to arouse worthy ambitions and desires







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 21

to continue learning in order to enhance richer and fuller lives,
And to provide opportunities for leadership development.
Club members select some project which is a task to do in
agriculture, home economics or rural life usually extending over
period of 4 to 12 months. They study the project, learn better
ways of accomplishing end results, keep all records, usually make
in exhibit of their project and then explain and write about
:heir program.
Increased participation in various projects, more community
activities, more method and result demonstrations have shown
the active character of the 4-H Club movement in recent years.
[n 1953 there were 9,876 white boys in this program, while last
rear this number jumped to 11,309.
Recently the State has been divided into 10 club districts,
which has helped to improve 4-H Club work by developing pro-
grams based on joint planning of the administrative, specialist
and county staffs. Through this device, programs more nearly
net varying agricultural needs and interests.
There are five 4-H Club Summer Camps located through
:he State, with a yearly attendance of some 4,000 young boys
and girls. In addition a number of adults used these camps
for various institutes on agriculture programs. There are also a
lumber of state-wide short courses, and special schools on Live.
stock judging, the wildlife camp, tractor maintenance, as well
is numerous activities and projects bordering on everything
[rom music appreciation, money management, farm and home
safety, first aid, and entomology to participation in the raising
of various field crops, vegetables and livestock.
Much the same as the Future Farmers of America program,
:here are a number of various awards, gold medals, scholarships,
:rips, certificates and trophies as a stimulus to the awards pro-
grams and to create more enthusiasm among 4-H Club members.

FLORIDA FARM BUREAU
With a membership of about 20,000 farmers, Florida Farm
Bureau Federation seeks to do what farmers want done for
:heir profession and their country. It is a private, non-govern-
nental, non-sectarian, and non-political organization, composed
of 55 County Farm Bureaus. It is one of 48 state federations







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


and Puerto Rico, comprising the American Farm Bureau Federa-
tion, boasting around 1,600,000 members. It is designed for and
operates as an organ for its member farmers to accomplish to-
gether what they cannot accomplish as individuals.
Farm Bureau functions like any other democratic organiza-
tion. Each farm family has a voice in the formation of policies
that guide the elected leaders as they represent farmers in various
places such as the State Legislature, the Congress, and others.
A great many folks want to know the thinking of agricultural
people on many subjects and Farm Bureau does the job of
answering them.
Farm Bureau has representatives in the State and National
Capitals during all lawmaking sessions who report to the mem-
bers on the progress of legislation that affects farmers. Farm
Bureau representatives also act as consultants to lawmakers re-
garding agricultural matters. Throughout the years, Farm Bureau
has enjoyed a good reputation in legislative halls because:
1. Farm Bureau policies are always considerate of the other
segments of the Nation's population; beneficial not only for
farmers but the entire country.
2. Farm Bureau is non-partisan; it uses only "positive"
means of propounding its program.
3. Lawmakers know that Farm Bureau policies are de-
veloped through democratic means and are not "handed-down"
to its members.
In addition to its policy-making function, Florida Farm
Bureau operates an insurance service company for its members
only. All types of insurance are available through the Florida
Farm Bureau Mutual Insurance Company and the Southern
Farm Bureau Insurance Companies. An arrangement with Blue
Cross and Blue Shield offers hospitalization with group benefits
to Farm Bureau members. Various County Farm Bureaus have
been instrumental in the formation of local buying and selling
cooperatives.

FLORIDA LIVESTOCK BOARD
The Florida Livestock Board was created by the Legislature
of 1923, and is the only state agency responsible for the control
and eradication of infectious diseases of livestock, and to prevent







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 23

introduction of diseases of domestic animals from other states, to
the end that the industry makes its contribution to a balanced
economy in Florida by providing adequate supplies of meat
and meat food products and milk and milk products necessary
to human health, and to insure their production under sanitary
conditions from disease-free livestock and poultry.
The Board is composed of nine practical livestock men,
actively engaged in the livestock industry one from each con-
gressional district, and one from the State at large. Board mem-
bers receive no compensation except expenses incurred in the
discharge of their duties as members of the Board. The State
Veterinarian serves as Secretary and Technical Advisor to the
Board and is responsible for the operation of the livestock disease
regulatory programs in accordance with the regulations pro-
mulgated by the Board. The executive offices of the Board are
located in Tallahassee, Florida.
Regulatory programs conducted by the Board are described
briefly below. The U. S. Department of Agriculture and the
Florida State Board of Health lend valuable cooperation and
assistance to the Florida Livestock Board in many of its disease
.control efforts.
BRUCELLOSIS AND TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL
_IVISION. The eradication and control of brucellosis and tu-
berculosis is of first importance to economic production of milk
and beef and vital to public health, as both diseases are trans-
missible to the human. The more than 1200 dairy herds in Flor-
ida are operating under a State plan of brucellosis control, and
all dairy cattle are tuberculin tested annually for the eradication
of tuberculosis.
The beef cattle population in the State is rapidly increasing,
with greater demands on the Board for service in testing and
vaccinating for the control of these two diseases.
MASTITIS CONTROL DIVISION. Mastitis is an in-
fectious disease of the udder of dairy cows and has a public
health, as well as economic significance. The dairyman's interest
in mastitis control has been stimulated by the economic value
of this service through increase in milk production, longer life
of his cows, and freedom from disease.







24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

POULTRY SERVICE DIVISION. The principal activity
of this service is the inspection and testing of poultry and turkey
breeding flocks, inspection and approval of hatcheries, and cer-
tification for health of chicks for export. The object of this
service is the elimination of pullorum disease in baby chicks used
for replacements in commercial and poultry breeding flocks,
and assurance that the eggs and poultry meat produced are
pullorum disease free. One poultry disease diagnostic laboratory
is now in operation in the State to assist the poultry flock owners
in early diagnosis of disease conditions in poultry and in rec-
ommending measures for their control. Construction of four
additional laboratories was authorized by the Legis'ature of
1955.
SUPERVISION OF MEAT INSPECTION. Up until
January of 1952, some 14 slaughtering plants in the State were
operating under a voluntary program of supervision of meat
inspection by the Board. The Legislature of 1951 passed a com-
pulsory meat inspection law requiring that all slaughtering and
processing of meat be done under state, federal and municipal
inspection. This law was further amended in 1953 to provide
exemptions to establishments slaughtering less than 20 cattle
or 35 hogs per week.
CONTAGIOUS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE CON-
TROL DIVISION. This division is engaged in the control of
communicable diseases, including hog cholera, erysipelas, swine
plague, infectious enteritis, vesicular exanthema and brucellosis
in swine, and anthrax and other transmissible diseases in other
classes of livestock. Serum, virus and vaccine are furnished free
by the Board to qualified bona fide farmers for use in treating
their swine against hog cholera.
PARASITIC CONTROL AND LIVESTOCK MARKET
INSPECTION. The Board routinely dips all cattle entering
livestock markets and moving back to the farm in an effort to
prevent reinfestations of the cattle fever tick, and for the control
of the spread of other external parasites. All livestock entering
markets are inspected for evidence of infectious or contagious
diseases and no infected animals are permitted to be sold through
the market facility. All livestock entering Florida from other







READY RFTERF.WNF.l FT.ORIDA FARMPRP


states are required to be covered by health certificates including
in some instances records of tests for brucellosis and tuberculosis,
and all imported animals are checked at inspection stations for
proper health papers and test charts.
In addition to the services listed above, field veterinarians of
the Board are available for investigations on call of suspected
infectious and contagious diseases of livestock.

FLORIDA CITRUS COMMISSION
LAKELAND The history of the Florida citrus industry
during the past two decades has been a fantastic story of progress
and achievement during a period of fast development within the
nation's vast agriculture field.
Coupled with an almost unbelievable increase in production,
the industry's ability to dispose of its production gains without
recourse to government subsidy and without serious surplus
has become industrial legend throughout the nation.
The statistics of Florida's citrus development point up the
progress made in a mere 20 years. In the 1933-34 season, the
Sunshine State produced 28,812,000 boxes of oranges, grape-
fruit, tangerines, and limes. The total output from Florida that
season was second only to the state of California which produced
37,506,000 boxes to lead the world in citrus production.
Twenty years later, in the 1953-54 season, Florida produced
138 million boxes of citrus fruits to show a 375 per cent increase
in production. By way of comparison, in the 1953-54 season,
California produced 35 million boxes of oranges, grapefruit, tan-
gerines and limes, showing a slight decrease from its production
in the 1933-34 season.
The tremendous increase in Florida's production has had
its effect on grower returns at times, but in general, the industry
has been able to keep demand for citrus in balance with supply.
According to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, average on-
tree prices for all varieties of oranges, from all areas, and using
all methods of sales, not a single season in the 20-year period has
resulted in the average Florida citrus grower receiving less than
his cost of production.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


In only seven of the past 17 seasons has the grower received
less than an average $1 a box on-tree price. The generally ac-
cepted average cost of production is placed at 50 cents.
While the picture of the returns from Florida grapefruit
has not been so bright, it is interesting to note that average on-
tree prices figured on all varieties of grapefruit for all methods of
sales brought less than 50 cents per box in only four of 17
seasons, but also brought $1 or more per box in four seasons of
the same period.
To completely understand the phenomenal progress of the
Florida citrus industry, it is necessary to understand the men
and women who have been engaged in citrus production, pack-
ing, and processing throughout the years.
In the face of repeated adversity, and in spite of freezes and
hurricanes which have wiped out a year's profit overnight for
many growers, the industry has fought back with indomitable
courage. Constant research for new methods, more favorable
locations, and new developments in the sale of citrus products
have played their part in the progress of the industry.
Also of tremendous importance in the task of keeping de-
mand in step with increased supply of Florida citrus products has
been the aggressive advertising and merchandising program
carried out by the Florida Citrus Commission.
Formed from a realization of the need for unity and dis-
cipline, the Citrus Commission since 1935 has become the hub
of the ever-expanding industry. Today the Commission is em-
powered by law to engage in regulatory matters, advertising and
promoting citrus and citrus products, and in the unrelenting
search to find new and further uses for citrus fruits.
To provide funds for the Commission's operation, the in-
dustry taxed itself on citrus fruits utilized by canneries or in fresh
shipment. Now a part of the Florida statutes, the tax currently
amounts to three cents per box on oranges, six cents on grape-
fruit, and five cents on tangerines.
The budget for advertising, which has grown into the Com-
mission's largest single endeavor, was recorded in 1935 in the
amount of $225,000. As the production of Florida citrus in-







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS_ 27

creased, the funds available for the advertising program alo
increased.
In the ten years from 1943 until 1953, the Commission
expended some 15 million dollars for advertisement in national
magazines, daily and Sunday newspapers, radio, television, trade
papers, medical journals, and display material; all carrying the
story of Florida citrus to the consuming public.
The millions expended in advertising were more than justi-
fied by the movement of fruit valued at nearly two billion dol-
lars FOB, Florida, during the same span of years. Without
serious surplus, and at generally profitable prices, the end of the
1952-53 season saw the Florida citrus industry preparing for the
biggest citrus crop in history. The predictions for the 1953-54
season proved correct with an unprecedented 138,000,000 boxes
of citrus fruits harvested.
To move the crop, the Florida Citrus Commission expended
a whopping two and a half million dollars in advertising. Again,
the endeavor paid off. The crop, valued at an all-time high of
250 million dollars was moved at generally profitable prices to
growers, packers, and processors alike.
And while the Commission's advertising program forged
ahead during the past two decades, its research department was
also busy. Perhaps the largest single factor in finding a market
for the increasing citrus production was the discovery of the
frozen concentrate process which went to market for the first
time in 1947 and has increased its production by more than
2000 per cent since that time.
Today, the consumer market for chilled juice is also making
its mark on the industry. American housewives have indicated
their desire for citrus juice delivered by the morning milkman,
and the Florida citrus industry is preparing to give them what
they want.
The current season finds the Florida Citrus Commission
budgeting three million dollars to provide the most intensive
consumer advertising program of its history. Through every
advertisement medium, the Commission will carry the citrus
story of nutrition and health to the nation's consumers; Com-
mission personnel will support special promotions in retail food







28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

stores; and the Florida citrus industry again expects sound
financial gains from its advertisement investment.
The story of progress and the Florida citrus industry today
shows no indication of slackening, even though long-range fore-
casts indicate a steady production increase. Somehow, as in the
past, the industry will discover new horizons over which to dis-
patch its bulging citrus crop.

FLORIDA STATE CATTLEMEN'S
ASSOCIATION
The Florida State Cattlemen's Association is a federation of
local or county associations. In two instances, these local groups
are composed of two counties. All of the members of these af-
filiated organizations are automatically members of FSCA. Ac-
tive members have full voice and vote at the membership meet-
ings held usually in June and November of each year.
Between membership meetings, association business is hand-
led by the board of directors, consisting of a state director from
each local association, along with the past presidents and the
president and three vice-presidents.
HISTORY
The Florida State Cattlemen's Association had its beginning
in the summer of 1933 when a small group of cattlemen in the
Kissimmee area began working to establish such an association,
and the organization was officially begun at a meeting on
February 1, 1934.
By 1935, the membership included cattlemen from 15 coun-
ties Bradford, Lake, Washington, Putnam, Escambia, St. Lu-
cie, Polk, Osceola, Alachua, Orange, Marion, Sumter, Volusia.
Seminole and Hillsborough. The organization originally was
state-centered, but in 1937 the members decided to make it
into a federation of local associations, just as it is organized to-
day. The membership has shown a constant growth and now
consists of 45 associations covering 47 counties.
Such matters as cattle thefts, disease and parasites, bank
loans, no-fence laws, and many other problems have occupied
the attention of FSCA during its lifetime.







.~~U IxiR ~ I~~i xi ~ VRiU '.~2R I Vjxijt


In 1J+4+ the Association voted to atlillate with the American
National Cattlemen's Association, and in January, 1950, this
group met in Miami--the first time in 52 years of existence
that it had ever met east of the Mississippi River.
County associations are made up of cattlemen, and each
such association is its own "boss": names its own membership
dues, makes its own membership requirements, and affiliates
voluntarily with FSCA.
PUBLIC RELATIONS
Through its Public Relations Committee and its officers,
the association sees to it that the public is properly informed
through news items sent to the weekly and daily newspapers
from time to time.
In addition, speakers are provided, upon request, for county
cattle or farm organizations, civic clubs or other groups.
Public Relations work is designed to present the facts to
the citizens of Florida, to increase their confidence and trust
in the cattle industry and also to protect against those things
which would be detrimental to the industry.
FINANCIAL
The Florida State Cattlemen's Association is financed
through membership and assessment dies received from county
associations, with all officers serving without compensation ex-
cept for the part-time assistant secretary.
Amount of the annual budget varies with the needs, and
is set by the membership at the annual meeting in November.
Roughly speaking, the budget has been divided five ways: 20
percent for sending the magazine to every member, and like
amounts for American National dues, salary and expense of
the assistant secretary, theft reward payments and miscellaneous
items such as travel for the state officers, legislative work, etc.
The portion of this budget which each local group is asked
to pay is based on the number of cattle in the county or counties
served by the group, according to the United States Census of
Agriculture.
In past years, such problems as flood control, anthrax control,
tick eradication and other matters have been handled by the
state association.







30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Here are some of the specific benefits members receive from
the state association:
The county membership dues paid to FSCA entitles each
of its individual members to receive The Florida Cattleman and
Livestock Journal for one year. The Cattleman is the official
organ of FSCA, is published every month, and gives up-to-the-
minute news and information regarding the industry. Editorials
in The Cattleman reflect the views of FSCA officers on all
controversial matters.
Your cattle are protected from theft by an FSCA $500 re-
ward for evidence leading to the conviction of cattle thieves.
The very existence of this reward has been a powerful deterrent
to cattle theft.
A strong and active Legislative Committee, helped by FSCA's
officers, is on the alert to analyze and weigh and decide as to
the merits of all suggested legislation-and to see to it that State
Senators and Representatives are properly informed of the views
of the cattlemen regarding such legislation. National problems
are handled by the board of directors, officers and special
committees, or by the American National Cattlemen's Associa-
tion, with which the FSCA is affiliated.
A marketing Committee, charged with the duty of keeping
abreast of market conditions and doing everything possible to
foster and improve the profitable marketing of cattle is con-
stantly on the job.

MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS
The Florida State Cattlemen's Association is on the alert
and stands ready at any time to do its best to solve any problem
which is too big for its affiliated county associations or for its
individual members.
Membership meetings are held twice a year in June and
in November. Since all active members of the local associations
are automatically members of FSCA, all have a vote at the
state meetings.

THE FUTURE
What the future holds for the Florida cattle industry is, of
course, something no one knows. One thing is sure. So long as the







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS


cattlemen of Florida support their parent organization, just so
long will FSCA be the "watchdog" for the cattle industry.
Every major group in the nation labor, industry, etc. -
has its own ironclad organization with which we must match
efforts. If our cattle industry is to hold its own, we must maintain
a strong organization: We must keep our present membership,
we must gain more membership.
Further information about how you can help the Florida
State Cattlemen's Association may be obtained by writing state
headquarters at Kissimmee, or by contacting your nearest local
association.

FLORIDA AVOCADO AND LIME
COMMISSION
This commission is designed to do sales promotional work
advertising and publicity on avocados and limes. It has long
been felt that these two commodities needed this type of effort.
However, the industry being divided into the middle part of the
state area and the Dade County area it has proven difficult to
tie together the different competitive varieties maturing and
being shipped at different seasons of the year in respect to
avocados, has caused this to be a rather complex problem.
Many of the growers also felt it would be very unsound to
advertise these two commodities until the commodities them-
selves were under control and they were properly graded, sized,
matured, etc. In 1954 there was established an avocado market-
ing agreement and in 1955 one was established on limes. These
marketing agreements provide an administrative control com-
mittee of growers and shippers. These marketing agreements
are federal and under the control of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Under these agreements size, grade, matur-
ity and containers are regulated.
Research may also be had and any orders applying to im-
ports during that term of the order. Now, the Florida grower
feels that he is ready to really advertise. About 80% of the fruit
crop moves from Dade County and the remainder from the
central section of the state, Highland, Polk and other counties.
The Legislature approved the bill creating the Florida Avo-
cado and Lime Commission. It consists of nine members all







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


appointed by the Governor, four from the central portion ot
the state and five from the Dade-Monroe county area. An excise
tax of 10c per 55# bushel is imposed and for a twelve month
period it is hoped that this will produce between seventy-five and
one hundred thousand dollars. This could be more or less
depending on weather, hurricanes, etc. There is a very close tie-
in between the two marketing agreements and this commission.
Two are federal and one is state. It is expected that this com-
mission will do some special work in trying to capture the
market in the state of Florida for these two commodities.
Next no doubt a lot of point of sale work will be done in
the principal markets where these commodities are known.
Publicity and public relations was carried on and almost fifteen
thousand dollars was spent in 1955 in order that these two
commodities were known to food page editors, cook book editors,
tied in with all other companion commodities such as grapefruit
with avocados, olive oil with avocado, sugar and tea with limes,
whiskey and rum drinks with limes, etc.
It is believed that the Florida growers and shippers of
avocados and limes have taken a long series of steps and it is to be
hoped that these efforts all tied together will be very successful
and of course if the efforts are there will then be a path to
follow where other commodities can likewise follow the same
path.
FLORIDA MILK COMMISSION
HISTORY OF THE COMMISSION
The Florida Milk Commission came into being in 1933.
The original Act created a Milk Control Board, and each
subsequent Legislature continued the life of the Milk Control
Board until 1939. The 1939 Legislature passed a permanent
Act creating the Florida Milk Commission. This Act remains
on the books with minor changes by subsequent Legislatures.
The 1939 Act increased the Members of the Florida Milk
Commission to seven, viz., (1) a Producer of milk, (2) a Pro-
ducer-distributor of milk, (3) a Distributor of milk, (4) a Mem-
ber of the Consuming Public, (5) the Commissioner of Agri-
culture, or his designate, (6) the State Health Officer, or his
designate, (7) the Administrator of the Commission.







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 33

The 1953 Legislature changed the Membership of the
Florida Milk Commission to (1) Three (3) Citizens, not con-
nected with the milk industry, (2) a Producer of milk, (3)
a Distributor or Producer-distributor of milk, (4) The Commis-
sioner of Agriculture, or his designate, (5) the State Health
Officer, or his designate. The Commission still consists of seven
(7) Members which are appointed by the Governor of the State
of Florida. The Governor also appoints the Administrator of
the Commission. The Administrator does not have voting power,
and his salary is fixed by the Governor not to exceed the $7,200
limitation fixed by the Legislature.


EMERGENCY NEED FOR THE COMMISSION
The period prior to the enactment of the Milk Board in
1933, and particular the year immediately preceding its pas-
sage, will long be remembered by those who were engaged in
the Dairy business at that time. Milk Producers, Producer-
Distributors and Distributors were caught in a wild era of price
cutting, price wars and unethical and indiscriminate practices
which threatened to completely disrupt and bankrupt the entire
industry. Milk was known to sell for as little as 1 /2c per quart
and a loaf of bread given with it.
Chaotic conditions of this kind prevailed until it became
clear in the minds of many of those in the Dairy Industry and
many of the health authorities of the State that, if the people of
Florida were to have a supply of milk, something must be done.
Not only the milk supply but the very existence of the
Dairy farms and a large majority of the Dairy plants of Florida
was seriously threatened.
It clearly followed that if a Producer of milk did not receive
adequate compensation for his labor and for his product, that
he, in turn, could not adequately compensate his help, could
not adequately buy the necessary feed for his cattle, could not
maintain pastures, and most assuredly could not produce a clean,
healthful bottle of milk, according to the regulations of the
various health departments throughout the State of Florida. The
health of the Consuming Public, if such conditions were allowed
to continue, was in jeopardy. It was obvious, then, as it would








r1'PATTrMf.TTNT rV Ar.RTT1.TTT.TTTRE


be obvious now, that if all controls exercised by the Milk Com-
mission were lifted, that perhaps the first to suffer would be the
health conditions of the state.
In 1933, before the Industry was stabilized by the creation
of the Milk Control Board, and its subsequent successor, the
Florida Milk Commission, capital (risk capital) could not be
obtained by a new venture at either the production level, or the
distribution level, and, as a result thereof, production in Florida
in 1933 did not come anywhere near meeting the requirements


We
Law:
in the
represei
keting
ducer c
area. I
i:_11_ 1


11zle al%
supervi
are not
have b
areas,
found i
mission
while n
,, -;,', T


state during the winter tourist season.

OPERATES ONLY AFTER PETITION BY
MILK PRODUCERS
respectfully call attention to one pertinent fact of the
The Florida Milk Commission cannot supervise an area
State of Florida unless they are petitioned to do so by a
native group of producers supplying milk within a mar-
area. This is basic, and it is left entirely up to the pro-
,f milk, whether or not the Commission can supervise the
'he Florida Milk Commission has eighteen (18) estab-
areas under its supervision. These areas cover forty-one
Bounties in the State of Florida, thus the Florida Milk
ssion supervises approximately 85% of all milk produced
d in Florida.

BENEFITS UNCONTROLLED AREAS
Question has been asked many times, "Well what about
as in Florida that the Florida Milk Commission does not
se?" We would like to point out that the areas that
under the supervision of the Florida Milk Commission
benefited by the supervision given adjacent marketing
and that conditions that exist in a supervised area, are
n areas that, are not supervised by the Florida Milk Com-
Therefore, it follows, that the Florida Milk Commission,
lot operating in all areas in Florida, has stabilized the
Industry of the State of Florida.
- Florida Milk Commission, in addition to its many
of stabilizing the producer price, stabilizes the distributor
arbitrates price problems that arise between distributors,







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 35

between producers, or problems that arise between consumers
and the Dairy Industry. In most instances where a problem has
developed between consumer groups and the Industry, or con-
sumer groups and the Commission, these problems have been
fully considered and dealt with to the satisfaction of all.
RESULT OF SUPERVISION
Under the supervision of the Florida Milk Commission the
Dairy Industry has grown and developed until today it is one of
Florida's leading industries. The Commission has fostered this
expansion of the dairy industry by assuring farmers a reasonable
profit. The Commission has been successful in establishing rules
and regulations which have resulted in the orderly production
and distribution of a high grade of safe milk to the consumers.
Very little fluid milk is now imported into the State. However,
it is still necessary to import fluid cream for table use and cream
and butterfat for ice cream manufacture.
The Commission has maintained a reasonable price at the
Consumer level. In the early days of the dairy industry in the
State of Florida, milk was selling in Florida from 7 to 10c per
quart more than in New York, Chicago and other dairy centers.
Today milk is selling in Florida for only 1 to 2c more per quart
than in these same dairy centers, and when the butterfat con-
tent is considered the prices are comparable. Since 1939 milk
prices in Florida have increased about 60% as compared with
the national average increase of about 90%.
The Milk business is conducted on a very narrow margin
of profit. For that reason it is impossible for it to absorb drastic
changes in prices. Thus the Commission establishes minimum
prices for milk and dairy products to consumers to prevent the
chain stores or supermarkets from using milk as a "loss leader"
and "merchandising football" which would break down orderly
distribution of the farmer's product to the consumer.
Public Hearings are conducted in each area, where cost of
production, processing and distribution are submitted under oath,
and from such evidence the Commission determines the mini-
mum prices paid farmers for milk in any given area, and the
minimum price for milk and other dairy products to con-
sumers.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


'Ihe expense of operating the Iilonda Milk C(ommission is
borne entirely by the dairy industry. The Distributors and Pro-
ducer-distributors are required to purchase annual licenses for
their operation; truck licenses for all trucks operated (with the
exception of one) and licenses for each of their drivers. In ad-
dition the Distributor and the Producer-distributor pay a tax of
1/10 of Ic per gallon on all Class I milk sold, and on the milk
equivalent of cream sold. The 1953 Act imposed a tax of 1/10 of
Ic per gallon on all Class I milk produced by the dairy farmer
- this tax to be collected by the Distributor and forwarded to
the Commission with their monthly remittance.

STATE PLANT BOARD
OF FLORIDA ACTIVITIES
The responsibility of the State Plant Board is to protect
the horticultural and agronomical crops of agriculture in Florida
by preventing or retarding entry of serious pests which affect
plants and plant products and by carrying out control, con-
tainment and eradication measures relative to injurious pests that
may become present in the State. Protection of Florida's vast
apiary industry through enforcement of The Bee Disease Law
is also entrusted to the Plant Board.
The State Plant Board, established by law in 1915, is com-
I 1 1 r_ _., 1


Following
departments:
Quaranti6
of


)ns wno constitute me boara oI koniroi.
chief executive officer who is known as
:r and who executes policies approved
utive office is located in Gainesville and
apartments under the supervision of the
he six departments are Quarantine In-
on, Apiary Inspection, Nematology, En-

description of duties assigned the various


orces quarantines applying to the entry
Materials and products arriving from all
the world in cooperation with the Fed-
lent, (2) issues Federal export certifi-
g thousands of shipments of Florida







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 37

fruits, vegetables, plants and plant products into
foreign countries.
Plant Inspection (1) is responsible for inspection of groves,
nurseries, and other plant crops, (2) issues State
nursery stock and other plants for inter- and intra-
state movement, (3) enforces nursery regulations,
(4) carries out citrus budwood certification program
enabling nurserymen and growers to obtain virus-
free citrus budwood, (5) administers control, con-
tainment and eradication programs with the assist-
ance of other departments.
Apiary Inspection (1) enforces The Bee Disease Law for
the control of honeybee diseases such as American
foulbrood by inspection, quarantine, destroying in-
fected bee colonies, and issuance of permits for ship-
ments.
Pathology, Nematology, and Entomology (1) identify in-
sects, diseases and nematodes submitted by inspectors
in the field, (2) establish specimen collections, (3)
assist in research in the event of dangerous outbreaks
of especially injurious pests, (4) work with inspectors
in the field on particular pest problems.
HIGHLIGHTS OF PLANT BOARD SURVEY,
CONTROL AND ERADICATION PROGRAMS
1. Eradication of Citrus Canker, 1914-1932.
2. Eradication of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, 1929-1930.
3. Eradication of Citrus Blackfly, 1934-1938.
4. Survey of Tristeza, a Virus Disease of Citrus, 1953-1954.
5. Survey and Containment of Spreading Decline of Citrus
caused by the Burrowing Nematode, 1953- ?.
6. Eradication of Stellate Scale, 1953-1955.
FARMERS' MARKETS
Florida was the first State to establish a State Farmer's Mar-
ket where agricultural producers could come to sell their crops
and livestock. Currently there are 19 of these markets in opera-
tion, 14 of which are vegetable and fruit markets while livestock
is sold at four markets. Last year sales totaled $47,207,747.49 at
these markets. There are also nine educational pavilions.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Vegetable markets are located in Brooker, Florida City, Fort
Myers, Fort Pierce, Quincy, Immokalee, Pahokee, Palatka,
Palmetto, Plant City, Pompano, Sanford, Starke and Wauchula.
Livestock markets can be found in Arcadia, Bonifay, De-
Funiak Springs, and Jay. The educational pavilions are located
in Bartow, Belle Glade, Callahan, Chipley, Fannin Springs, Kis-
simmee, Ocala, Quincy and Webster. There are, of course, a
number of other vegetable and livestock markets not operated
by the State.

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE MARKETS
STATE AGENCY: The State owned markets are operated
under the State Agricultural Market-
ing Board a division of the State De-
partment of Agriculture.
PURPOSE: For assembling and marketing Florida
produce. With volume, numerous buyers
and growers insure effective competition
for small and large growers and buyers.
SALES METHODS These differ on many markets, auction,
AND SERVICE: direct sales and broker sales, etc., with
privilege of shipping point inspection.
Produce is often sold by sample resulting
in satisfaction both to producers and
buyers. Farmers and buyers receive
managers' assistance at all times in dis-
posing of produce grown in area.
VOLUME: Carlots and multiple carlots, small or big
truck lots to supply purchasers' needs in
species or variety of produce.
TIME OF Seasonal September to June general-
OPERATION: ly. In season, open from twelve to
twenty-four hours daily.
OPERATION Markets are largely self-supporting other
COSTS: than capital investment. Markets are
built for service, yet maintenance and
other operating costs must be borne by
a combination of package fees, stall







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 3S

packing house and office rentals, com-
missions, concessions, etc.
COOPERATION: Markets cooperate with other division!
of the State Department of Agriculture
as well as numerous other agricultural
education workers to extend activities
and services in marketing.
NOTE: The Production and Marketing Administration
U.S.D.A., Washington, D. C., puts out U. S. Standard Grade&
for all fruits and vegetables. They are free for the asking. Grow-
ers producing any or a number of vegetables should have and
know these grades, and should take Market News as a means ol
knowing that their product has sold for its value, based upon
grades and market prices.


LIVESTOCK AUCTION MARKETS
PURPOSE: Markets are central points where farmer
meet and sell their surpluses as well as pur-
chase their needs. Markets are mediums ol
exchange where finished and unfinished
livestock is bought and sold. Here a farmer
may sell what he wants to sell or producer
may cull his herd as he desires.
SALES: Producers' volume can be combined tc
create sufficient volume to attract small or
large buyers or make up carlot shipments.
by individual or by groups; or his livestock
may be pooled by grade for sale, and he ha,
the privilege of a "No Sale".
SALE DAYS: Usually one day each week.
METHOD: Auction generally --either by head o01
pound.
FEES: Commission by head or on gross sales.
ADVANTAGES: 1. To Producer: He sells competitively foi
best prices, he learns
grades and gets the full value from sale
of his livestock. He takes Market New,







40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

so as to be able to interpret market
values by grades and is aided materially
because of knowledge of values and full
receipt of volume of commodity sold.
2. To Industry: (a) Removes poor quality
livestock from country;
(b) Stimulates use of im-
proved sires, bulls and
boars;
(c) Best livestock general-
ly brings best prices and
livestock brings its value
because of volume of live-
stock and number of
buyers.
3. To Purchaser: Can buy in any quantity,
and carlots are available
where private buying could not usually
fulfill carlot or volume requirements.

STATE LIVESTOCK AND CROPS PAVILION
AIMS AND PURPOSES OF PAVILIONS
PROJECTS: These are part of the State Agricultural
facilities of Florida in the Nathan Mayo
System, and are endorsed by representa-
tives of agricultural associations and
state agricultural education groups; plan-
ned, constructed and completed during
and since the administration of Gover-
nor Spessard L. Holland.
PURPOSE: Education through non-political educa-
tional fairs, shows, expositions, meetings
and sales; to house locally agricultural
groups.
AIM: To promote the welfare of good agricul-
ture and industry and to foster the
growing of better crops and raising of
better livestock.







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS


CONSTRUCTION: Buildings were constructed by State
Agricultural Marketing Board with funds
from the State Department of Agricul-
ture, counties, cities and public spirited
citizens where located; grounds paved
by State Road Department.
FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
You need some money quickly. That loan at the bank is
coming up. But you have no ready cash. So you look out over
your farm and wonder where it's coming from. And then you
think of that stand of timber, almost forgotten, on the back side
of your farm....
Thousands of small farmers have been in identical financial
situations. And thousands of small farmers have followed the
same thought processes, eventually reaching the same conclusion:
their farm woodlot can mean money in the bank, if managed
wisely.
But, you think, I don't know anything about harvesting
timber. Corn? Cotton? Tobacco? That's different. You've been
farming those crops for years. But timber? That's something else
again. Where to get help?
And that's where the Florida Forest Service comes in.
Through the Service's farm forestry program, designed to help
the state's 55,000 small woodland owners with their timber
problems, you can get expert advice on how to make those
woodlands of yours pay maximum dividends.
Well, you say, how much can I expect to make from my
farm woodlot?
Here are several actual case histories where Florida farmers
have made their timber pay good returns.
During the early years of the depression, there was a tract
of land over in Columbia County. Nothing out of the ordinary
about it. Just a piece of barren, unproductive land, worthless,
not even paying the taxes. And then the owner got an idea ....
In 1931 this plantation was planted with one-year old pine
seedlings. Just 14 years later, this previously barren piece of
ground was selectively cut to remove diseased, defective, and







42 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

crowded trees. This thinning not only improved the quality of
the stand, but yielded an average of 9.8 cords of pulpwood per
acre! And 16.8 cords per acre were left standing to grow into
sawtimber, poles, and other valuable types of timber. A second
thinning was made six years after the first cut. This thinning
produced more than 9.2 cords per acre, and left nearly 19 cords
per acre.
Just 20 years before, this was an abandoned field, worthless
to the owner. But slash pine plantings gave it a timber value of
more than $79.00 per acre!
But, you say, that's a case of a farmer starting from scratch.
How about me? I've already got some standing timber on my
farm. I want to sell some of it now. What should I do?
Well, you could do as Mrs.........------..-..... who lives near Jack-
sonville, did. She had the local farm forester mark a tract of
'timber for her. She was offered $1080 by the first bidder. But
the farm forester encouraged her to obtain more bids before sell-
ing. After getting several bids, she was able to sell her timber
for $3,000. Without the technical assistance of the farm forester,
Mrs.--........------......said that she would have sold the timber to the
first bidder, at a loss to her of almost $2,000!
And here's an instance of a man who owned 14 acres of
woodland and was offered $700 for all the merchantable tree;
on his land. He thought this sounded like a good offer, but since
he had never sold any trees before he realized that he did not
know how to estimate timber value. He contacted a farm
forester who inspected the 14 acres and found that some of the
trees were suitable for poles or piling, and that others were suit-
able only for pulpwood. He marked the trees that needed to be
cut, gave the landowner the names of several buyers, and recom-
mended that he get several bids. This was done and the land-
owner received $1050 for the trees he sold and still has a satis-
factory stand that can probably be thinned again in about seven
years.
These illustrations give you some idea of just how much
timber can mean to you. Is your timber doing you any good?
If not, take a good close look at it . and then contact your
Florida Forest Service district forester. His address is at the end







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 43

of this article. He'll be glad to give you professional advice on
your forestry situation.
0. K., you say, tell me about this farm forestry program.
Just what can I, as a small woodland owner, expect to gain from
consulting the Florida Forest Service farm forester?
Started in 1941, the farm forestry program offers free man-
agement assistance to woodland owners. The program is de-
signed to assist and show woodland owners how to manage their
timber to produce a continuous income.
A Florida Forest Service farm forester can spend up to
three days annually with you without charge on your
woodlot, making recommendations as to the time and type of
timber cuttings you should make. Then he'll help select, mark
and measure the timber to be cut and figure your timber volume.
Although the farm forester can't tell you exactly what you
may expect from your timber, he can give you the prevailing
price ranges for your timber; and he'll give you a list of possible
buyers.
Maybe you've got some areas on your farm that aren't pro-
ducing anything. The farm forester will tell you where dlash
pine plantings are needed. Seedlings can be obtained from the
Florida Forest Service nursery at Olustee, Florida, for $4.00 per
thousand. By writing the Florida Forest Service, P.O. Box 1200,
Tallahassee, Florida, you can obtain a copy of the leaflet, "Pine
Planter's Guide," which tells clearly and simply the best way to
handle and plant your seedlings.
Perhaps you have some timber on your woodlot that can
be gum farmed before cutting to obtain the maximum possible
return. After looking over your timber, your farm forester may
recommend a gum farming operation. If so, he will give you
advice and assistance in getting this project started.
Fire is always a big danger. Your farm forester will show you
where fire lines should be plowed around and through yo--r
timberlands, to adequately protect them from wildfire. The
Florida Forest Service will plow fire lines for any landowner, cn
a per hour basis. Price will vary from $6.00 per hour for lines
plowed by light John Deere tractors, to $10.00 per hour for
ines plowed by heavier tractors. Depending upon the terrain,
an average of two miles per hour can be plowed. To encourage







44 D.,DPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

landowners like yourself to have these lines plowed, the Florida
Forest Service will plow the first fifteen minutes without charge.
As you've probably figured by this time, forestry is mighty
big business in Florida. Timber and its by-products rank with
the tourist industry and citrus as the state's three largest sources
of income. The Forest Products industry is valued, conserva-
tively, at approximately 368 million dollars annually!
Sounds like a lot of money, doesn't it? But actually, according
to professional foresters who have studied Florida forestry for
years, the Forest Products industry is producing only about one-
third its potential.
Several generations ago, Florida was thickly covered with tall
stands of virgin timberland. But thousands of acres of this rich
timberland were completely cut over, leaving no trees to re-
produce the barren land. And wildfires were uncontrolled,
sweeping through great areas, destroying at will.
To halt this waste, and to rebuild and protect Florida's vast
forestry potential, the Florida Forest Service was organized in
1928. A program of organized protection against wildfires was
started. This program has been steadily expanded until today
a forest protection network composed of towers, planes, fire sup-
pression tractors and trucks,. and experienced fire fighters stand
guard over approximately 15 million acres of commercial timber-
land in Florida.
A forest management program was begun, to reforest vast
areas left barren and unproductive by careless and wasteful
cutting practices. There are three important phases of this pro-
gram. One phase is the farm forestry program of assistance to
small landowners, which you've been reading about. Another is
the establishment of pine seedling nurseries, where landowner.-
can order seedlings at cost to reforest their timberland. And, to
show model forest management practices, the Florida Fores:
Service operates three state forests, using the latest and best
management techniques to produce the maximum continuous
income.
The Service's information and education program, through
movies, speeches, forestry publications, newspaper and magazine
articles, radio programs, and forestry demonstrations, works con-







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 45

stantly to impress upon the public the value of good forestry
practices, and the danger and waste caused by destructive forest
fires.
Now you know something about the services you, as a Florida
landowner, can obtain from the Florida Forest Service. And you
know something about the agency which offers these services
to you.
You're interested in making those trees of yours play a more
important part in your farm program. What's the first step?
Call or write your nearest district forester. Their addresses follow.
They'll be glad to show you how timber can mean money in the
bank for you.
DISTRICT FORESTERS
District Forester, Florida Forest Service, P.O. Box 188,
Panama City.
District Forester, Florida Forest Service, 1214 Tower Drive,
Tallahassee.
District Forester, Florida Forest Service, P.O. Box 243,
Lake City.
District Forester, Florida Forest Service, P.O. Box 521,
Ocala.
District Forester, Florida Forest Service, P.O. Box 2067,
Lakeland.
Remember, there's always a ready market for timber har-
vested from your farm woodlot. More than 700 forest products
industries are in Florida, with a steadily growing demand for
more and more raw material.
And they're depending, to a big extent, upon small farmers
like yourself to supply them with that timber.

FLORIDA FRUIT AND VEGETABLE
ASSOCIATION
The Florida Fruit & Vegetable Association is a non-profit
agricultural trade association operating under the cooperative
laws of Florida and was organized in 1942. It is the only Florida
organization with a trained staff working solely on the industrial
problems of the tropical fruit and vegetable growers of the State.
The Association, known generally as FFVA, handles the
problems of these growers at local, state, national and inter-







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


national levels. Its functions and services include work on legis-
lative problems, competition, marketing, manpower require-
ments, insurance, traffic and research, on both an individual and
industry wide basis.
FFVA has six service divisions in addition to its business of-
fice and executive personnel. Headquarters of the organization
are at 4401 E. Colonial Drive, Orlando, Florida, in its own
modern air-conditioned, all-masonry building covering 6,400
square feet. There are four field offices throughout the State
and field service from the main office is maintained.
The Association is governed by a twenty-five man Board of
Directors who represent all segments of the industry.
Activities are financed by dues from the membership, as-
sessed on the basis of packages of produce sold and special
services rendered.
There are three groups of memberships grower-members,
shipper-members, and associate-members. Indirectly, FFVA
serves all tropical fruit and vegetable growers in Florida, in ad-
dition to direct personal service to its members.

HOW TO GET INFORMATION
FROM THE USDA
LISTED HERE are the people who do information work
for the USDA Office of Information and those who head up
such work in the various agencies of the Department. In seeking
information on the subject matter in which you might be in-
terested, write to the person who is directly in charge.
If you have questions that may pertain to subjects not
particularly classified below, write to the Office of Information,
U. S. Department of Agriculture. In all cases, address the person
you want by name and title, the name of the agency, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D.C.
USDA OFFICE OF INFORMATION
This office is a staff agency of the Office of the Secretary.
This office directs and coordinates information work with the
various agencies of the Department and reviews all information
operations with a view to most effective and efficient operation
and production.







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS


R. Lyle Webster, Director in Information
Harold R. Lewis, assistant director (Current Information)
Harry P. Clark, acting chief, Press Service
Stanley H. Gaines, editor, USDA Farm Paper Letter
Helen Crouch Douglass, editor, Food and Home Notes
Harry P. Mileham, chief, Division of Publications
James H. McCormick, assistant director, (Visual Information)
Layne Beaty, chief, Radio and Television Service
Harris T. Baldwin, chief, Exhibits Service
Walter K. Scott, chief, Motion Picture Service
Charles T. Myers, Jr., chief, Photographic Service
FEDERAL-STATES RELATIONS
AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM SER-
VICE Shares with farmers the cost of carrying out certain
soil and water conservation practices. Administered locally by
elected county and community farmer-committeemen.
Milton Mangum, information officer
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE--Conducts
basic and applied research on the production and utilization of
plants and animals and administers control and regulatory pro-
grams having to do with plant and animal quarantines, meat
inspection, control of diseases and insect pests of animals and
plants. Also conducts studies on methods of managing soil,
water, machinery, buildings, and other farm resources to find
more efficient use of crop and range lands.
Ernest G. Moore, director, Information Division
L. E. Childers, chief, Current Information Branch
J. Kendall McClarren, chief, Program and Special Services
Branch
David G. Hall, chief, Publications Branch
FARMER COOPERATIVE SERVICE--Does research,
educational, and service work for farmers who belong to agri-
cultural marketing, purchasing, and service cooperatives.
Beryle E. Stanton, active director, Division of Information
FEDERAL EXTENSION SERVICE--Has primary re-
sponsibility for and leadership in USDA educational programs







ULYAK1MrN~hI UI AXkJt1UUUL1U1SPr


and coordination of all educational activities of the Department.
Lester A. Schlup, director, Division of Information Programs
Ralph M. Fulghum, assistant director
FOREST SERVICE Responsible for managing the Na-
tional forests, cooperating with the states and private forest
land owners in carrying out better forestry practices, and doing
forest and related range research.
Clint Davis, chief, Division of Information and Education
Charles E. Randall, in charge of Special Reports
William B. Huber, cooperative forest fire
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE Provides technical
help to farmers and ranchers and administers the Department's
upstream flood-prevention and watershed-protection programs.
D. Harper Simms, director, Information Division
F. Glennon Loyd, assistant director
MARKETING AND FOREIGN AGRICULTURE
AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE Respon-
sible for marketing research, outlook, and related statistical and
economic research; crop and livestock estimates; marketing serv-
ices, including market news, standardization, grading, inspection
and classing of farm products; freight rate services; marketing
regulatory programs, marketing agreements and orders; surplus
removal, export and diversion programs; and the National School
Lunch Program.
Franklin Thackrey, director, Marketing Information Division
Bert Johnson, chief, Marketing Research and Statistical Programs
Branch
Walter W. John, chief, Marketing Programs Branch
COMMODITY EXCHANGE AUTHORITY-Maintains
fair trading practices and competitive pricing on commodity
exchanges through supervision of futures trading; prevents ex-
cessive speculation and market manipulation.
R. Corbin Dorsey, Trading and Reports Division
FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE Promotes the
export of American farm products, protects domestic agricultural
markets from unfair foreign competition, and serves as a basic







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 49

source of information to American agriculture on world markets.
Kenneth W. Olson, director, Foreign Market Information
Branch
Wilbert Schaal, assistant director
AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION
COMMODITY STABILIZATION SERVICE (Includes
information service for CCC and Agricultural Stabilization and
Conservation Committees) Responsible for production adjust-
ment activities including acreage allotments and farm marketing
quotas; the stabilization of sugar production; price support,
foreign supply, commodity disposal, and other assigned programs
of CCC; for administering the International Wheat Agreement;
for procurement, handling payment, and related services on as-
signed purchase and export programs; drought emergency feed
programs; and for certain defense food activities.
James B. Hasselman, director, Information Division
Peter H. DeVries, assistant director for Price Support
Willard Lamphere, assistant director for Production Adjustment
FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION--
Administers the Federal Crop insurance program which insures
farmers against losses from unavoidable causes, such as weather,
insects and plant diseases.
E. H. Nikkel, director, Sales and Servicing Division
AGRICULTURAL CREDIT
FARMERS HOME ADMINISTRATION-- Makes pro-
duction and subsistence loans, special livestock loans, water
facility loans, farm purchase and improvement loans, insured
mortgage loans, farm housing loans, and emergency loans.
Philip S. Brown, director, Information Staff
RURAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION -
Makes loans to cooperatives, public utility districts, municipalities
and other nonprofit organizations to bring electric power and
telephone service to rural areas.
Kermit Overby, chief, Information Services Division
Robert H. Ingram, assistant chief







50 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

WEATHER BUREAU AND THE FARMER
Ever since man began tilling the soil he has had to cope
with the vicissitudes of the weather. For hundreds of years before
there was any organized weather service people had rules and
proverbs to help them understand and predict the weather.
In July 1891 the Weather Bureau was established and one
of its primary functions was to furnish weather information for
agriculture. The Weather Bureau now serves the farmer in
several ways: (1) By supplying appropriate climatological in-
formation, it enables him to select a farm site suitable to the crop
or crops he may wish to grow. (2) Through the many local
offices of the Weather Bureau, operational weather forecasts
and warnings are issued. These are disseminated through press
and radio, thus enabling the farmer to plan his activities to take
the best advantage of weather changes. (3) Reports issued
weekly on the weather and its effects on crops, throughout the
state are available to the farmer.
(4) Daily records of temperature extremes and 24-hour
rainfall amounts for more than a hundred observation sites over
the state are published monthly in a pamphlet entitled Climato-
logical Data. These pamphlets are available at a nominal cost
of $2.50 per year.
(5) The Weather Bureau, in cooperation with the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, operates a special Horticultural
Protection Service, headquartered in Lakeland, Fla. During the
winter months Field Meteorologists are stationed at about 10
strategic locations over Peninsular Florida for forecast dissemina-
tion work and consultive service on frost protection methods.
Twice daily, specialized forecasts are issued from the Lakeland
office and given widespread distribution by press and radio.
Some comments and statistics on Florida climate which
should be of interest to Florida farmers follow:
COMMENTS ON FLORIDA CLIMATE
Florida is the most southerly state in the union. The sandy
beaches along its 3,751 miles of indented coastline are bathed
by waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. No
point in the state is farther than about 60 miles from these
waters. Inland areas are generally level, although a series of low







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 51

rolling hills, extending roughly north and south through the
middle of the peninsula, form a divide from which numerous
streams, perpetuated by countless natural springs, wind their
ways seaward. The highest elevation in the state is 345 feet above
sea level. The state's 3,500 classified inland lakes comprise a
water area of more than 4,000 square miles.
The climate of Florida is insular and sub-tropical. The
chief factors of its control are (a) latitude, (b) proximity to the
Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, (c) inland lakes, (d)
convectional thundershowers. Coastal areas are slightly warmer in
winter and cooler in summer with less variation between day and
night temperatures than inland areas of the same latitude, al-
though afternoon thundershowers in summer temper the inland
climate. The favored climate along the coast results from the
effect of "land and sea breezes", which is felt almost daily with-
in 4 or 5 miles of the coast and is experienced occasionally at
distances more than 30 miles inland.
Mean temperatures average about the same throughout the
state in summer, but in winter temperatures average about 11
colder in north portion than in south portion. Differences be-
tween temperature extremes are more pronounced in north than
in south portion, and are greater at inland points than along
the coast. Although the average minimum temperature for the
coldest months over south Florida is about 50, an occasional
cold wave of the more severe type brings temperatures ranging
from 10 to 20 over north portion and freezing or below
to the southern limits of the peninsula. These cold waves are of
short duration, usually lasting only two or three days, and even
during such cold spells it is extremely rare when the temperature
remains below freezing throughout the day any place in the
state. Cold waves of this type are rare and many winters--
sometimes several in succession pass without freezing tempera-
tures in south Florida. Summer climate in Florida, tempered
by sea breezes along the shore and by thundershowers inland,
is usually pleasant. Temperatures in excess of 100 are rare in
north portion, exceedingly rare in central portion, and practically
unknown in south portion.
About 53 percent of the state's average annual rainfall of
53.46 inches occurs during the four months period, June through







52 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

September. November is the driest month with an average of
2.23 inches, and July is the wettest with an average of 7.46
inches. Most of the summer rain comes in the form of cooling
thundershowers. Showers are often heavy but usually last only
an hour or two, and, on the average, occur on about half the
days at any given station.
Snowfall in Florida is rare, though measurable amounts have
fallen in extreme northern sections during 8 of the last 60 years,
and a trace of snow is recorded as far south as Ft. Myers. The
greatest snowfall in Florida occurred in February 1899 when as
much as 4.0 inches was recorded in Union County.
The prevailing wind direction over south and coastal areas
of central portion is from the southeast and east. In northeast
portions the prevailing direction is northeast in winter and south-
west in summer. Over the remainder of the state wind directions
are influenced locally by strong convectional forces inland and
"land and sea breeze" effect near the shore. Consequently pre-
vailing directions are somewhat erratic, but, in general, follow a
pattern of northerly in winter and southerly in summer.
High local winds of short duration occur occasionally during
all seasons of the year in connection with thunderstorms. Tor-
nadoes and waterspouts also occur, averaging about 9 or 10 per
year. However, tornado paths in Florida average only about one-
thirteenth that of the nation-wide' average in area extent. They
usually remain in contact with the ground only a very short
period and cause little damage. Tropical storms produce the
principal winds of high velocity. They are often destructive, one
reason being that they may persist for several hours during the
passage of a hurricane. The hurricane season extends (officially)
from June 15 to November 15. September and October are the
months of greatest hurricane activity. One of these storms, on
the average, reaches the state annually. However, high winds are
usually confined to paths averaging only 40 to 100 miles wide
and while every section of the state has at one time or another
fallen under the influence of a tropical storm, an" given section
may -see many years pass without such a visitation. The state
is rather erroneously associated with the danger of hurricanes,
chiefly for two reasons: (1) it is nearer the place of origin and
the path of progression of tropical storms, and (2) the length







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 53

of its coastline is many times greater than that of other states.
The paths followed by storms in the past indicate that per
square mile the danger of a hurricane is not much greater in
Florida than in other coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico and
the north Atlantic Ocean.
The climate of Florida is humid as evidenced by its luxuriant
vegetation. Inland areas with greater extremes in temperature
enjoy slightly lower relative humidities than coastal areas es-
pecially during hot weather, but on the average variations in
humidity from one place to another in the state are almost
negligible. Relative humidity ranges from an average of 85-
90% during the night and early morning to about 55-60%
during the afternoon. Heavy fogs are usually confined to early
morning hours during winter months. They occur on an average
about 35-40 days per year over extreme north portion, 25-30
days in central portion, and range downward to less than 10 in
extreme south portion.
Sunshine is perhaps the most sought after element of climate
for health and recreation. The sun shines in Florida 66% of the
time that sunlight is possible. Its abundance in winter and
spring, when clouds normally curtain much of the country, con-
tributes greatly to the popularity of the state as a winter resort.


UNITED STATES SOIL CONSERVATION
SERVICE
Soil Conservation work began in the State of Florida in
1934. In 1935, the Soil Conservation Service became a bureau
in the United States Department of Agriculture, by an act of
Congress known as Public Law #46. It gave the bureau the
task of helping farmers of the nation conserve their soil and
water resources. Work during the first few years of operation
was confined to small watershed areas known as "Demonstation
Projects." CCC Camps and relief labor were used to install
conservation practices.
The Florida Legislature passed a Soil Conservation District
Act in 1937. At the present time there are fifty-nine districts
covering 62 counties in the State.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


The Soil Conservation District is a local unit of government
that operates under State law. It is set up and supervised by
five land-owning farmers who live in the district.
Soil Conservation Service workers assist farmers in Soil Con-
servation Districts in these ways:
1. They make an inventory of the soil resources on the
farm. A soil scientist makes a soil survey on an aerial photo-
graph. This shows the farmer the kinds of soil, the slope of the
land, and the amount of erosion on his farm. It also shows the
present use of the land.
2. They help the farmer prepare a conservation farm plan.
This plan shows how to use each acre of land to get the best
return. It also shows what each acre needs to keep it from eroding
and to make it more productive.
3. They help the farmer put on the land the soil conserva-
tion practices it needs. They show him how to maintain erosion
control structures. They help him to manage the soil conserving
crops so that they are improved from year to year.
Some of the practices used by farmers with which they receive
assistance from Soil Conservation Service technicians include
conservation crop rotation, terracing and terrace outlets and
waterways, drainage, irrigation, pasture development and man-
agement, tree planting, woodland management, farm ponds, and
wildlife plantings.
Farmers in any Soil Conservation District can secure techni-
cal help by applying to any member of the Board of District
Supervisors or Soil Conservation Service technician.

ACTIVITIES OF THE FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND
CONSERVATION STATE AND COUNTY
COMMITTEES
The State and county committees were originally organized
under the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. They con-
tinued under a reorganization order as the Production and Mar-
keting Administration. In 1953 the Department of Agriculture







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 55

reorganized to create the Commodity Stabilization Service under
which the committees now function as ASC State and County
Committees.
The State committee is composed of four members, one of
which is the Director of the Agricultural Extension Service and
he is under continuous appointment. The other three members
are appointed annually by the Secretary of Agriculture.
County committees consist of three members and two al-
ternates who are elected annually by the farmers in each of 65
counties in the State. Because of the limited agriculture in
Monroe and Franklin Counties, there are no county committees
in these two counties.
Both State and county committees are policy-determining
bodies and meet generally once a month or oftener, depending
on the volume of work to be handled. The State committee
operates through a State administrative officer and his staff.
The county committee operates through a county office man-
ager and his staff. Farmer fieldmen, under the supervision of
the State Administrative Officer, direct the work of county office
managers and work as liaison representatives between State and
county committees.
The various programs of the United States Department of
Agriculture together with a brief description of each program
handled through county committees and county office managers
who make direct contacts with farmers, are as follows:
1. Agricultural Conservation Federal cost-shares at rates
of approximately 50 percent of the cost of carrying out approved
conservation practices on the farm are paid to farmers each
year through this program. Requests, approvals, reports, and ap-
plications for payment are handled through the county office.
The program is voluntary and about ten thousand or more
Florida farms are serviced annually.
2. Allotments and Marketing Quotas The crops of cotton,
wheat, rice, peanuts, and tobacco have been, or, are now under
allotments and marketing quotas. Allotments established for these
crops are based on acreage history for each farm. Notices are
sent to each farmer of his acreage allotment. Planted and/or
harvested acreage is determined and marketing cards are issued.
The marketing quota is the production from the allotted acre-







56 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


age. Penalties are assessed where the planted or harvested acre-
age exceeds the allotment. Public laws govern participation and
about twenty thousand farms each year in Florida are affected.
3. National Wool Act -Wool is a minor product in Flor-
ida but about one hundred farms will receive incentive pay-
ments under the National Wool Act. Applications for payment
are processed through the county office and are based on the
number of pounds and quality of the wool produced.
4. Price Supports through Commodity Loans -A farmer
who complies with marketing quota programs is entitled to price
support on the crops grown. In addition to allotment crops,
price support is offered for crops of corn, cottonseed, soybeans,
honey, tung oil, oats, and grain sorghums. The Commodity
Credit Corporation authorizes State and county committees to
process loan papers for these crops. Approximately fifteen hun-
dred farms are serviced annually under this program.
5. Storage and Facility Loans Storage space and proper
handling equipment for farm crops in plentiful supply has been
short for a number of years. Loans are available from vear to
year to finance movable storage bins and drying equipment.
Approximately five hundred loans have been made to Florida
farmers under this program.
6. Sugar Act --The Sugar Act provides for payments to
cane producers in the United States Mainland. There are 29
cane producers in Florida located in Glades, Hendry, Indian
River, and Palm Beach Counties. The ASC office in these
counties handles the work in connection with the establishment
of proportionate shares, determining performance, and proc-
essing applications for payment under this program.
In addition to these programs, county ASC committees
handle special programs assigned to them by the Commodity
Stabilization Service. It may be said in general that county
committees in Florida have contact with fifty thousand farms
each year under one or more of the programs administered by
them.

NURSERYMEN AND GROWERS ASSOCIATION
The Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association is an
organization of Florida nurserymen united in an effort to pro-







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS


mote the general welfare of the nursery industry of Florida,
thereby establishing the industry on a higher plane, both for the
benefit of the plant purchasing public and the nurserymen
themselves.
The F.N.G.A., since its origination in 1952, has grown from
a bare 100 members to almost 800 members, thereby establishing
it as the second largest State Nurserymen's Association in the
entire nation, not only in numbers, but accomplishments as
well.
The Association is endeavoring to provide a central clearing
house for the solution of horticultural problems, as well as other
problems pertaining to the nursery industry; establish a standard
system of grading for our tropical and sub-tropical material to
protect our customers; collaborate with colleges in horticultural
research; to promote state and national legislation favorable to
both nurserymen and the public; to educate the public in the
value and the benefits of nursery products; to encourage the
use of decorative foliage plants both indoors and out, and to
promote Chrysanthemums, as cut flowers over the nation.
The Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association holds two
major meetings each year the Convention in the spring and
the Trade Show in the fall. The Convention handles the main
yearly business of the Association and is an extremely valuable
time to make contacts and renew old friendships. The Trade
Show provides an outstanding outlet for surplus stock and, in
addition, is a place to locate and price the plant material needed
for the coming season. The F.N.G.A. members exhibit their
plant material in booths on the premises of the hotel head-







58 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

A Newsletter is published monthly in order to keep
membership posted on latest developments and happenings ,
in the industry and other items of importance to Nurseryr
The Newsletter also provides valuable suggestions and co
butions to the members on legislature, tax, social security
many other related problems.
The F.N.G.A. is made up of ten chapters, located about
state. These Chapters hold monthly meetings, thereby provi
a medium for educational, business and social entertainer
the area members. Each Chapter elects a representative
serves as a member of the F.N.G.A. Board, along with a p
dent, vice-president, secretary-treasurer and six directors-at-1
who represent those members not within a chapter area.
Division of the Association into chapters has provide
excellent method of uniting the nurserymen from the vai
concentrated sections of such a large state in solving mt
problems and undesirable conditions.
Membership is limited to persons professionally engage
the ornamental nursery or plant industry or related purse
The following types of membership are recognized: ACT
MEMBERSHIP, open to one person for each nursery, I
corporation or entity located in Florida who shall have the rI
and privileges of the Association, including voting and o
holding rights; ALLIED MEMBERSHIP, open to all pei
whose business is allied to, but not directly connected with
nursery business. Includes all rights and privileges of a
members, except right to vote and hold office; ASSOCI,
MEMBERSHIP is open to all persons professionally eng
in the nursery industry outside the state of Florida, also
ployees or partners of active and allied members.
The Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association has
instrumental in maintaining the status of farmer for Fle
nurserymen which has provided many concessions, most
portant of which is sales tax exemptions on many items re!
to agriculture.
The F.N.G.A. was directly responsible for the appropri;
of $75,000 by the state legislature for the hiring of two
ornamental specialists who are working directly with the i







REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 59


rcial nurserymen of Florida and one person who devotes half
e to the problems of ornamentals.
The Association spearheaded a campaign to encourage the
action of express rates on plant material shipped out of state
ch was outstandingly successful.
The Organization has cooperated most successfully with
ly concerns on equipment research, thereby providing im-
/ed and new tools beneficial to the industry. The F.N.G.A.
worked diligently with federal authorities for the purpose of
osing import quarantines that have been most important in
venting the introduction of new insects and diseases.
The frequent and congenial meetings of the nurserymen
e set an all time high for improved industry relations; close
)eration with the State Plant Board and the University of
*ida has benefited all three groups outstandingly, and as a
nber of the Florida Agricultural Council, the F.N.G.A. is
d with the strongest agricultural interests of the state.
Next to his credit and bank account, a nurseryman's most
able asset is his trade association.
FLORIDA STATE MARKETING BUREAU
This bureau maintains its principal office in Jacksonville.
duties of this bureau consist of receiving and compiling
irts on all fruits, vegetables and other farm products as are
vn in this state, and to do other things that will aid in the
keting and distribution of Florida's products.
In carrying out these duties the bureau maintains a corps
specialists in various fields who report on crop and livestock
litions. It makes reports on receipts and sales of the various
modities which reports are carried in the press of the State
are made available at the various markets of the State to the
:rs and producers of farm products.
rhese market reports cover a wide field of which the more
)rtant are Livestock, Poultry and Eggs, Citrus and Vege-
es. There are 33 Florida points given markets news coverage.
n addition to the above duties it also edits and publishes
ni-monthly bulletin "For Sale Want and Exchange." This
etin is mailed without charge to interested subscribers and







___ DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


carries a very large number of classified advertisements I
producers of farm products at no cost.
The Florida State Marketing Bureau publishes a bier
report which may be secured from its office at 505 West Ad
St., Jacksonville, Fla. Neill Rhodes is Commissioner.
The Bureau also has published and distributed a nur
of farm bulletins and booklets. It has continuously worked
better marketing procedures and has helped put on consu
education programs. Has provided help in claims under vai
acts and through contact by marketing specialists, through i
ket reports, through daily press and radio releases and three
thousands of letters, probably no other agency has serve
greater number of agriculturists.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
The program of the College of Agriculture covers many f
and is so broad that it can serve the needs and interest of
dents from many walks of life. A background of country
with farming experience is desirable for students who pla
enter this college, but is not essential.
Major fields of study are Agricultural Chemistry, Agr
tural Economics, Agricultural Education, Agricultural Engir
ing, Agronomy, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, Bacteriol
Botany, Dairy Science, Entomology, Horticulture, Poultry I
bandry, Soils, and Veterinary Science. The student may rec
specialized training for technical positions in any of these fi
or he may broaden his program to provide for more general
training in several fields.
Field trips are arranged in connection with many coi
in order to permit the student to visit outstanding farms
various related commercial enterprises throughout the stat
The College of Agriculture is closely associated with
Agricultural Experiment Station and the Agricultural Exten
Service, the three being headed by a Provost of Agriculture
CURRICULA AND DEGREES
A B.S. in Agriculture is awarded for completion (68 h
of work in the Upper Division) of any of the following curric







READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 61

Agricultural Chemistry; Agricultural Economics; Agricul-
i1 Education; Agricultural Engineering; Agronomy; Animal
ibandry and Nutrition; Bacteriology; Botany (majoring in
any or Plant Pathology); Dairy Science (majoring in Dairy
sbandry or Dairy Manufactures); Entomology; General Agri-
ure; Horticulture (majoring in Citrus Production, Vegetable
duction, Floriculture, Ornamental Horticulture, Food Tech-
)gy, or Landscape Nursery Work); Poultry Husbandry;
s (majoring in Soil Fertility and Management, Soil Chem-
i and Microbiology, or Soil Surveying).
PRACTICAL TRAINING
Under an arrangement with the Citrus Experiment Station,
e Alfred, a limited number of graduates may obtain practical
ning for positions in the citrus industry. Trainees are paid a
iinal wage as laboratory and field assistants at the Station,
during the two-year period obtain experience in both pro-
tion and processing.
ADVANCED DEGREES
Through the Graduate School, the student may obtain a
ster of Agriculture (majoring in any field) or a Master of
:nce in Agriculture (majoring in Agricultural Economics,
cultural Education, Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy,
mal Husbandry and Nutrition, Bacteriology, Botany, Dairy
nce, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Poultry
ibandry, Soils, or Veterinary Science).
The Doctor of Philosophy is awarded, with major studies
Agricultural Economics, Agronomy, Animal Husbandry and
rition, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, or Soils.








62 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


1954 AGRICULTURAL CENSUS

'INTRODUCTION

This 1954 Census of Agriculture for the State of Florida
obtained by the enumeration of the farms, farm operators, speci
facilities and equipment, expenditures, number of livestock, acres
and quantity of specified crops harvested, and other agricult
information. The figures were compiled by the Bureau of
Census, U. S. Department of Commerce.
Item
FARMS, ACREAGE, AND VALUE State 1
Farms ................................... .............number 1954........ 57
Approximate land area....--........................acres 1954 ........ 34,727
Proportion in farms................................percent 1954--........
Land in farms.............................................. acres 1954 ........ 18,166
Average size of farm................................acres 1954........ 3
Value of land and buildings..avg. per farm, dollars 1954........ 28
average per acre, dollars 1954........ 11
Land in farms according to use:
Cropland harvested..................farms reporting 1954 ........ 44
acres 1954........ 1,937
1 to 9 acres........................ farms reporting 1954........ 17
10 to 19 acres.................... farms reporting 1954........ 7
20 to 29 acres-.................. farms reporting 1954..... 4
30 to 49 acres................ farms reporting 1954........ 5
50 to 99 acres....................farms reporting 1954........ 5
100 to 199 acres..................farms reporting 1954 --...... 2
200 acres and over..............farms reporting 1954.....-- 1
Cropland used only
for pasture ...................farms reporting 1954........ 13
acres 1954........ 876
Cropland not harvested and
not pastured .....................farms reporting 1954........ 15
acres 1954........ 585
Woodland pastured --.........--.... farms reporting 1954 ........ 16
acres 1954 ....... 7,141
Woodland not pastured............farms reporting 1954 ....... 14
acres 1954........ 1,977
Other pasture (not cropland and
not woodland) .................farms reporting 1954 ........ 13
acres 1954 ....... 4,641
Improved pasture ...... ........ farms reporting 1954 ........ 8
acres 1954 ........ 1,061.
Other land (house lots, roads,
wasteland, etc.) ............... farms reporting 1954........ 44.
acres 1954........ 1,006.
Irrigated land in farms............farms reporting 1954 ........ 5
acres 1954........ 428,
Land in cover crops turned under
for green manure................farms reporting 1954-..... 4.
acres 1954 ........ 183.








REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS


rAIKM UVrK.A 1 U1Kj
g on farm operated........operators reporting 1954........ 45,904
ding on farm operated..operators reporting 1954........ 10,605
other income of family exceeding
e of agricultural
lucts sold ....................operators reporting 1954........ 28,733
g off their farm, total..operators reporting 1954........ 29,530,
) days or more ............operators reporting 1954........ 23,737
FARMS BY SIZE
10 acres-----------.................--.......................number 1954........ 10,453
Jnder 3 acres..................................number 1954........ 2,140
3 to 9 acres..................................number 1954 ........ 8,313
29 acres........................................ number 1954........ 13,733
49 acres ........................................ number 1954 ........ 7,833
69 acres.........................--............ number 1954 ........ 3,721
99 acres....................................... number 1954........ 4,946
139 acres...--.----------..............................-------number 1954....._ 3,846
* 179 acres........................................ num ber 1954 ........ 2,930
219 acres................................. ------- -number 1954 ..... 1,768
259 acres------......................... number 1954 ........ 1,219
499 acres...................................-------------------....number 1954 .....-- 3,182
999 acres..............................-------- number 1954 ..... 1,840
cres and over----...................................number 1954 ........ 2,072
S BY COLOR AND TENURE OF OPERATOR
iy color of operator:
te operators .................................... number 1954........ 51,458
white operators ................................number 1954 ........ 6,085
ly tenure of operator:
owners ............................................ number 1954...... 45,464
owners ................ ----........................number 1954 ........ 6,533
agers ....................................----------------.. number 1954...... 883
tenants ...............--- -----................ ..number 1954 ........ 4,663
Proportion of tenancy ............percent 1954........ 8.1
'ash tenants ....................................number 1954 ....... 1,618
5hare-cash tenants .......................----.....number 1954 ........ 110
Ihare tenants ....................................number 1954........ 618
Crop-share tenants ....................number 1954........ 537
Livestock-share tenants ............number 1954-..... 81
opers ..................................---------------------....----..number 1954 ........ 862
!r and unspecified tenants................number 1954 ........ 1,455

ECIFIED FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT
ne ...................................-----------farms reporting 1954........ 20,690
ty .------.................................. farms reporting 1954........ 50,052
)n set ...---... ................. farms reporting 1954 ........ 13,477
running water------....................farms reporting 1954 ....... 41,561
-eezer----................................. ------ farms reporting 1954........ 16,612
pig brooder-.........-----.....--.....--farms reporting 1954........ 246
eed grinder .......................... farms reporting 1954 ........ 1,361
machine.............................--------farms reporting 1954 ....... 1,161
ombines.....--------.........................- farms reporting 1954........ 842
number 1954........ 944
ickers---------..........................------ farms reporting 1954-..... 910
number 1954...... 929
hay balers........................--------farms reporting 1954........ 533
number 1954........ 533









64 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Field forage harvesters.................farms reporting 1954........
number 1954........
Artificial ponds, reservoirs,
and earth tanks......................farms reporting 1954........
number 1954 ........
Motortrucks ........... .................. farms reporting 1954........ 21
number 1954 ........ 3
Tractors ..............................-- farms reporting 1954........ 2'.
number 1954 ........ 3-
Wheel tractors other
than garden...................... farms reporting 1954........ 21
number 1954........ 2!
Garden tractors .........................farms reporting 1954 ......
number 1954........
Crawler tractors .....................farms reporting 1954 ....
number 1954.......
Automobiles .................................farms reporting 1954 ........ 3-
number 1954 ........ 41
Farms by class of work power:
No tractor, horses, or mules....farms reporting 1954 ........ 2
No tractor and
only 1 horse or mule............farms reporting 1954 ........ I
No tractor and 2 or more
horses and/or mules............farms reporting 1954 .......
Tractor and horses
and/or mules ...................farms reporting 1954 ....... I
Tractor and no
horses or mules.............. farms reporting 1954........ 1;
FARM LABOR '
Week of Sept. 26-Oct 2:
Family and/or hired workers....farms reporting 1954........ 4;
persons 1954 ---..... 10!
Family workers,
including operator ........farms reporting 1954........ 4'
Operators --------------.................................. persons 1954 ........ 4
Unpaid members of
operator's family............farms reporting 1954 ....... 1
persons 1954........ 1!
Hired workers....................farms reporting 1954.....-- 11
persons 1954 ........ 4(

SPECIFIED FARM EXPENDITURES
Specified farm expenditures..........farms reporting 1954..... 5(
Machine hire and/or
hired labor .......................farms reporting 1954........ 3!
Machine hire..-.....................farms reporting 1954....... 2
dollars 1954 -.......- 12,75-
Hired labor....................farms reporting 1954....... 25
dollars 1954 ...... 85,671
Feed for livestock and poultry..farms reporting 1954........ 3;
dollars 1954 ........ 46,43-
Gasoline and other petroleum
fuel and oil .....................farms reporting 1954........ 3(
dollars 1954........ 15,12,
Commercial fertilizer........ ..farms reporting 1954 ........ 4
dollars 1954........ 51,43<
tons 1954 ....... 1,05f









READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 65


acres on which used 1954-------....... 2,322,212
Lime and liming materials......farms reporting 1954........ 7,483
tons 1954-..-...... 364,221
dollars 1954 ........ 2,887,579
acres limed 1954 ..-..... 461,768
is on which commercial fertilizer was used, 1954:
lay and cropland pastured..............farms reporting ........ 3,383
tons........ 42,158
acres on which used ..--...... 220,154
theirr pasture ....................................farms reporting ........ 5,224
tons........ 95,825
acres on which used........ 580,176
,orn .................................................... farm s reporting ........ 12,454
tons........ 60,592
acres on which used........ 373,666
cotton ................................-----------.... farms reporting ....... 5,396
tons........ 10,559
acres on which used........ 34,146
'ruits, vegetables, potatoes, etc .........farms reporting........ 28,122
tons........ 769,211
acres on. which used ...... 902,657
theirr crops .--........................------------------..........farms reporting........ 11,638
tons........ 77,940
acres on which used........ 212,105
FARMS BY TYPE OF FARM
[-crop farms other than
vegetable and fruit-and-nut.................. number 1954........ 7,153
Cash-grain .................---- .......................number 1954........ 294
Cotton ...............................--------------------............ number 1954........ 1,287
Other field-crop ............................number 1954 ........ 5,572
*table farms-..----------....... -------.......--......... number 1954........ 3,085
:-and-nut farms...................................... ---------- number 1954........ 11,163
y farms --- ------------................... .......................number 1954 ..... 946
try farms...........-------............ --........... number 1954........ 1,890
stock farms other than
airy and poultry------................................-----number 1954..... 4,134
-_ 1 .----__.. l-- A 0 -nn


Primarily crop............--.......................--
3rimarily livestock. .....................
Crop and livestock...........................
:ellaneous and unclassified farms........
FARMS BY ECONOMIC C]
imercial farms ........................................
,lass I (value of products sold,
$25,000 or more) .............................
,lass II (value of products sold,
$10,000-$24,999) ..........---.........
,lass III (value of products sold,
$5,000-$9,999) ................................
,lass IV (value of products sold,
$2,500-$4,999) ................................
'lass V (value of products sold,
$1,200-$2,499) .................... ......


.number 1954........ 1,141
.number 1954........ 13
.number 1954-..... 1,046
.number 1954 ........ 26,939
LASS
.number 1954........ 32,122

.number 1954 ........ 3,196

.number 1954....... 4,188

.number 1954-..... 5,705

.number 1954 ........ 7,587

.number 1954.....-- 7,695

.number 1954........ 3,750









66 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Other farms ...................
Part-time ..............
Residential (with less
of products sold)
Abnormal (public and
institutional farms
HORSES
Horses and/or mules..........


..................number 1954...
..................number 1954-..
$250 value
..................number 1954..
e
)................number 1954..
) MULES
....farms reporting 1954..
number 1954..
R.Y PRODUCTS
....farms reporting 1954..


Cows, including heaters
that have calved...............farms reporting 1954........
number 1954........


25
9

15




17
34


Heifers and heifer calves.

Steers, bulls, and steer cal

Whole milk sold................


Cream sold. ......


11


a pigs...................


Born since June 1..............

Sows and gilts farrowing..........

June 1 to December 1......

Average date of enumeration..

POULTRY AND POI
Chickens, 4 months old and o
on hand ........................ .....


....tarms reporting lY3 ........ It
number 1954........ 162
....farms reporting 1954........ 23
number 1954........ 39C
....farms reporting 1954........ 21
number 1954........ 353
....farms reporting 1954........ 1
gallons 1954 ........ 80,113
dollars 1954 ........ 48,267
....farms reporting 1954........
)unds of butterfat 1954 ........ 14
dollars 1954--........ 85
S
....farms reporting 1954........ 19
number 1954........ 419
....farms reporting 1954 ........ 17
number 1954........ 211
....farms reporting 1954 ........ 12
number 1954........ 207
....farms reporting 1954........ 13
number 1954........ 73
....farms reporting 1954 ......
number 1954--........ 33
................................ 1954 ........ 11/7-1


.TRY PRODUCTS
2r,


number i3t ........ ,
Broilers sold................................farms reporting 1954 ........
number 1954 ........ 8,11
dollars 1954........ 5,661
Hens, roosters, pullets, etc.........farms reporting 1954.......
number 1954 ........ 1,27'
dollars 1954....... 1,14
Chicken eggs sold....................... farms reporting 1954........
dozens 1954........ 25,44:


__








READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 67


Turkeys raised ..............................farms reporting 1954........ 3,057
number 1954........ 175,885
Light breeds .........................farms reporting 1954........ 1,026
number 1954........ 79,779
Heavy breeds ............... .......farms reporting 1954........ 838
number 1954........ 96,106
Turkeys kept for breeding ............farms reporting 1954........ 1,840
number 1954 ........ 14,086
Light breeds......................-------farms reporting 1954........ 1,026
number 1954 .....-- 5,879
Heavy breeds......................... farms reporting 1954 ........ 838
number 1954........ 8,207
ANIMALS SOLD ALIVE
Cattle, hogs, sheep, horses, or
mules sold alive...................farms reporting 1954........ 23,073
dollars 1954........ 46,555,623
Cattle and/or calves sold alive-farms reporting 1954........ 15,945
number 1954 ........ 659,597
Cattle sold alive,
excluding calves............farms reporting 1954 ........ 12,011
number 1954 ....... 331,467
dollars 1954........ 27,313,278
Calves sold alive .......... farms reporting 1954 ..... 12,248
number 1954........ 328,130
dollars 1954........ 10,138,243
Hogs and pigs sold alive............farms reporting 1954........ 13,423
number 1954........ 324,702
dollars 1954 --........ 8,941,113
Horses and mules sold alive....farms reporting 1954 ........ 528
number 1954 ........ 986
dollars 1954 ........ 162,989
SPECIFIED CROPS HARVESTED
Corn:
Corn for all purposes........-----.......farms reporting 1954 ........ 17,350
acres 1954........ 531,714
Harvested for grain............farms reporting 1954--........ 14,383
acres 1954 ........ 312,789
bushels 1954 ........ 5,277,093
Hogged, grazed, or cut
for fodders or silage-......farms reporting 1954........ 9,140
acres 1954 ........ 218,925
Small grains:
Oats threshed or combined....farms reporting 1954........ 1,001
acres 1954 ....... 32,490
bushels 1954........ 563,447
Annual legumes:
Cowpeas grown
for all purposes.............-......farms reporting 1954........ 1,820
acres grown alone 1954........ 15,899
acres grown with other crops 1954........ 4,367
Cowpeas harvested for
dry peas ........................farms reporting 1954........ 415
acres grown alone 1954 ..... 2,718
acres grown with other crops 1954-..... 257
bushels 1954........ 27,643
Cowpeas cut for hay-............farms reporting 1954........ 178








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


acres grown alone 1954........ 1,984
acres grown with other crops 1954 ........ 150
tons 1954........ 1,343
Cowpeas hogged or grazed,
or cut for silage............farms reporting 1954........ 1,037
acres grown alone 1954---.....--- 8,575
acres grown with other crops 1954- ..... 2,474
Cowpeas plowed under
for green manure..........farms reporting 1954..-..... 315
acres grown alone 1954........ 2,622
acres grown with other crops 1954 ------........ 1,486
Peanuts grown for all purposes....--farms reporting 1954........ 8,421
acres grown alone 1954 ........ 119,970
acres grown with other crops 1954........ 37,700
Peanuts harvested for picking or
threshing .............................. farms reporting 1954 ........ 4,309
acres grown alone 1954........ 51,012
acres grown with other crops 1954........ 358
pounds 1954 ........ 39,111,367
Peanut vines or tops
saved for hay or forage ........farms reporting 1954........ 3,601
acres grown alone 1954 .....---. 43,918
acres grown with other crops 1954........ 736
tons 1954- ........ 32,599
Velvetbeans grown for
all purposes ........................ farms reporting 1954 ..... 1,898
acres grown alone 1954........ 9,786
acres grown with other crops 1954 ........ 24,198
bushels 1954--....... 31,654
Hay crops, excluding cowpea and peanut hay
Land from which hay was cut..farms reporting 1954 ........ 1,739
acres 1954 ........ 60,791
tons 1954........ 93,747
Other field crops:
Irish potatoes harvested for
home use or for sale............farms reporting 1954 ........ 5,467
acres 1954 ........ 32,187
bushels 1954 ........ 9,126,264
Sweet potatoes harvested for
home use or for sale ............farms reporting 1954 ........ 4,440
acres 1954 ........ 2,565
bushels 1954........ 245,552
Cotton harvested ....................farms reporting 1954--..... 5,551
acres 1954---....... 33,713
bales 1954--..... 24,519
Tobacco harvested ............---........farms reporting 1954 ........ 5,599
acres 1954---........ 24,195
pounds 1954 ........ 29,615,769
Sugarcane or sorghum
harvested for syrup............farms reporting 1954-...... 2,483
acres 1954........ 2,663
gallons 1954 --....... 320,573
Root and grain crops hogged or grazed,
other than corn, cowpeas,
and peanuts ........................farms reporting 1954........ 1,687
acres 1954........ 38,581
Vegetables harvested for home use (other than
Irish and sweet potatoes) ........---farms reporting 1954........-- 26,237









READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 69


Vegetables harvested for sale........farms reporting 1954 ........ 9,764
acres 1954........ 323,912
Sold ..........----------------------....................----............dollars 1954........ 78,261,735

Snap beans (bush and pole
types) ..................................farms reporting 1954 ........ 1,855
acres 1954 ........ 56,407
Green lima beans- ....................farms reporting 1954 ..... 910
acres 1954--..... 2,829
Cabbage .................................... farms reporting 1954 ........ 851
acres 1954...... 13,405
Sweet corn ................................ farms reporting 1954........ 1,028
acres 1954........ 27,840
Cucumbers and pickles............farms reporting 1954--..... 2,166
acres 1954........ 15,739
Eggplant ................-------................farms reporting 1954........ 592
acres 1954.....-- 2,783
Blackeyes and other
green cowpeas ..................-----farms reporting 1954 ........ 2,352
acres 1954........ 10,149
Okra ... ----..............................farms reporting 1954........ 1,201
acres 1954--....... 2,848
Sweet peppers and pimientos..farms reporting 1954 ........ 2,059
acres 1954........ 11,711
Squash .............-------.................. farms reporting 1954 ..... 1,655
acres 1954 ........ 10,984
Tomatoes ..............................---..farms reporting 1954 ...... 1,798
acres 1954 ........ 48,052
Watermelons ............................ --- farms reporting 1954 ....... 4,562
acres 1954 ........ 88,041
Other vegetables --------...............................acres 1954...... 33,124
Berries and other small fruits harvested for sale:
Strawberries .............................---- farms reporting 1954 ..... 1,089
acres 1954 ........ 1,748
quarts 1954........ 2,776,380
Tree fruits, nuts, and grapes:
Land in bearing and nonbearing fruit orchards,
groves, vineyards, and planted
nut trees ............................ farms reporting 1954.....-- 23,675
acres 1954........ 641,642
Peaches ......................................farms reporting 1954........ 1,446
Trees of all ages................................number 1954........ 20,010
Trees not of bearing age-................number 1954 ........ 7,093
Trees of bearing age..----......................number 1954........ 12,917
Quantity harvested ............................bushels 1954 ..... 5,653
Pears ............................ ........... farms reporting 1954........ 2,268
Trees of all ages---................................ number 1954........ 19,023
Trees not of bearing age................number 1954 ........ 3,431
Trees of bearing age........................number 1954........ 15,592
Quantity harvested .......................... bushels 1954 ........ 23,945
Mangoes .................................... farms reporting 1954 ........ 2,098
Trees of all ages..............................number 1954 ........ 190,391
Trees not of bearing age..............number 1954 ..... 101,459
Trees of bearing age...........----.............number 1954 ...... 88,932
Quantity harvested ..---------.................pounds 1954 ........ 2,125,180









70 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Avocados ..................................farms reporting 1954-........
Trees of all ages..............................number 1954........ 501
Trees not of bearing age---..-.........--...number 1954........ 93
Trees of bearing age ........................number 1954........ 40E
Quantity harvested .................-----------..........pounds 1954........ 19,00C
Figs ............................................ farms reporting 1954........ 1
Trees of all ages-............--.................----------...number 1954 --.....
Trees not of bearing age................-----number 1954........ 2
Trees of bearing age--............----............-number 1954....... 5
Quantity harvested ..--...................-----.......pounds 1954 ........ 89
Grapes --..................----..........----.---.........-- farms reporting 1954-..... 1
Vines of all ages........................------.----...:...number 1954........ 12
Vines not of bearing age-........---..........- number 1954--........ 5
Vines of bearing age-.............--.--........----..number 1954 ........ 7
Quantity harvested ............................pounds 1954........ 46
Improved pecans (budded, grafted, or
top-worked) ........................------farms reporting 1954........ 3
Trees of all ages..........................--------------......number 1954 .-..... 143
Trees not of bearing age.......-------.........number 1954........ 19
Trees of bearing age.......--.--...............--------number 1954 .......- 123
Quantity harvested ..........................pounds 1954 ........ 442
Wild or seedling pecans..-..........farms reporting 1954 ........ 2
Trees of all ages........................----......--number 1954........ 51
Trees not of bearing age-........--........number 1954 ........ 6
Trees of bearing age.---..................------.....number 1954........ 44
Quantity harvested ...................-------------......pounds 1954 ---........ 207
Tung nuts ...--...................---..........-------farms reporting 1954........
Trees of all ages ................................number 1954--........ 3,391
Trees not of bearing age..................number 1954 ........ 904
Trees of bearing age..--.....................----.-number 1954 ........ 2,487
Quantity harvested ............................pounds 1954........ 49,444
Tangerines and mandarins......farms reporting 1954........ 9
Trees of all ages................................number 1954........ 1,238
Trees not of bearing age--.......--.........number 1954 ........ 112
Trees of bearing age--....---...........-.........number 1954........ 1,125
Quantity harvested .................----------field boxes 1954---...... 4,374
Temple oranges-..--................-- ....---....farms reporting 1954........ 5
Trees of all ages....................-----.-----...........number 1954 --..... 1,610
Trees not of bearing age...............---number 1954 ....... 416
Trees of bearing age........---.........--.......number 1954 ---...... 1,193
Quantity harvested ...............-----.... field boxes 1954 ........ 3,500
Valencia oranges ...................------farms reporting 1954---........ 14
Trees of all ages ...............................number 1954 ........ 11,932
Trees not of bearing age.......---------.......number 1954........ 2,532
Trees of bearing age............-------............number 1954 ........ 9,399
Quantity harvested ....................field boxes 1954 ........ 38,071
Other oranges .............-------.............farms reporting 1954 .....--- 18
Trees of all ages.........----................--------.....--number 1954 --...... 12,808
Trees not of bearing age.........------.......---number 1954........ 1,982
Trees of bearing age.....................-------number 1954........ 10,825
Quantity harvested ....................field boxes 1954 ......- 44,820
Grapefruit ................................farms reporting 1954 ....... 15
Trees of all ages................................number 1954....... 7,545
Trees not of bearing age.....---.---.........--number 1954.....----- 944
Trees of bearing age.--..-....................-- number 1954-....... 6,601
Quantity harvested ....................field boxes 1954 ....... 38,612









READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS


emons ...................
Trees of all ages....


...........farm s report
........................ nun


Trees of bearing age..............


im es ........ ...............
Trees of all ages.....
Trees not of bearing
Trees of bearing ag(
Quantity harvested
angeloes ....................
Trees of all ages.......
Trees not of bearing
Trees of bearing ag(
Quantity harvested .
.umquats .......................
Trees of all ages.......
Trees not of bearing
Trees of bearing age.
Quantity harvested ...
ery and greenhouse pro,
eds and plants, 1954:
ursery and greenhouse
vegetable seeds and
and mushrooms ........
ursery products (trees,
ornamentals, etc.) ...

Sold ...... ..............
lowers and flowering pli
Grown under glass...

Grown in open........


...........farms reporting 1954
........................ number 1954
age................number 1954
........................ number 1954
................. .......pounds 1954
..........farms reporting 1954
....................... number 1954
age................----number 1954
........................number 1954
..................--- field boxes 1954
..........farms reporting 1954
........................ number 1954
age......--..........-number 1954
........................ number 1954
.-.-----................ pounds 1954
lucts, flower and vegetable

products, flower and
Plants, flowers, bulbs,
...................................dollars
shrubs, vines,
....................farms reporting.
acres.
...................................dollars.
tnts grown for sale:
--.--......farms reporting.
square feet.
.......-............farms reporting.
acres.
....................farms reporting.


....... 3,313
126,346
....... 93,388
32,958
84,994
3,178
555,074
169,579
385,495
35,728,262
2,095
199,620
90,956
108,664
217,775
2,576
23,157
.--.-- 3,572
19,585
958,606




27,591,610

1,480
.--.-- 7,900
10,307,927

234
1,901,708
917
13,258
I nMn


vegetables grown under glass, lower and
vegetable seeds and plants, bulbs, and
mushrooms produced for sale:
Grown under glass or in house....farms reporting ........ 22
square feet..---.... 143.416


Sold -----------.....- -
S old ............. ... .... .


2,807
193
1 403q Qq9








72 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


AGRICULTURAL CREDIT
Credit is available to farmers through such sources as banks,
supply merchants, individuals, National Farm Loan Associations,
Production Credit Associations, Banks for Cooperatives and the
Farmers Home Administration.
National Farm Loan Associations, Production Credit Associa-
tions and Banks for Cooperatives are all a part of the Farm
Credit Administration. This is essentially a cooperative organiza-
tion, formed by and for farmers. The government supplied the
initial capital with provisions for the farmers themselves to
replace the Government's capital and own the credit institutions
themselves.
The system grew out of a distinct need for a different system
of credit, one geared to the processes of agriculture and one that
could wait long enough for funds for the biological and market-
ing processes of agriculture to be completed.
The Production Credit system also brought into the farm
credit picture a type of loan particularly adapted to farmers and
ranchers. The overall policy is administered by a board of direc-
tors, who, themselves are farmers and stockholders. All farmers
who borrow money from these associations are required to own
capital stock in the association equal to 5 percent of the amount
borrowed.

SECRETARY-TREASURERS OF PRODUCTION
CREDIT ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA


Association Secretary-Treasurer
Bradenton Wm. C. Grainger

Central Fla. J. P. Payne

Farmers Charles B. Long, Jr.

Florida Citrus A. H. Whitmore

Gainesville Gerald E. Home

Lakeland L. 0. Black


Address Telephone
llth Street & 6th Avenue 2-2511
P.O. Box 71
Bradenton, Florida
Dolive Building, Room 24 2-5800
108 North Orange Avenue
Orlando, Florida
16 N.W. 26th Avenue 64-5110
P.O. Box 665, Riverside Sta.
Miami 35, Florida
427 South Orange Avenue 2-3157
P.O. Box 2111
Orlando, Florida
620 North Main Street 5831
P.O. Box 102
Gainesville, Florida
1500 New Tampa Highway MUtual
P.O. Box 1150 33-741
Lakeland, Florida








READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS


anna C. F. Morton Corr
C;
P.O.
Mar
ticello J. S. Elam Coul
P.O.
Mon
east J. E. Dukes 120
P.O.
Pala
h Florida Aubrey Fowler 418
P.O.
Live

SECRETARY-TREASURE]
FARM LOAN ASSOCIATE]
nationn Sec'y-Treasurer Add:
enton W. R. May 111-
P.O.
Brad
esville R. W. Bryan 622
P.O.
Gain
land Kirby McMahen 2011
Opp,
P. C
Lake
anna Henry A. Williams 301
P.O.
Mari
ni Charles B. Long, Jr. 16 I'
P.O.
Miar
ndo H. D. Freeman Roor
P. 0
Orla
icola E. H. Robinson Roor
P.O.
Pens
pa Homer T. Thompson 433

P.O.
Tam
erly E. B. Howard Wav
Asst. Sec.-Treas.


FACTS ABOUT TH
HOME ADMINI1
The Farmers Home Administrati
es Department of Agriculture, s
loans and needed technical
lit services include:


* Clinton and 370
edonia Streets
Box 330
nna, Florida
House Circle 10
lox 307
cello, Florida
[ain Street East
lox 328 5-3362
a, Florida
Puth Ohio Avenue 88
;ox 660
)ak, Florida

S OF NATIONAL
)NS IN FLORIDA
ss Telephone
3 Walcaid Building 3-2051
lox 686
iton, Florida
north Main Street 5484
;ox 32
ville, Florida
New Tampa Highway 37-521
ite Publix Warehouse
Box 1090
nd, Florida
orth Caledonia Street 245
;ox 791
mna, Florida
Y. 26th Avenue 64-5110
ox 665, Riverside Station
35, Florida
7, Church & Main Bldg. 6728
Box 1567
lo, Florida
222, Brent Building HEmlock
lox 908 2-4552
ola, Florida
rand Central Ave., 6 Zone
8-1437
ox 3132, 1 Zone
L, Florida
ly, Florida None



; FARMERS
RATION

n, an agency in the United
ves eligible farm operators
elp on farming problems.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


PRODUCTION AND SUBSISTENCE
-n ~nrt nn a-n rl ;cinr+ r Incn fo n' -rl- r


farmers make
family-type fa
systems and a
for purchase (
for other fan
Maximum inil
duction and si
for one borro'


proved use of lan
s by making needed
)ting improved prac
equipment, feed, se(
operating needs ini
loan is $7,000 and
istence loan indebte
ST.nann nre tn h-


and labor resource!
changess in their farr
:es. Funds are adval
fertilizer, livestock,
ding family subsists
ie total outstanding
ess is limited to $10
,,:" ; ,,,~,,,^j,,


FARM OWNERSHIP LOANS
Farm ownership loans are made to buy or develop effi(
family-type farms; to improve or enlarge farms to efficient le,
and to help owners of family-type farms construct and re
farmhouses and other essential farm buildings. Loans are n
from private capital with repayment insured by the Governrr
In either case they are amortized for periods up to 40 years


Insured loans are limited ti
value of the farm.

SOIL AND WATER]
Soil and water conser
and groups of farmers to c
water development, consei
Loans are made from fur
insured by the Governm.
funds. Maximum repaymc
40 years for associations. I
associations up to $250,001

EMER
Emergency loans are n


JU percent ot the lair and reason


CONSERVATION LOANS
ition loans are made to individ
ry out measures for soil conservat
ation, and use; and farm drain
s advanced by private lenders
it, or from annually appropri:
t period is 20 years for individi
lividuals can borrow up to $25,1


ENCY LOANS
.de to farmers who operate in a


ly be made. Designation


uilalullxll lb 'Ull ao IIuUu k
duction losses and cause a
able from other sources,


UI ULIIL I L UIL III VnlUtpIl flu
eed for agricultural credit not a,
r ,,hPn rthPr arr,,ltrl -r+-l







REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 75


Available due to economic conditions. Loans are made to en-
e farmers to continue normal operations, but not to reim-
se farmers for losses caused by the emergency nor to refinance
ting indebtedness. Credit is extended for various periods as
essary.
SPECIAL LIVESTOCK LOANS
Special livestock loans are made to help established producers
feeders (except commercial feedlot operators) of cattle,
ep, and goats maintain their normal livestock operations.
Lns are made for purchase and production of feed and other
rating expenses and are repayable in 1 to 3 years. Loans are
made to pay existing debts.

GENERAL INFORMATION
Loans and services are available to farmers and ranchers
y when.they cannot get the credit they need on reasonable
ns from other lenders.
With production and subsistence, farm ownership, and some
-s of soil and water conservation loans, borrowers receive the
stance of the agency's county personnel in preparing farm
home operating plans, in keeping farm records, and ob-
ing advice on farm problems.
Applications from veterans for most types of loans receive
.erential consideration.
All applications for loans are made at local county offices
the Farmers Home Administration, generally located at the
nty-seat towns. A county committee of 3 people, at least 2
hem farmers, determines applicants' eligibility, certifies as to
ie of farms to be bought, and reviews borrowers' progress.
Full particulars on loans and services can be obtained from
.1 county Farmers Home Administration supervisors.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FARMERS HOME ADMINISTRATION
January 23, 1956
nty FHA Counties Served Mailing Address
ipervisor
i S. Edwards, Jr. Polk, Osceola Box 1019, Bartow, Fla.
ice A. Moore Holmes Box 178, Bonifay, Fla.
T. Hunter Sumter, Citrus, Box 217, Bushnell, Fla.
Hernando, Lake









76 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Charles R. Pope Washington, Bay Box 458, Chipley,
Gordon C. Johnson Okaloosa Box 188,
Crestview, Fla.
William W. Weathers Walton Box 312,
DeFuniak Springs,
Clemmie B. Williams Lee, Charlotte, Box 550,
Hendry, Collier, Glades, Ft. Myers, Fla.
Okeechobee
Harlan R. Ellis Alachua, Bradford, Clay, Box 494,
Putnam, St. Johns Gainesville, Fla.
Gordon H. Green Hamilton Box 169, Jasper,
Clifford L. Currie Columbia, Duval, Baker, Box 42,
Nassau Lake City, Fla.
John S. Stewart Palm Beach, Broward, Box 1231,
Dade, Indian River, Lake Worth, Fla.
Martin, Monroe, St. Lucie
Wendell A. Roberts Suwannee, Lafayette Box 652,
Live Oak, Fla.
Paul K. Rowell Madison, Taylor Box 239, Madison,
Finley J. Duncan Jackson Box 617,
Marianna, Fla.
Ralph S. Carver Santa Rosa, Escambia Box 232, Milton,
Rufus C. Bush Marion Box 835, Ocala,
Hurtis L. Carter Hillsborough, Pasco, Box 791,
Pinellas Plant City, Fla.
George D. Livingston Gadsden, Calhoun, Box 591, Quincy,
Franklin, Gulf, Liberty
Curtis J. Green Seminole, Brevard, Box 1140,
Flagler, Orange, Volusia Sanford, Fla.
James E. Maxwell Leon, Jefferson, Wakulla Box 1206,
Tallahassee, Fla.
Percy W. Jones Gilchrist, Dixie, Levy Box 12 I,
Trenton, Fla.
Wilson H. Harrison Hardee, DeSoto, Box 125,
Highlands, Manatee, Wauchula, Fla.
Sarasota
STATE OFFICE
35 N. Main St., Gainesville, Florida
William T. Shaddick Donald H. Yawn
State Director Program Loan Oj
Marvis B. Roberts John R. Butler
Chief, Program Operations Program Loan an
Administrative Oj









READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 77



FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL VALUES
OF PRODUCTION 1954-1955
ACREAGE DISPOSITION 1954 TOTAL ACRES
Citrus 497,400 acres, Vegetables 309,500 acres, Other Fruits &
Melons 117,950 acres 924,850
Pecans 13,000 acres, Tung 30,500 acres 43,500
General Crop Land 966,800 acres, Replanted for Pasture 1,131,500 acres 2,098,300
Woodland Pasture 7,278,000 acres, Other Pasture 4,382,000 acres 11,660,000
Crop Land not Pastured 659,000 acres, Woodland not Pastures 1,761,000 2,420,000
Other Land Used (house lots, roads, waste land, etc.) 757,000
TOTAL LAND USED ACCORDING TO
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CENSUS 17,903,650
Woodland and Other Land not used in Agriculture 16,824,350
TOTAL LAND AREA OF FLORIDA 34,728,000

CITRUS ACREAGE, PRODUCTION AND VALUE 1954-55 SEASON FLA. FOB SALES
Oranges Acres 356,400 Carloads 176,472 Units Used 87,850,000 $176,658,000
Grapefruit 117,100 69,111 34,640,000 54,062,000
Tangerines 23,900 9,982 4,830,000 15,085,000
TOTAL 497,400 255,565 127,320,000 $245,805,000


MISCELLANEOUS FRUIT ACREAGE, PRODUCTION
AND VALUE 1954-55 SEASON
Watermelons Acres 87,000 Carloads 28,334 Units Used
Strawberries 3,800 503 "
Other Fruits 15,050 1,847 "
TOTAL 117,950 30,684 "


14,500,000"
304,000
1,201,000


$ 14,500,000
2,754,000
3,154,200


16,005,000 $ 20,408,200
(Pkg. 2 melons)


VEGETABLE ACREAGE, PRODUCTION AND VALUE 1954-55 SEASON
Beans Acres 68,100 Carloads 11,311 Units Used 7,985,000
Celery 9,000 15,659 6,821,000
Potatoes 37,800 18,361 10,076,000
Tomatoes 56,300 29,583 14,219,000
Others 138,300 48,377 21,327,700
TOTAL 309,500 123,291 60,428,700

ALL FRUIT AND VEGETABLE ACREAGE, PRODUCTION
AND VALUE 1954-55 SEASON
TOTAL Acres 924,850 Carloads 409,540 Units Used 203,753,700


LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA
(Jan. 1, 1955) IIead Unit Value
All Cattle 1,679,000 $ 54.00
Beef Cattle and Calves -
Dairy Cattle and Calves -
Ilogs & Pigs 519,000 22.20
Others (Including Sheep and Lambs, Goats and Kids,
Meat for dog meat, circuses, etc.)
TOTAL


$


POULTRY, EGGS AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (MILK) FO
Chickens Produced 51,067,000 lbs. (fryers-hens-rooster
Turkeys Produced 3,397,000 lbs. (hens-toms-fryers)
Eggs 40,000,000 doz. (white and brown
Dairy Products 638,000,000 lbs. of milk @ 7.1c
TOTAL POULTRY, EGGS AND DAIRY PRODUCE'


GROSS SALES
Farm Value 1954
90,666,000 $ 35,591,000
(Incl. in
Beef Sales)
11,522,000 21,105,000

1,700,030
$ 58,396,000
R 1954
rs) @ 23.8c $ 12,179,000
@ 36.4c 1,236,000
) @ 49.4c 19,759,000
45,507,000
TS $ 78,681,000


$ 20,351,000
15,419,000
24,980,000
58,584,000
54,388,000
$173,722,000



$439,935,200










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


GENERAL FIELD CROPS ACREAGE, PRODUCTION AND FARM VALUE 1954


I
Lupine Seed
Tobacco-Flue
Tobacco Shade
Corn
Cotton
Peanuts
Sweet Potatoes
Sugar Cane & Seed
Sugar Cane-Syrup
Blackstrap Molasses
Oats
Velvet Beans
Soy Beans
Hay
Cow Peas for peas
only

TOTAL


Acres
harvested
7,000
21,500
3,800
575,000
36,200
55,000
11,000
39,300
7,000

36,000
47,000
29,000
96,000

3,000

966,800


Volume
Harvested
3,500,000 lbs.
27,735,000 lbs.
5,206,000 lbs.
9,200,000 bu.
25,000 bales
44,550,000 lbs.
638,000 bu.
1,281,000 ton
840,000 gals.
7,200,000 gals.
1,080,000 bu.
12,000 ton
348,000 bu.
84,000 ton

16,000 bu.


MISCELLANEOUS CROPS AND SPECIALTIES 1954
Pecans 13,000 acres 3,000,000 lbs.
Tung Nuts 30,500 acres 18,000 tons
Honey & Wax (238,000
colonies) 17,894,000 lbs. @ $0.182
Gladiolus 10,680 acres
Other Nursery Products (Unavailable)


Unit FARM
Price VALUE
$ 4.90 S 172. 0
0.535 14.838.000
1.95 10,.152."
1.55 14.260.000
171.00 4,280.0c)
0.106 4,722,000
3.40 2,169,000
8.00 101,248,000
1.40 1.176.000

0.94 1,015,0(10
45.00 540,000
2.65 922, 00
29.00 2,436.00(

4.50 72.tX(X

$ 67,002,0(0


912.000
1,026.000

3,262.000
8.300.000
15.502.(000
$ 29,002,(W0


$245.805.,'0
20.408.20)
173,722.0(0(
$439,935.200
58.396.0;;0
78.681 K000
67,002,00(1
29,002,000

$673,016,2CO


@ $ 0.304
@ 57.00


TOTAL MISCELLANEOUS CROPS AND SPECIALTIES

AGRICULTURAL GROUP SALES
Citrus Fruits 497,400 acres 255,565 carloads
Miscellaneous Fruits & Melons 117,950 30,684 "
Vegetables 309,500 123,291 "
TOTAL FRUITS &
VEGETABLES 924,850 409,540 "
Livestock-Sales to Markets, Farm Sales and Home Consumption
Poultry, Egg & Milk Sales
General Field Crops Farm Value (Revised Figures)
Miscellaneous Crops and Specialties (Revised Figures)
TOTAL FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL GROSS VALUE








READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 79


USEFUL WEIGHTS & MEASURES
MEASURES OF LENGTH LIQUID MEASURE
inches ...............................-----------------1 foot 4 gills .....-------...........-.........-............----1 pint
t ......................................------------1 yard 2 pints .................................... 1 quart
yards ................................----------------- rod 4 quarts ...........................---------------1 gallon
rods 31% gallons ..........................1 barrel
I yards ..................1 mile 2 barrels .........................1------------- hogshead
I feet (1 cu. ft...............-.....-------- 2 gal.)
les..............................---------.--..... league
miles..........................1 degree LAND MEASURE
4840 square yards 1-------------1 acre
/IEASURES OF SURFACE 160 acres ................1 quarter section
square inches-1........ square foot 640 acres.........................-------------.. section
uare feet...--.......-----...... 1 square yard 36 sections.......................------1 I township
square yards ..... square rod
4 square feet j SURVEYOR'S MEASURE
square rods-----......................-- acre 7.92 inches.............----...................------1 link
25 links------------------- 1 rod
IASURES OF SOLIDARITY 100 links........................--------........1 chain
; cubic inches-1............ cubic foot 80 chains..............................---------1.... mile
ubic feet ---..........-........1 cubic yard 10,000 square links....- square chain
cubic feet........................----- cord 10 square chains......................--- 1 acre
10 chains square-....--------.............10 acres
CIRCLES AND GLOBES ACRES IN A FIELD
2 find the circumference of a
e, multiply the diameter by 10 rods by 16 rods---................-----I acre
16. 5 rods by 32 rods.......----..--........-- --1 acre
o find the area of a circle, 20 yards by 242 yards............- 1 acre
iply the square of the diameter 40 yards by 121 yards-............ acre
7854- 60 feet by 726 feet---.------ acre
rcle with a diameter of 8 feet,
gure as follows-8x8 equals 64. The area of a triangular field is
,x.7854 equals 50.2656 sq. ft., one-half of the base times the alti-
e area of the circle, tude. (Any side can be taken for
o find the surface of a globe, the base.) The altitude is the per-
iply the square of the diameter pendicular distance from the base
.1416. Use the same method of to the point opposite where the
-ing as in the preceding ex- other two sides meet. Example:
le. The base line of a field is 200 yards
: find the solidity of a globe, long. The altitude is 150 yards
iply the cube of the diameter long. There are 200x150x/2 yards
5236. in the field--r about 3 1/10 acres.
sample: To find the solidity
a globe with a diameter of 8 WEIGHTS OF MILK AND
et, figure as follows-8x8 equals CREAM
. 64x8 equals 512. 512x.5236 Cream (30% butterfat)
uals 268.0832 cu. ft., the con- quart, 2.1075 lbs.
nits of the globe. Cream (30% butterfat)
gallon, 8.43 Ibs.
DRY MEASURE Milk (3% butter-
its...................................... quart fat @ 68 degrees
arts....-----------------........................-....... peck temperature) ............quart, 2.15 lbs.
Aks.......................... 1 bushel Milk (3% butter-
shel-........2150.42 cubic inches- fat @ 68 degrees
about 1 4 cu. ft. temperature) ........-gallon, 8.60 Ibs.









U~II~I\II*IYIII I VI ~~UI~IUUUIV~\Y


LUiVlu3r-jt^ 1ViLr3X3LrjkUY

One board foot is 12 inches wide,
12 inches long and 1 inch thick, or sui
equivalents. To find the number rat
of board feet in any board or tim- At
her, multiply the length in feet by At
Sthe width in inches, by the thick- At
ness in inches, and divide the At
product by 12. . Examples: A At
"At
board 9 inches wide, 1 inch thick At
and 16 feet long has 9x16x1, divided At
by 12, or 12 board feet. A joist 8
inches wide, 2 inches thick and 18
feet long has 8x2x18 divided by 12,
or 24 board feet.
do
lei
BOARD FEET IN A LOG leN
ler
To find the number of board feet b
by
in a log, subtract four inches from th.
the diameter and square the re- is
mainder. The answer will be the fir
number of board feet in a 16-foot re,
log. . A log 24 inches in diameter a
and 16 feet long has-24-4=20. 60
20x20=400, the number of board eq
feet. Add % to the result for 18- q
foot logs, and V4 for 20-foot logs. 40
Subtract V8 for 14-foot logs and V4 th,
for 12-foot logs.


CORDWOOD MEASURE

To find the number of cords in ag
a pile of wood, multiply the length all
by the height by the width, all in re,
feet, and divide by 128. A pile of ea
wood 40 feet long, 8 feet high and
12 feet wide has 40x8x12 divided
by 128, or 30 cords of wood.

in
TO MEASURE HEIGHT OF of
TREE OR BUILDING th
th.
Drive a pole into the ground. Be th
sure that the ground around it is uc
level and that the pole is driven bi]
exactly perpendicular to the sur- fir
face. When the shadow of the pole til
is exactly as long as the length of A
the pole above ground, then you can 6
know that the shadow cast by the M
building is also equal to its height- 57
provided, of course, the surface of M


11N I _o

find the i
or any nur
Interest:
multiply
er of days ;
same a a
Same a a
Same a a
Same as a
same a a
Same as a
Same as a

HAY Il

ow a line
the other
from grot
Multiply t
of the ric
width, all
divide by
i and loosi
nd solid,
is the nm
SOverthro
et, width
135,000.
405,000. r
. Divided
imber of t

CORN IN

tiply the
vidth by
feet. Mul
is the nu
n in the c:

TARE BII'

tiply wid
t. The pi
* bottom.
epth. Thi
ntents in
nal figure
the capz
tank in g
he capacity
he cubic fe
8 feet wi,
t deep h:
)lied by 7


01 -I JU-LlU

interest on a
nber of days at

the principal b,
ind divide by 12,
bove and divide I
above and divide I
bore and divide 1
above and divide I
bore and divide 1
bove and divide I
bove and divide 1

i A RICK

over the top
side. Measure
ind level to gr
his distance b,
:k, and the pr(
in feet. Multip
10. Then, if th(
e, divide by 60
divide by 500.
imber of tons.
w is 75 feet, le
30 feet. 75x6
Multiplied I
)ivided by 10 e
by 500 equals
ons in the staid

THE CRIB

length by the
the average d
Itiply by 2/5.
mber of bushe
rib.

IS AND TANI

th by length,
product is the
Then multiple
s result gives
cubic feet. Mu
by 7.48. This ]
city of the s(
gallons of liquid
:y in bushels,
,et by .8. Exam
de, 16 feet lonm
is 768 cubic
.48, the prcdu


ultiplied by .8, the produ


lilt; #luullu 13 ICV~I alUUIIU IL VIIl) uurllrlu









READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 81


NUMBER OF POUNDS TO THE BUSHEL*
*Approximate. Legal weights may vary in different States.
Alfalfa ................................60 Corn (Pop) (In Ear)....70 Millet, Hungarian .......... 48
Apples (Green) ................48 Corn (Kafir) ................56 Oats ....... ........................32
Apples (Dried) ............... 24 Corn M eal ....................50 Onions ............................ 57
Barley ................................48 Coal, Hard ..................... 80 Orchard Grass ................ 14
Beans (White) ...........60 Coal, Charcoal ................ 20 Peaches (Dried) ............33
Beans (Castor) ................46 Coke ....................................40 Peas .................................. 60
Beans (Soy) ... ........... 60 Cranberries ........................ 32 Potatoes ..............................60
Bran .............---- --- .............20 Flax Seed ................. 56 Potatoes (Sweet) ............50
Buckwheat .................... 48 Grapes ................................40 Red Top Seed ......... 14
Blue-Grass Seed ............14 Itair (Plastering) ........8 Rye ....................................56
Cherries ............................40 tHemp Seed ........................44 ................ 45
Clover Seed ......................60 Kafir Corn ..... 56 mothy Seed ..... ...
Clover (Sweet) ................60 Lime ................................80 Tomatoes ....................50
Corn (Shelled) .............. 56 Malt .................................... 38 Turnips ...................... 55
Corn (In Ear) ................ 70 Millet Seed, Common ..50 Wheat ................................ 60


PROPORTION OF WEIGHT OF ANIMALS AFTER BUTCHERING
BEEF HOG LAMB
% of Carcass Wt. % of Carcass Wt. % of Carcass Wt
Front Quarter ..............52 Loin (chops) ................14 Leg ..................................13
Hitnd Quarter -.........48 Shoulder (butt off)...... 9 Rib ................................ 7
Ribs ..............---- ...... ...... 9.5 Butts ................................ 7 Loin ................................ 5
Loin ................................ 18 Spare Ribs .................... 2 Shoulder ...----.............-10
Round ...----............-------- 24 Ham ................................21 Stew ..................... 8
Bacon .............................. 15 N eck ............................... 1.5
Chuck ............................22 Lard .............................. Neck .....2............1.5
Plate ........--........------ 14.5 Neck bone, feet, etc. Kidney Fat .................... 1.5
Flank and Shank ........ 9 Trimmings ....................13 Fat Trimmings ............ 2.5
Kidney Suet ............... 3 W aste .............................. 3 Shrink .......................----- 1


KITCHEN MEASURES WEIGHTS OF BUILDING
MATERIALS
40-50 drops ......-.....-......--...1 teaspoon
3 teaspoons .........----..-........----- 1 tablespoon (Pounds per
2 tablespoons ............ 1 fluid ounce cubic foot)
16 tablespoons .................... 1 cup Weight
2 cups ...................................... 1 pint Limestone ............- ....... 164
3 cups pastry, bread or Concrete ........-------.----_--------....... 150
graham flour ...................1 pound Common Brick ............. 125
3 cups whole wheat Gravel ......................................----- ------- 120
flour .......------.. -................--1 pound Earth (rammed) ..............---100
3 cups corn meal ...... ......1 pound Sand ...............................---------------------......... 100
4Y4 cups rolled oats............ pound Cement .-------------............----- --.......... 94
2 cups lard ..........................-----1 pound Water .---.----................................----..... 62.4
2 cups butter ...........------...........1 pound Lime .....------..................................... 53
2 2/3 cups brown sugar....1 pound Hemlock .-........----.--------.........---......... 28
2 cups granulated sugar......1 pound Oak, red ...................--------............... 44
2 cups raisins (heaped) .... pound Pine, yellow .....-----........................ 36
4V2 cups coffee .---...-.........----1 pound Douglas Fir ....................----------. 30
I) to 10 average eggs-.......... 1 pound Cypress ..................................... 29
1 square chocolate ................1 ounce Oak, white ................................ 47


AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT

27 11/32 grains ....................1 dram 100 pounds ..---.........-.......--.........------------ cwt.
16 drams .---..---..............-............1 ounce 20 cwt. (2000 lbs.) ................1 ton
16 ounces ............................1 pound 2240 pounds ----................1 long ton
25 pounds ....................I..... quarter








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


MEASUREMENTS OF WATER
WEIGHTS AND VOLUMES OF CAPACITY OF PIPE
WATER Multiply the area of the base by
One cubic inch of water weighs the length. The inside diameter of
.03617 pounds. One cubic foot the pipe multiplied by .7854 gives
weighs 62.5 pounds. One cubic foot the area of the base. Example:
contains 7.48052 gallons. One pint How many gallons of water will a 4-
weighs 1.044375 pounds. One gal- inch pipe 30 feet long hold? 4x.7854
lon weighs 8.355 pounds. One gal- equals 3.1416 square inches 30 feet
Ion equals 231 cubic inches. One in length is 360 inches. 360x3.1416
liquid quart equals 57.75 cubic in- equals about 1131 cubic inches, or
ches. One inch of rainfall brings about 4.9 gallons.
113 tons of water on an acre of
ground.

To find-
Capacity in TONS OF SILAGE-Divide the cu. ft. by .57. Example-
Tank 7' in diameter and 6' deep holds 231 cu. ft. .57=4.05 Tons of
Silage.

Capacity in BUSHELS OF GRAIN-Multiply the cu. ft. by .8. Ex-
ample-Tank 14' in diameter and 5/2' deep holds 847 cu. ft. X .8=677.6
Bushels of Grain.

Capacity in GALLONS-Multiply the cu. ft. by 7.48. Example-Tank
9' in diameter and 13' deep holds 827 cu. ft. X 7.48=6186 Gallons.

LOGS REDUCED TO SQUARE TIMBER
To reckon the contents of a round log in cubic feet cf
square timber, first reduce it to square timber; thus: Measure
the diameter (or thickness) at each end in inches; add these
measurements together, and divide the sum-total by 2; the
quotient is the average diameter. One-third of this diameter is
allowed for the chips or slabs. To deduct this third, divide the
number of inches diameter by 3, and subtract the quotient
from it; the remainder is the proper diameter for measure-
ments. The thickness of the log is generally counted in even
inches; and one-third of an inch excess, or upward, is added as
an extra inch. After getting the square of the log in manner
above described, the number of cubic feet in it is reckoned
the same as in square timber. But as in the reduction of logs
fractions of inches often have to be reckoned, an example may
be useful for a perfect understanding of it.

Example. Suppose a round log to be 35 feet long, 24
inches thick at the butt and 19 inches thick at the top.








READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 83

Add 24
and 19 the two diameters.

Sum-total 43 to which add two ciphers to include
the fractions, and then divide by 2)43.00
Deduct 1/3 for slabs 3)21.50 average diam.
7.17

True diameter 14.33 or 14-1/3 inches
Reduce this to thirds, thus: Three times 14 is 42, and the odd one
makes 43 thirds.
Multiply 34
by 43
129
172

Total 1849 which represents ninths of inches. Add
two ciphers to include the fractions, and then, to reduce to inches,
Divide by 9)1849.00
205.44
Multiply by 35 the length of the log.
102720
61632

Divide by 12)7190.40
Divide by 12) 599.20
Cubic feet 49/93/100 counting 50 feet.

FACTS FOR BUILDERS
One thousand shingles, laid 4 ins. to the weather, will cover
100 sq. ft. of surface, and 5 Ibs. of shingle nails will fasten
them on.
One-fifth more siding and flooring is needed than the num-
ber of sq. ft. of surface to be covered, because of the lap in the
siding and matching.
One thousand laths will cover 70 yards of surface, and
11 Ibs. of lath nails will nail them on. Eight bushels of good
lime, 16 bushels of sand and 1 bushel of hair, will make enough
good mortar to plaster 100 sq. yds.
A cord of stone, 3 bushels of lime, and a cubic yard of
sand, will lay 100 cubic ft. of wall.
Five courses of brick will lay 1 ft. in height on a chim-
ney, 16 bricks in a course will make a flue 4 ins. wide and
12 ins. long, and 8 bricks in a course will make a flue 8 ins.
wide and 16 ins. long.







84 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Cement, 1 bushel, and sand 2 bushels will cover 3V2 sq.
yds. 1 in. thick, 42/ sq. yds. 3/4 inch thick, and 6Y sq. yds.
V2 inch thick. One bushel cement and 1 of sand will cover 2
sq. yds. 1 inch thick; 3 sq. yds. inch thick; 4/2 sq. yds.
V2 inch thick.
Eight lbs. of Asphalt Flooring composition will cover 1
superficial ft. /4 inch thick. Three hundred and eight pounds
of finely ground cement will make from 3.7 to 3.8 cubic feet
of stiff paste. One cwt. of mastic and 1 gal. of oil will cover
12/ yds. at 3/4, or 2/2 at V2 inch in thickness. Pointing Mortar
consists, by weight, of finely ground cement, 1 part to from
3 to 1/3 parts of fine silicious sand, mix under cover, in small
quantities at a time.


WEIGHTS, MEASURES AND
CONVERSION FACTORS
The following table covers the most important agricultural
products. It does not cover all farm products nor all containers
for any one product. This information has been assembled from
various sources, particularly the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture. The table follows:
531.01 Standards of weights and measures. -The follow-
ing standards of weights and measures shall be the standard of
weights and measures throughout the State of Florida:
One standard liquid gallon shall contain two hundred thirty-
one solid inches.

The weights and measures shall be as follows:

Wheat, per bushel --.---.............------------.......... 60 pounds avoirdupois
Corn, shelled, per bushel ...-----.--...... .. 56 pounds avoirdupois
Corn, on cob with shuck --------............---..--.. 70 pounds avoirdupois
Sorghum seed, per bushel -----------........-- 56 pounds avoirdupois
Barley seed, per bushel .--.---......--------......-..... 48 pounds avoirdupois








READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS


Corn m


hlshelp


Beans, shelled, per b

Beans, velvet, in hull

Beans castor, shelled,

Millet seed, per bust

Beggar weed seed, pei


ishel ----....-..-.-

s, per bushel ---..

per bushel .......

el ..-...-............---------...

bushel .---............


Irish potatoes, per bushel ------.---.-......


Sweet potato


s, per bushel ......


S kl .lJ^, 1rJ. L&UOIIL .l

Onions, per bushel .

Salt, per bushel --.

Peanuts, per bushel...

Chufas, per bushel ...

Rye, per bushel .......


ApDles, dried, per bushel ........


Apples, green, per bi

Quinces, per bushel -._


ishel -----.............

...........................


Peaches, dried, per bushel ................


beaches green, per b

cotton seed. per bust


ishel ................-----

el .....------.............


Cotton seed, Sea Island, per bushel ..

Plums, per bushel ......................----...----------

Pears, per bushel ..---..................------

Guavas, per bushel ----..........-..........---..


--- 1----1L


.. 20 pounds avoirdupois

-- 48 pounds avoirdupois

-. 60 pounds avoirdupo's

.. 78 pounds avoirdupois

.. 48 pounds avoirdupois

.. 50 pounds avoirdupois

-- 62 pounds avoirdupois

-- 60 pounds avoirdupois

-- 56 pounds avoirdupois

.- 54 pounds avoirdupois

-- 56 pounds avoirdupois

- 60 pounds avoirdupois

.. 22 pounds avoirdupois

.. 54 pounds avoirdupois

56 pounds avoirdupois

.. 24 pounds avoirdupois

.. 48 pounds avoirdupois

-- 48 pounds avoirdupois

- 24 pounds avoirdupois

54 pounds avoirdupois

.. 32 pounds avoirdupois

.. 44 pounds avoirdupois

.. 40 pounds avoirdupois

.. 55 pounds avoirdupois

54 pounds avoirdupois


---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

------------- -- ---- -----

---------------------------









86 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


WEIGHTS, MEASURES, AND CONVERSION FACTORS
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Approxi-
Commodity Unit 1 mate net
weight
Pounds
Alfalfa seed.................................. Bushel.................................. --------------60
F ........do.......................... ......-- ... 48
Apples .......................................... Northwest box ...................... 44
[Eastern box3.......................... 54
Apricots.............................. .......... Lug (Brentwood)4 .............. 24
Western .................................... 4-basket crate-....................... 24
Artichokes:
Globe ........................................ Box................................------. 40
Jerusalem.................................---------. Bushel ..................................... 50
Asparagus ..................................... Crate..........................---------------------......... 30
Avocados............................... Lug'.......................------ -----................. 12-15

Bananas........................................--------- Plywood box ......................... 40
Fiber folding box----................ 40
Barley ........................................... Bushel.............-- ........................ 48
Beans:
Lima, dry .......................................----do-----.....-..--.............. ---------------56

Others, dry--......................----- ........ ........ do.............................. 60
Sack.......' "--................. 100
Lima, unshelled.----...................... Bushel--..................-------------................ 32
Snap-.........................------..........---------........ do.........................--------------------..... 30
Beets:
Without tops-............................--- ....--....do..............................---- 52
Bunched...............................--------------------.... Nailed crate--..........---...-----.......... 40
Berries, frozen pack:
Without sugar ......................... 50-gallon barrel-.................... 380
3+1 pack..--.....................----.....----------------do-------....--.....----------------.............. 425
2+1 pack ---- ----............................... -- do-----.....- ................... 450
2+1 ack ----------------------------- -------- do-.---------------- 360
Blackberries.................................. 24-quart crate....................... 36
Bluegrass seed...........................--- ------------ .- Bushel .................................. 14-30
Broomcorn (6 bales
per ton) ............................---------.... Bale .... .............................. 333
Broomcorn seed........................... Bushel.....................--------............. 44-50
Buckwheat...........................---- ---.. .... ----........do--........................ ------------- 48-52
Butter............................................ Tub-----------------........................----- 63
Open mesh bag---................... ---50
Cabbage---- ...............------......................... Wire bound crate" ............... 50
Western crate'9------------------ 80
Western crate' ...................... 80
Cantaloup....................-----------------.....----..... Jumbo crate'....................... 70
Carrots :
Without tops---------------....... Bushel----- .........------------....... 50
[ Open mesh bag-----.................... 50
Bunched-.........................-----------------...--..... Western Crate------ ...................75
Castor-beans............................------------------- Bushel--- ---.............-..-- --------- 46
Castoroil...................--------------.....---.......--- Gallon.................................----------- "8
Cauliflower ................................... 1 -bushel crate-----................... 37
Celery................. ................ Crate"-----------............................----------..... 60
Cherry lug'5..........................-- 16
Cherries ........---------................................ 4-quart climax
basket.......--------------................-----........ 6
Clover seed....................-..--.....-..-.... --------------- Bushel--------------..............------.................--.. 60









READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS


WhIUHIS AiND MEAASUKBS--Continued
Approxi-
Commodity Unit 1 mate net
weight
Pounds
Corn:
Ear, husked.........................| ........do.............................. "70
Shelled................................. ..... --- do................................... 56
Meal.............................. ........ do................................ 50
Oil.............. ............ ..... Gallon...... -----............. --- ".. 7.7
Sirup .................................. ........do................ ................. 11.72
Cotton........................................... Bale, gross.................... 500
[Bale, net....... ............... 1480
Cottonseed....... ............. ... Bushel ................................. l32
Cottonseed oil.............................. Gallon................................. 137.7
Cowpeas........................... ...... Bushel..............................-- 60
Cranberries ............................... .. Barrel ............................... 100
S4-barrel box'....................... 25
Cream, 40-percent
butterfat........................ Gallon................................ 839
Cucumbers ............................... Bushel........................... i 48
Dewberries....... ................ 24-quart crate.....................36
Eggplant................................. Bushel................. ............. 33
Eggs, average size ..----- ............... Case, 30 dozen..................... 45
Escarole .................................... .... Bushel............................ 25
Figs, fresh............................... Box, single layer2- ................. 6
Flaxseed..... --- -------.................. .. Bushel................................... 56
Flour, various ............................. Bag -.....-- ----..--.. 100
Grain sorghums -..............----.... Bushel................................. 56 and 50
Grapefruit:
Florida and Texas.................. V box mesh bag--............... 40
Calfornia and Box................................... 80
Arizona ..... ......... ........... Box ....................................... 65
Grapes:
Eastern.................................. 4-quart climax basket..-- 6
12-quart basket------- 18
Western.................................... Lug---........... ................... 28
4-basket crate''-----... ............. 20
Hempseed.................................. Bushel ............................. 44
Hickory nuts ................-...... .. ........do........................... 50
Honey.................................... Gallon..................................----- 1178
Honey Ball mellons .............. Crate-............................ 70
Honey Dew melons..................... ........ do........................... 35
Hops.................................... Bale, gross....................... 20
Horseradish roots....-..............---- Bushel ...........--....................... 100
Barrel.................................
Hungarian mullet
seed---................................------ Bushel..................................... 48 and 50
Kafir.................................. ..do................................. 50 and 56
Kale...........------- ---........................--- ........do............................---- 18
Kapok seed ............................ .... ........do....--- ----...............--...... 35-40
Lard.............................................. Tierce....................... ........... 375
Lemons, California .............. Box.............. ......................--- .. "79
Lentils ................................ Bushel.................................... 60
Lettuce ............................ Western crate"....................... 70
Limes (Florida) ...-------................. Box..............................--... 80
See footnotes at end of table.


87









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


WEIGHTS AND MEASURES-Continued


Commodity


Linseed oil ..................................
Malt............................................
Maple sirup.................................
Meadow fescue seed...................
Milk ................................... ...
Millet........-------------.....................
Molasses, edible..........................
Molasses, inedible .....................
Mustard seed...............................
O ats.............................................
Olives...........................................
Olive oil ----------
Olive oil.............................
Onions, dry ----------
Onions, green
bunched ...........................
Onion sets.....-- ........................
Oranges:
Florida and Texas................
California and
Arizona ................................
Orchardgrass seed......................
Palm oil....................................
Parsnips........................................

Peaches .......................-..--...

Peanut oil ....................................
Peanuts, unshelled:
Virginia type...........................
Runners, southeastern.............
Spanish.................... ..........
Pears:
California ..........................
Other...................................
Western --...... -----.................
Peas:
Green, unshelled-..................
D ry ............................................
Peppers ........--....................--------
Perilla seed ..................................
Pineapples ---------.......................
Plums and prunes:
California.....---... ----...............
Other.......................................
Popcorn:
On ear.................................
Shelled............................... .
Poppy seed -------.............................
See footnotes at end of table.


Unit 1


Gallon ------------------------------------
Gallon....................................
Bushel.................................
Gallon.................. ...............
Bushel................................
Gallon................... ..................
Bushel...................................
Gallon.............. ..............
........do........................
Bushel............----......................------------
........do..........................----------------...
Lug2 ------------------------
Gallon -------- ---- -- *---------*
Sack.......................................--

Crate"---------.............................------..-...-
Bushel ................................

{/ -box mesh bag..................
Box2.............------...............---------........--
Box2 .......................................
Bushel....................................
Gallon........--............---..............
Bushel ...................................
Bushel-----------------
S.......-do.............................
Lug box2-...............................
California fruit box.............
Gallon--................................-------

Bushel........----................--------..----......
..... do-.............................
........ do.............................. .

........ d o .............................. -
........do.....---......--...-----------..
Box --....--- --............................


Bushel................................
........ do ......... ......................... 1
.... do...........................---------------..

Crate.............................--------------.---...
Bushel....------- ---........................
Crate -30-----................ ----............

4-basket crate .....................
%2-bushel basket...................

Bushel...........-----..................---------.--
........do--------..........................
........do........----- ------.................


Approxi-
mate net
,weight
Pou nds
17.5
34
11.03
24
8.6
48-50
11.72
11.77
58-60
32
25-30
`17.6
50

50-55
28-32

45
90
:-'7 7
14
1"7.5
50
48
20
:'18
"7.7



28
30


30
60
25
50
37-40
70

20-29
28

'`70
56
46









0 \ X12U i J2lO n~IY i~~ ..j; ; 1ArVR.ILJ~ SlVP. iL X5


Approxi-
Commodity Unit 1 mate net
weight
Pounds
I........do......................... ....... 60
toes ................................... J Barrel .......................... 165
Bag..................................... 50
.--do ........................ 100
ices.................................-- ... Bushel ..... ... ... ........ .. 48
-seed ............. .............. ... -..do .. .. ........... ................... 50 and 60
berries------------- ------- 24-quart crate.-....................- 36
op seed.......................... Bushel................................. 50 and 60
ler's sirup ...................... Gallon ............................... 11.45
: Bushel ............ ......... ............... 45
gh ..................................... Bag....................................... 100
Barrel ..................................------ 162
illed....................................... Pocket or bag.....................---- 100
S.----------.........................................-- Drum, net ........................... 520
ibagas.................................... Bushel.................................. 56
--------------............... ........do................................... 56
te seed......................... .... -- do---............................ 46
lots .............................. Crate (8 doz. bunches)...... 40
tBarrel (20 doz. bunches)... 100
o:
ed...................................... Bushel.......-- --------................... 50
-up ....................................... Gallon ............................... 11.55
eans...................................... Bushel ............................... 60
- -;1 r_11 13"7 7









90 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


WEIGHTS AND MEASURES-Continued
Appro
Commodity Unit 1 mate
weizi
Poun
Velvetbeans (hulled) .................. Bushel..................------------................ i
Vetch................................... ----........do................. .......
Walnuts......-----............------------............... -----........do................. .
W ater, 60 F.............................. Gallon.................................- I
Watermelons ................................ Melons of average or
m edium size......................
Wheat......................... .......... --- Bushel.............................-- -----
Various commodities .....---.............-. Short ton...........................------
[Long ton...............................------ i
1 Standard bushel used in the United States contains 2,150.42 cubic inches: the e
231 cubic inches; the cranberry barrel, 5,826 cubic inches; and the standard frui
vegetable barrel, 7,056 cubic inches. Such large-sized products as apples and po
sometimes are sold on the basis of a heaped bushel, which would exceed somewha
2,150.42 cubic inches of a bushel basket level full. This also applies to such produ
sweetpotatoes, peaches, green beans, green peas, spinach, etc.
2 Approximately inside dimensions, 10/2 by 11'/ by 18 inches.
3 Approximate inside dimensions, 11 by 13 by 17 inches.
4 Approximate inside dimensions, 45/ by 12/2 by 16/8 inches.
5 Approximate inside dimensions, 4%/ by 16 by 168/ inches.
6 Approximate inside dimensions, 9/4 by 11 by 20Y/ inches.
7 Approximate dimensions, 4/2 by 131/2 by 16V/ inches.
8 Approximate inside dimensions, 13 by 12 by 32 inches.
9 Approximate inside dimensions, 8 by 12 by 22 inches.
10 Inside dimensions vary. Common sizes are 13 by 13 by 22/8 inches, and 13 by
by 23 inches.
11 Approximate inside dimensions, 13 by 18 by 215/ inches.
12 Approximate inside dimensions, 13 by 13 by 22/8 inches.
13 This is the weight commonly used in trade practices, the actual weight v*
according to temperature conditions.
14 Approximate inside dimensions, 9Y by 16 by 20 inches.
15 Approximate inside dimensions, 4/8 by 11/2 by 14 inches.
16 The standard weight of 70 pounds is usually recognized as being about 2 mez
bushels of corn, husked, on the ear, because it requires 70 pounds to yield 1 bush
56 pounds, of shelled corn.
17 For statistical purposes the bale of cotton is 500 pounds or 480 pounds net w
Prior to Aug. 1, 1946, the net weight was estimated at 478 pounds. Actual bale w,
vary considerably, and the customary average weights of bales of foreign cotton differ
that of the American square bale.
18 This is the average weight of cottonseed, although the legal weight in come
varies from this figure of 32 pounds.
19 Approximate inside dimensions, 9/4 by 10%2 by 15 inches.
20 Approximate inside dimensions, 14 by 11 by 16Y/ inches.
21 Approximate inside dimensions, 12 by 12 by 24 inches.
22 Approximate inside dimensions, 11/2 by 11% by 24 inches.
23 Until 1942, these net weights as used in this Department (for figuring quail
and values of bulk fruit in terms of packed boxes) were 60 pounds for grapefruit
pounds for lemons, and 70 pounds for oranges. Grapefruit in California areas other
the Desert Valleys, averages 68 pounds per box compared with 65 pounds in the \;
24 Approximate inside dimensions, 53/4 by 13/2 by 16/s inches.
25 Approximate inside dimensions, 43 by 16 by 16/s inches.
26 Approximate inside dimensions, 9Y/ by 13 by 25 inches.
27 Approximate inside dimensions, vary. Common size is 4/2 by 1/, by 16/s incl
28 Approximate inside dimensions, 8%/ by 11/2 by 18 inches.
29 Approximate inside dimensions, 133/ by 11 by 22 inches.
30 Approximate inside dimensions, 12 by 10% by 33 inches.
31 Inside dimensions vary. Ranges from 4 by 16 by 16/s inches to 6 by 16 by 16
32 This average of 55 pounds indicates the usual weight of sweetpotatoes when hanr
Much weight is lost in curing or drying, and the net weight when sold in terminal m
may be below 55 pounds.
33 Approximate inside dimensions, 9% by 9% by 19Y/ inches.
(See conversion factors on next page.)










READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS


Commodity Unit Approximate equivalent


s............. ......................... 1 pound dried ............... 7 pounds fresh; beginning 1943,
8 pounds fresh
o......................................... 1 pound chops.............. 5 pounds fresh
o ....... .......................---------.. 1 barrel ........................... 3 boxes or 3 bushel baskets
o .......................... ............. 1 case canned 34.......... 1.4 bushels fresh
sauce ...................................... 1 case canned 34 .......... 1.2 bushels fresh
ots ...................--- .................. 1 pound dried............... 5i2 pounds fresh
y flour.................... ....... 100 pounds ..................... 4.59 bushels barley
, lima............................... 1 pound shelled ............ 2 pounds unshelled
, snap or wax.................. 1 case canned 35........... 0.010 tons fresh
heat flour ........................... 100 pounds ..................... 3.47 bushels buckwheat
sirup .............. ...... 1 gallon........................... 5 pounds sugar
ies, sour.. ............... 1 case canned 34.......... 0.023 tons fresh
ens..................................... 1 pound live weight 0.89 pounds New York dressed
weight
o ..........................------............. ..........do-----........................... 0.65 pounds ready-to-cook weight
shelled ............................. 1 bushel (56 lbs.)........ 2 bushels (70 pounds) of husked
ear corn
sweet............................... 1 case canned 35........... 0.038 tons fresh
ieal:
ermed ............................. 100 pounds ..................... 3.16 bushels corn, beginning 1946
idegermed....................................do ...........................------- -- 2 bushels corn, beginning 1946
............................................. 1 pound ginned............ 2.68 pounds unginned (with no
allowance for trash)
products:
ter .....................................--------- 1 pound ......................... 20.6 pounds milk
ese ..............o......... ..................... 10 pounds mi!k
densed milk, whole .....................do........... --- 2.3 pounds milk
porated milk, whole. ................do.....do......... ..... 2.14 pounds milk
Cream36 ............................... 1 gallon........----....... 15 pounds milk
Cream36 (eliminating
t from butter and con-
entrated milk) ................. 1 gallon........................... 12 pounds milk
ted milk............................... 1 pound.......................... 2.6 pounds milk
vdered milk.......................... ..........do...........................----- 7.6 pounds milk
,dered cream-----.....................do.............. ...... 19 pounds milk
...... ....... ........ 1 case............................... 45 pounds
shell................................ i pound.......................... 0.87 pounds frozen or liquid whole
. since 1950
o .............. ............................ ..do--- ---------- 0. pounds dried whole eggs,
since 1950
... ...................................... 1 pound dried.............. 3 pounds fresh in California:
4 lbs. fresh elsewhere
ed........ ------....................... 1 bushel ......................... About 22 gallons oil
fruit, Florida ................... 1 case canned juice35 0.83 box fresh fruit
!d oil...................................... 1 gallon........................... 0.4 bushel flaxseed
...............................................1 bushel (34 lbs.)... 1 bushel barley (48 lbs.)
! sirup.................................. 1 gallon........................... 8 pounds maple sugar

londs, imported ................ 1 pound shelled............ 8V pounds unshelled
londs, California ............. .......do 2.22 pounds unshelled through
1949; 2 pounds thereafter
zil ................................................. do ....... ........... 2 pounds unshelled
hews ....................................... .......do ................. ... 4.55 pounds unshelled
stnuts ................. ............ do-....................- 1.19 pounds unshelled
erts.......................... ........ do .... ................ 2.22 pounds unshelled through
1949; 2.5 pounds thereafter
ans:
edling .................................---.......... do............................. 2.78 pounds unshelled
proved ............................. -...- do............................. 2.50 pounds unshelled
lolias ...................... ................. do .......--............ 1.3 pounds unshelled
achios .................................. 2 pounds unshelled

nuts:
lack............ ....................................... do ......................... 8/2 pounds unshelled
ersian (English)................. .......... do.................. 2.56 pounds unshelled
al ................................. 100 pounds ..................... 7.6 bushels oats, beginning 1943
es, Florida.......................I 1 case canned juice35 0.63 box fresh
ie footnotes at end of table.









IU3LAKIMINI1 Ut AU1KIUUI U.KL


Commodity Unit Approximate equivalent

Peaches, California, freestone 1 pound dried.........-- 5'/ pounds fresh through 19
6 pounds fresh for 1919-28.
6/2 pounds fresh from 192
date
Peaches, California, clingstone .......... do..................... 7/2 pounds fresh
Peaches, Clingstone .......... 1 case canned 34..... 1.0 bushels fresh
Do ....... .............. ........ -.........do-......................... 0.0230 tons fresh
Peanuts ..................................... ....... 1 pound shelled............ 1 2 pounds unshelled
Pears.................................. 1 L pound dried............... 5V2 pounds fresh
Pears, Bartlett.............----.............. 1 case canned 34 ........-- 1.1 bushels fresh
Do-.................------....... ----. --------..do............................ 0.026 tons fresh
Peas, green ..................................... 1 pound shelled........... 2V2 pounds unshelled
Do........... ..................... 1 case canned 35 ...... 0.010 tons fresh (shelled)
Prunes ............................. 1 pound dried............. 2/ pounds fresh in Californi;
3 to 4 pounds fresh elsesheil
Rasins.......................... .............. 1 pound .......................... 4 pounds fresh grapes
Rice, milled (excluding
brewers) ................................ 100 pounds..................... 152 pounds rough or unhulled
Rye flour ---- .......----.-...-. .......... .................... 2.23 bushels rye beginning 19-
Sugar ...................--......--.. 1 ton raw-------....................... 0.9346 tons refined
Tobacco ................. ............... 1 pound farm-sales i
weight......................... I Various weights of stemmed
unstemmed, according to
and the type of tobacco.
circular 435, U.S. Dept. of
Tomatoes ................................----------- case canned 3........... 0.027 tons fresh
Turkeys............................................ 1 pound live weight.... 0.90 pounds N. Y. dressed w
Do .................. ............................do.....------....... 0.75 pounds ready-to-cook
W heat flour........... ............... 100 pounds..................... 2.33 bushels wheat 7
Wool, domestic apparel shorn. 1 pound greasy ----------- 0.44 pounds scoured
Wool, domestic apparel pulled... ......... do............................. 0.75 pounds scoured

34 Case of 24 number 2/2 cans.
35 Case of 24 number 2 cans.
36 The milk equivalent of ice cream per gallon is 15 pounds. Reports from plant
dicate about 81 percent of the butterfat in ice cream is from milk and cream.
remainder being from butter and concentrated milk. Thus the milk equivalent of
milk and cream in a gallon of ice cream is about 12 pounds.
37 This is equivalent to 4.56 bushels of wheat per barrel (196 pounds) of flour
has been used in conversions beginning July 1, 1944. Because of changes in m
processes, the following factors per barrel of flour have been used for earlier per
1790-1879, 5 bushels; 1880-1908, 4.75 bushels; 1909-17, 4.7 bushels; 1918 and 1919
bushels; 1920, 4.6 bushels; 1921-44, 4.7 bushels. From Mar. 1 to Nov. 1, 1946,
milling rate averaged about 2.20 bushels wheat per 100 pounds flour.


531.04 Standard crate for tomatoes. The legal and st
dard crate for tomatoes shall measure ten inches in depth, ele
inches in width, and twenty-four inches in length, on the c
side.
HISTORY. 1, ch. 7311, 1917; RGS 2378; CGL 3787.
531.05 Standard basket for tomatoes.--The legal ;
standard basket for use in tomato crates shall measure nine ;
one-half inches long in the bottom, five inches wide in the bott
and four and one-half inches deep, all of the last aforementio:
measurements being inside measurements. The length of
inside of the top hoop of each basket shall be thirty-two and c
half inches.








READY REFERENCE: FLORIDA FARMERS 93

i01.85 Standard shipping box for fresh fruit. The speci-
ions for the standard legal shipping box, crate, or container
e used in shipping fresh citrus fruits shall be as established
he commission; but provided that the unit of a standard-
ed box, commonly called one and three-fifths bushels, shall
ain an inside cubical measurement of three thousand four
Hired and fifty-six cubic inches.
STORY. Comp. 85, ch. 25149, 1949.
i01.86 Standard field boxes for fresh citrus fruit.--All
boxes used in the purchase, sale, or handling of citrus fruit
a or for the grower by a citrus fruit dealer in the State of
ida shall be of the uniform standard size of thirty-one and
half inches long, thirteen inches high, and twelve inches
:, inside measurements, and shall be divided into two com-
ments by a center partition of at least three-fourths-inch
mness; and each of these compartments thus created shall
a cubical capacity of not to exceed twenty-four hundred
c inches.
STORY. Comp. 86, ch. 25149, 1949.
CONTAINERS FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
VIore than a million carloads of fruits and vegetables are
ped annually in this country. They are shipped by railroad,
;teamboat, and by motortruck. As the greater part of this
luce, probably 85 to 90 percent, is packed in some kind of
ainer, more than a billion packages are required, representing
investment of several million dollars. Thus the containers
in shipping fruits and vegetables are of vital importance in
satisfactory marketing and distribution of these commodities.
TYPES OR CLASSES OF CONTAINERS
Fhe containers used for fruits and vegetables may be divided
four principal classes --baskets, crates and boxes, barrels,
sacks. Containers of a fifth class, cylindrical drums, have
united use.
Here are five types of baskets till baskets, hampers, round
- baskets, splint or market baskets, and Climax or grape
ets.
Crates and boxes are grouped together because in the trade
istent distinction between them has not been preserved.
theirr constructed of rotary-cut or sawn material, the ends,







TVtA DAXVX~m CfP AI!DTCOTTT ETTDV


sides, tops, and bottoms may be solid, paneled, or slatted,
various combinations of single pieces and cleated units. TypR
boxes are usually assembled with nails, but many crates
now bound together by means of encircling wires stapled to
units and closed with interlocking wire loops. Cartons, wh
come in this group of rectilinear containers, are made of eit
corrugated or solid fiberboard.
Barrel construction is usually classified as stave or vent
some have wooden heads in both ends and others are close
the top with cloth or burlap.
The cylindrical drum, at one time extensively used for cert
varieties of grapes, has come into use for certain other produ
such as brussels sprouts, and in a slatted form for citrus fru
potatoes, and similar products.
Sacks are generally made of jute, but many are now mad(
cotton sheeting and of paper. For certain products, like onic
open-mesh bags are now used almost exclusively, and this si
is being used increasingly for such products as citrus fruits, c
bage, green corn, and peas.







RPF.RP.MN.* FT.n TnTA PARTPPIVC


FIRST AID
Courtesy: METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY
AT THE SCENE
The first-aider at the scene of an accident is expected to take
rge. Keep cool. Deal with the most serious injury or condi-
first. The most urgent medical emergencies which require
-npt action to save life are: (1) Severe bleeding; (2)
hyxia--stoppage of breathing; (3) Poisoning. Shock may
company any one of them.
AT TO Do FIRST
1. Keep the victim lying down, his head level with his body,
il you find out what the injury is. Encourage him, and try
illay his fears.
2. Examine the victim. Do not be satisfied with noting only
injuries that are plain to be seen. Look especially for wounds,
ken bones, burns, signs of shock. If necessary to discover a
rce of bleeding, rip or cut the clothing from the injured part.
3. Move the victim only if absolutely necessary, and then
i the greatest caution. Rough handling will make a bad
:ter worse. In case of simple fracture, for example, one or both
s of the broken bone may be pushed through the skin if the
im is not handled properly.
4. Act promptly but not hastily. Decide what needs to be
e, and do it. Handle various injuries as suggested in this
klet. Do whatever is necessary to prevent further injury or
ave the victim's life, and to keep him comfortable and quiet,
no more.
5. Send for a doctor. Be sure that he is told (1) the nature
he injuries; (2) where the victim is; and (3) what you have
e.
SHOCK
Shock is a condition associated with failure of circulation.
nay occur as a result of loss of blood, damage to tissues, or
i emotional upsets. It varies in degree from a mild condition
mbling fainting to a severe form which may result in death.
The signs vary with the cause and degree of shock. The
;on's face is pale and his skin cold and clammy. Breathing is








96 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

rapid and shallow, and the pulse rate is rapid. The victim i
lose interest in what is happening. He may be partly or tol
unconscious.
WHAT TO Do: The development of shock may be prevei
or the chance of recovery from severe shock may be incre;
by taking the following measures in every case of serious inj
1. Keep the victim quiet and lying down. See that he is ]
comfortably warm with blankets placed under and i
him. If he still complains of feeling cold, apply hot-w
bottles or some other heating device, tested on your ,
forearm. Take care not to burn him.
2. Prepare a shock solution 1 quart of water, 1 teasp(
ful salt, V2 teaspoonful soda. Give the victim drink
this if he is fully conscious, unless he has an abdom
injury.
3. Relieve pain as much as possible. If necessary to move
victim, be especially careful to support, splint, or
tect injured limbs with great care and gentleness.

WOUNDS
A wound is any break in the skin or mucous membrane.
injury may be-either within the body or on its surface.
chief dangers from wounds are serious bleeding and infect
EXTERNAL BLEEDING
In dealing with an external wound, the first and most
portant thing to do is to stop severe bleeding if it is pre'
Blood flowing in quick spurts means that an artery has I
cut; a steady flow means that a vein has been cut. Bleeding f
a vein, or any bleeding that is not too severe, can usually,
stopped by applying pressure directly over wound. To
bleeding from an artery, pressure must usually be applied al
proper pressure point.
Pressure Over the Wound. This is the simplest method of s
ping bleeding. Place a thick pad (compress) of gauze, or o
clean cloth, over the wound and bandage it snugly in place ,
strips of cloth or adhesive. This is called a pressure dres:
Pressure with the hand over the compress may also be apj




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