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Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Ready reference for farmers
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089075/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ready reference for farmers
Series Title: Bulletin
Alternate Title: Ready reference for farmers, mineral resources in Florida, Florida vegetables, melons and non-citrus, poultry
Physical Description: 117 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1941
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "October, 1941."
General Note: Includes index.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089075
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJP6806
oclc - 41450482
alephbibnum - 001822800

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
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    Main
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Full Text




NewH Series f i'V L8

OL-c' '1 1970 /

Read 'A e er

for

Farmers


Mineral Resources in Florida
Florida Vegetables, Melons and
non-citrus, Poultry


STATE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner





TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
October, 1941









READY REFERENCE

FOR

FARMERS















STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee, Florida
October, 1941















Rf









o you know t
ast to West (
anadian boui
[exican bord'
rater bounds
population is
000 tonnx IN


ady Referc

Farmei




U. S. STATISI

hat the U. S. A. has
continental length 3
idary is 3,700 miles
wr has 2,105 miles.
ry 11,075 miles.
)1.4 urban, 48.6 rui
iih nnnnlualinn nof R


I


Mnce for

cs






3,026,789 square miles.
,100 miles.




-al.
000 .nrl nn>n to 100.000


ith -o-ulatio of 3000 andun to 100 00







4 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


$4C


If the I
were lum
Florida St
would be
$400,000,(
This I.
sions: The
ers; capit;
for handle
ning and I
of all typ
transports
State D
to Florida
boxes of (
sumed in 1
taled $50,
ers, but ti
portation
for labor;
fruit and
Back o
t _nr +1-


processing plants
as for growing,
tion of Florida's
marketing Bureai
for last year's (
itrus fruits ship
he state and pro
365,127. This esi
e gross sum rett
in the state by r
for all costs in
tangerines from
f the capital stru
350.000 acres o


r used to build cai


; money invested
picking, packing
golden fruit.
u estimates of the 1
1939-40) harvest(
ped to northern r
cessed in canning
timate is not a ret
irned to pay the ,
ail, ship and truc]
production of ore
blossom to market
cture of the citrus
f vrove lands in F


ing and

revenue
973,112
ets, con-
)ries, to-
:o grow-
>f trans-
r wages
, grape-

stry are
a : some


0,000,000-THE CITRUS INDUSTRY'
CAPITAL INVESTMENT
otal capital invested in Florida's citrus
ped in one sum under one organizat
ate Bureau of Marketing estimates tl
an industrial giant with capital invest
00.
rge investment of capital falls into m,
large and small investments in groves I
il emnloved in construction of nackini


S


industry
ion, the
e result
ment of

.ny divi-
)y grow-
r h1-ii-.o







READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 5

With acreage in tangerines and satsumas added, it is
evident that more than one-fifth of Florida's producing
acres are in citrus groves.
The United States Department of Agriculture survey
shows that of 260,000 acres of orange groves in the state,
39,000 are not of bearing age. The grapefruit acreage,
estimated at 90,000 includes approximately 8,100 acres
not yet of bearing age.
This estimate of acreage devoted to citrus culture in
Florida (and nursery acreage is excluded in the figures
above) is the fundamental starting point in evaluation of
the citrus industry to Florida.
Incidentally, Florida's last crop census places a valua-
tion of $128,882,013 on the bearing orange and grape-
fruit groves of the state. This figure is an estimate only
of the "state" of Florida citrus growers in their lands and
bearing trees.


CITRUS FRUIT CROPS OF FLORIDA
Season Total Boxes Season Total Boxes
1884-85 ............. 600,000 1912-13 ------- 8,125,465
1885-86 -.....-- 900,000 1913-14 ------ 7,651,514
1886-87 -.......-...... 1,260,000 1914-15...---......... 9,573,011
1887-88 ........... 1,450,000 1915-16................ 8,205,434
1888-89 1,950,000 1916-17 ...........----- 6,960,000
1889-90 ............ 2,150,000 1917-18 ----- 5,581,309
1890-91 .............-- .. 2,450,000 1918-19......- .......-- 8,946,204
1891-92 .............. 2,713,180 1919-20 ----- 12,495,925
1892-93 ---....--...-.... 3,450,000 1920-21 ------ 13,195,398
1893-94 ................ 5,055,367 1921-22 .....--..---. .... 13,331,949
1894-95 ..---........... 2,808,187 1922-23......------ 16,886,701
1895-96 .. ....... 147,000 1923-24 .....-......----- 19,200,000
1896-97....-----...... 218,379 1924-25 -----......-. 19,171,440
1897-98 .............. 358,966 1925-26 ........------... 14,694,120
1898-99 ..........-..... 252,000 1926-27.......----- 16,588,800
1899-00 ..... --......... 274,000 1927-28 .........-----... 13,600,000
1900-01 .............. 352,000 1928-29 ------ 23,200,000
1901-02 ............. 974,033 1929-30 ......------ ... 14,200,000
1902-03 ............ 1,465,306 1930-31.. ---- 27,200,000
1903-04 ................. 1,950,823 1931-32 ------........... 26,748,133
1904-05 -.......-.... 2,961,195 1932-33 ......... 20,176,000
1905-06 ......----..... 3,793,126 1933-34 ......------.--- 28,000,000
1906-07 -......---...... 3,800,000 1935-36 -----.......-.. 38,000,000
1907-08 ................ 3,250,000 1936-37 ...-----........ 40,601,208
1908-09 ----............... 4,634,587 1937-38 .....-.......---- 40,939,629
1909-10 ------.............. 6,130,798 1938-39 ..------------..- 56,447,995
1910-11 ............. 4,360,497 1939-40 ..-----....... 42,973,112
1911-12 ------ 4,708,350 1940-41* ----- 50,800,000
Vi_-_-^ _A I~ TTn-A 0 I T h-^-.r ,4- .( A _;,-1-_.-







Th1~P A P mft/rV'TrPT nCV' A r'DTTNTTT rprTpT'


IMPORTS OF GRAPEFRUIT AND ORANGES INTO
THE UNITED KINGDOM IN 1929-1934
GRAPEFRUIT ORANGES
Thousands Average value Thousands Average value
Cwts. per cwt. Cwts. per cwt.
Shillings pence Shillings pence
1929 543 33 3 9,264 21 2
1930 556 32 6 10,207 18 8
1931 896 27 6 10,391 18 4
1932 773 26 6 9,343 16 3
1933 776 27 4 11,555 14 8
1934 974 23 10 10,399 14 9


IMPORTS INTO THE UNITED KINGDOM OF
GRAPEFRUIT IN 1933 AND 1934
Country whence 1933 1934
consigned Thousand Thousand
cwts. cwts.
South Africa .--....................---- --------- 134 151
British West Indies....................----------- 70 118
Palestine --.....---------.... ...... ...... 129 240
British Honduras --..........-----------------.. 2 9
Other Empire Countries....--- --------- -- 2

United States ...------...........--............ ------- 345 339
Puerto Rico --------.........--------............ ... 33 19
Cuba ..-----..................----.... --------- 21 20
Portuguese East Africa.............................--------- 25 24
Brazil ............-------..------- --------- 6 24
Other Foreign Countries .....--------.................... 11 28

Total Empire Countries-----. ----- 335 520
Total Foreign Countries ............................ - 441 454

Total...................---------------- 776 974







READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 7


IMPORTS OF ORANGES INTO THE UNITED
KINGDOM IN 1933 AND 1934
Country whence 1933 1934
consigned Thousand Thousand
cwts. cwts.
Palestine ..............---------------.....................--------------------. 1,943 2,047
South Africa ....-----...........----- ------......... 1,122 1,217
Southern Rhodesia ........-----.----------------..........----...-----..... 52 73
British W est Indies...................... -----.... ...... 2 1
Australia ..............-----........-. -------- 46 113
Cyprus --.~...... .....---. --------------. 27 63
Other Empire Countries ........----------------------..... 1

Spain ....-------................. -----------. 6,616 5,060
Italy .--.............. .--------------------- 32 49
United States ..............................------------. 541 500
Brazil ....---------------------......................----------------... 1,105 1,219
Portuguese East Africa----.....--..........------------- 10 6
Other Foreign Countries ........................ ----- 59 50

Total Empire Countries...--........-----------.... 3,192 3,515
Total Foreign Countries--------.................------------ 8,363 6,884

Total ------- ---------- - 11,555 10,399

FLORIDA CITRUS SHIPMENTS, VALUATIONS, AND
OTHER DATA FOR 10 YEARS
Total Portion With No. Total Estimated
Records, Carloads Carloads Rail Haul, Rail and Florida
Estimates Reported Shipped Shipped Boat Production
Season. Shipped. By Rail. By Boat. Shipments. Utilized.
All Citrus Carloads Cars Carloads Boxes Total Boxes
1930-31 74,645 72,949 1,696 27,229,945 35,004,971
1931-32 49,235 44,996 4,239 18,914,165 24,446,218
1932-33 55,501 44,456 11,045 20,176,750 28,409,630
1933-34 53,311 32,288 21,023 20,884,890 29,276,287
1934-35 51,107 27,460 23,647 20,132,561 32,835,854
1935-36 48,916 28,790 20,126 19,232,052 29,462,052
1936-37 66,879 43,570 23,309 26,221,696 40,601,208
1937-38 67,409 45,867 21,542 26,317,533 40,939,629
1938-39 87,067 58,933 28,134 33,927,076 56,447,995
1939-40 55,310 41,761 13,549 21,449,504 42,973,112
Average 60,938 44,107 16,831 23,448,617 36,039,695







IF.PARTMFNTT OF AC4RTC0TTT,TTRET


FLORIDA CITRUS SHIPMENTS, VALUATIONS, AND
OTHER DATA FOR 10 YEARS-Continued

Cost of Cost of Estimated Estimated (1) Estimated
Records and Production Picking, Gross f.o.b. Net Returns Gross Return
Estimates (2) Before Hauling, Returns to Growers All Citrus
Season. Picked. Packing, Florida Rail & Boat Harvested
Selling. Points. Shipments. and Used.
All Citrus Per Box Per Box Per Box Per Box Gross Value
1930-31 $0.43 $1.10 $1.86 $0.33 $56,293,572
1931-32 .53 .92 1.95 .50 42,691,957
1932-33 .45 .90 1.36 .01 2 32,616,451
1933-34 .44 .87 1.65 .33'2 42,401,191
1934-35 .43 .88 1.63 .32 42,797,752
1935-36 .44 .94 2.14 .76 53,189,191
1936-37 .37 .92 2.04 .75 68,838,758
1937-38 .38 .88 1.57 .30'2/ 53,285,352
1938-39 .34 .82 1.31 .15 58,646,931
1939-40 .42 .90 1.60 .28 50,365,127
10-Yr. Ave. .406* .923* 1.694* .365* 50,112,628
NOTES: (1) Net return after deducting for cost of production which includes fer-
tilizer, spray materials, cultivating, spraying, pruning, etc., but before
duducting taxes, interest, depreciation.
(2) Cost of production figures added to net returns to grower will show
"On Tree" average return.
(3) Estimated figures for "trucked-out" and canned stock are well based
for last 8 years. Truck shipments for 1935-37 include intrastate truck
shipments. Figures for "consumed in Florida" stock are rough esti-
mates based on supply, price, population, etc. Minus sign indicates
Net Loss.
*Weighted Average. Add Production Costs to Net Return to arrive at
"On Tree" price.





WISE BUYER READS LABEL ON ALL
CANNED PRODUCTS

Canned chicken is one of the handy packaged foods
selected for summer picnics and meals out-of-doors, as
well as for home meals when a minimum of work and
cooking is desired. It is an excellent choice from the
standpoint of convenience and flavor.
But a wise buyer of home supplies, points out the Food
and Drug Administration of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, makes a practice of reading labels
on all packaged goods to be sure the family food money
is well spent. She wants information as to the weight
and purity of the contents. Canned chicken is no excep-
tion. In the case of chicken mixtures, she wants to know
what else she is getting and how much of it. No one






READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


wants to pay chicken prices for canned noodles-in a
chicken and noodle mixture.
"Boned chicken" or "boneless chicken" is meat, with
or without a small amount of skin, sterilized in cans and
jars. It generally is packed with a little salt, chicken fat,
and sometimes a small quantity of chicken broth for mois-
ture. This is the chicken for sandwiches and salads or for
slicing as jellied chicken. Sometimes the natural jellying
power of the broth is increased by the addition of gelatin
or agar-agar. These do not injure flavor or food value,
but the law requires their presence be stated on the label.
"Potted" or "deviled" chicken is a sandwich spread
everyone likes. It is made of ground pieces of meat, often
spiced. Canned products such as "chicken a la king"
and "chicken chop suey" contain in addition to the meat,
various quantities of vegetables, condiments, and flavor-
ing materials. The names themselves suggest the nature
of the products with which the chicken is packed, but
they must be truthful.


PULPWOOD
In a recent survey of the State's chemical industries,
Professor C. B. Pollard of the University of Florida,
pointed out that in addition to securing an adequate sup-
ply of pine pulpwood, it can produce cellulose in abund-
ance from its fast growing trees. Cellulose is the raw
material for the manufacture of Rayon, Cellophane, cel-
luloid, artificial leather, photographic film, explosives,
etc. In its sugar refining potentialities it can supply many
by-products through chemical research. In its mineral
wealth, consisting largely of non-metalic minerals, a great
development of new industries based on chemistry is
foreseen.
Florida now produces 80 per cent of the nation's phos-
phate rock and 50 per cent of the Fuller's earth. It has
some of the finest china clay in America and other im-
portant common minerals, clay, limestone and sand. It
has established plants and manufacturing kraft paper,
tung oil, sugar, Portland cement, brick, building board,
glass, sulphuric acid, fertilizer, fish oil, gypsum and the
chemist is playing a part in the development of citrus
juice and canning plants.
Florida has a great lumber and naval stores industry,
wood distillation and pine oil plants, and through the






IU UJI)E'AKNIT'IEIN'T U' AUKIUUUL'iTURKU

chemist it can turn some of its turpentine into synthetic
camphor. It has the necessary raw materials, including
treated rosin, tung oil and turpentine for the establish-
ment of paint and varnish manufacturers, sand for the
making of glass, and essential oils largely imported from
foreign countries.



CANNING FRUITS
Canning of citrus fruits and juices is a comparatively
new Florida industry, one which has shared its quota of
woes during the past three years. It grew too fast.
The canning of citrus products, however, has been
definitely established as an important factor in Florida's
citrus industry.
During the packing season of 1939-40 canners packed
approximately 12,000,000 cases of grapefruit hearts.
grapefruit juice and orange juice-equivalent to one can
per year for nearly half the population of the United
States.
The Florida Grapefruit Canners' Association esti-
mates that approximately 12,000,000 field boxes of grape-
fruit and oranges of cannery grade were used in the
forty-two canning plants active during the last pack-
ing season. The canned product had a wholesale value of
55,328,000. Some 8,000 workers are employed in the
canneries during packing months.
Much of the grapefruit, grapefruit juice and orange
juice canned in Florida last season went into export trade,
approximately 500,000 cases being shipped to the United
inoo'rdnm Rolo1inim Tnllannd Fvrnept SriQin (rrmTinv






READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 11


DIMENSIONS OF CITRUS FIELD AND
PACKING BOXES
The dimensions of citrus field boxes are 33"x12"x13".
Sept.inn 2.277 of thp R.viqpgr (Gpnprn1 qffI1fn-Q nf cPlnrirlca


*ovides tl


ons by g
" 1 -

d in the sa:
ers to packe
r,. 1 "q" h'k


33" long, and shall contain a middle partition not less
three-fourths of one inch thick, so that the standard
box has inside dimensions of 12" wide, 13" deep with
end of the crate 15" long. The middle partition and
end of the crate has a thickness of one inch, making it
The standard nailed box in which citrus fruits are pa
contains 1 3,/5 bushels and measures 12"x 12"x 24", ii
dimensions, with a partition in center. The Bruce
bound box has no center partition but is the same si:
the standard box.


le of
rs or
.and
than
field
each
each
:33".
cked
inside
wire-
ze as


The South produces 100 per cent of the carbon black
produced in America, and
100 per cent of the rosin,
99 per cent of the phosphate rock,
99 per cent of the sulphur,
92 per cent of the cigarettes,
70 per cent of the fertilizers,
78 per cent of the mica,
76 per cent of the Fuller's earth,
73 per cent of the hardwood,
69 per cent of the petroleum,
50 per cent of the feldspar,
49 per cent of the aluminum,
44 per cent of the lead,
41 per cent of the clay products,
40 per cent of the coal.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SEED REQUIRED PER ACRE
Kind of Seed Quantity
Asparagus in 12-inch drills .....------------................. -----.. --------------.. 10 qts.
Asparagus Plants, 4 by 11/2 feet .............---------------- --------........... 8,000
Barley -----------...........--............------....-------- 2 bu.
Beans, bush, in drills, 2 feet --...---....................... --------------1 bu.
Beans, pole, Lima, 4 by 4 feet....--..-...------.........--...........---------..... 20 qts.
Beans, Carolina, prolific, etc., 4 by 3 ft ..----...... -----------------..... ... 10 qts.
Beets and Mangel, drills, 2/2 feet....----------------.......-----................-----. 9 lbs.


Cabbage, sown in
Carrots, in drills,
Celery, Seed ......
Celery, plant, 4 1
Clover, white Di
Clover, Lucerne
Clover, Alsike ..---.
Clover, large red
Clover, large red


12 oz.
4 oz.
4 lbs.
.. 8 oz.
. 25,000
. 13 lbs.
... 10 lbs.
. 6 lbs.
12 lbs.
16 lbs.


Ulll, IitLU -..------------...--.. .....- ....----- ......- 0 o LI.
Corn, salad, drill 10 inches ..............-.-... ---- -...... 25 lbs.
Cucumbers, in hills ............................ ----------- 3 qts.
Flax, broadcast ---.....................----------------.... 20 qts.
Grass, timothy with clover ----....------------.. .... --.. ........... ...... 6 qts.


Grass, red top or heads-------.....
Grass, blue ....--------.
Grass, rye ---------....------..--
Lettuce in rows 2 feet---.....
Lawn grass --------
Melons, water, in hills 8 by 8
Melons, citrons, 4 by 4 feet.--.-
Oats -- ----
Onions, in beds for sets --.-------........
Onions, in rows for large bulb:
Parsnip, in drills 2 feet....-..
Pepper, plants, 21/2 by 1 foot.
Pumpkin, in hills, 8 by 8 feet.
Parsley, in drills, 2 feet.....--...
Peas. in drills, short varieties-


............ 25 qts.
--.......... 20 qts.
..........-- 28 qts.
.---....... 20 qts.
- ....- 3 lbs.
--..--......... 35 lbs.
......-- 3 lbs.
---. 2 lbs.
-.-.-.-- 2 bu.
--..--- 50 lbs.
.---- 7 lbs.
---.. 5 lbs.
.----. 17,500
.--.--- 2 qts.
----.... 4 Ibs.
9 hn.


Peas, broadcast ..............-------------------------. 3 bu.
Potatoes ------.........----------- -------------................... 8 bu.
Radish, in drills 2 feet..........................------------------ 10 lbs.
Rve. broadcast -------------.... ..................--------------------- bu.


Squash, bush, i
turnips, in dri
Turnips, broad
tomatoes, in
tomatoes, seed
Tomatoes, plan
Wheat, in dril
Wheat, broadc


......1 bu.
3 lbs.
-- 3 lbs.
...... 3 lbs.
... 3 oz.
.... 8 oz.
.-. 3,800
.....1- bu.
2 bu.








NEW ENGLAND
Kind of Date of Planting Best Soil Amot
crop
Corn--------................ May 10 to 30................ Sandy or clay loam ....--- 8 to 1I
Wheat............. -------Fall or Spring--------............... Clay loam....-----------................ 18 tons.
Oats..... ---.--- April to May--------......... Strong loam.. .. ------- 6 to 8
Barley---.----.......... April to June 20............ Strong loam ..-.~.~.----.. 7 to 8
Rye-----........-- April to May, Sept.....------- Medium loam-----....---- 7 to 8
Buckwheat------ June 1 to 20 .............---.. Light loam ...........-.....--- 4 to 6
Wh. Beans--...... May to June.................. Sandy loam............ 7 to 8
Potatoes ....---- April 15 to May 1.......... Rich loam........------ 15 to 2(
Turnips..--------- July 1 to August 3 -----......- Sandy loam ..........--- 10 tons
Mangels -------.--- April 15 to May 5......... Strong, heavy loam....... 8 to 1,
Tobacco ----....... Seed bed April .........----- Sandy loam-----........ .. 8 to 1I
Hay --........... ----...... .-----.....---................. ......-.. --.. .........
MIDDLE STATES
Corn ---.........-- April 20 to May 30-...--. Medium loam--.......... 8 to 1;
Wheat --.........-- Sept. 20 to Oct. 20 ....---- Loam....------.... 8 tons
Oats ............ March to May......---------- Moist clay loam....--..-- 8 tons
Barley. ........- March to May ---...........-- Clay loam -------.....---- 8 tons
Rye----------... Sept. 1 to Oct. 1....---..... Sand or gravel loam------ 8 tons
Buchwheat------ .. June to July........------------ Loam ...........--------- 5 tons
Wh. Beans -----. May to June ---------...-- Sandy loam ------..-..- 8 tons
Potatoes ...------ March to May..............---- Loam........---...--. 10 to UI
S. Potatoes...---. May to June ................ Sandy loam............------ ......--------
Cabbage --------...... March to July -----------. Clay or sandy loam....------ 300 to I
Turnips...........---- July........................----------------------- Loam -.....------............ -...- -----
Mangels .--..--. May........... .....-........... Loam......--- ----...........- 10 to 21
Flax-................. May.......-----.............--- Limestone loam ........... --....---
Tobacco........ Seed bed March---......... Sandy loam --...............------------- Comme
Hay, tim'y ---... Aug. to Oct.--..........--------- Clay loam......------------- .........---
Hay, cl'v'r....... Feb. to April........ ---. .... Clay loam -----................------- --..-----..









Corn-...---...--... --- April 1 to June 1.---.......... Black or Sandy loam ... 5 to 10
Wheat-.......... ------Fall or Spring--......---...---. Strong loam. --..---......... 8 tons_--
3ats ..........--... April 1 to May 1-.........-. Clay loam --......-...-- .... 8 tons -.
3arley --.....-..- Fall or Spring -----------..-. Clay loam------....----..-... --...... 8 tons.-.
Iye ---........ Sept. 1 to 30 ----......------ Light loam--....-.......... 8 tons_--
3uckwheat------ June--------.......---------.....---. Clay loam -----........-..... 5 tons--.
Wh. Beans....---. May 10 to June 10.----..- Clay loam .....-- 8 tons ..
Potatoes --...--... Mar. 15 to June 1 ------.. Sandy loam.-------- .. 5 to 10
rurnips ..-- July 15 to Aug. 30 --...-- Loam or muck..---............ -------8 to 10
\Iangels .....-.... April 1 to May 15....--- Sandy loam ---------...-.... 8 to 12
'lax............. Mar. 15 to May 15........ Loam-----------............----....- 10 to 151
robacco....---.... Seed bed March..------- Sandy loam------------.......... 8 to 10
-lay--..-..--........... April to May-..----.----- Clay loam--------..-....... ---10 tons--
SOUTHERN STATES
otton........ Feb. to May 15..........--------- Sandy loam ...--....--.........
Corn--.........------ Feb. to June -------..............-- Rich loam----.. --............. 10 bu. co
Wheat -..-..--...... Sept. to Nov.-------...........--...-... Clay loam --.............-.... 8 tons--
Oats ------------ Feb., May, Sept. -----...... Clay loam .............-------------.------- 8 to 10
3arley ...--......... April to May .............------------. Clay loam --------------..................... 8 to 10
lye .......... ...... Sept. to Oct ............... Clay loam ..................----- ------- 10 tons---
Wh. Beans ..... March to May ---....-..-......... Light loam ----......--.....-.... 8 tons...
Cabbage ..... Oct., Mar. to May ......... Light loam--------------.................... 6 to 101
Watermelon.... Mar. 1 to May 10.......... Rich, light loam -------.. 5 tons;
)nions ............ Feb. 1 to Apr. 10 -....... Loam or muck .. -----
'otatoes .........- Jan., Feb. to April- ..... Light, loose loam-...... 8 to 12 1
S. Potatoes...... May to June........... Sandy loam ..........
pumpkinss ....... April 1 to May 1......... Rich, light loam ..... .........
Tomatoes ........ Jan. 1 to Feb. 1 !) ..-....- Rich, sandy loam ......... ---.........--
;. Ptates ---- Ma toJun --- ----- and lih oam ----------------------------
Turnips .......... Feb., Aug., April ----.-. Rich, light loam............ ..........---
Pobacco ....... Seed bed March.......... Sandy loam ..........--- 8 to 15 1
low Peas .. May 1 to July 15 ......... Sandy loam ... ..... 200 to 3W






M'Lk.L I J.r fTiN .j1Jl UIjL "t1f.lUE


rnn1il.-iL.- I v. r" .-.L
The stock and condimental feeds that are generally
bought on the market, which are represented to be condi-
tioners, tonics, and fatteners, have for their foundation
simple and well-known drugs and feeds. If a tonic or
feed is desired, one of known composition may be mixed
at home with entirely satisfactory results. The following
two formulas are suggested:
I. II.


rounds
Glauber salt ........................ 2
Soda ......-................-------....---....----....--- 1
Salt -------------------- 1
Fenugreek .....---...............---.-----..s
Linseed meal---....-...-------25
A heaping tablespoonful
fed with the grain 3 times i
When a tonic is needed
why it is needed. The horn
tion regarding feed, water,
station, and comfortable quai
factors is usually an under,
tion of the animal.


rounus
ilauber salt ..........----......-- .. 5
;altpeter ...--......----......-------- 1
Fenugreek ...........---------..... 1
ientian ...............-----.......----- 2
linseed meal .....------.......- 50
one of the above mixtures
,y is sufficient.
is advisable to investigate
should receive daily atten-
, exercise, grooming, sani-
s. Neglect of any of these
g cause of the poor condi-


REMEDY TO KEEP HORSE FLIES OFF FARM
ANIMALS
It may be impossible for the man who has droves of
cattle on the ranges to apply a remedy to keep the flies
from drawing their blood and vitality, but that is not
impossible for the man with a few cattle on the farm,
especially dairy cattle.
Many fly-control preparations are on the market,
some of which are good and some of which are worthless.
[n order to be safe use any one of the three following
formulas which are recommended by Professor J. R. Wat-
son, entomologist of the Florida Experiment Station:
So. 1: Laundry soap ------ -------- ---------------- 1 pound
Water ............ -------------------.. ----..- 4 gallons
Crude petroleum --... .......... .--.. ----... 1 gallon
Powdered naphthaline......---------....... --.--------....... 4 ounces
NTo. 2: Fish oil --............--........... --------------....100 parts
Oil of tar.---.... ...... ------------ -- -- --........ 50 parts
Crude carbolic acid -------------- --. ------ 1 part
No. 3: Laurel oil--------------................................. -------...---------....---...........---- 1 part
Linseed oil.--..-.. -----... ..--- --....-- ..-- 10 parts






16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

One may buy the ingredients and prepare the solution
himself and save considerable money thereby. All mus
be thoroughly emulsified by running through a spra:
pump after which they are ready to be sprayed upon th
animals. Any of them, if properly prepared and applied
should keep a cow or horse free of flies for at least a day


HOMEMADE HOG TONIC
Experienced hog feeders have asserted that a mixture
of charcoal, ashes, lime, salt, sulphur and copperas kep
where hogs can eat it will tend to prevent worm infesta
tion. Though there is no positive experimental evidence
in support of this idea, the mixture is of value as a sourc
of mineral matter in the diet and perhaps as an appetize
and tonic. Following is a formula:
Charcoal-----.. ......--...------------.. --.. 1 bushel
Hardwood ashes ........-..................... -- ........... 1 bushel
Salt ---.-...........- ......--------......----.....--.--.................... 8 pounds
Air-slacked lim e ........----------------..------...------.... - 4 pounds
Sulphur -----.... ..... ...-..------- -... ----...---- ....-. .-- 4 pounds
Pulverized copperas ........---........---.......------------------...... 2 pounds
Mix the lime, salt and sulphur thoroughly and their
mix with the charcoal and ashes. Dissolve the coppera
in 1 quart of hot water and sprinkle the solution over th.
whole mass, mixing it thoroughly. Keep some of thi
mixture in a box before the hogs at all times, or place ii
a self-feeder.


PRESERVING AND CANDLING EGGS
Jos. Wm. Kinghorne
U. S. Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 1109
Preserving in Water Glass.-To preserve 15 dozei
eggs in water glass, the following directions should b,
followed:
(1) Select a 5-gallon crock (earthen or stone) anw
clean it thoroughly, then scald and allow to dry.
(2) Heat 10 to 12 quarts of water to the boiling poin
and allow it to cool.
(3) When cool, measure out 9 quarts of water, plac,
in the crock, and add 1 quart of sodium silicate (corn
only called water glass), which can be purchased a
almost any drug store. Stir well so that the solution be
comes thoroughly mixed.






EADY REFERENCE FORd YARIVIEA~i


The solution thus prepared is ready lor tne eggs,
ihich may be put in all at once or from time to time as
hey are obtainable. Care should be taken in putting
hem in the jar not to crack or break the shells; also
iake sure that the solution covers the eggs by at least two
iches at all times.
Put the crock containing the preserved eggs in a cool,
ry place and cover with a tight lid or waxed paper to
prevent evaporation.
To preserve a smaller or larger number of eggs, the
solution should be mixed and prepared in the same pro-
lortion.
Preserving With Lime Solution.-It water glass is not
btainable, lime may be used. It is not considered so good
,s water glass, as in some instances eggs preserved by this
method have tasted slightly of lime, although at other
imes lime water has proved entirely satisfactory.
To preserve with lime, dissolve 2 pounds of unslacked
ime in a small quantity of water and dilute with five gal-
ons of water that has previously been boiled and cooled.
Ullow the mixture to stand until the lime settles, then
wour off and use the clear liquid. Place clean, fresh eggs
n a clean earthenware crock or jar and pour the clear
imewater into the vessel until the eggs are covered. At
east 2 inches of the solution should cover the top layer
if eggs.
If best results are to be obtained the eggs should be
resh and clean and preferably infertile. For this reason
t is always best when possible to candle the eggs care-
'ully before preserving them unless they are known to be
Strictly fresh. If an egg is only slightly soiled a cloth
dampened with vinegar may be used to remove the stains,
)ut eggs should not be washed with water or soap and
vater, as water removes the protecting coating that is on
;he shell and may tend to cause the contents to spoil.
Jnder no circumstances should badly soiled or cracked
eggs be used for preserving, as one or more such eggs in
i jar may spoil all the others.
Using Preserved Eggs.-Fresh eggs preserved accord-
ng to these directions will usually keep from 6 to 10
months and can be used satisfactorily for all purposes in
cooking and for the table. If, however, preserved eggs
ire to be boiled, a small hole should be made with a pin
n the larger end of the shell before placing them in the
water, to allow the air in the egg to escape when heated
mnd thus prevent cracking.






18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fertile and Infertile Eggs.-An infertile egg is one
laid by a hen that has not been with a male bird for 2 or 2
weeks and the germ cell of which is not fertilized. The
length of time varies somewhat, but ordinarily all eggs
will be infertile after the male has been separated from
the flock for from 2 to 3 weeks. If the germ cell of the
egg has not been fertilized the egg will not hatch, and
it is impossible for a blood ring to form in such an egg
when exposed to heat, which so often happens with fertile


gs. inierciie eggs will Keep much loi
gs, and are best for all purposes exce
A fertile egg is just the opposite of
is an egg laid by a hen that has beer
;h a male bird within 2 or three weel
Snof which iQ frtiHlivcP TIh lnnrr1 ,


iale. Gene


,r than fe
hatching.
infertile
Ilowed to
and the g
timp rpnii


mewhat, depending upon the v
ly speaking, however, a good


Ull W VvILII Lilt IILUC IIn0ium 4 LO 0 WeeKs. r erine eggs are
the ones from which chicks ar6 hatched, and are desir-
able for hatching purposes only, as they spoil much sooner
tbhan infPrtilp eao-' nftpn rnlVt-n1+'n __ lnrTr -1\-lfn_


The male bir(
egg, if heated, di
eat. If you do w
to run with the fl(
him away after ti
lIn'r i11Q+ nFu QO- r


I makes
develops a
ant hatc]
)ck during
ie hatchi:
evvs with


egg fertile, and the fertile
iod ring, making it unfit to
* eggs, then allow the male
e hatching season, but take
- nnn'nlnl-nA 'brl / f


discarding or sorting out of the bad eggs from the good
ones by holding the egg before a strong light in such a
manner that the rays of the light come to the eye through


The shell of
"bloom" which is
glow or bloom is
disappears after


new-lk
i visible
lestroye
ie egg I


egg has a soft "glow" or
n of perfect freshness. This
y handling and in any case


fore candling becomes necessary if you would be sure
that the egg is good.
PIVr-n nn r n fb fnv>/A -l -.r., 1^ .I- ^


a bright light inclosed in
trifle smaller than an egg
this hole the egg is held


ox or case havi
ectly opposite tl
examrinatfinn ,


hole a
ght. At
rdinarv






READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 19

hand lamp, a lantern, an incandescent bulb, or a flash-
light may be used. Any box that, set on end, is large
enough to hold the lamp will do. In addition to the hole
opposite the light there should be a hole at the top end
of the box, otherwise the heat from the top of the chim-
ney would set the box on fire. A tester chimney made of
tin such as is used on a lamp for testing eggs in incubators
may be used for candling. When such a chimney is avail-
able the box is not necessary, as the eggs are tested by
means of the hole in the side of the chimney.
The box and light should be placed on a table or a
shelf where most convenient. Place on one side the eggs
that are to be candled and on the other side have sep-
arate boxes (or anything that will hold eggs) for the good
and the bad eggs. Hold the eggs, one by one, large end
up, close to the light.
A perfectly good fresh egg shows "full" and "clear"
before the light. There is almost no air cell at the large
end, and the yolk outline is only faintly visible. A fixed
air cell of one-eighth to three-sixteenths of an inch in
depth indicates a fresh egg as eggs run generally. A
larger air cell with a movable lower line indicates-ac-
cording to sizes and fluctuations-a stale egg or one be-
coming weak and watery.
Very small dark spots which sometimes may be seen
are usually blood clots. Large dark spots, blood rings,
and shadows are due to heat and germination and indi-
cate the first stages of decay. An egg that looks very
dark or black, except for a large fixed air cell, contains
a chick at an advanced stage of incubation. An egg
which looks dark when tested in the same way but shows
a large air cell with a movable lower line is usually in an
advanced stage of fluid decomposition, or what is com-
monly known as a "rotten egg".
At first it may be a little difficult to test eggs as here
directed, but with a little practice it becomes a very simple
matter.

PERIOD OF INCUBATION
The period of incubation varies with different species
of poultry, as shown in the following table:
Kind of Poultry Days Kind of Poultry Days
Hen ---..~.--- -- 21 Peafowl ..............--------- 28
Pheasant ..............-----22-24 Guinea fowl ---....--26-28
Duck ........-----...... 28 Ostrich ... -------- 42
Duck (Muscovy) ------. 33-35 Goose .------.. --....-.......-. 30
Turkey ------------------ 28 Pigeon 17







20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The period of incubation varies somewhat with condi-
tions, so that a hatch may run one or two days over in
some cases, because of an accident during incubation or a
low temperature throughout that period, or it may come
off earlier. If through any accident the eggs are chilled
or overheated, it is advisable to continue the hatch, test-
ing the eggs after a few days to determine the extent of
the damage.


PRESERVING EGGS
Preserving Eggs by the Use of Water Glass
Use pure water that has been thoroughly boiled and
then cooled. To each ten quarts of water add one quart
of water glass. Pack the eggs in a jar and pour solution
over them, cover well. Keep the eggs in a cool, dark
place. A dry, cool cellar is a good place. If the eggs are
kept in too warm a place the silicate is deposited and the
eggs are not properly protected. Do not wash the eggs
before packing, for by so doing you injure their keeping
quality, probably dissolving the mucilaginous coating on
the outside of the shell. For packing, use only perfectly
fresh eggs, for the stale eggs will not be saved and may
prove harmful to the others.
Water glass is a very cheap product that can usually
be procured at about 50 cents per gallon, and one gallon
would make enough solution to preserve 50 dozen eggs,
so that the cost of material for this method would be only
about a cent per dozen.
Water glass is sodium and potassium silicate, sodium
silicate being usually the cheaper. If wooden kegs or
barrels are used in which to pack the eggs, they should
first be thoroughly scalded with boiling water, to sweeten
and purify them.







READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 21


ROTATION IN THE GARDEN
Rotation of crops is desirable in the garden as well as
in field crops. Following is a suggested plan of rotation
for early and late vegetables in the small home garden:
Vegetable Distance
Followed Apart
by (Inches)
Beets, early..----............-----..---------......... -... -Celery .---............. ---------- 15
Radishes ....---.----------... ..---- ..Celery------ ..... ------------................--- ----. 15
Lettuce............--- ...............--------. ----Celery -----.. ------------------.......... 15
Early Potatoes--.....---------.................----.--.... Spinach ..--.------...... ----------.. 24
Onions, plants or sets..--------------..............................--------------------...--- 24
Beets, late--------...............--------.------Spring Cabbage-------.............----18-24
Peas ----.................. ...------ .......... Fall Cabbage.-------- 30
Early Cabbage ------....................-----Fall Beans--...............---------.... 30
Early Potatoes ........... -------..........---- Fall Radishes, Lettuce ---...-. 24
Beans, bush .....--------......---............. Scotch Kale...-------- 24
Beans, bush.----.........-------.............----------Siberian Kale ------ 24
Tomatoes, early.............----------........ Turnips ---------- 36
Tomatoes, medium and late ........... Turnips.---. ------ 36
Tomatoes, late ......--.....................---------------------- 36
Eggplant and Peppers...--..-- ...................----------------- 24
Cucumbers .......................... ---------------------- 48
Sweet Corn.....-....---.---............-- ---------......... Fall Potatoes --.--....--.-..... 36


REQUIREMENTS FOR STORING FRUITS AND
VEGETABLES
Where fruits and vegetables are stored in cellars,
barns, pits, or other places, there are certain require-
ments that must be met in order to avoid decay.
Only products that are free of diseases should be
stored. Often lack of air causes rotting. Dry heat will
cause spoiling more quickly than any other condition.
When these products are stored in a dry place and begin
to shrivel, sprinkle the floor with water frequently, every
day if necessary. When put in storage pits, lack of venti-
lation is often the cause of rotting. Pits should be pro-
vided with a flue or chimney in the top so as to give the
proper ventilation. It is during the first month or two of
storage that most ventilation is needed, as that is the time
when he most moisture is given off.


HOW LATE TO PLANT VEGETABLES
In planting the fall garden, it is well to plant a big
variety of vegetables-practically all of those planted in







22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

the spring. It is usually best to make the last plantings so
they will mature just before frost, provided they are
kinds that will not withstand frost. The table herewith
lists some of the more common vegetables that will not
stand frost and the number of days it usually takes them
to mature under average conditions. This information
will enable us to determine how late we can wait to plant
these vegetables and have them mature before frost:
Days
Vegetables to mature
Bush lima beans -------------...........................-----------------------...-----... 70 to 80
Snapbeans .........------------------------..------------------ .... ......... 45 to 55
Black-eyed peas ..........................-------------------------------------------------..---.. 65 to 75
Lady peas ......... ......... ..------ -.--.------ ---- --- .....-- ..---.......-- 60 to 70
Irish potatoes .... .......-------------------------------------.---- ---- -- 75 to 100
Cucum bers ....................... .....------------------ ----- ................... 55 to 80
Squash .........-- ................. ----------------- ------- 60 to 80
Tomatoes ..........-.....-- ------------ .................... 100 to 120

Vegetables which will withstand considerable frost,
but not very hard freezes, and the number of days it or-
dinarily takes them to mature are listed in the following
table.
Days
Vegetables to mature
Mustard ...---..................---------..-.... 30 to 40
Turnips .. -------.......------.....-.....--------............. 60 to 80
Carrots --.---------------...........................--..--- ... .. 65 to 85
Beets --...........------......- -.............. 65 to 70
Sw iss chard -------- ........---------------............. .. -------- ----- -- -------.... 45 to 65
Radishes ........... .....-------------- -------....... 20 to 30
Lettuce ..--...... -------- .....--------..... ... 60 to 75
Onions from seed ----------....... .............--------- --- ------------ ...--- 130 to 150
Onions, sets for green onions------ ------... ...........--..-..--............. 35 to 40
Kohl-Rabi ..-... ---- ------ ----- --.......---....................... ..... 65 to 75
English peas ----..........................-- .--- --. ---------......... .. 40 to 70
Cabbage --.......... ............ -----------.-- 90 to 120







READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 23

POISON BRAN MASH
For poisoning cut worms, army worms, grasshop-
pers, and the central powers of wormdom, now driving
against the safety of garden and field crops, "Poison bran
mash" is the Browning gun of immediate relief. The fol-
lowing is the formula:
Paris green or powdered arsenate of lead (whichever
you prefer or can secure), one-fourth of a pound; wheat
bran (coarse preferred), 5 pounds; one or two oranges or
lemons ground or cut into very small pieces, molasses or
syrup, one quart; water, three quarts, or as needed to
make a crumbly and not sloppy dough.
Bran and Paris green (or arsenate of lead) should be
first mixed together in bucket or other receptable.
To the water, first add juices and pulp of oranges or
lemons. Add next syrup or molasses, mix, and then pour
onto the poison bran and stir thoroughly. Add more bran
or water only as needed to make a crumbly mash.










Sulnhur nplacd in thep spd drill is said tn renpl them


t(
g
is
o:
t(
0'


U0


I
be d
the
Tho,.


ime extent
;e bottom
ade up, pL
foot, mon
a grown ar
it. The g
should be
?lants set c
i. For thi,
and place
ing them i
act at least
re tin cans
'he moles r
1 or bran a
aris green
I and moisi
like other i
destroyed b
.nfested g.
ie can be i
Id be push,


They ma,
d sides.
e the gau:
)r less ac(
deep or ,
ze to be i
copper o]
in a field
purpose m
Le resulting
11 into the
n inch or t
ie may us
y be poiso
Paris grn
Tith tweni
ithe hole
,ects which
the use of
[en severe
,de with i
tfn ( rnfl)


ie kept c
the tim(
in the g
-ding to
willow roo
all endur
'alvanizei
lay be pr
off tops
cylinders
round, bi
)above tl
tarred p,
d by a mi
i. Thoro
or thirty
ith dilute
.ive in th,
arbon-bis
holes for
ane if tYl
f a f!f1


ut of se,
that th
round at
whether
ted, and
ing in su
I iron.
Atected 1
and bot-
around
it allow
Le groun
per.
xture of
ughly m
of the
d syrup.
' ground
ulphide.
each sq
e soil is
n _.- J-


beds b3
seed bed
he deptl
ie plant,
)lace soi
i a situa-

banding
ms of tir
ie plants
them t(
Instead

)ttonseec
a pound
ottonseec

;hey ma3
Sink intc
ire yard
noist and
aa n V| k rl .







READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


STANDARDS OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
The Florida Farmer. March 16, 1928. Copied from the Revised
General Statutes of Florida (Vol. 1). 1920, Chapter 2372.
The following standards of weights and measures
shall be the standard weights and measures throughout
the state of Florida:
One standard liquid gallon shall contain 231 solid
inches. The weights and measures shall be as follows:


Pounds
Per Bushel Avoirdupois
Corn, shelled --....-..-..........--.. 56
Corn, on cob with shuck ----- 70
Sorghum Seed ................. ------------56
Barley Seed .................... --------------48
O ats .............. ......... ............- 32
B ran ............- -..-.- --.. ......... 20
Corn Meal ....-.....- -- - 48
Beans, shelled .........------------.......... 60
Beans, velvet, in hulls.-....... 78
Beans, Castor, shelled ....-.... 48
M illet Seed---------- ---- 50
Beggarweed Seed.-------- 62
Irish Potatoes...............------------.. 60
Sweet Potatoes.. ---------- 56
Turnips ...............--.--.-- ........ 54


Pounds
Per Bushel Avoirdupois
O nions ...................... .......-- - 56
Salt .--............... ..--------------- --. 60
Peanuts .............------------------- 22
Chufas --------------- -- 54
R y e -..-.-. --.-.. ... ... ............... 56
Apples, dried .....- -............. .. 24
Apples, green ...................... 48
Quinces ........................ -----------------48
Peaches, dried _----------. 24
Peaches, green -----------54
Cotton Seed ........................ 32
Cotton Seed, Sea Island -.... 44
Plums ......................------------------- 40
Pears ...............-.... --.......... 55
G uavas - -------- ------- 54


STANDARD OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Chapter 4975-(No. 91)
AN ACT to Establish a Standard of Weights and Meas-
ures of the State of Florida.
Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
Section 1. The following standard of weights and
measures shall be the standard of weights and measures
throughout the State:
One standard bushel shall contain 2,150 2/5 solid
inches.
One liquid gallon shall contain 231 solid inches. The
weights and measures shall be as follows:
Wheat, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Corn, shelled, per bushel, 56 pounds avoirdupois.
Corn on cob with shuck, 70 pounds avoirdupois.
Sorghum seed, per bushel, 56 pounds avoirdupois.
Barley seed, per bushel, 48 pounds avoirdupois.
Oats, per bushel, 32 pounds avoirdupois.
Rice, rough, per bushel, 45 pounds avoirdupois.
Rice, clean, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.






rtiIW1.Y1J2.L I VP iAI\UUL~1uIf


-Dill, IJJCi UuAIi1C, 4VU jUuliluo VUlluu gulSU.
Corn meal, per bushel, 48 pounds avoirdupois.
Beans, shelled, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Beans, velvet, in hull, per bushel, 78 lbs. avoirdupois
Beans, castor, shelled, per bushel, 48 lbs. avoirdupois
Millet seed, per bushel, 50 pounds avoirdupois.
Beggarweed seed, per bushel, 62 pounds avoirdupois
Irish potatoes, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Sweet potatoes, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Turnips, per bushel, 54 pounds avoirdupois.
Onions, per bushel, 56 pounds avoirdupois.
Salt, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Peanuts, per bushel, 22 pounds avoirdupois.
Chufas, per bushel, 54 pounds avoirdupois.
Rye, per bushel, 56 pounds avoirdupois.
Apples, dried, per bushel, 24 pounds avoirdupois.
Apples, green, per bushel, 48 pounds avoirdupois.
Quinces, per bushel, 48 pounds avoirdupois.
Peaches, dried, per bushel, 33 pounds avoirdupois.
Peaches, green, per bushel, 54 pounds avoirdupois.
Cottonseed, per bushel, 32 pounds avoirdupois.
Cottonseed, Sea Island, per bushel, 46 lbs. avoirdupois
Plums, per bushel, 40 pounds avoirdupois.
Pears, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Guavas, per bushel, 54 pounds avoirdupois.
Sec. 2. All contracts hereafter made within this State
for work to be done or anything to be sold or delivered by
weight or measure shall be taken and construed accord-
ing to the standard of weights and measures hereby
adopted as the standard of this State.
Sec. 3. All laws and parts of laws in conflict with this
Act are hereby repealed.
Approved May 30, 1901.



CITRUS PRODUCTION COSTS AND PROFITS
It is still true that the citrus crop of below normal vol-
ume is the most likely to be more profitable to the grower
The most profitable year since 1929-30 was in the 1936-31







HiAU Ii1iaf.EtiVN U1, rUKi AtIlVIL.tti


nrr~l, a rerrno ratlir n-f ~fi~t Q9 Q 2'7~ onr A a n a 4-i


to grower oi z4,o'u,Zuaa. J.
the last five years has been
Production costs vary
although not in proportion t
tion. Other factors being E
box are lower in years of I
The following statistics

FLORIDA CIT
ORANGES, GRAPE

Total
Production
Season Utilized,
Boxes
1930-31------ 35,004,971
1931-32-..........--..... 24,446,218
1932-33--........ 28,409,630
1933-34 ...------ --...... 29,276,287
1934-35...----- 32,835,854
1935-36 -----............ 29,462,052
1936-37 ------ 40,601,208


average production
350,000 boxes.
what from year t(
e variation in total I
dl the production co
7y production.

,y be studied:

; ANALYSIS
:T, TANGERINES

Gross
Return 1

$56,293,572 $10
42,691,957 10
32,616,451
42,401,191 10
42,797,752 8
53,189,191 20
68,838,758 24


curing


) year,
)roduc-
sts per


1938-39 ........ 56,447,995 58,646,931 3,693,314
1939-40 ------........ 42,973,112 50,365,127 5,014,792
Average ..........-...-.. 36,039,695 50,112,628 10,289,587
1940-41 -- 55,890,754 $64,192,695 $ 8,831,633


Rail and Boat Shipments

Gross Picking,
Season Return Packing, Production Net
Per Box Selling Costs Return
Per Box Per Box Per Box







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


AND FIGURES ON FLOR


toara, 'ioricaa nas z6,'l14,4
of bearing and non-bearing
tangerines, satsumas and c
follows:

1941
Orange --- ..-- .. ....-- -
Grapefruit ......---.....---....--.--.--
Tangerine -----------------.-..--....
Lim e .... ------------------ ---
Satsum a --.....-----... -------.. ...--..
Miscellaneous -------------

Total ..-...-.....-.........


The following table shox
ing counties of the state, e
one-third of a million, or mi
Brevard -.........---.. 865,479
DeSoto ...................... 453,969
Hardee -------....----....---...... 610,835
Highlands ------ 629,619
Hillsborough --.....--. 1,183,663
Lake ...........- ---------- 1,940,454


The following table sh(
producing counties of Florid
ing one-fourth of a million, (
Dade -------.. ----------.... 277,969


f 1941 c
citrus tr
ees of or
wr variety:














;he leadii
I of thes
orange
Marion ....
Orange .---
Pinellas ..
Polk ........
Volusia .-



the pri
Lach of t]
nore, gra
Manatee ..


the State Plar
3. The number
ges, grapefrui
of citrus is a



- 18,837,897
... 6,698,019
- 1,592,490
755,254
.- 88,680
742,029

... 28,714,369


orange produce
countiess having
!es:
-..---.-- 650,79
.........- 2,412,77
-.-......-- 497,22
.--........---- 3,923,92
............ 910,47



ipal grapefrui
.e counties hav
fruit trees:
.--...-- 354,33







READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 29


CITRUS PLANTINGS IN FLORIDA
statisticss Compiled by the Grove Inspection Department-State Plant
Board of Florida--Showing Number of Citrus Trees by Counties
and Varieties-Based on Tabulation Completed Aug. 15, 1941
Total Total Total Total Total Total
Year Oranges Grapefruit Tangerine Lime Satsurma Misc. (1)

919(2)
923...- 10,912,716 4,780,496 609,107 (4) (3) 374,908
.928.... 13,660,461 5,592,187 1,677,042 (4) 528,823 568,201
931.... 14,549,074 6,412,268 1,987,894 (4) 724,768 649,846
.934 -.. 15,853,729 6,456,389 1,877,779 (4) 749,589 1,127,287
941.. -. 18,837,897 6,698,019 1,592,490 755,254 88,680 742,029

Total all Citrus:
1919(2) ..................---.. ------ 11,356,414
1923 ....--------------.---------------- 16,677,227
1928 ............. ...----------------------- ----..-- 22,026,714
1931 ...................... ....------ 24,323,850
1934 -.. --....... .........-...............-- ----.. ---- 26,064,773
1941--------........ ----------............ --------- 28,714,369

NOTE: The figures given in the above tabulations include all trees inspected by
agents of the State Plant Board, whether in grove formation, in small plantings or
back yards, and regardless of thrift or condition. They do not, therefore, correctly
represent what are usually regarded as "Commercial Plantings."
Approximately two years are required to complete an inspection of the citrus
plantings of the state. It therefore follows that the figures shown for some counties
nay be those obtained as much as two years prior to date of completion of the
inspection.
(1) Lemons, rough lemons, Kumquats, etc.
(2) Figures as to varieties not available.
(3) Included as "Oranges".
(4) Included in Misc.


HOW TO DETERMINE CITRUS FRUIT SIZES

Since prices realized for oranges and grapefruit are
being determined more and more by their size, Florida
growers are showing greater interest in the size of their
fruit. The following table gives the diameter for differ-
ent sizes of oranges and grapefruit:

ORANGES GRAPEFRUIT
Number Diameter Number Diameter
in box of fruit in box of fruit
96 3M2" 28 51/"
112 31/" 36 5
126 3%" 46 43/4"
150 3 1/16" 54 4"
176 2 15/16" 64 41/4'
200 2 13/16" 72 41/"
216 2 11/16" 80 4
226 2 9/16" 96 3%"







DEFPARTTME NTT (IF AlRTCTTITTTTTTR


TREES PER ACRE UNDER CITRUS PLANTING
SYSTEMS
Citrus groves are usually planted in one of three for
mations-the triangular, rectangular or hexagonal.
In the triangular system, the land is laid off in square;
or rectangles. Two trees are planted in two corners o:
each rectangle, and the third in the center of the opposite(
side of the rectangle. If the rows are laid off 30x30 feet
the trees, under this system, will be 30 feet apart in on(
direction through the grove, and about 3314 feet apar-
in the other direction.
The rectangular system, which is most generally usec
in Florida, provides for setting the trees in squares oi
oblongs. Under this system, the rows of trees intersect
each other at right angles, and cultivation may be either
crosswise or lengthwise of the grove.
The hexagonal system of planting is similar to the tri-
angular system of planting, excepting that under this sys-
tem each tree is equally distant from each adjoining tree
This system of planting allows about 15 per cent more
trees to the acre than does the rectangular system. The
following table gives the number of trees per acre under
the different planting systems:
Distance Triangular Rectangular Hexagonal
apart planting planting planting
10 x 10 ft. 386 436 501
12 x 12 ft. 275 303 348
15 x 10 ft. 164 290
15 x 15 ft. 175 193 217
20 x 15 ft. 132 145
18 x 18 ft. 122 134 142
20 x 20 ft. 98 108 124
25 x 20 ft. 79 87
25 x 25 ft. 64 70 81
30 x 30 ft. 44 48 55
35 x 35 ft. 33 36 41

WHERE THE CITRUS GROWER'S MONEY GOES
When the consumer in the North pays $7.00 for a box
of Florida citrus fruit, the grower should receive a net
profit of $1.67. At least, that is the way it figures out on
paper. The following table, showing the distribution of
the money paid by the consumer for Florida fruit, was
compiled by the Florida Citrus Exchange, and is based on
a consumer purchase price of $7.00. When fruit sells for






P.AnV PFFFPFNC'F OP PARPMR.Pq


less than $7.00 a box to the consumer, the grower's net
return is proportionately less.
Distribution of $7.00 Paid by Consumer
Grower's Net ----------..........$1.67 Sales Costs ..................----- $ .13 1/
Production Cost ........... 771/2 Advertising .............- .06
Picking .....----.........--. .06 Y2 Wholesaler's Profit ...... .46
Hauling ----.............. .071/2 Retailer's Profit ----........ 1.89
Packing --........-- ...... .72
Freight, etc. .....---- 1.15 Total ......--------....... $7.00
Estimates on the cost of such items as production,
hauling, packing, freight, etc., are, of course, general
averages for the entire state, and will vary in the deffer-
ent citrus localities depending upon their local conditions.

STATE AGENCIES WHICH SERVE FLORIDA
CITRUS GROWERS
Research work on Florida citrus production problems
is conducted by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, at Gainesville, by its Citrus Branch, at Lake Alfred,
and by the United States Department of Agriculture at a
Citrus Disease Laboratory, at Orlando.
Headquarters for the Florida Citrus Market News
Service of the United States Department of Agriculture
are with the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Asso-
ciation, at Winter Haven. Additional citrus market news
service is furnished by the Florida State Marketing Bu-
reau, at Jacksonville.
Enforcement of the state's green fruit law is in charge
of the Florida State Department of Agriculture, at Talla-
hassee, though enforcement headquarters during the
shipping season are located at Winter Haven.
Headquarters for the State Plant Board, which has
charge of the state's plant quarantine and nursery inspec-
tion work are at Gainesville.

BRIEF HINTS ON PRUNING FRUIT TREES
1. Make all cuts close and parallel to remaining
limb.
2. Paint all wounds over 1 inch in diameter with
white lead and raw linseed oil to which a little corrosive
sublimate has been added. (Do not use boiled linseed oil
or prepared paints. They are apt to injure the bark and
may even kill the tree.)
q Train iTnrmmno +aa r a ona-oral laorlop






32 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

4. When planting the trees cut off 1/ to 2 '3 of the
tops. This lessens the demands on the root system until
it has a chance to become established in the soil.
5. Develop 3 to 5 main or scaffold branches.
6. In old trees remove dead wood, crossing and rub-
bing branches, and thin the top. Confine pruning to the
smaller branches and avoid heavy pruning.
7. A few water sprouts may be left in the old trees
to shade the large limbs.


PLANTING TABLE FOR FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS
General Instructions for the Commercial Production of
Vegetable Crops
All truck crops listed in this table are produced in
commercial quantities by Florida farmers. Such crops as
beets, turnips, radishes, spinach and cantaloupes, which
are grown mainly for local markets in this state, are not
listed.
Because of the wide range in Florida climatic and soil
conditions, the rules for growing one crop in the southern
part of the state do not always apply to growing the same
crop in the central or northern sections of the state.
Hence, the information and suggestions given in this table
are of only a general nature, and must be properly inter-
preted when applied to various local conditions.
References: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville; Florida State Department of Agriculture,
Tallahassee; P. H. Rolfs' "Sub-Tropical Vegetable Gar-
dening"; and William Gomme, Pinellas County Agricul-
tural Agent.







K.EADY KhIIIK NIR E 'UOK 1f'AKMKS 33


THIS IS WHAT ONE WAR COST
WASHINGTON-(AP)-Diplomats striving to prevent the world
from being plunged into another great war are haunted by memories
of the last world conflict. Here is what it cost in human lives and
suffering, according to War Department compilations:
Killed and Prisoners and Total
ALLIES Died Wounded Missing Casualties
Russia ....................1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 9,150,000
France .............-1,357,800 4,266,000 537,000 6,160,800
British Empire ...... 908,371 2,090,212 191,652 3,190,235
Italy ......--------...... -- 650,000 947,000 600,000 2,197,000
United States --..-... 126,000 234,300 4,500 350,300
Japan ........-------------- 300 907 3 1,210
Rumania .-.....----------- 335,706 120,000 80,000 535,706
Belgium .-------------............. 13,716 44,686 34,659 93,061
Other Allies ....--..-.. 60,222 177,899 183,276 413,397
CENTRAL POWERS
Germany ---------..1,773,700 4,216,058 1,152,800 7,142,558
Austro-Hungary ....1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000 7,020,000
Turkey -.....--------...... 325,000 400,000 250,000 975,000
Bulgaria --------.......----- 87,500 152,390 27,029 266,919

Total All Powers..8,538,315 21,219,452 7,750,919 37,494,186












PLANTING TABLE FOR FLORI


!rop Principal Type of Amnit. Seed When to Amount
Variety Sdapted Per Acre Plant Fertilizer


Giant String-
less
Refuin,"gee ,
Blaeik Val- Jan., Feb.,
enti, le Mu,11: Ham- Jnar. Apr.,
Wardwell's itoulk: Flat June. (but-
S Kildnty Wax Woods, well- to lkGto ter vari- 800 to
New Davis (drained: Pine 1 bu. ties) 1,000 lbs.
White Wax good quality.
Green & Yellow
Boullit ut Aug. &
Fordhlook Sept. (snap
Limna varieties)

Jersey Wale-
field
Chlilreston \U(li:k Ham-
AGE Wakelieid nk;""" Flat lb. isu- October, 1,500 to
Premiuml Flat Woodls well- fi" i(ei November 3,0001 lbs.
Dutcli drtined Pine it 2- & January ner acre.
Successiton itd quality. at tia
Copel)(nhallit lI

Golden selfI
blaient linig" Mine]k: Ha1 m- 2,(000 libs.
ItY (Ey) IIoek; Flat MXttllit lo :'r "i
('ee-'n 'Toee Widits, well- ii oz. Nove ilir I iald ni '
Easy lh1 iei.- drained. illf ...s-

I iiiprov'-d
M 1111S Whil.- Spinee- I oI A st, i) 0
s M leltSl tShil i e,) :3 Ibs. et. () -'(et. .l
Slla'y ( ln.l*.'.n well lr; lillln. i1'ae










PLANTING TABLE FOR FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS-Continued


Crop




EGGPLANT




LETTUCE


Amt. Seed When to
Per Acre Plant


Principal
Variety


Black Beauty
Florida
Hightbush


Big Boston
Cream Butter
Romaine
Iceberg

Crystal Wax
Wlhite Ber-
muda
Australian
Brown
Red Bermuda

Alaskan Ex-
tra Early
Thomas Laxton
Florida Mc-
Neil
Telephone


Ruby King
World Beater


Spaulding,
Rose 4
Bliss Triumph
Irish Cobbler


Yield
Days to Per
Mature Acre


Type of
Soil Best
Adapted

Hammock'
Flat Woods,
well-drained:
Pine, good
quality.

Muck Iam-
mock; Flat
Woods, well-
(raincd.


Low Ham-
mock; Flat
Woods Pine.



Muck ; Ham-
mock; Flat
Woods, high
quality;
Pine. good
quality.

Flat Woods:
Hammock
Pine, good
quality.

Flat Woods,
well-drained ;
Hammock;
Muck.


Jan. spring
rcrop. July,
fall crop.



September
to Dec.



Dec. to
Feb. Seed
Jan. to
Mar. sets.




October to
March.




July, Aug.,
fall. Jan.,
springg


Amount
Fertilizer



2.000 Ibs.
lier acre.



3,000 lbs.
Per acre.




2.000 lbs.
per acre.





500 to
800 lbs.
per acre.



3,000 lbs.
iper acre.


Cost
Per
Acre



$125




$150





$125






$85





$85





$125


Distance
Apart Rows
and in Rows



5 by 3 ft.




14 by 14 in.





12 by 6 in.






4 ft. by 1 in.


(i oz.




SIlbs.




3 to 4 lbs.
-eed
8 bu. sets





80 Ibs.





l', Ib.





10 bu.


130
days



610 days





120
days





i65 days





1I25 to
140
days



70 days


400
crates



600 to
700
crates


400 to
500
crates





200
hanl-
pers



200
crates




45 bbls.


: it. by 20 In. Good fall shipping
crop.


3 ft. 0 in.
by 12 in.


ONIONS


ENGLISII
PEAS




PEPPERS




POTATOES
(Irish)


1,500 lbs.
December to 2,000
& lbs. per
January. acre.


Remarks



Good profitable
shipping crop.
Ready market.



Good drainage essen-
tial and land should
not be sour.


Use well-rotted stable
n an u r e when able.
Nitrate soda can be
used wlilen maturing,
100 lbs. to acre.


Soil must not be sour.
Innoculation of seed
advisable.


Treat seed before plant-
ing. Be prepared to
dust or spray with bor-
deaux preparations.












PLANTING TABLE FOR FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS-Continued


Crop



POTATOES
(Sweet)





STRAW-
BERRIES





SWEET
CORN







TOMATOES


Principal
Variety

Porto Rico
Big Stem Jersey
Triumph
Norton Yam
Nancy Hall



Missionary
Klondykl:



Adams' Early
Crosby's Early
Stowell's
Evergreeni
Counllty
Gntl]man
bowling Mobl

Livin gsl oi
Globe
MargIolb(
Stolei
Ea liiana
Beilllty
Bonny 3('sl,
Nofiitoll



'III iil', ii-
N~Il'll G a


Type of
Soil Best
Adapted


Pine lands
Sandy Flat
Woods.




Flat Woods:
Hammock.





Muck Flat
Woods
Hammock.




lPrairie:
IHammoock:
Mu'Ick: Flat
Woods, wcll-





iine Flat
W( (is s. wtll-
draill.d.


Amt. Seed
Per Acre


8 bu. for
draws



Single
Row, 15..-
000 plants
9x12 in.
35.000
plants.




1.5 Ills.







1 lb.







*; HIH1.


Yield
Per
Acre


100 to
200 bu.


When to
Plant


April, May,
June, July.





Sept., Nov.





Feb..
March,
April,
May.






Jan. to








March.


Cost
Per
Acre



$45




$17`5
to
$2`50


-Instanc


Distance
Apart Rows
and in Rows


:3 ft. by





:1 ft. by


14 in.





14 ill.


Amount
Fertilizer


600 to
1.000 Ibs.
per acre.



1,500 lbs.
plus 110
lbs. Ni-
trate per
acre.


5>00 Ibs.
plus i50
lbs. Ni-
trate soda
at tesselllln"




1,300 Ills.
to 1,5l00
lbs. per






aIll a t.


Days to
Mature


120
clays





70 (ldys






70 to
S5 days







1:135
days






711 1o
iI(I dayI.Vs


:30 to 50
crates.







2550
crates.


WIATIt-
N1 ,I.ONS


3 ft. by 9 in.







I It. by 2 ft.







Ill Ii by 10 ft


Remarks



Allow 10,000 slips to
acre.




Use stable manure if
possible in addition to
commercial fertilizer.




Iull s-ed tliroulgh ereo-
liIl solution to keep off
birds. Use i,- lb. arse-
nlate lead powder to 6
Ibs. hydrated time for
liiiil lirnil.



Good ii conmmllerial mar-
lki-t for fllrst-lallss ma-
tri'ial. Local market





''I-1t r ll. Neod a:iOd be Ore-
p'lIll st dust olr slpleay
;'iil liivoililis anld b'or-
h;lvaox sohllllloll.


-----------------






Vegetable


1. Artichoke (Globe).....
2. Asparagus ...........

3. Beans (snap) .........
4. Beans (Pole) .........
5. Beans (Bush Lima) . .
6. Beans (Pole Lima).....
7. B eet ................
8. Brussels Sprouts.......
91. Cabbage .............
10. Cantaloupe ...........

11. Cauliflower ..........
12. Carrot ...............
13. Celery ...............
14. Collard ..............
15. Chard ...............
14i. Corn (Sweet) .........
17. Corn Salad ...........
18. Cucumber ...........
11). Eggplant .............
20. Endive ..............
21. K ale ................
32. Kohl-Rabi ............
23. Leek ...............
24. Lettuce ..............
25. M mustard .............
26. Okra, ................
27. Onion (seed) ..........
28. Onion (sets) ..........
29. Parsley ..............
30. Parsnip ..............
31. Peas ....... .......
32. Peppers ..........
:13 Potato (rii) . . . .
34. Potato (Sweet) ........
35. Radish ..............
36. Rhubarb ............
37. Salsify ..............
:138. Spinach ...... .......
:!). Spinachl (New Z.) .....
40. Stiuash (bosi) ........


Seed for
100 Feet
of Row

1 ounce ....
1 OUIlet ...

1 pint ......
V2 pint ......
2 to 1 pt.. .
i pint .....
2 ounces ....
1/ ounce ....




1 ounce ....
s ounce ....
i ounce ....

1 ounce ....
14 ounce ....
'1 ounce ....
n oupnt ......
'i ounce ....
1 ounce ...
2 oullne ..

1 ounce....
1 u2 ounc...

1 ounllce ....
2 oullnces ...
1 ounce. . .

1 quart .....
', ounce. ....
ounce ....
1 to 2 pts...
1/ ounce....
5 to 6i Ibs..
3 pounds...
1 ounce. ..
31 roots. ....
1 oulnee ..
1 ounce....
I Ou1c( .. c .
1/2 ounce. .


41. Squasli (vine) ......... 11/ ounce ....


42. Tomato .............
43. Turnip ..............
44. Watermelon ..........


14 ouncl. ....

1 ounce...


Plants for
100 Feet
of Row

50 .........
B3O to 80...






635 to 90..
(i5 to .10 ...


60 to 75....
200 to 250 ...
65 to 100..
200. .........


50 to 70 ...
100. .........
100 ........

125 to 200..







50..........

75 slips.....

33 roots....


l)epth of
Planting-
Inches

1/ to 1 ........
1 to 11 / roots..
10 to 12.......
11/". to 2 .......
1 '., to .......
1 '2' to 2 .......
1 1/4 to 2 .......
1 to 1 '/1 .......

1 to 1 2........
1 . . . . . . .
I to 1 L. .......

! . . . . . . .
/_ .............
1 to 1.............
1/ .....t ........

1 to 1 . . . .
1 .....t.......
1/, . . . . . . .


1 to . . . .

S to. . . . . . .

1 to .........
S t 1 . . . .
/ . . . . . . .


S. . . . .
. '. . . . . .


; . . . . .
I t .. . . .
% to 1 . . . .
S to . . . . .
2 t 3 . . . . .


I,: to 1 . . . .

1 to 2 . . . . .


......... .. 1 to ........


:35 to 50 ... /. I I ........
........... .... ...
. . . . .. I . ..' 1 .... .. . . "


Days to
Come up


2 to 8. ....

6 to 10....
6 to 10 ....
li to 10....
6 to 10....
7 to 10 ....
4i to 10 ....
(l to 10....
i1 to 10....
6 to 10....

10 to 15 ....
12 to 20 ....
6 to 10....
7 to 10....
8 to 10....
Uo to 12....
6 to 8....
LO to 14....
(; to 10 ...
6 to 10....
6i to 8....
8 to 12....
6 to 10....
4 to 5....
.5 to 20....
8 to 12....
6i to 8 ....
18 to 24....
12 to 18....
6i to 10....
10 to 14....
15 to 2 5 ....

4 to 6... .
12 to 14....
8 to 12....
6 to 12 ....
14 to 16....
4i to 10 ....
(i to 10....


Distance Between Rows
For Horse For Hand
Cultivation Culltivation


Plants in
the Row


Mature or
Ready for
Use in-


3 to 4 ft.. .. 3 ft......... 2 fIt......... 8 to 12 months


3 to 4 ft.....
2 '/ to 3 ft..
4 ft ........
:3 t. .........
4 ft. .......
2 to 213, ft...
V to 3 ft...
3' / to :3 ft..
5 to 6 It.....

2 / to 3 ft..
2 to 212/ ft..
3 to 4 ft.....
" to 21/ ft..
2 ft .........
3 to :3 /a ft..
2 to 2'/ ft...
4 to 5 ft....
3 ft.........
2 to 21/ ft..
23, to 3 ft..
,'/, to 3 it..
2 ft .........
2 to 321 ft..
2 ft .t. .......
4 ft.........
2 ft .........
SIt. ........
Sft. .........
2 to 212 ft..
3 to 4 ft....
2 to 3 ft.. ..
42_, to 3 It..
3 to 4 ft....
2 ft .........
3 to 5 ft.. .
2 ft .........
2 ft .. ......
3 to 4 ft..
:3 to 4 ft....


:3 ft. .........
2 to 2 /1 ft..
3 ft.........
2 to 21 ft..
S2 to 3 ft..
15 to 18 in..
2 to 2'-1 ft...
2 to 212/ ft..
5 to 6 ft.. . .

2 to '/, ft..
15 to 18 in..
18 to 24 in..
18 to 24 in..
18 to 24 in..
221/4 to 3 ft..
15 to 18 in..
4 to 5 ft.....
2 to 2 / ft..
15 to 18 in..
18 to 24 in...
18 to 24 in..
18 to 24 in..
15 to 18 in..
15 to 18 in..
3 ft.........
15 11 ........
15 in ll........
15 in ........
15 to 18 in..
21% to 3 ft..
24 int ........
2 to 21/, ft..
3 ft ........
12 to 15 in..
3 to 4 ft.. ..
15 to 18 in..
15 to 18 in..
3 to 4 ft....
3 to 4 ft ..


6i to 10.... 17 to 10 ft.. 7 to 10 It.. .


4 to 7....
8 to 12 ....


:3 to 4 ft.... to 3 ft....
2 ft......... 15 to 18 in..
8 to 10 ft ... 8 to 10 ft...


15 in ........
3 to 4 in....
% to 3 ft....
(i to 10 in...
2 to 3 ft.. .
4 to 5 in.....
14 to 18 in...
14 to 18 in..
Drills, 18 in.,
hills, 5 ft..
15 to 18 in..
3 to 4 in.. .
4 to 6 in.. .
12 to 18 in..
5 to (i in. ..
130 to 36 in..
8 to 10 in...
15 in ........
18 to 24 in..
8 to 10 in...
8 to 10 in..
4 to 6 in....
4 to 6 in...
3 to 10 in...
3 to 4 in.. .
2 ft.........
:3 to 4 in...
:3 to 4 in...
:3 to 4 in...
3 to 4 in...
1 il .........
15 to 18 in..
12 to 18 in..
14 to 18 in..
1 ill .. . . . .
3 to 4 ft....
1 in........
1 to 2 in..
18 in ........
15 to 18 in.,
drill: 4
ft. hills ...
2 to 3 ft.,
drill: 8
ft. hills ....
3 to 3 ft.. .
2 to 3 in....
Drills, 2 to
:1 ft.: hills
8 [ ... . .


3 to
40 to
50 to
60 to
60 to
60 to
90 to
90 to


4 years
65 days
80 days
90 days
80 days
80 days
120 days
130 days


to 150 days
to 130 days
to 110 days
to 150 days
to 120 days
to 60 days
to 100 days
days
to 80 days
to 140 days
to 180 days
to 120 days
to 80 days
to 115 days
to 90 days
days
to 140 days
to 150 days
to 120 days
to 120 days
to 160 days
to 80 days
to 140 days
to 140 days
to 160 days
to 40 days
to 3 years
to 180 days
to 60 days
to 90 days


60 to 80 days


120 to 160 days
100 to 140 days
O6 to 80 days


100 to 120 days


I )







38 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


WORLD AREA AND CULTIVATED LAND
Square Miles Productive Per c
Area (Acres) Produc
EUROPE -------........---------....... 3,883,992
Austria --------.... ---------- 30,139 17,688,174 89.
Belgium .... ...----------------- 11,373 6,386,804 87.
Bulgaria ....--------....-..... 48,000 18,959,249 79.
Czecho-Slovakia --........ 54,428 33,288,062 95.
Denmark ------- 16,609 10,018,872 94..
Finland ---.....-- --- 145,724
France ----......... -- 212,659 123,242,860 94.:
Germany .--........-----.... 183,000 110,422,019 94.:
Great Britain ......--------...---. 88,725 47,607,907 84.
Greece ....---.---------....... -----....-. 41,933 7,008,992 44.!
Hungary --------...........--.......... 35,164 77,225,350 96.:
Ireland ----. ---- 32,559 17,541,412 86.
Italy .......---------......... .. 110,660 65,228,470 92.
Jugo-Slavia --- ..-- 99,300 5,937,761 52.:
Latvia ....--..........--- .. 25,361 15,908,298 98.1
Netherlands ..-- --. 13,199 7,247,342 89.1
Norway ...------------ ---.---- 124,964 23,476,215 29.,
Poland -------------- 144,772 79,627,036 91.i
Portugal 35,501 17,281,037 78.
Roumania .---------...... -----.. .. 122,282 61,478,618 84.-
Russia .--.-----...-.. --------......... 1,900,000 698,902,137 54.'
Spain ---.... ---................. 195,057 112,665,245 90.-
Sweden ------.- 169,567 71,023,990 70.1
Switzerland ........-....... 15,945 7,914,460 77.4
Turkey (also in Asia).. 692,240

AMERICA ...------ 8,859,257
Canada ..------.......... 3,729,665 109,945,057 4.
Cuba ..............---------- 44,218 8,716,734 30.i
United States ----...-.... 3,627,557 878,788,639 46.'
M exico ...------------........ 767,323

SOUTH AMERICA ----...... 7,570,015
Argentina ....---- 1,153,419 537,805,490 73.7
Bolivia ------ 708,195 ---...-......
Brazil --- ----- 3,280,905
Chile ---..---..-. ---------.... ---..... 289,796 29,771,613 16.1
Colombia ----..........- 435,278 ------
Ecuador ..-.-....---- 118,627 -.-------
Guiana ----------- 167,540 -.....---
Paraguay ....... --- 97,722 ....----
Peru .----..----------.. --- 683,321 -
Uruguay ------------... 72,172 40,875,235 88.
Venezuela .....----.......- 393,976 -.-.---

AFRICA ----- ....11,622,619
Algeria ------ 1,120,000 50,845,587 40.5
Egypt -------- 383,900 5,506,930 2.,
Morocco -------------- 169,576 18,135,190 31.2
TTninn nf Snftl, AfriAn A7q 1 0n 10 IARi 904 1 q







READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 39

Square Miles Productive Per cent
Area (Acres) Productive
IA ......--------............ -- 15,868,613
China ------- 4,278,252 -
)utch East Indies........ 739,545 19,098,359 58.8
French Indo-China .-. 310,060 74,050,187 42.8
:ndia -..--.. ..-..-...........-... 1,802,657 475,576,765 76.4
Tapan ----------- 245,551 74,013,574 78.3
Persia ......---------........ -. 635,135
Siberia ...-------..........-.. 5,600,000 715,837,976 17.8
stralia ..----...............---- 2,974,581 113,416,162 6.0
w Zealand .......-....-..... 105,000 53,971,152 81.4



HARVEST TIME OF THE WORLD
The following shows the months of the wheat harvest
the different wheat-growing sections of the world:

January-Australia, New Zealand, Chile and Argen-
le Republic.

February and March-East India and Upper Egypt.

April-Lower Egypt, Syria, Cyprus, Persia, Asia
inor, India, Mexico and Cuba.

May-Algeria, Central Asia, China, Japan, Morocco,
!xas and Florida.

June-Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, South
France, California, Oregon, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ala-
,ma, Georgia, Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky,
insas, Arkansas, Utah, Colorado and Missouri.

July-Roumania, Bulgaria, Austro-Hungary, South of
issia, Germany, Switzerland, France, South of England,
ebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana,
ichigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, New England
Id Upper Canada.
August-Belgium, Holland, Great Britain. Denmark,
)land, Lower Canada, Colombia, Manitoba and Dakota.

September and October-Scotland, Sweden, Norway
Id North of Russia.

November-Peru and South Africa.

December-Burma.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRTCTTTTTTRF


NUMBER TREES OR PLANTS TO AN ACRE
Distance No. Plants Distance No. Plants
Apart Per Acre Apart Per Acre
12 by 1 inch-------.-.- 522,720 1 foot by 1 1/ feet...... 19,360
12 by 3 inches ----........ 174,240 2 feet by 2 feet-.....-.. 10,890
18 by 1 inch --.........---. 348,480 2 feet by 3 feet ...---..... 7,260
18 by 3 inches .---......... 116,160 3 feet by 3 feet .......... 4.840
18 by 12 inches ....--.....- 29,040 4 feet by 1 foot.--......... 10,890
18 by 18 inches--...--...... 19,360 4 feet by 2 feet ..-......-- 5,445
24 by 12 inches ....---.. 21,780 4 feet by 3 feet--- ........ 3,630
24 by 18 inches......---... 14,520 4 feet by 4 feet .........- 2,772
30 by 1 inch.....----....... 209,088 5feetby 5feet .....-- 1,742
30 by 6 inches-....--...... 34,848 6 feet by 6 feet ---........ 1,210
30 by 12 inches ....--..-.. 17,424 7 feet by 7 feet-.....--- 888
30 by 24 inches ............ 8,712 8 feet by 8 feet-.......... 680
40 by 30 inches ............ 9,970 9 feet by 9 feet-.......... 537
36 by inches ----.......... 58,080 10 feet by 10 feet ---.......... 435
36 by 30 inches .----.......... 5,808 12 feet by 12 feet ---......... 302
42 by 24 inches ...........- 6,223 20 feet by 20 feet --.......... 108
42 by 36 inches ..-........ 4,148 25 feet by 25 feet-.......... 70
42 by 42 inches --..--......... 3,556 30 feet by 30 feet ........--- 48S
48 by 18 inches ----......... 7,790 35 feet by 35 feet ----....... 35
6 by 6 inches ----........... 174,240 40 feet by 40 feet......-- 27
1 foot by 1 foot --...-......- 43,560 50 feet by 50 feet .....-..-- 17
1 foot by 2 feet ---......... 21,780 60 feet by 60 feet .......... 12
1 foot by 3 feet.--.......... 14,520 70 feet by 70 feet....--... 9
To find the number of plants or trees in an acre at any
distance apart, multiply the one distance in feet by the
other to give the square feet in each space and divide this
distance into 43,560. Example: 4 by 4 feet equals 16
square feet. By dividing this into 43,560, the number of
square feet in an acre, we have 2,722, which is the num-
ber of plants required to set an acre when put 4 by 4 feet
apart.
The table above gives the number required for most
of the distances ordinarily used.







KRADY KElEVKJiN;UIL fUKI FfAKMNIIKV 41


SEED USED PER ACRE
Estimated Range
Average of Bulk of
of Reports Plantings
Alfalfa, broadcast .-----------........... b. 18.3 15 to 20
Alfalfa, drilled--------------- lb. 14.8 12 to 18
Barley------------------- bu. 1.84 1.5 to 2.2
Beang, field, small ------ bu. .76 .5 to 1.0
Beans, field, large -------------bu. 1.29 1.0 to 1.5
Beets, common (not sugar)---.......lb. 6.3 5.5 to 7.5
Blue grass-------------------bu. 1.07 .75 to 1.25
Broom corn-- lb. 6.0 3 to 7
Buckwheat..------- ---- .. bu. .98 .75 to 1.25
Cabbage plants -------no. 5,658 5,000 to 7,000
Clover, alsike --.......-- ...lb. 8.7 8 to 12
Clover, Japan----------------lb. 9.9 9 to 15
Clover, mammoth-----.........--------.. b. 10.4 8 to 12
Clover, red, alone.....-----......------ lb. 10.7 8 to 12
Clover, red, on grain-....-----I..... -- lb. 9.8 8 to 12
Clover, crimson-------- lb. 12.1 10 to 15
Corn, for grain---------------lb. 9.5 6 to 12
Corn, fodder, for silage......----..--... lb. 26.0 15 to 35
Cotton ----------- bu. .96 .9 to 1.1
Cowpeas, for forage .......--------.... bu. 1.31 1.0 to 1.5
Cowpeas, in drill with corn ..---- bu. .63 .40 to .65
Cowpeas, for seed------------bu. .70 .50 to .75
Field peas, small --------- bu. .93 .75 to 1.25
Field peas, large ------- bu. 1.17 1.0 to 1.5
Flaxseed -----------------lb. 29.2 25 to 30
Oats--------------- --- bu. 2.37 2.0 to 2.5
Orchard grass ------ lb. 12.6 10 to 15
Peanuts------------ bu. 1.02 1.0 to 1.1
Potatoes --------- bu. 8.6 7 to 12
Rice -------------- bu. 1.98 1.5 to 2.5
Rye, for grain --------- bu. 1.44 1.25 to 1.75
Rye, for forage ------- bu. 1.82 1.5 to 2.0
Soy beans, drilled-------------bu. .79 .50 to 1.00
Soy beans, broadcast ..........----... bu. 1.37 1.00 to 1.50
Sugar beets-------- lb. 13.1 12 to 18
Sweet potato plants ----- no. 6,605 6,000 to 7,000
Timothy------....---.. ---------........ ---...... b. 9.4 8 to 12
Tobacco plants --.... ------ no. 4,762
Wheat ----------- bu. 1.38 1.25 to 1.75









SELECTION AND STORAGE OF SEED CORN
By C. P. Hartley
U. S. Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 415

Autumn is the time to prepare for a profitable corn
;rop the following season. To be first class, seed must be:
1. Well adapted to the seasonal and soil conditions
here it is to be planted.
2. Grown on productive plants of a productive va-
'iety.
3. Well matured, and preserved from ripening time
ill planting time in a manner that will retain its full pro-
Luctivity.
At corn-ripening time drop all other business and
elect an abundance of seed corn. The process is too im-
)ortant to be conducted incidentally while husking. Get
he very best that is to be had and preserve it well. The
inly proper way to select seed corn is from the stalks
standing where they grew, as soon as ripe and before the
first hard freeze.
As soon as the crop matures, go through the field with
seed-picking bag and husk the ears from the stalks that
.ave produced the most corn without having any special
advantages, such as space, moisture or fertility. The
eed-picking bags are always open for filling and may be
instantly opened at the bottom for emptying. Avoid the
large ears on stalks standing singly with an unusual
mount of space around them. The inherent tendency of
he plant to produce heavily of sound, dry, shelled corn
s of most importance.
Later-maturing plants with ears which are heavy be-
ause of an excessive amount of sap should be ignored.
happiness greatly increases the harvest size and weight
nd is apt to destroy the quality. In the Central and
southern States, short, thick stalks are preferable. Short
:alks are not so easily blown down and permit thicker
planting. In general they are more productive than slen-
er ones. The tendency for corn to produce suckers is
eredity. Seed should be taken from stalks that have
o suckers.
Treatment of Seed.-The same day seed corn is gath-
red the husked ears should be put in a dry place where
here is free circulation of air, and placed in such a man-
er that the ears do not touch each other. If left in the
usk long after ripening it may sprout or mildew during


"~Y'~1 I VI ~UI*IVUUIVILIII






READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 43

warm, wet weather or become infested with weevils or
grain moths, or their eggs. The vitality of seed is often
reduced by leaving it in a sack or in a pile for even a day
after gathering. During warm weather, with some mois-
ture in the cobs and kernels, the ears heat or mildew in a
remarkably short time. Binder twine will support 15 or
20 ears on a string. Ordinarily the best place to hang
these strings of ears is in an open shed or loft.
Wire racks are more convenient and in the end cheaper
than binder twine. Such racks can be made from elec-
trically welded lawn fencing without any waste. Fencing
with horizontal wires 4 inches apart and upright wires 2
inches apart may be obtained in widths of 2, 3 and 4 feet.
All dealers in wire fencing can supply such fencing at an
initial cost of about 10 cents for each bushel of seed sus-
pended. These racks will last many years and are easily
stored when not in use.
Permanent seed racks are convenient, and when they
are located in a dry, breezy place the ears dry success-
fully. Only during unusually damp weather at seed-
gathering time will fire be necessary. If heat is employed
in a poorly ventilated room it will do the seed more injury
than good. If used, the fire should be slow, long con-
tinued, and situated below the seed ears, with good venti-
lation above them.
Weevils.-If at any time signs of weevils or grain
moths show on the corn, it should be inclosed with car-
bon bisulphide in practically air-tight rooms, bins, boxes,
or barrels for 48 hours. The bisulphide should be placed
in shallow dishes or pans on top of the seed. One-half
pint is sufficient for a box or barrel holding 10 bushels or
less. One pound, costing about 30 cents, is sufficient for
a room or bin 10 feet each way. After fumigation the
ears must be thoroughly aired, taking care that no fire is
present when the fumigation box is open.
In localities where weevils and grain moths injure
stored grain, the thoroughly dry seed should be stored in
very tight mouse-proof receptacles, with 1 pound of moth
balls or naphthalene inclosed for each bushel of corn.
This quantity tightly inclosed with the corn will prevent
damage from these insects and will not injure the seed.
The material will cost about 6 cents a pound. Sixty cents
worth will protect enough to plant 60 acres.
Winter Storage.-After hanging in the shed or lying
on the racks for two months, the seed ears should be "drv







14 JI.i-rAnI'IV"iV1N '' UV' A lK" ; U 'I'M U Kh

is bone" and contain less than 10 % of moisture. They
.an remain where they dried or be stored in mouse-proof
barrels, boxes, or crates during the winter, but in either
case must not be exposed to a damp atmosphere, or they
will absorb moisture and be injured. Some farmers place
;he thoroughly dried seed ears in the center of a wheat
Ain and fill the bin with loose, dry wheat. This protects
;he ears from rats and mice.
Testing.-Seed corn that matured normally and has
been properly preserved will grow satisfactorily. Ears
slightly damaged by poor preservation may germinate
100%, but will produce less than if they had received
betterr care. Make a seed-testing box and test 100 ears
separately. Be sure that each kernel tested is perfect in


appearance and w
from the ear. If
ear fail to grow,
seed. If the seed
served the 100 ea
mnes and further t
Grading.-She
,orily. The gradi
ire shelled. If th
kernel they should
according to size
shelled senaratelv


not ir
)r mo
t eve:
as be
teste(
ing w
d cor:
can I
seed i
e sept
kern
ested


jured at the
-e kernels o
y ear in th
!n properly
will seldom
11 usually b
is difficult
e done bett
ars vary gr
rated into t,
el. These
n the corn


3 when removed
of 10 from any
entire supply of
elected and pre-
Leveal any poor
unnecessary.
grade satisfac-
before the ears
]ly as to size of
or three grades
ades should be


>erea to correspond witn tne number on mne planter plates
hat are found to drop them most uniformly. These ar-
rangements can be completed before the rush of spring
vork begins.
_hilll;n --T~hP fivrcQ nnarntinn in nrnnrlTr Qhtllinr


































SLure In uags iiu6ig ill a urry, wU11-veiiLllULU"L pIUUU U1LIL
needed. Allow navy and other bush beans to mature on
the vines until a maximum number of pods are ripe; then
pull the whole plant and cure it like hay. After thorough
drying, thrash the beans and store as suggested above.
Peas may be treated like bush beans and stored in the
same manner.

Late Beets.-The beets should be pulled and the tops
cut off when the soil is dry. If they are to be held in a
storage room in the basement or in an outdoor storage
cellar, they should be placed in ventilated barrels, loose
boxes, or, better still, in crates. If sufficient space is avail-
able in the cellar, it is a good plan simply to place in small
piles along the wall. Storage in large piles should be
avoided, as it is liable to cause heating and decay.
For storage in banks or pits prepare the beets as for
storage in the room in the basement or in the outdoor
cellar. Select a well-drained location, make a shallow
excavation, about 6 inches deep, line it with straw, hay,
leaves, or similar material, and place the beets in a coni-
cal pile on the lining. Make the bottom of the pile about
the same size as but not larger than the bottom of the


READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 45


STORAGE OF VARIOUS VEGETABLES
By James H. Beattle


Ah
far mor
during 1
portion
tables A
Beets, 1;
tatoes, ,
condition
needs fc
including
storage
storage
only nec
closet, c
charact

Beau
by pick
spreadit
floor, ui


.. ,,,,.,,,,


Y' Xlrll 1F'l pI114 .


ilf-acre garden
- 4 -- -1 -- 4-


x YIIIxc,


i, if properly cared fo
han the average family
period of the crops.
1 should be devoted
used as soon as they r
carrots, celery, onions
mrnips may be stored i:
be grown to the exter
winter use. Beans of
may be stored dry.
is not at all difficult
!ady exist in most h
:e use of the cellar, th
Af the dwelling, depel
uct to be stored.

-Beans may be kept
as soon as they ar
warm, dry place, su
are thoroughly dry.


y can consume
Only a small
to those vege-
each maturity.
, parsnips, po-
i their natural
t of the family
various kinds,
The successful
; in fact, good
)mes, it being
e attic, a large
hiding upon the


for winter use
e mature, and
ch as an attic
Then shell and






46 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

excavation. Cover the beets with the same material as
that used for lining the bottom of the pit, and carry it up
several inches above the apex of the pile of vegetables,
having it extend through the dirt covering. This serves
as a ventilating flue, and it should be covered with a piece
of tin or a short board as a protection from rain. The
dirt covering should be 2 or 3 inches thick when the vege-
tables are stored, and it should be increased as severely
cold weather approaches until it is a foot or more in thick-
ness. In finishing the pit the dirt should be firmed with
the back of the shovel in order to make it as nearly water-
proof as possible.
The shallow base around the base of the pit should
have an outlet for carrying off the water. Supplement
the dirt covering with manure, straw, corn fodder, or
other protecting material. Use several small pits instead
of a large one, as vegetables keep better in small pits and
the entire contents may be removed when the pit is
opened.

Late Cabbages.-Heads of late cabbage may be cut
and stored in conical pits in the same manner as beets.
Another common and very satisfactory method is to pull
the plants, roots and all, and place them in a long pit
with the heads down. A few heads may be removed from
time to time without disturbing the remainder of the pit.
As slight freezing does not injure the cabbage, the cover-
ing of the pit need not be as thick as for other vegetables.
Another good method for storing cabbage is as fol-
lows: The plants are pulled, roots and all, and set side
by side with the roots down in a shallow trench, the length
of which corresponds with the width of the bed. The bed
may be any width up to 8 or 10 feet and as long as neces-
- --- 4-- 1- -1 ,-1 4 1- - 1-__I 9 1- 1- ^ U - __ 4--/ 1-, ^ 1..^ f"< ,


the roots with earth. Around the bed erect a
rails, boards, or poles, or by driving a row of
the ground so that an enclosure of about 2 feet
is formed. Bank the outside of this frame witYl
place poles across the top, covering them with s
or corn fodder. Make provision for removing p
the stored product from one end of the pit. Th
storage is inexpensive and gives good results.
heads are cut, leave the roots in position, and in t
these roots will sprout and supply the family
abundance of greens. A large percentage of th(
snrouts found on the market are produced in this


ia iile ui
poles into


L






KIjAL) i nPr jlnti1N1 U run rT AI1vilno 'i 1

Heads of cabbage may be laid in rows on shelves in an
outdoor storage cellar, but not in a storage room in the
ellar of a dwelling, as the odor is likely to penetrate
through the house.
Carrots.-Carrots may be stored in a storage room in
he basement, in outdoor storage cellars, or in banks or
iits, and are handled in the same way as beets. It is ad-
isable to place a small quantity in the storage room in
he basement or in the storage cellar and the remainder
n banks or pits. They are not injured by slight freezing;
Lence need not be covered as deeply as potatoes.
Late Celery.-Celery may be stored for a time in the
positionn where grown by placing enough earth around the
Pase of the plants to hold them in good form. Allow them
o remain in this condition until just before severe freez-
ng occurs; then bank the earth up to the very tops of the
)lants, almost covering them, and as the weather becomes
;older cover the ridge with coarse manure, straw, or corn
odder held in place by means of stakes or boards. The
;elery may be removed as needed, but this method is open
o the objection that it is hard to get the celery out when
he ground is frozen.
Another method of storing celery is to excavate a pit
0O to 12 inches wide to a depth of about 24 inches and of
my de-ired length; thoroughly loosen the soil in the bot-
;om or shovel in loose topsoil to form a bed in which to
set the roots of the celery, and pack this trench with fully-
grown plants, placing the roots close together with con-
;iderable soil adhering to them. Water the celery as it
s placed in the trench and allow the trench to remain
)pen long enough for the tops to become dry. Unless the
,oil is very dry at the time of storing or extended warm
weather should follow, it will not be necessary to apply
nore water. Place a 12-inch board on edge along one
side of the trench and bank it with the surplus earth;
,over the trench with a roof of boards, straw on poles, or
cornstalks from which the tops have been removed, plac-
ing the stalks across the pit with one end resting on the
board and the other on the ground; spread over this a
light covering of straw or other material which will pack
closely, and as the weather becomes colder increase the
covering to keep out the frost. Celery stored in this man-
ner will keep until late in the winter. This method, be-
cause of its simplicity, is recommended for the farmer
and small grower.






46 UtrtAU.11YlAiN I ur ANUIuULI UJML

The unused pit of a permanent hotbed may be utilized
as a storage place for celery by removing the surplus
earth and substituting a covering of boards for the sash.
Store the celery in the same manner as in the trench, and
cover the bed with any material which will keep out frost.
Celery may be stored on the floor of a storage room in
the basement of a dwelling or in an outdoor storage cel-
lar. Take up the plants just before freezing occurs, with
considerable earth adhering, and set them on the floor
with the roots packed together as closely as possible. If
moderately moist, the celery will keep well under the
conditions found in most storage cellars. Celery should
not be stored in the same cellar as turnips or cabbage, as
it will absorb the odor of these vegetables, ruining its
flavor.
Onions.-To keep well, onions must be mature and
thoroughly dry. Put them in ventilated barrels, baskets,
crates, or loosely woven bags, as good ventilation is essen-
tial to the keeping of onions. A dry, well-ventilated place,
such as an attic, furnishes a good storage space for onions,
as slight freezing does not injure them, provided they
are not handled when frozen.
Parsnips.-Parsnips may be allowed to remain in the
ground and dug as needed, as freezing does not injure
them. However, as it is a difficult matter to dig them
when the ground is frozen, it is advisable to store a small
quantity in the storage room in the basement of the dwell-
ing or in the outdoor storage cellar for use during the
periods when the ground is frozen. Parsnips may be
stored in the same manner as beets and carrots.
Potatoes, Irish.-The Irish potato is the most import-
ant vegetable in the northern portions of the United States
and is stored in large quantities for winter use. It may
be kept in the storage room in the basement, in outdoor
storage cellars, and in banks or pits. When stored in cel-
lars, the potatoes may be put into barrels, boxes, baskets,
crates, bins, or on the floor, but must be protected from
the light. When stored in banks or pits they are handled
in the same way as beets, carrots, etc. Potatoes must be
protected from freezing, and before winter sets in, the pit
must be covered with manure, straw, or other material in
addition to several inches of earth. It is a good plan to
place the major portion of the crop in banks or pits and
a small quantity in the storage room in the basement or
in the outdoor storage cellar for immediate use.






.M~fLrtuI nIrr rlnriJIrjL run jrAnm inIviIno 4V

Potatoes, Sweet.-Sweet potatoes should be mature
when dug and should be left exposed for a few hours to
dry off the surface moisture before being placed on stor-
age. They should be handled carefully at all times, as
they are bruised easily. This crop may be kept in pits or
banks in outdoor storage cellars, but a warm, dry place is
preferable. When stored in pits or banks sweet potatoes
are handled in much the same way as beets or other root
crops. When kept in a specially constructed storage
house, either in bulk or in crates, the potatoes should be
cured for about 10 days or two weeks at a temperature of
75 to 80 F. After the curing period the temperature
should be reduced gradually to about 55 F. and main-
tained at that point or as near it as practicable for the
remainder of the storage period. When well matured
before digging, carefully handled, well cured, and held
at a uniform temperature of about 55 F., sweet potatoes
may be kept throughout the winter and spring. When
only a few bushels are to be stored, they may be placed
in the basement near the furnace, on a shelf near the
kitchen stove, near the chimney on the second floor, or
even in the attic.
Pumpkins and Squashes.-Pumpkins and squashes
may be kept for winter use in the storage room in the
basement or in dry, well-ventilated cellars, but a dry,
above-ground, frost-proof place is best. Put them in rows
on shelves so that they are not in contact with each other.
If the temperature is maintained at about 40 F., late-
maturing varieties of these vegetables will keep until late
in winter.
Salsify may be stored in the same way as beets, car-
rots, and parsnips.
Late Turnips.-Turnips will stand hard frost, but
alternate freezing and thawing injures them. Gather,
top, and store the roots in banks, pits, or an outdoor stor-
age cellar. Do not place them in the storage room in the
basement of the dwelling, as they give off odors that pene-
trate through the house.
Apples may be kept in the storage room in the base-
ment of the dwelling, in outdoor storage cellars, and in
banks or pits. Conditions suitable for the keeping of po-
tatoes answer fairly well for apples. Under some condi-
tions it will be an advantage to store part of the crop in
the cellar and the late-keeping varieties suitable for
spring use in outdoor banks or pits.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


ARITHMETICAL PRINCIPLES
In measuring surfaces and volumes we are often in
need of simple rules by which calculations can be made
that will enable us to do quite difficult farm engineering.
Especially is this true of geometrical calculations.
The easiest of all surface measurements is the surface.
The surface of a square is ascertained by multiplying the
length by the width stated in terms of the same denomina-
tion and we have the area.
To find the area of a circle, multiply the circumference
by the radius and divide by 2: Therefore. if the radius
(half the diameter) of a circle is known, the area can be
ascertained by multiplying the radius by self (square it)
and multiply this product by 3.1416.
To find the convex surface of a prism or a cylinder:
Multiply its altitude (height) by the perimeter (sum of
its boundary lines) of its base.
To find the volume (cubic contents) of a sphere: Mul-
tiply the convex surface by the radius and divide by 3.
To find the contents of a cylinder: Multiply the diam-
eter of the base by 3.1416-this gives the circumference
of the base. Then multiply this circumference by the
radius (half the diameter) and divide this by 2-this
gives the area of the base-then multiply the area of the
base by the altitude, which gives the cubic contents or
volume.
Square root is serviceable in many calculations. If
you want to know the length of one side of a square and
have the area you find it by the rules of square root.
Square root applies to areas; hence, the side of a
square is the root of the area.
The following is the rule for finding the square root:
Separate the number into periods of two figures each,
beginning at the decimal point.
Find the greatest square in the left-hand period and
write its root as the first figure of the required root.
Square this root, subtract the result from the left-half
period, and to the remainder annex the next period for a
dividend.
Divide this new dividend by twice the part of the root
already found and write the quotient as the second figure
of the required root. Annex to this advisor the figure







ADY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


ius found and multiply by the number representing this
gure.
Subtract this result, bring down the next period, and
roceed as before until all the periods have been thus
nnexed.
The result is the square root required.



BOARD MEASURE
Boards are sold by the square foot surface, one inch in
sickness. If cut thinner, they count the same as if an
ich thick.
To ascertain the number of square feet in a board,
multiply the width in inches by the length in feet, and
ivide the product by 12; the quotient is the number of
eet in the board, and the remainder is the odd inches.
ix inches and over, remainder are counted an additional
oot. For example, measure a board 22 inches wide by
9 feet long, as below:
Multiply 22 the width in inches
by 19 length in feet
198
22
12)418 Product
Quotient 34 10 remainder.
Showing 34 feet 10 inches in the board, which counts 35 feet.



rHE MEASUREMENT OF TIMBER OR SCANTLING
NOTE: The following valuable tables are taken from Day's Ready
reckoner, by permission of the publishers, Dick & Fitzgerald, of
Jew York.


Foot of inch-board measure
which is a foot wide, a foo
twelve feet measurement.
a piece of scantling of an
multiply the width in inc
then multiply the product
feet, and divide the secoi
tient is the number of fee
the odd inches. Six inche
as an extra foot.


hiding, is sold by the square
as a cubic foot of scantling
k and a foot long, contains
ascertain the square feet in
gth, width, and thickness,
y the thickness in inches;
ese figures by the length in
oduct by twelve; the quo-
the remainder (if any) is
over are usually reckoned







DEPARTMENT OF AGRTICTTLTTIIR


In measuring the length of a piece of timber, the lurr
berman counts even feet only. Unless the length is ful
ten inches or more over an even number of feet, the es
cess is not counted; but ten inches over are counted as
full foot. In marking the contents of a piece of timbe
when it runs over measure, the lumberman usually place
a mark at the spot where the measurement ends. Th
marks are made on one end of the stick with Roman car
ital letters instead of figures, as XXI for 21, XVIII for 1P
and so on.
Example.-Suppose a stick of timber to be 11 inche
in width, 9 inches thick, and to measure 27 feet in length

Multiply 11 the width
by 9 the thickness
Product 99 by which
multiply 27 the length in feet

693
Divide this 198

product by 12)2673

Quotient 222 9 remainder
The quotient is the number of square feet (inch-boar
measure), the 9 remainder being the odd inches. As
inches and over are counted a foot, 223 feet are the cor
tents of the stick.



PLANK MEASURE
Board measure is the basis of plank measure; that ih
a plank 2 inches thick and 133 feet long and 10 inche
wide contains evidently twice as many square feet as i
only one inch thick; therefore, in estimating the content
of any plank we first find the contents of the surface(
taken one inch thick, and then multiply this product b
the thickness of the plank in inches.
Example.-Suppose we wish to ascertain the content
of a plank 6 feet long, 12 inches wide and 21/ inche
thick. First multiply the width in inches (12) by th
length in feet (6), and divide the product by 12. Thi
will give the contents of a board 1 inch thick, 12 inche
wide and 6 feet lone. If the last product be multinlie






AlI nIV1flN n rvn C.-In IvIrlo


ly Z1/4, mne result will ue LIe cui jeiiuL uL au plitniv. u b I t
ong, 12 inches wide and 21/4 inches thick.
Thus, 12 width in inches
6 length in feet
12)72
6
21/4 thickness in inches
131/2 contents in feet, board measure


ROMAN NUMERALS
Ques. How did the Romans add, subtract and multi-
)ly with Roman numerals?
Ans. The Romans had no symbols to indicate mathe-
natical processes and operations. Originally they ex-
pressed every word and operation in words of full length.
Their mathematical calculations were never simplified
further than to abbreviate centum, 100, into C; mille,
1000, into M and so on. Figuring in the days of Caesar
wvas clumsy business. Practically all calculations were
performed on the abacus, an apparatus resembling the
Chinese swanpan or the bead-and-frame affairs now used
.n kindergarten work. The Roman abacus contained
seven long and seven shorter rods or bars. There were four
beads on the long bars and one on the shorter ones. The
beads on the short bars denoted five.


HANDY RULES
A cubic foot or 1728 cubic inches of water contains
71/2 gallons and weighs 621/ pounds.
A gallon of water contains 231 cu. in. and weighs
8 1/3 pounds.
For the circumference of a circle, multiply diameter
by 3.1416.
For the diameter of a circle multiply circumference
by .31831.
For the area of a circle, square diameter and multiply
by .7854.
To find the pressure in pounds per sq. in. of a column
of water, multiply the height of the column in feet by
.434.










One cord of soft wood is equal to 61 per cent of a tc
of soft coal; one cord of hard wood is equivalent to 88 p(
cent of a ton of soft coal.
A horse power is equivalent to raising 33,000 pounce
one foot per minute, or 550 pounds one foot per second
To evaporate one cubic foot of water requires the coi
sumption of 7 1/. pounds of ordinary coal, or about 1 poun
of coal to 1 gallon of water.




ORDINARY INTEREST FOR 1 TO 360 DAYS
(The table below gives the interest on $100 at 1 per cent)
Days Int. Days Int. Days In
1 .............. .00277 15............. .04166 29............. .0S0i
2 ------ .00555 16.......------- .04444 30-............. .083;
3 ............---- .00833 17....-----.. .04722 60 ........... .166(
4 .......... .01111 18.........------.. .05000 90-......... .250(
5.....----... .01389 19....----..... .05278 120--.......... .333=
6 ...---.......- .01667 20 .......----.. .05556 150...-....-..... .416(
7 .01944 21......------- .05833 180-----...... .500(
8 ------.......... .02222 22..--..........- .06111 7 mo..... .583
9..---. .02500 23------........ .06389 8 mo..-..-... .666(
10 .......- .- .02778 24-........-..--.. .06667 9 mo........ .750(
11.......... .03056 25......-----... .06944 10 mo......... .833'
12 .....---.... .03333 26.........-.. .07222 11 mo......... .916(
13 ------- .03611 27.......----- .07500 12 mo......... 1.000(
14---........... .03889 28 .......------ .07778


Example: Suppoose you b(
The interest for 30 days at :
interest for 10 days at 1 per i
these two gives the interest fc
interest for 40 days will be $0
cent, multiply by 7 to get the ii


w $200 for 40 days at 7 per ceni
!r cent on $100 is $0.08333. Th
on $100 is $0.02778. The sum o
0 days, or $0.11111. For $200 th
222. Since this is the rate of 1 pe
est at 7 per cent. This equals $1.5(


- A -A- -~h m r~i A -T-T~T T -T)T







READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 55


WEIGHTS OF CORN SILAGE
Estimated Weights of Corn Silage One Month or More After Filling
)epth of
silage Diameter of Silo in Feet
in feet 10 12 14 16 18 20
2 2.5 3.7 5.0 6.1 8.2 10.2
4 5.2 7.5 10.2 13.3 16.8 20.8
6 7.9 11.4 15.6 20.3 25.7 31.8
8 10.8 15.6 21.2 27.7 35.0 43.2
0 13.7 19.8 27.0 35.2 44.5 55.0
2 16.8 24.2 32.9 42.9 54.3 67.1
4 19.9 28.7 39.0 50.9 64.4 79.6
6 23.1 33.2 45.2 59.0 74.6 92.2
8 26.2 37.8 51.4 67.1 84.8 104.8
0 29.5 42.4 57.8 75.4 95.3 117.8
2 32.7 47.0 64.0 83.6 105.6 131.0
4 35.9 51.7 70.4 91.9 116.1 143.6
6 39.2 56.5 76.9 100.3 126.8 156.8
8 42.6 61.3 83.4 108.9 137.6 170.1
0 45.9 66.1 90.1 117.6 148.6 183.7
2 49.3 70.9 96.7 126.2 159.5 196.2
4 52.7 75.8 103.3 134.8 170.5 208.7
6 80.7 110.0 143.5 181.4 221.0
8 85.5 116.6 152.1 192.4 233.7
0 90.4 123.2 160.7 203.3 246.2
2 129.8 169.3 214.2 258.7
4 136.4 177.9 225.2 271.2
--This table taken from Kansas Bulletin No. 222
If corn is put in silo while in the milk stage add 10 to 15 per
cent to weights given in table.
. If corn is past the usual stage of maturity and contains less
water than usual deduct 10 to 15 per cent.
. If grain is unusually heavy in proportion to stalk add 5 to 10
per cent.
. If very little or no grain is present deduct 10 per cent. (Under
normal conditions grain represents from 30 to 35 per cent of the
total weight of corn silage.)
. Sweet sorghum and kafir silage weigh about the same as corn.
Fineness and tramping have no effect on the volume per ton
of silage.
To estimate amount of silage in silo one month or more after
filling:
(1) Determine original height of settled silage and read tonnage
from table.
(2) Determine height of settled silage removed and read ton-
nage from table.
(3) The tonnage remaining is obtained by subtracting (2)
from (1).
Example. A 14-foot silo was filled to a depth of 35 feet
(settled height), and 16 feet have been removed. Find
tonnage remaining.
Total capacity before removal of silage .-....----106.6 tons
Weight of the 16 feet of silage removed------.......- 45.2 tons

Amount remaining -----.. ...............------------.. 61.4 tons






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


LOGS REDUCED TO SQUARE TIMBER
To reckon the contents of a round log in cubic feet o
square timber, first reduce it to square timber; thus
Measure the diameter (or thickness) at each end i
inches; add these measurements together, and divide th
sum-total by 2; the quotient is the average diameter
One-third of this diameter is allowed for the chips o
slabs. To deduct this third, divide the number of inche
diameter by 3, and subtract the quotient from it; the rE
mainder is the proper diameter for measurements. Th
thickness of the log is generally counted in even inches
and one-third of an inch excess, or upward, is added a
an extra inch. After getting the square of the log i
manner above described, the number of cubic feet in it i
reckoned the same as in square timber. But as in the re
duction of logs fractions of inches often have to be recl
oned, an example may be useful for a perfect understand
ing of it.
Example.-Suppose a round log to be 35 feet long. 2
inches thick at the butt and 19 inches thick at the top
Add 24
and 19 the two diameters.
Sum-total 43 to which add two ciphers to include
the fractions, and then divide by 2)43.00
Deduct 1/3 for slabs 3)21.50 average diam.
7.17
True diameter 14.33 or 14-1/3 inches
Reduce this to thirds, thus: Three times 14 is 42, and the odd on
makes 43 thirds.
Multiply 34
by 43
129
172
Total 1849 which represents ninths of inche
Add two ciphers to include the fractions, and then, to reduce t
inches, Divide by 9)1849.00
205.44
Multiply by 35 the length of the log.
102720
61632
Divide by 12)7190.40
Divide by 12) 599.20
Cubic feet 49-93/100 counting 50 feet.










One cubic foot of anthracite coal weighs 53 pounds.
To find side of an equal square multiply diameter by
.8862.
One cubic foot of bituminous coal weighs from 47 to
50 pounds.
To find area of a circle multiply square of diameter
by .7854.
To find diameter of a circle multiply circumference
by .31831.
To find circumference of a circle multiply diameter
by 3.1416.
To find surface of a ball multiply square of diameter
by 3.1416.
To find cubic inches in a ball multiply cube of diam-
eter by .5236.
Doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity
four times.
Each nominal horse power of a boiler requires 30 to








58 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


U. S. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Apothecaries' Weight: 20 grains = 1 scruple; 3 scruples = 1 dral
8 drams = 1 ounce; 12 ounces = 1 pound.
Avoirdupois Weight (short ton): 27 11/32 grains = 1 dram;
drams = 1 ounce; 16 ounces = 1 pound; 25 pounds = 1 quart(
4 quarters = 1 cwt.; 20 cwt. = 1 ton.
Avoirdupois Weight (long ton) : 27 11/32 grains = 1 dram; 16 drai
1 ounce; 16 ounces = 1 pound; 112 pounds = 1 cwt.;
cwt. 1 ton.
Troy Weight: 24 grains = 1 pennyweight; 20 pennyweights =
ounce; 12 ounces = 1 pound.
Circular Measure: 60 seconds = 1 minute; 60 minutes = 1 degrE
30 degrees = 1 sign; 12 signs = 1 circle or circumference.
Cubic Measure: 1,728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot; 27 cubic feet =
cubic yard; 128 cubic feet = 1 cord; 24% cubic feet = 1 per(
Dry Measure: 2 pints = 1 quart; 8 quarts = 1 peck; 4 pecks =
bushel.
Liquid Measure: 4 gills = 1 pint; 2 pints = 1 quart; 4 quarts
gallon; 311/2 gallons = 1 barrel; 2 barrels = 1 hogshead.
Long Measure: 12 inches = 1 foot; 3 feet = 1 yard; 51. yards
rod or pole; 40 rods = 1 furlong; 8 furlongs = 1 statute m:
(1,760 yards or 5,280 feet) ; 3 miles = 1 league.
Mariners' Measure: 6 feet = 1 fathom; 120 fathoms = 1 cat
length; 7/2 cable lengths = 1 mile; 5,280 feet = 1 statute mil
6,080.2 feet = 1 nautical mile; 1 knot = a speed of 1 nautic
mile, or 1.151 statute miles per hour.
Paper Measure: 24 sheets = 1 quire; 20 quires = 1 ream (4:
sheets); 2 reams = 1 bundle; 5 bundles = 1 bale.
Square Measure: 144 square inches = 1 square foot; 9 square fe
= 1 square yard; 301/4 square yards = 1 square rod or perc
40 square rods = 1 rood; 4 roods = 1 acre; 640 acres
square mile; 36 square miles (6 miles square) = 1 township.
An acre contains 4,840 sq. yds. or 43,560 sq. ft. A square ac
measures 208.71 feet on each side.
Time Measure: 60 seconds = 1 minute; 60 minutes = 1 hour;
hours = 1 day; 7 days = 1 week; 365 days = 1 year; 366 da
1 leap year.


LAWFUL BUSHEL MEASURE OF GRAIN AND SEE
The most general weights are given for most states. Princip
exceptions are noted. Weights are given in pounds. Marks U.
Standard.
Alfalfa seed, 60; Apples, 48, 50* (Me. 44); Barley, 47, 48
Beans, 60*; Blue grass seed, 14; Bran, 20; Buckwheat, 40, 42, 48
50, 52; Cherries, 40, 50*; Clover seed, 60; Corn, in ears. 68, 70. 7
Corn, shelled, 56* (Cal. 52, N. M. 54); Corn meal, 48, 50; Cranbe
ries, 32, 33, 35, 36, 40; Flaxseed, 56* (Conn., N. J., 55); Malt, 3
32, 34, 38; Millet, 50 (Minn. 48) ; Oats, 32*; Onions, 50, 52, 54, 5
56, 57; Peaches, 40, 48, 50*, 58; Peanuts, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25; Peal
36, 45, 48, 50*, 58; Peas, 60*; Plums, 28, 40, 48, 50*, 52, 64; Pot
toes, 60* (N. C. 56); Sweet potatoes, 46, 50, 54, 55, 56, 60; Ric







READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 59


MEASUREMENTS
rcle: Diameter = circumference x .31831. Circumference = di-
ameter X 3.1416. Area = diameter squared X .7854.
here: Surface = diameter squared x 3.1416. Cubic contents
diameter cubed X .5236.
blinder: Area = circumference of base (see circle) x height. Con-
tents = area of the base X height.
ne or pyramid: Lateral surface = circumference of base (see
circle) X '/2 the slant height. Volume = area of base X 1/3
altitude, the altitude being the perpendicular distance from the
base to the highest point. Volume of frustrum of pyramid or
cone = 1/3 height X sum of the areas of the upper and lower
bases and square root of their product.
angle: Area = base X 1/2 altitude. Given measurements of three
sides, get 1/2 sum of sides, from this subtract each side sepa-
rately; multiply all remainders and 1/2 sum together; square root
of product = area.
pothenuse of right triangle = sq. root of the sum of the squares
of the other two sides.
uare, Rectangle or Parallelogram: Area = base X altitude.
ipezoid: Area = altitude X 1z sum of parallel sides.
ight of Tree or Building may be found by length of shadow. Set
up a stick and measure its shadow, then height of tree = length
of shadow of tree x height of stick length of shadow of
stick.
rrel: Volume same as for cylinder, but with a diameter equal to
half the sum of head and bung diameters.
eed of Falling Body: 16 feet the first second.
16 + 32 = 48 feet the second second.
16 + 32(2) = 80 feet the third second.
16 + 32(2) = 112 feet the fourth second.
16 + 32(4) = 144 feet the fifth second.
16 + 32(n-1) feet the nth second.
locity of Sound, Light and Radio: Sound in the air at 60 F.
travels 1,120 feet per second; in water, 4,708 feet per second; in
wood at least 10,000 feet per second; in metal at least 4,000 feet
per second. Light travels 186,600 miles per second. Radio
waves are considered to have the same speed as light.
horse-power is equivalent to raising 33,000 pounds one foot per
minute, or 550 pounds one foot per second.
ubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity four times.



COMMODITY WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
pint's a pound-or very nearly-of the following: water, wheat,
butter, sugar, blackberries.
gallon of milk weighs 8.6 lbs., cream 8.4 lbs., 461s qts. of milk
weighs 100 lbs.
ceg of nails weighhs 100 lbs. A barrel of flour weighs 196 lbs; of
salt, 280 lbs; of beef, fish or pork, 200 lbs; cement (4 bags) 376
1h-







VUJLrAIItTM1VllINI UV' ALrt iIUULIUUKi


Cotton in a standard bale weighs 480 lbs. A bushel of coal weigh
80 lbs.
A barrel of cement contains 3.8 cu. ft.; of oil, 42 gals.
A barrel for dry commodities contains 7,056 cu. in. or 105 dry qt,
A bushel stroked contains 2,150.42 cu. in., a barrel heaped = 2,747.
cu. in. Used to measure apples, potatoes, shelled corn in bim
A peck = 537.605 cu. ins. A dry quart = 67.201 cu. ins.
A board foot = 144 cu. in., a cord contains 128 cu. ft.
A barrel of flour weighs 196 lbs. net; 41/2 bu. of wheat makes a bai
rel of "straight" flour.
Solids (lbs. per cu. ft.)-Anthracite, 87-112; Cement, set, 170-190
Clay, 122-162; Coal, soft, 75-94; Glass, common, 150-175; Ice
57; Iron, pure, 491; Iron, cast, 444; Ivory, 114-129; Lead
711; Lime, mortar, 103-111; Lime, slaked, 81-87; Limestone
167-171; Marble, 160-177; Paper, 44-72; Rock salt, 136; Sand
stone, 134-147.
Liquids-Alcohol, 50.4; Benzene, 56.1; Gasoline, 41.0-43.0; Milk
64.2-64.6; Coconut oil, 57.7.
Woods-Cedar, 30-35; Ebony, 69-83; Pine, white, 22-31; pine, yel
low, 23-37; Hickory, 37-58; Mahogany, 41; Maple, 37-47; Oak
37-56; Walnut, 40-43.




WEIGHTS AND VOLUMES OF WATER
1 cubic inch of water weighs .03627 lbs. 1 cubic foot weighs 62.5 lbs
1 pint (liquid) weighs 1.044375 lbs. 1 gallon weighs 8.355 lbs
1 cubic foot = 7.48052 gals. 1 gal. = 231 cu. in. 1 liquid quart =
57.75 cu. in. Pressure in pounds per square inch of a column o:
water = height in feet X .434.




FOREIGN MEASURES OF DISTANCE COMPARED
TO MILE
Mile. Kilometei
American or English mile --------...............-------...... ..... 1.000 1.609
French kilometer -----.......................... ....... - .621 1.000
German Geographical mile ................. ------------.......... 4.610 7.420
Russian verst ----.......... -- .......---- -----..- .663 1.067
Austrian mile ..................... ........-.--.--------- ....--.. 4.714 7.586
Dutch ure ..............----------.~........... --- 3.458 5.565
Norwegian m ile .............----------............... ----------.... 7.021 11.299
Swedish mile .............-------.........----------....... ..- 6.644 10.692
Danish mile .......................-----........ --.... ..--- 4.682 7.536
Swiss stunde ...........------------- .. ...------------............ 2.987 4.808







READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 61

FIRST AID TO THE INJURED OR POISONED
First-Call a Doctor.
If the sufferer is in a faint or fit, loosen clothing. Lay
it on back, raising feet higher than head. Fan freely
id put cold water on the face and chest. Camphor,
nmonia or smelling salts, held near nose, often revive.
If vomiting, turn head to one side.
If unconscious, don't put anything in mouth. Water or
imulant may cause choking. Unconscious persons cannot
allow.
If conscious, cold water frequently revives and re-
eshes if given slowly in sips.
Apoplexy-Stroke of Paralysis.-Do not give stimu-
nts. Loosen clothing. Elevate the patient's head and
)ply cold cloths. Keep the body and feet warm.
Foreign Bodies in Eye.-Pull the upper lid downward
wvay from the eyeball over lower lid and release.
Burns and Scalds.-Cover with cooking soda and lay
et cloth over it. Whites of eggs and olive oil. Olive or
seed oil, plain or mixed with chalk.
Lightning.-Dash cold water over person struck. Per-
>rm artificial respiration.
Fainting.-Place flat on back; allow fresh air and
)rinkle with water.
Shock.-If faint and cold, give stimulant in small
3ses, once in fifteen or twenty minutes and secure
armth by external applications and rubbing.
Bleeding from Wound.-If from an artery, stop the
irrent of blood to the wound by putting a compress or
oth pad over the artery. Fasten it firmly by a handker-
lief or bandage which may be tightened by twisting in
stick as a binder. The location of the artery can gener-
Ily be determined by the throbbing sensation. If from a
ein, stop the flow by pressure directly over the wound or
y exposure or application of cold water. Perchloride of
-on may be applied with cloth or lint. Keep the part
elevated.
Wounds.-The part should be properly cleansed of all
)reign matter, the edges brought together and fastened
-ith strips of plaster apply anodyne solution, give stimu-
Int, laudanum with brandy, if necessary.
Bruises.-Apply Jayne's Lincreme; keep well covered
rd warm.






62 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Poisoned Wounds.-From a bite of animals treatment
should be prompt. If possible suck the wound thoroughly
two or three minutes; cauterize with either nitric acid,
chloride of zinc or nitrate of silver, use whiskey freely
internally.
Sting of Insects.-Apply spirits of ammonia.
Poisons.-General Directions-Give an emetic as soon
as possible; tablespoonful of powdered mustard in a tum-
bler of warm water, or twenty grains of ipecac, or rich
milk or whites of eggs in large doses; after vomiting give
freely of warm drinks.

Don't Do This
Don't touch a wound with your finger.
Don't put an unclean dressing over a wound.
Don't move a patient unnecessarily.
Don't fail to remove false teeth or other things from
the mouth of an unconscious person.
Don't wash wounds.
Don't have a tourniquet on over twenty minutes with-
out loosening.

FIRST AID TO THE INJURED
In Case of Injury Where Physician Cannot Be Secured
Drowning.-1. Loosen clothing if any. 2. Empty
lungs of water by laying body on its stomach and lifting
it by the middle so that the head hangs down. Jerk the
body a few times. 3. Pull tongue forward, using hand-
kerchief, or pin with string if necessary. 4. Imitate
motion of respiration by alternately compressing and ex-
panding the lower ribs about twenty times a minute.
Alternately raising and lowering the arms from the sides
up above the head will stimulate the action of the lungs.
Let it be done gently but persistently. 5. Apply warmth
and friction to extremities. 6. By holding the tongue
forward, closing the nostrils and pressing the "Adam's
Apple" back (so as to close the entrance to the stomach).
direct inflation can be tried. Take a deep breath and
breathe it forcibly into the mouth of patient, compress
the chest to expel the air, and repeat the operation. 7.
Don't give up! People have been saved after hours of
patient, vigorous effort. 8. When breathing begins get
patient into a warm bed, give warm drinks or spirits in
teaspoonfuls, fresh air and quiet.










nd apply ice cold water to head. Keep head in elevated
position.
Mad Dog or Snake Bite.-Tie cord tight above wound.
uck the wound and cauterize with caustic or white hot
on at once, or cut adjoining parts with a sharp knife.
ive stimulants, as Whiskey, Brandy, etc.
Cinders in the Eye.-Roll soft paper up like a lamp-
ghter, and wet the tip to remove, or use a medicine drop-
er to draw it out. Rub the other eye.
Fire From Kerosene.-Don't use water, it will spread
ie flames. Dirt, sand, or flour is the best extinguisher,
r smother with woolen rug, tablecloth or carpet.
Suffocation from Inhaling Illuminating Gas.-Get into
ie fresh air as soon as possible and lie down. Keep
'arm. Take ammonia-twenty drops to a tumbler of
rater at frequent intervals; also two to four drops tinc-
ire nux vomica every hour or two for five or six hours.



IN CASE OF POISON
First. Send for a physician.
Second. Empty the stomach by an emetic-a teapsoonful of
mustard or two teaspoonfuls of common salt in tepid water; tea-
)oonful of alum in water. Tickle the throat with a feather or finger.
pply antidotes as follows:
oison Antidote No. Poison Antidote No.
cetic Acid ------------.......... --. ---. 6 Laudanum .--..............--------- 1
alcoholic Liquors ....---------..... 10 Lye ------.........................---------- 9
mmonia ----------......-.----...--..-- 9 Morphine -----....---....--........ ------- 1
ntimony -------------.-..- - 5 Muriatic Acid .-----.-..... -------- 6
qua fortis -----------.... -.......... 6 N itre -------.......... ------------............ 9
rsenic .-------------------.........-.. .. 2 N itric A cid ---...........-------.. -- 6
itter Almond ----..... ~.--- -- 7 Opium ------.....-.......----..--....... -------.. 1
lue Vitriol ....----------------................... 3 Oxalic Acid ...............-..- 6
ug Poison -----------------................-- 3 Paris Green ...........--------------- 2
arbolic Acid -----------... 3 Phosphorus ----...----------........ -- 2
arbonic Acid Gas ...........-.. 10 Prussic Acid .-..--...............-----......------ 7
harcoal Fumes ..-----------.......... 10 Rat Poison -----------------..................------.. 2
hloride of Zinc ------ 5 Saltpetre ----------- 9
hloroform, inhaled .........--------10 Sugar of Lead ----..........-------- 4
hloroform, swallowed ------.. 1 Sulphuric Acid -----....--------- 8
oal Gas ....-----........----.... --- -- 10 Strychnine ...-............------------ 1
opperas ----------------.------....... 3 Tartaric Acid ......----------- 6
orrosive sublimate --..--------......... 3 Toad-stools -----....------------........... 4
their inhaled ...... ------ 10 White Lead -- -------------..................... 4
their swallowed ..-.........------------.. 1 White Vitriol ..........---------- 5
1. Emetic. If patient is drowsy, give cold coffee; keep awake
nd moving.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


raw eggs; lime water; milk; flour and water.
3. White of eggs; milk, flour and water; give largely for tc
minutes, then give emetic and follow by mild stimulants.
4. Mustard emetic followed by Epsom salt.
5. Emetic. Give warm water to relieve vomiting; tea to tabli
spoonful baking powder, salaratus, chalk, lime or magnesia, follow
by milk and white of egg.
6. Emetic. Baking powder, etc., as in No. 5, followed by lil
seed tea or slippery elm tea.
7. Emetic. Followed by brandy or by teaspoonful ammonia
pint of water.
8. Large quantities of water followed by large doses magnes'
or lime.
9. Drink diluted vinegar or lemon juice, follow with tabli
spoonful castor oil, cream, sweet oil or linnseed oil; then with te;
spoonful doses an hour apart for three hours.
10. Fresh air, inhalation of ammonia; warm extremities; art
fiicial breathing, as in drowning.


SCREW WORM TREATMENT
We have in Florida two species of the screw worm an
there is some misunderstanding regarding the control c
this pest because of the difference in the habits of thes
parasites. The common screw worm fly, or Cochliomyi
macellaria, is the one that makes its seasonal appearance
in Texas and other southwestern states and the one tha
was first reported in Georgia and Florida. This specie
of the screw worm propagates and perpetuates itself i
the carcasses of dead animals and only affected part an
a bloody-colored discharge will be observed.
Owners of livestock should ride their pastures an
ranges regularly to observe infested animals, whicl
should be driven to prepared pens and chutes for treal
ment. When the animal has been properly restrained
the wound should be filled with 90 per cent commercial
benzol and allowed to remain in the wound for at leas
five minutes. It has been found advisable, in handling:
screw worm cases, to introduce the benzol into the woun,
with a syringe or oil can and then plug the entrance wit'
a pledget of cotton, allowing this to remain five or te
minutes. Benzol kills the screw worms slowly. It is nc
necessary to remove the maggots, if, by so doing. yo
cause the wound to bleed as this materially delays hea:
ing. Next, fill the wound with pine tar oil, specific gra\
ity 1.065 and also place a quantity of this pine tar oil o
the margins of the wound. When working his livestock
the owner should paint all cuts and bruises with pine ta
oil as this material will prevent the flies from depositin






- -_ -_11 __ - _---


iold-up pen and treated daily until all wounds have
sealed.
There has been a demand to dip cattle through the
,rea where this pest exists in the hope that by so doing
he dipping would control this menace. It is the opinion
f the writer and the experience of the federal govern-
nent that dipping is not an effective measure. It is more
conomical and more practical to swab the ears of cattle,
logs and sheep with pine tar oil and this application of
Dressing will kill all of the ticks present and stay on the
ar for a considerable period of time, thereby preventing
another infestation.
The owners of small herds or flocks, grazed or pas-
ured or those on the range which come to the lot every
.ight, have little difficulty in treating their animals under
hese conditions. The open range, with large herds, pre-
ents another problem. Here the owner may live miles
rom his cattle or hogs and, therefore, is immediately
onfronted with the heavy expense of observing and
creating his animals.


THE FORECLOSURE PROBLEM
"First of all, we face the problem-and fact-of the
ready increase of foreclosures on farm home mortgages.
'he number today is almost as great as during the peak
.eriod of 1932-33-some 2,000 a week. This. my friends,
s striking at the very foundation of American Agricul-
ure. The Federal Home Loan Bank Review, a govern-
nent publication, has let out the information that the
'arm Credit Administration in the year 1936 up to Sep-
ember 1st has foreclosed or has arranged to foreclose
he mortgages on 30,267 farms. This is an average for
he first 8 months of the year of 3,782 farm homes a
nonth or 945 a week. The same authority also tells us
hat the Home Owners Loan Corporation has foreclosed
n or has authorized the foreclosure on urban homes at
he rate of 43,870 during the first 8 months of this year,
whichh is an average of 1,370 a week. This record does
ot include foreclosures by the many other private lend-













SELECTED COTTON STATISTICS-AMERICAN, FOREIGN, AND WORLD.
(000 omitted)

|19)0 12 191I I 922 1923 1924 19)25 I 1926 1927 19!28 1929! 1930 I 1931 i 1932 193:1 3 1934
| -21 -2 -3 23 -24 -25 ] -2 27 2 -28 -29 1 -30 -31 ] -32 1 -33 1 -34 : -35

American 1 1
American production ................. 113.429l 7,945. 9,755,10,140 1:36.30 : 16l10517.978112,956114477i 14.825513.532 -17,095o13.001 13,0471 9.443
World carry-over tof American cotton* .... 1 6,3381 9.393 5,1621 3,3041 2,705 3,3811 5.495 7,696, 5.114 4,4211 6,287 8.868121i.1i0|11,588 111.634
World supply of American cotton* ...... 19,.7(i7 17.338 14,917 13,444 16,335 19,4933,473120,653219.591,19,241|1,219125,963125.91i ]24,635 19,886
United States consnimntion of Antl'licaill I I
cotton ......................... 4,177 5,61:3[ 6,322 5,353. 5.917 6.176( 6.880 6,5351 6,778 5,.80:31 5,084! 4,744| 6,0041 5,5 4......
Foreign conislumntionl of American cotton 53.:.53 7,142L 6,343 5,7471 7.:.53 7.5160 8.897 8.8721 8.288l 7.2121 5,8171 7,5721 8,1171 7,985.. ......
World consumption of American cottol,- . 11 .0l5, 112-.755i12,65i 11100 1:13,270 13.7:3i|11.,777,l15,407| 11.06( ;i18i3.110.901 12.316i14.171 13.5391......
Foreign I I I I I I I I I I I 1 0
Foreign Iproductionet ... ............... 176 1 7,455 9.545 9,560 11,37011 5110,422111,044|12,:123: 11,6175111,868110,405[10,699113,05: ......
World carry-over ol' foreign cotton ...... 4,84'47 4,3811 4,474 :3,551 :3,2971 3,5501() 3,98 :1 3.9611 4,54:1 4,6551 4,9941 4.766 :3,9941 4,4471 5.435
World supply oi lorcign cotton ........ 14.)1811.83:1114,01!) 3,1251.14,i(67 115,:145114,411 15,00.11(i|,8. t10i 3301(i,862115.171 14,;93817,500 ......
United Stati.s ,.tsnmlttion ot l liiiilt t I
cottony ........... .. . 283 1 299 2.-21 224 i 2 51 2511 2351 245 24 49 1551 10 106i 111|1 ......
Foreig l consunm tionl of for(eigln cotlont .I 7.3491 8.1129 9,178 9,071 9.814 110.7'1| 10,1101 9.8981115 11.8137111,4851 9,903110,07( 111,4:391 ......
World (olntslmption of 1ori'gn cotlonli .. ... 7,515i 8.41lU 9.477 ).:13: 11.0,038 101.)51 |10,361i 11,:1:33110,80(1 1.18(|ll11.580110,003 10,182|11.5551...... .
W world I I I I I I I I
W world r tio .................... 1,10015.411 19.300 19 .70011 25,000 11 7,1100! 2840024.,0001,2)i.8lI(2110,5)1 00 5, 80027.500123:.710 0012i.1l00|(.. .. .. t.
W orld .cryv- vt* .11,185]1:3.774 9).1i:)1 li.8I19)9 1.O1; I 11.9:1!| 9.484|11.1157| 9.1;571 9,117I1 11,328111:3,l134lli,954|10,(035|11, 0(1. 9 H
World sultplyv* ........................ 1:13.3,5 :3).717 I 2.18,9):l(il,31i. ,ilil|1 ,00.11) ,I.3 1 37,8841 35,.1571 l 571.15,5718137,181141.1:14 40.154I 42,351.....
W world (on nm lio 't .................. 17,6)00 1.1 t 1l!.2.1421 0.4!3'23| :1.3 8 !'-1,1, 81i7 ( ,1:8 .i 5,.5412512i .873 5,3(1 22,481 22,3 1934,35.:1325.091|......

Fro! I illll)'ltllt ei(vll -'8llliitl Ity tii( llll'tl (itm e Aof i(sll ulIt l ](olllnlil.s.
l'rcliniinary. :!:178-I)ound )aleas. illllUilln g 1Iillk's. *Mix d .
)teoler 3' 6i, 1931.






READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 67


FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH
Rule No. 100
(Superseding Rule No. 38.)
Rule No. 100. Governing the Specifications for Septic
Tanks and Absorption Beds for the Treatment of Sewage
from Residences, Schools, etc.

Section I. Definitions.
A. A septic tank shall be construed to mean a water-
tight receptable so constructed as to accomplish the par-
tial removal and liquefaction of the solid matter in sus-
pension of sewage.
B. A septic tank absorption bed shall be construed to
mean an underground pipe system consisting of open-
jointed pipe so distributed that the effluent from a septic
tank is oxidized.
C. The effective depth of a septic tank shall be con-
strued to mean the depth from the liquid level line to the
inside bottom of the tank.
D. The effective capacity of a septic tank shall be
construed to mean the total liquid volume measured from
the liquid level line to the inside bottom of the tank and
from the inlet wall to the outlet wall of the tank.

Section II.
Septic tanks for the treatment of sewage from resi-
dences, apartments, hotels, schools, and public buildings
when used in Florida shall conform with the following
minimum regulations:

A. Material of Construction.
1. Tanks shall be constructed of durable, non-cor-
rodible material, impervious to water and resistant to
decay.
2. Tanks made of concrete shall be thoroughly
water-proofed on the inside or constructed of cement
mixed with a standard water-proofing compound. No
concrete shall be used having a weaker mixture or con-
sistency than 1:2:4, i.e. one part by volume of cement;
two parts by volume of sand; and four parts by volume
of stone. In the construction of concrete tanks standard
methods and specifications of the A. S. T. M. shall be
followed with regards to materials, tools and mixing pro-






68 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

cedure. Commercial concerns shall file a sworn stat
ment with the State Board of Health as to the concre
mixture and consistency.
3. All septic tanks shall be fully guaranteed not


tested for leakage after i:

B.
1. The minimum e
RESIDENTIAL USE shal
a. Capacities of sept
be based on two (2) pers
other sleeping quarters.
b. The MINIMUM i
tank for residential use
(250) gallons to care foi
c. An additional fift
be added for all over five
mum capacity of the fir,
struction shall not exceed
d. Septic tanks for r


illation.

.pacity.
tive capacity of tanks fo
figured as follows:
anks for residential use shall
* occupying each bedroom o

ctive capacity of any septi
il be two hundred and fift:
'e (5) people.
50) gallons per person sha]
) people, provided the maxi
chamber of any precast con
ne thousand (1000) gallons
lential use shall have a mini


2. The minimum effective capacity of septic tank
for APARTMENTS and HOTELS shall be based on th
following graduated scale:
First five (5) persons 250 gallons, plus.
40 gallons per person for next 5 persons, plus.
25 gallons per person for next 30 persons, plus.
15 gallons per person for next 160 persons, plus.
10 gallons per person for each person in excess of 201
persons.
a. The effective capacity shall be based on two (2
persons occupying each bedroom or other sleeping quar
ters in any building provided that the maximum capacity:
of the first chamber of any precast construction shall no
exceed one thousand (1000) gallons.
b. The minimum effective depth of septic tanks fo
apartments and hotels in excess of one thousand (1000
gallons shall be three (3) feet six (6) inches, and shall
have a minimum air space of nine (9) inches.
3. The minimum effective capacities of sentic tank






IADY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


:or schools shall be designed as a basis of fifteen (15)
gallons per pupil.
a. The minimum effective depth of septic tanks for
schools in excess of one thousand (1000) gallons shall be
;hree (3) feet six (6) inches, and shall have a minimum
air space of nine (9) inches.
b. Septic tanks for schools in excess of 150 pupils
shall be considered as a special problem and plans and
location of these tanks together with the plans and loca-
;ion of toilets shall be submitted to the State Board of
Health for approval.
4. Septic tanks for public buildings such as court
houses, jails, post offices, passenger stations, etc., in excess
)f one thousand (1000) gallons shall be considered as
special problems and the location and plans of such in-
;tallations shall be submitted to the State Board of Health
:or approval.
Section III. Location.
A. Septic tanks and drainage lines from same shall
not be located under any building used as a residence.
B. Septic tanks and drain lines from same shall not
be located or installed within two (2) feet six (6) inches
Af any building or bearing wall, foundation pier or
column.
C. The outlet of the house sewer shall be so ar-
ranged as to permit the invert of the house sewer to enter
;he septic tank at a distance not exceeding twelve (12)
.nches under the surface of the ground.

Section IV. Construction.
A. Tanks shall consist of two or more chambers sep-
arated by a partition wall and connected by overflow
pipes, wiers, or orifices properly located and of such size
and construction as to prevent undue velocities and carry-
ng a scum and sludge into the second chamber.
B. The inlet and outlet baffle, "T", or vented elbow
;hall not extend more than thirteen (13) inches below
:he water-line in tanks with an effective depth of thirty
(30) inches; nor more than eighteen (18) inches in tanks
Af greater effective depth.
C. There shall be no openings in the partition wall
between the first and second chambers nearer than fifteen
(15) inches from the bottom of the first chamber, nor
;hall the bottom of the "T" or elbow connection hP noarpr







70 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

than fifteen (15) inches from the bottom of the fir
chamber.
D. A small vent above the flow line shall be plac(
through all partition walls.
E. The liquid level in the first chamber shall be oi
(1) inch lower than the invert of the inlet pipe.
F. All septic tanks shall be water, fly and mosqui
proof.
G. All septic tanks shall be covered by a removab
cover or manhole so placed in the top of the tank as
give access for cleaning and to the inlet and outlet f
tings, provided that the tops of concrete tanks shall 1
reinforced.
H. Septic tank installation involving the use
siphons or other automatic dosing apparatus shall be r
quired to have special approval by the State Board
Health.
I. All septic tank manufacturers shall be assigned
code number and such code number together with tl
manufacturer's name and address shall be imprint(
upon the cover located over the inlet of each septic tai
manufactured for use in Florida. Manufacturers sh,
further be required to file with the State Board of Heal
the name, address and territory of each representati'
selling or installing their septic tanks.
Section V. Absorption Beds.
Drainage and absorption beds for septic tanks sh,
conform with the following:
A. Drains shall be of cement, vitrified or agriculture
tile, laid with one-quarter (14) inch openings betwei
the ends of pipe. Each joint shall be covered with se
tions of tar paper, not less than four inches by eight inch
(4"x8") previous to refilling the pipe trench.
B. The first two (2) feet of said drain line shall 1
made water-tight.
C. Drain line shall be four (4) inches in diameter
greater.
D. Absorption drains shall be laid not less than tv
(2) feet apart, with inverts not more than eighteen (1:
inches deep in the ground.
E. The layout of the absorption beds shall be sui
that the maximum grade for the drain lines shall not e
ceed two (2) inches per one hundred (100) feet; pr
viderld ll drains shall be laid to uniform grade.






EADY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


1 IlI 111 111II11 Ul-alll a1111te iui ally 1ia6LUaIUiiuII snail
be seventy-five (75) feet. The drain line shall be seven-
;y-five (75) feet in length for the first two hundred and
ifty (250) gallons tank capacity and an additional twen-
;y-five (25) feet for each one hundred (100) gallons in
excess of two hundred and fifty (250) gallons, tank ca-
pacity.
G. For installations in clay or other non-absorbent
soils, the drain lines shall be laid upon beds of porous
material in depth at least twelve (12) inches below the
.nvert of the drain.
H. There shall be no portion of any absorption beds
closer than twenty-five (25) feet in sandy soil, and fifty
(50) feet in coral formation to a well water supply.



DEBT AND TAXES
A statement prepared by A. M. Lamport & Company,
Aig New York investment house, recently placed the na-
;ional debt of the United States at $34,000,000,000, or
$266 for every American. Comparative figures placed
England's national debt at $35,000,000,000 and France's
at $21,700,000,000.
The Lamport report pointed out that in England and
France the per capital debt was $751 and $517 respective-
ly, both considerably more than the American $266. The
report continued:
"With respect to the relation of national income to
government debts and interest charges, the government
debt of this country is equal to 57 per cent of the national
income of its people ($59,800,000,000), while England's
debt equals 178 per cent of national income of $19,700,-
)00,000, and France's 185 per cent of income of $11,700,-
300,000. National income of the people of the United
States amounts to 72 times annual interest charges on the
government's debt, compared with 19 times for England
and 17 times for France."
These figures had to do with the direct current tax
load. Other figures applicable to the American tax situa-
tion were made available recently by The Providence
Journal of Providence, R. I. In the first study of its kind
ever undertaken, The Journal told the tax story of three
thriftyy New England families living outside the income
;ax level. The three kept a strict family budget for every
week in the year from September 1, 1935, to September 1,







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


1936. An analysis of these budgets disclosed that f
each family the average total tax (in direct, indirect
hidden levies) was 14.74 cents for every dollar spei
Specific tax averages were: 7.10 cents out of every doll
spent on food; 6.41 cents out of every dollar spent ,
clothing; 20.65 cents out of every dollar for rent; 12.,
cents out of every dollar for electricity; 10.26 out of eve
dollar for telephone; and 14.70 out of every dollar f
gas.

Adequate maintenance and development of watE
ways and harbor facilities, as a link in the transportati,
systems of the country, are of particular concern to t]
South. Not only do the states from Maryland to Tex
handle a large part of the inland and coastwise wat(
borne commerce of the nation, but one-quarter of t]
country's total foreign trade passes through Southe
ports. Last year about 35 per cent of American expoi


crease for the past three years in success
for 1935 was $1,087,000,000 as compared )
000 in 1934, $885,000,000 in 1933 and $
1932. Exports through the South were vw
460,000 in 1935, a gain of $45,000,000, ab
over 1934, and imports were $282,571,000,
000,000, or nearly 25 per cent over the p
Some of the important commodities r
bulk of the country's sales abroad are ch
ucts of Southern factories, mines and farm
the major items of export are cotton $42
troleum $249,000,000; tobacco $143,000,C
000,000; wood and products $41,000,000
000,000; phosphate $5,000,000; naval st
000, and fertilizer $14,000,000.
With the South producing practically f
try's cotton, 65 per cent of the domestic
put, 93 per cent of the tobacco, 41 per ce


vith $985,00(
808,000,000
ilued at $80-
out 6 per cei
a gain of $51
receding yet
making up t]
iefly the pro
s. Included
8,000,000; p
)00; coal $5'
; sulphur S'
ores, $16.00(

Ill of the cou
petroleum ot
nt of the co,


of the sulphur and phosphate and naval stores and
large proportion of many other raw and finished pro
ucts comprising the bulk of our sales to foreign country(
the Southern States are vitally concerned in maintainii
and improving port facilities to adequately serve the n
Hinn'g t-r zl p-MVnilf~etlvprn RPcorip Nov 1 ~q21


T U l D1'1 LS







dflV FOFMC.E FfR PARMPRP


FLORIDA STILL IMPORTS FOODS
Many Products Brought In Could Be Raised Here
(Florida Grower, November, 1936)
While Florida dairy farms are producing almost
enough fluid milk for home consumption, canned and
)ndensed milk is still being imported in large quantities.
i fact Florida's imports bulk to a huge total.
The following statistics were compiled for Florida
rower by L. H. Lewis, marketing specialist in livestock
nd field crops of the Florida State Marketing Bureau
hose headquarters are in Jacksonville:
orida spends for hay and mixed feeds (270,000 tons).... $8,000,000
orida spends for butter (25,400,000 lbs.) ......-----............. 6,850,000
orida spends for cheese (6,750,000 lbs.) --. ~~.------- 1,350,000
orida spends for eggs (12,000,000 doz.) --..---- 3,000,000
orida spends for poultry meat (14,500,000 lbs.) ......----- 2,500,000
orida spends for canned vegetables .--....---..............---....... 3,000,000
lorida spends for fresh vegetables ...................--.......1,500,000
Florida imported, according to the latest figures of
ie Florida State Marketing Bureau, for the year 1934,
ie following items and amounts with values of products
s indicated:
utton and lamb (9,000,000 lbs.) -------................----....... $ 1,625,000
ork (59,000,000 lbs.)..................------.... ..---- 11,000,000
eef and veal (68,500,000 lbs.) .......----..............---- ...-- 10,500,000
ird (11,600,000 lbs.)......------.......--........... 1,180,000
ilk-canned and powdered--equal to 4,200,000 gals..-.. 2,800,000
According to the latest figures, Florida slaughtered in the state
[e following number of cattle, sheep and hogs:
Florida shipped and killed locally and put on local markets
2,000 head of cattle or 24,700,000 lbs.
Florida shipped and killed locally 31,000 head of calves or
565,000 lbs. of veal.
Florida also shipped 1,000 head of stocker, feeder and dairy
little or 650,000 lbs.
Florida killed for farm slaughter and home use 10,000 head of
little or 4,750,000 lbs. and 8,000 calves or 920,000 lbs.
Total number of head of cattle on farms in Florida for 1934
ere as follows:
845,734 head of cows, cattle, and calves, at $14.80 a head,
12,516,863.20. This represents 48,801 herds or an average of
7.33 cattle per herd.
Florida had in 1934-
18,000 head of horses valued at $68.00 per head.......----- $1,224,000
12,000 mules valued at $99.00 per head......--.........--- 4,158,000
43,000 head of sheep valued at $2.40 per head---........ 103,200
77,000 hogs valued at $3.20 per head ---................. ------ 1,526,400
IR Onn dnirv ncow vlniid nt. 0n nAfl nor hoarl 9 QAn nnn







74 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


PLANT IMMIGRANTS EAGERLY SOUGHT
By T. J. BROOKS,
Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture.
(Florida Grower, November, 1936)
Many nations have ransacked the continents and the isles of th
sea in search of plant immigrants. As a result the largest crops o
some countries come from plant immigrants. The same is tru
of animals but not in so marked a degree.
The centers of origin of cultivated plants are limited to a fex
areas of the earth. But it is at these centers that we find the great
est varieties of each species. From these places the plants spread
naturally, and by man, over the entire globe where plants thrive
However, each fruit and vegetable has been found to thrive in othe
parts of the world than the point of origin. This is illustrated b:
the Irish potato, which is a native of South America, but it thrive
so well in Ireland that it took on the name by which it is know
throughout the world.
The distribution of plants and animals over the world has mad,
it possible for the human race to be distributed also. Were all plant
and animals restricted to their indigenous countries it would neces
state the redistribution of the inhabitants of all countries. Som,
would not be habitable at all which are now densely populated.
Florida's leading crops are fruits and vegetables which are im
migrant species of the vegetable kingdom. To illustrate this poin
the following Florida crops came from the countries mentioned:
From Southeastern Asia-Citrus, mango, banana, yam.
From East Central Asia-Oats, millet, cabbage, tung tree.
From Western Asia-Carrots, melon, certain grapes, onion.
From Southern Asia-Rice, sorghum, sugarcane, eggplant, cucum
her, ramie.
From the Levant-Lands bordering the Mediterranean sea-
Turnip, certain peas, fig, celery, asparagus, beet, lettuce, pepper
cauliflower.
From South America-Irish potato, cassava, peanut, tomato.
From tropical America-Papaya, avocado, pineapple, chayota
cocoa, vanilla.
From various parts of the United States-Corn, tobacco, beans
pumpkins.
Some native crops-Guavas, blueberries, pecans, sugar apple
wild grape.






'AlY P1VuF.R-F.TT FOR fARPARPR


TIME DIFFERENCE
Twelve O'Clock Noon United States Standard Eastern Time as
Compared with the Clocks in the Following Cities
of the United States
Atlanta, Ga ....-....... 11:00 a.m. Memphis, Tenn .....- 11:00 a.m.
Baltimore, Md........-------- 12:00 noon Milwaukee, Wis.------.....l 11:00 a.m.
Birmingham, Ala .--.11:00 a.m. Minneapolis, Minn.11ll:00 a.m.
Boston, Mass....------.....12:00 noon Nashville, Tenn.-----.. 11:00 a.m.
Buffalo, N. Y.-....----12:00 noon New Orleans, La .---. 11:00 a.m.
Charleston, S. C.. --..12:00 noon New York City ...---.- 12:00 noon
Chicago, Ill ..........--- .11:00 a.m. Norfolk, Va .....-..-.--. 12:00 noon
Cincinnati, Ohio ----...12:00 noon Omaha, Neb....--... -----11:00 a.m.
Cleveland, Ohio....--. 12:00 noon Philadelphia, Pa ..--. 12:00 noon
Dallas, Tex.........- -----11:00 a.m. Pittsburgh, Pa .....-- 12:00 noon
Denver, Colo .........--- 10:00 a.m. Richmond, Va .--------... 12:00 noon
Detroit, Mich.....--12 :00 noon Salt Lake City, Utah 10:00 a.m.
El Paso, Tex .......----- 10:00 a.m. San Francisco, Calif. 9:00 a.m.
Galveston, Tex .....--.. 11:00 a.m. Savannah, Ga .....---- 12:00 noon
Indianapolis, Ind ..--. 11:00 a.m. Seattle, Wash .......--- 9:00 a.m.
Kansas City, Mo.......11:00 a.m. St. Louis, Mo.. .--------- 11:00 a.m.
Los Angeles, Calif._ 9:00 a.m. Toledo, Ohio......--. 12:00 noon
Louisville, Ky. ......... 11:00 a.m. Washington, D. C .-. 12:00 noon



VITAMINS AND NUTRITION IN THE HOME
Scientists tell us there are four principal vitamins, A,
B, C, D, that are directly concerned with the proper
growth, skeletal development and general physical well-
being of our bodies.
Vitamin A, the growth vitamin, is found in butter, egg
yolk, milk, liver, various other foods and cod liver oil.
Vitamin B has its chief source in whole grain products;
oranges and tomatoes are an excellent source of Vitamin
C, while some of the other fresh fruits and vegetables
also contain large amounts. Vitamin D is found in sun-
shine and also in butter, egg yolk and cod liver oil.
Vitamin A is perhaps the most important of the group
because it is essential for the proper growth and develop-
ment. It aids in building up resistance to colds and other
infections.
Cod liver oil contains much vitamin A, but one of the
most pleasant ways to get our supply is in our daily food,
suggests Miss Ada Lockhart of the National Dairy Coun-
oil






76 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

It is a simple matter to include vitamin A each da
Many of our recipes call for milk, butter and eggs-thrn
important sources. If we follow the advice of nutrition
ists and include in our daily diet fruits, fresh vegetable
milk, butter and an egg a day or three times a week. v
may be certain we are getting that important vitami
The necessary precaution is to have enough of these bas
foods. Use one quart of milk for children under fourte(
and at least a pint for adults. Whole grain cereal fi
breakfast and at least some of the bread made fro
whole grain; fruit at least once; two vegetables besic






ADY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


AMOUNT OF PAINT REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN
SURFACE
It is impossible to give a rule that will apply in all
cases, as the amount varies with the kind and the thick-
ness of the paint, the kind of wood or other material to
which it is applied, the age of the surface, etc. The fol-
lowing is an approximate rule: Divide the number of
square feet of surface by 200. The result will be the num-
ber of gallons or liquid paint required to give two coats;
or divide by 13 and the result will be the number of
nnimncn f nnrp urnymnr wijXT h; rl0 r1n0rf In 4 ;- kn-


coats.


BUILDING WHITE WASH
Slake one-half barrel of fresh lime with boiling water,
covering it to keep in the steam.
Strain liquid through a fine sieve and add seven
pounds of fine salt, previously dissolved in warm water;
three pounds of ground rice, boiled to a thin paste and
stirred in boiling hot; one-half pound bolted gilders whit-
ing; one pound of white glue which should first soak in
cold water until swollen up, then melt over a slow fire,
avoiding burning it. Add five gallons of hot water to the
mixture, stir it well and let it stand a few days covered
up. When ready to use the wash make it boiling hot,
which can be done over the kitchen stove or a portable
furnace. A pint will cover nearly a square yard. It is a
very white and durable wash for outside work. It is
almost equal to good paint.



REMOVING GREASE SPOTS FROM SHOES
Grease spots on shoes, especially tan shoes, are very
hard to remove, and when gasoline or other cleaning
fluids are used a conspicuous light spot with a ring around
it is often left. A better method, which will be found en-
tirely satisfactory, is the application of ordinary rubber
cement, which is customarily used for patching inner
tubes. Put a thick drop of cement on the grease spot and


rub it down evenly with your
edge. After it has thoroughly
the process until the spot has i
leaves no ring or light spot.


inger, tapering it to a thin
dried, rub it off and repeat
disappeared. This method






78 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

TO REMOVE MILDEW FROM CLOTH
Put a teaspoonful of chloride of lime into a quart ol
water, strain it twice, then dip the mildewed places ir
this weak solution; lay in the sun. If the mildew has noi
disappeared when dry, repeat.


THE MOON
The mean distance of the moon, our nearest celestia
neighbor, is 238,862 miles, though it may approach us aw
near as 221,466 miles, and it may recede as far as 252,71E
miles. Its diameter is 2,160 miles. It would take 4
moons to make a body as large as the earth. A bodi
weighing 150 pounds on the earth would weigh only 2i
pounds on the moon. The moon always keeps the same
side towards us. No one ever saw the other side of thf
moon.
The moon has no atmosphere, no water, no fire, n(
animal life and no vegetable life. It is a dead world. I1
has a day two weeks long with intense sunshine, and e
night of two weeks with intense cold. Its surface is ver3
rough and mountainous with many extinct volcanoes
some of which are five miles high and more than fifty
miles across. The telescope shows huge cracks in th(
surface many miles long. It is a dark body with no lighl
of its own. Its light is reflected from the sun.
The moon has no appreciable effect upon animal oi
vegetable life, nor does it affect the weather in any way


CHRONOLOGICAL ERAS
The year 1935 of the Christian Era comprises the lat-
ter part of the 159th and the beginning of the 160th yeai
of the independence of the United States of America, anc
corresponds to the year 6648 of the Julian period.
January 1, 1935, Julian Calendar. corresponds tc
January 14, 1935, Gregorian Calendar.
The year 7444 of the Byzantine era began on Septem
ber 1, 1935, Julian Calendar.
The year 5696 of the Jewish era began at Sunset or
September 27, 1935, Gregorian Calendar.
The year 2688 since the founding of Rome, according
to Varro, began on January 1, 1935, Julian Calendar.







DY REVERENCE JOR FARMERSS


iril 27, 1935, Julian Calendar.
The year 2595 of the Japanese era, being the 10th
ir of the period Showa, began on January 1, 1935,
egorian Calendar.
The year 2247 of the Grecian era, or era of the Seleu-
ae, began in the present day usage of the Syrians on
Atember 1, 1935, or on October 1, 1935, Julian Calen-
r, according to different sects; but in the ancient usage
Damascus and Arabia Petraea the year began with the
rnal equinox.
The year 1652 of the era of Diocletian began on Au-
st 30, 1934, Julian Calendar.
The year 1354 of the Mohammedan era, or era of the
gira, began at sunset on April 4, 1935, Gregorian
lendar.
2,427,804 is the Julian day number of January 1,
35, Gregorian Calendar.



CHRONOLOGICAL ERAS
Name Began
ecian Mundane Era............---.-..-----------.... B. C. 5598, Sept. 1
il Era of Constantinople ---...-.....-----......B. C. 5508, Sept. 1
vxandrian Era ----..-. ......... ------------..B. C. 5502, Aug. 29
ian Period .---... ----...-... .------------B. C. 4713, Jan. 1
ndane Era ................. --------------- B. C. 4008, Oct. 1
vish Mundane Era.........-------...... -------- B. C. 3761, Oct. 1
i of Abraham .............----------------- B. C. 2015, Oct. 1
i of the Olympiads .........------------------- B. C. 776, July 1
man Era (A. U. C.) --......-....-.... B.---------.B. C. 753, Apr. 24
i of Metonic Cycle .............------------------.B. C. 432, July 15
ecian or Syro-Macedonian Era ---------------- B. C. 312, Sept. 1
i of Maccabees .......---------------- -- B. C. 166, Nov. 24
rian Era .........------------------------ B. C. 125, Oct. 19
onian Era ...............--------------------- B. C. 110, Oct. 1
ian Era ..............------------------- B. C. 45, Jan. 1
anish Era -..................-------------- B. C. 38, Jan. 1
gustan Era ---............-----------..----B. C. 27, Feb. 14
ristian Era ---.........--------- ----. ------- A.D. 1, Jan. 1
struction of Jerusalem .........-------... ~-- .... A. D. 69, Sept. 1
hammedan Era... .............----------------- A. D. 622, July 16

The year 1931 corresponds to the year 7539-40 of the
zantine era; 5691-92 of the Jewish era, the year 5692
mmencing at sunset September 11; 2684 since the foun-
tion of Rome, according to Varro; 2707 of the Olym-
ide or the third year of the 677th Olympiad, commenc-
g July 1, 2591, of the Japanese era, and to the sixth





hammedan era, the year 1350 beginning at sunset May 1
The 156th year of the independence of the U.
begins on July 4, 1931.



THE ANCIENT AND MODERN YEAR
The Athenians began the year in June, the Maced
nians in September, the Romans first in March and afte
ward in January, the Afghans and Persians on March f
(beginning of Spring) ; the ancient Mexicans on Februa:
23, the Mohammedans in July.



THE CHINESE YEAR
The Nationalist Government in China decreed th,
the Gregorian Calendar should go into effect on Janua]
1, 1929; but owing to internal conditions, its practice
enforcement has been limited to the great ports and
official activities and agencies.
The old Chinese year began late in January or early :
February and was similar to the Mohammedan, in havir
12 months of 29 and 30 days alternately; but in every 1
years there were 7 years, each of which had 13 month
This did not work out quite right, so the years were a
ranged in 60-year cycles with 22 extra months distribute
through each cycle.
Each year of the old years in China had an animal f(
its symbol. There are 12 of these animals, coinciding i
number and order with the signs of the Zodiac.

Symbolic Zodiac Symbolic Zodi.
Year Animal Sign Year Animal Sil
1928 Dragon(Shan) Leo 1934 Dog(Hsu) Aquari
1090 S-n-tftlRSn-) Vir"n 1iaR Rnn f CT 1. Piai






READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 81

THE FIRST RECORD OF CHRISTIAN ERA
"Why did not 'Anno Domini,' of the Christian Era,
begin at the Birth of Christ?"
Luke declares that Jesus "began to be about 30 years
of age at the time of His ministry."-Luke 3:23. But ac-
cording to the Christian Era now (A. D.), He was bap-
tized of John A. D. 27, and at once began His ministry.
The intention was to mark the time from His birth;
but the first record of the use of the Christian Era was by
a Scythian by birth, but a Roman abbot, who flourished in
the reign of Justinian. His name was Dionysius Exigiuus,
and he was the inventor of the Christian Era. He marked
that date A. D. 532; and at the same time, marked the
year of the founding of Rome A. U. C. 753. A. U. C. are
the initials of "Ab Urbe Condita," Latin to designate the
year since the founding of Rome, just as A. D. is the ab-
breviation for "Anno Domini," or the Year of Our Lord.
This abbot fixed the time with reference to Herod, be-
lieving that Christ was born after the death of Herod, in
which he made a mistake of history; for Christ was born
during the reign of Herod. It was known that Herod died
in April A. U. C. 750 of the founding of Rome, whereas,
by close observation, it will be seen that he should have
marked Christ's birth U. C. or A. U. C. the latter part of
749, which leaves an error between the date of His actual
birth and the present marking of the Christian Era, of
between three and four years. Therefore, Christ was
thirty years of age in A. D. 27, as stated by St. Luke.
Authority-The vulgar (meaning common) era
(Christian), began to prevail in the West about the time
of Charles Martel (Karl the Hammer) and Pope Gregory
the Second, A. D. 730, but was not sanctioned by public
act until the first German synod in the time of Carola-
mannus, Duke of the Franks, which, in the preface was
said to be assembled "Anno ad incarnatione Dom. 742,
11 Calendas Maii." But it was not established definitely
until the time of Pope Eugenius IV, A. D. 1431, who or-
dered this Era to be used in the public registers, accord-
ing to Mariana and others.-"Hales' Chronology, Vol. 1,
pp. 83, 84; see also 'Life of Jesus,' by S. J. Andrews; see
also 'Daniel, The Responsive History to the Voice of
Phophecy,' by Uriah Smith."









Quite a Different Question
Now, the belief was so universal, when the error of
history was discovered, it could scarcely be changed, and,
hence, it became the common acceptance; however, in
calculating time of so many years before Christ and so
many years after Christ, it makes no difference, because
three or four years are taken from one era and added to
the other. The result of the sum would be the same; but
when it is stated that 1914 marks the "exact number of
years of the Christian Era, or from the Birth of Christ,"
it is quite a different question.

Origin of Christmas
Under different names, Christmas was celebrated by
the pagans of ancient Rome for centuries before the birth of
Christ. Christmas as we know it today is simply a rebirth
in religious dress of this old pagan festival. Originally
called the "Feast of the Unconquered Sun," the festival
celebrated the solstice, December 21, which is the short-
est day of the year and the astronomical signal of ap-
proaching Spring. After the birth of Christ, approxi-
mately in the year 1, the Church of Rome waited 336
years before proclaiming December 25 as the birthday of
Christ. Nearly 100 years later the Christmas idea began
to take hold and it has flourished through the centuries
until today it is the most widely observed feast day on
the calendar.
Santa Claus
Santa Claus is the great American success story. He
was introduced to this country wearing the robes of a
bishop and riding a white horse. As America grew, the
Santa Claus legend grew proportionately. Soon he began
to look like Father Knickerbocker and toward the latter
part of the nineteenth century, given a sleigh and rein-
deer, he evolved into the twinkly-eyed, snowy-bearded
old gentleman with the red, ermine-trimmed coat whom
we see in the department stores at Christmastime. Today
Santa Claus stands for a billion-dollar industry.

Mistletoe



















priest of the Catholic church, was the


pastime.


trees at Christ


DY HEFEKRMh;l;U IVVKI PfAKAIMEKa








84 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


THE PLANETS AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM.
Approx. Dist. from Earth
Name Mean Sidereal Distance from Sun in Miles Millions of Miles
of Daily Revolution-
Planet Motion Days Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum

Mercury. 14732.420 87.96925 43,355,000 28,566,000 136 50
Venus.. 5767.670 224.70080 67,653,000 66,738,000 161 25
Earth... 3548.193 365.25636 94,452,000 91,342,000 .... ...
Mars... .. 1886.519 686.9797 154,760,000 128,330,000 248 35
Jupiter. .. 299.128 4332.588 506,710,000 459,940,000 600 367
Saturn .. 120.455 10759.20 935,570,000 836,700,000 1028 744
Uranus.. ..... 42.230 30685.93 1,866,800,000 1,698,800,000 1960 1606
Neptune......... 21.530 60187.64 2,817,400,000 2,769,600,000 2910 2677
Jupiter has 4 large and 5 small satellites, or moons, revolving around it; Saturn has 10 ; Uranus, 4;
Neptune, 1; the Earth, 1; Mars, 2.
ELEMENTS OF THE ORBIT OF PLUTO.
Mean daily motion 14" .26 Longitude of the Ascending Node 109 22'
Eccentricity of Orbit, 0.250 Longitude of the Perihelion, 212 30'
Inclination to the ecliptic, 17 7' Period of revolution, 249.2 years
Mean position of Pluto in the sky. Right Assension, 7h. 30m. Declination, + 22 10'
Name Eccentricity Synodical Inclination of Orbital Velocity
of of Revolution- Orbit tu Miles
Planet Orbit* Days Ecliptic* Per Second

Mercury .............. 0.205 6210 116 7 0 12.6 29.7.
Venus .................. 0.006 8050 584 3 23 38.3 21.75
Earth ................. .. 0.016 7372 ... .. .. 18.50
Mars ............. ... 0.093 3432 780 i 51 "0 .4 14.98
Jupiter................. 0.048 3918 399 1 18 24.8 8.11
Saturn ................. 0.055 7760 378 2 29 27.6 5.99
Uranus ................. 0.047 1370 370 0 46 22.2 4.22
Neptune ............... 0.008 5546 367 1 46 33.9 3.77
Light at
Name Mean Mean Annual Mean Long. Annual --
of Longitude Longitude of Siderial of the Ascend- Siderial Peri- Aphe-
Planet at the Epoch* the Perihelion* Motion ing Node* Motion helion lion
o 1 1 1 o / t / / o 1 "1 t / /
Mercury ............. 183 35 57.74 76 24 46.9 + 5.7 47 32 13.5 7.6 10.58 4.59.
Venus ................ 213 42 23.31 130 37 42.1 + 0.5 76 4 35.9 -17.9 1.94 1.91
Earth ........... .... 99 42 14.56 101 47 17.5 + 11z6 ........... ...... 1.03 0.97
Mars .............. 130 22 38.63 334 49 32.4 +16.0 49 2 27.1 -22.5 0.52 0.36
Jupiter............... 160 0 31.82 13 14 35.0 + 7.7 99 46 17.4 -13.8 0,041 0.034
Saturn ............... 310 18 53.48 91 44 5.6 +20.2 113 4 16.8 -18.9 0.012 0.010
Uranus ... ............ 25 13 40.12 169 34 40.8 + 7.8 73 39 22.6 -32.0 0.003 0.0025
Neptune ............. 157 34 42.99 44 2 42.1 -18.5 131 2 29.9 -10.6 0.001 0.001
Epoch 1933 Jan. 0 Greenwich Mean Noon.
Semi-Diameter 1
------ --- ----Gravi- Re- Prob-
Sun At In Mass. Den- Axial ty at fleet- able
and At Unit Mean Miles Volume ==1 sity Rotation Sur- ing Ter-
Planets Dis- Least (Mean E=1 8=1 face Power per-
tance Dist. S.-D.) =1 nature







READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 85


AMORTIZATIONN PLAN FOR LOANS ON REAL ESTATE.
Table showing how a debt of $1,000 is discharged by 139 monthly
payments of $10.00 each. The debtor pays 6 per cent. simple interest
on the amount remaining due each month.
Monthly Applied on Balance
payment. Interest Principal Due
1 $ 10.00 $ 5.00 $ 5.00 $ 995.00
2 10.00 4.98 5.02 989.98
3 10.00 4.95 5.05 984.93
4 10.00 4.92 5.08 979.85
5 10.00 4.90 5.10 974.75
6 10.00 4.87 5.13 969.62
7 10.00 4.85 5.15 964.47
8 10.00 4.82 5.18 959.29
9 10.00 4.80 5.20 954.09
10 10.00 4.77 5.23 948.86
11 10.00 4.74 5.26 943.60
12 10.00 4.72 5.28 938.32
13 10.00 4.69 5.31 933.01
14 10.00 4.67 5.33 927.68
15 10.00 4.64 5.36 922.32
16 10.00 4.61 5.39 916.93
17 10.00 4.58 5.42 911.51
18 10.00 4.56 5.44 906.07
19 10.00 4.53 5.47 900.60
20 10.00 4.50 5.50 895.10
21 10.00 4.48 5.52 889.58
22 10.00 4.45 5.55 884.03
23 10.00 4.42 5.58 878.45
24 10.00 4.39 5.61 872.84
25 10.00 4.36 5.64 867.20
26 10.00 4.34 5.66 861.54
27 10.00 4.31 5.69 855.85
28 10.00 4.28 5.72 850.13
29 10.00 4.25 5.75 844.38
30 10.00 4.22 5.78 838.60
31 10.00 4.19 5.81 832.79
32 10.00 4.16 5.84 826.95
33 10.00 4.13 5.87 821.08
34 10.00 4.11 5.89 815.19
35 10.00 4.08 5.92 809.27
36 10.00 4.05 5.95 803.32
37 10.00 4.02 5.98 797.34
38 10.00 3.99 6.01 791.33
39 10.00 3.96 6.04 785.29
40 10.00 3.93 0.07 779.22
41 10.00 3.90 6.10 773.12
42 10.00 3.87 6.13 766.99
43 10.00 3.83 6.17 760.82
44 10.00 3.80 6.20 754.62
45 10.00 3.77 6.23 748.39
46 10.00 3.74 6.26 742.13
47 10.00 3.71 6.29 735.84
48 10.00 3.68 6.32 729.52
49 10.00 3.65 6.35 723.17
1* A Tll i ral "IT ~ T- lht+- -r n-irl ff hTr l +kl(. A - n+_ \- -







lPPIATT 'TMT nOF A 'Tr TTT.TTTRT


AMORTIZATION PLAN-Continued.
Monthly Applied on Balan
payment. Interest Principal DuE
50 $10.00 $3.62 $6.38 $716
51 10.00 3.58 6.42 71C
52 10.00 3.55 6.45 703


53 0u.UU
54 10.00
55 10.00
56 10.00
57 10.00
58 10.00
59 10.00
60 10.00
61 10.00
62 10.00
63 10.00
64 10.00
65 10.00
66 10.00
67 10.00
68 10.00
69 10.00
70 10.00
71 10.00
72 10.00
73 10.00
74 10.00
75 10.00
76 10.00
77 10.00
78 10.00
79 10.00
80 10.00
81 10.00
82 10.00
83 10.00
84 10.00
85 10.00
86 10.00
87 10.00
88 10.00
89 10.00
90 10.00
91 10.00
92 10.00
93 10.00
94 10.00
95 10.00
96 10.00
97 10.00
98 10.00
99 10.00
100 10.00
101 10.00
102 10.00
103 10.00


d.DZ 0.48 691


3.42
3.39
3.36
3.32
3.29
3.26
3.22
3.19
3.15
3.12
3.09
3.05
3.02
2.98
2.95
2.91
2.88
2.84
2.80
2.77
2.73
2.70
2.66
2.62
2.59
2.55
2.51
2.47
2.44
2.40
2.36
2.32
2.28
2.25
2.21
2.17
2.13
2.09
2.05
2.01
1.97
1.93
1.89
1.85
1.81
1.76
1.73











AMORTIZATION PLAN-Continued.


Iviontnly
payment. I
)4 $10.00
)5 10.00
36 10.00
)7 10.00
38 10.00
39 10.00
10 10.00
11 10.00
12 10.00
13 10.00
14 10.00
15 10.00
16 10.00
17 10.00
18 10.00
19 10.00
20 10.00
21 10.00
22 10.00
23 10.00
24 10.00
25 10.00
26 10.00
27 10.00
28 10.00
29 10.00
30 10.00
31 10.00
32 10.00
33 10.00
34 10.00
35 10.00
36 10.00
37 10.00
38 10.00
39 10.00

'otal paid $1,390.00 $
This plan is applied to a
ower makes 139 monthly
per cent of the original am


Appliea on
interest Principal
$1.64 $8.36
1.60 8.40
1.56 8.44
1.52 8.48
1.47 8.53
1.43 8.57
1.39 8.61
1.35 8.65
1.30 8.70
1.26 8.74
1.22 8.78
1.17 8.83
1.13 8.87
1.08 8.92
1.04 8.96
.99 9.01
.95 9.05
.90 9.10
.86 9.14
.81 9.19
.77 9.23
.72 9.28
.67 9.33
.63 9.37
.58 9.42
.53 9.47
.49 9.51
.44 9.56
.39 9.61
.34 9.66
.29 9.71
.25 9.75
.20 9.80
.15 9.85
.10 9.90
.23 9.77

390.00 $1,000.00
ny loan by the following
payments, each of an ar
ount of the loan.


Due


"'""'"""










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


CITIZENS AND ALIENS, 21 YEARS AND OVER, 1930.


States I Native
white
Alabama ......| 853,028!
Arizona ....... 146.6901
Arkansas ...... I 700,5581
California ...... I .2747.7041
Colorado ...... .. 504.:'81
Coneceticut . 605,1431
Delaware ...... 112,6851
Dist. of Columbia 223,:3.1:
Florida ........ . 5.51.044l
Georgia ........ .. .)i956.894
Idaho ......... 1 213.160;
Illinois ........ 1 3,430.0791
Indiana ....... 1,793,1741
Iowa ......... 1.330.61101
Kan.3as ........ I 1,0107,927'
Kentuclky ...... .2 1.,60.14
Louisiana ......I 6i82,585
Maine ......... 3.. 94,81)0
Maryland ...... 741,5-481
Massachusetts . 1,656.0401
Michigan ....... 32,039.1120
Minnesota ..... I 1,145,4531
Mississippi ..... 513,512
Missouri ....... 1.971,3761
Montana .... . 238,2681
Nebraska ...... 685..45!1
Nevada ......... 42,706i
New Hamlshire 216,422


Folign [
born
white
15,135i
14,7951
9,!951
763.88!'-1
82.7601

361 i.8(0
:28,49t51
55,420
133'24
'29.184
1.11,2,7001
129.034'
161,.712

21 .1 1)I
337 71 1
90.801
911,178
994.4111
772,424W
378,450
(1.750
144,17(1

112.444
11,899i,
713, ; 1)


Negro States

479,)50 New Jerse ...
7.407 New Mexico ...
2577.1:1i New York .... '
57.560 North Carolina .
8.570 North Dk(ta .
1- O hlio ...........
1 I O la oni .. . .
S O r ll ........
i Pennsy lvania
S"Rhode Islan .
S iouth Carolina .
South Dakota
> 4 rc(IIIInfss .. .
11,330 Texas ..........
42,964 Ltah .........
140,503:i Vrnmont .......
415.047 Viirginia .... ..
71:1 Washington . .1
163,41i4 West Viiainia .
1.28!198 Wiseollsin
114 34t I vominu i ..
li.805
509!.( 328 United States...
150 .457
.)1l The North .....
!).5:21 The Sollth .....
4:39 ThI W -i ......
54141


Nat'-e
white
1.,581.120
167.693
4,847.064
1.108,209
251 .3771
3,31 S.2 28
1.122,4145
511.747
4.200.227
254.391l
470.095
310.011.
1.133.491
2.3.35i555
215.81:163
182.6171
948.207
757.384
784.8931
1.381,069,
107.538


Foreoiri
born
% white
796.5322
7,539
3.990.101
8.290
1032.308
610.349
2441.030
19.264
1.173.6193
160.44S
5.022
64 174
12.496it
94.S7S
41.7141
37.387
22.745
228.3243
48.688
373.16S
18.845


Negro

131.896
1.768
2S7.6 6
418.975
278
199,391
4.14 i'
1.717
277.355
5.952
343.788
420
271.974
469.637
816
319
329.220
5.061
67.155
7.265
1Q632


5'.762.:391 12.637.643 6.531.939

3'2,606.85,0 10.74,1.434 1.598.198
14,507.499 509.4*66 4.848.072
5.653.042 1.366.743 85.769


Of tie foreign-born whites, of voting age, 4,217.- anllld 1!(16.454 males and 291.962 f.-nmal liad their
576 males and 3,409,860 females were naturalized; filst papers.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


MARITAL (

|Women 15yrs..

State Total Ga
Number 0(c

ama .... 861,967]
ona ..... 133.5471
mnsas ..... 595,1271
fornia .... i 2,096,6301
rado ...... 1 357,236[
lecticut . 585,639]
ware ...... 1 85.2761
. of Col. .[ 204.556|
ida ....... I 613.5881
rgia ...... .I 972,461]
io ........ 136.1541
ois ....... 2,780,5101 '
ana ...... 1,155,9641 ,
a ........ I 827,0531
sas ....... I 653,4141
tucky ..... 855,0561
isiana ..... 1 703,0771
ne ........ 1 283.4841
yland ..... 582,3.7331
sachusetts 1,6230,4101
hi-an ..... 1,629,915[
nesota .... .[ 882,6181
sissippi .... .I 653.1071
souri ...... 1,328.7591
itana ...... 166,0451
raska ..... 471,2981
"ada ..... .I 27,1081
SHampshire. 1 171,9071
7 Jersey .. 1,470.,2471
I Mexico ... 126,9451
w York .... .1 4,721,1391 1.
th Carolina.l 1.001.4081
th Dakota .1 205,7641
o ......... | 2,384,8081
ahoma .... 764,5691
gon ..... 339,2191
nsylvania . 3.356,0811
ode Island . 256,8351
ith Carolina 553,3651
ith Dakota 218.7631
onessee ... .| 883.2971
"as ......... 1,933.4721
h .........1 158,7361
mount ...... 1 36,4171
ginia . .. .1 800.,5891
shington .. 545,7901
st Virginia 532,8491
iconsin .....] 1,009,9701
omin .... 1I 67,2571

.tcd States . 42,837.149110
n 1930, out of 35.177.515
age and older, 8,346,796 ('
fully occupied, as against 2'
4 per cent, in 1910; 20.6 pel
9 per cent, in 1890.


FION OF

r[ Single
-I-
] Tola'
SNumb,
-I-
7 214,'
3 28,"
81 126,(
31 471,.
71 83,1
3] 1823
21 2,:
41 62,
21 108.1
01 351,(
41 31,
01 738,
61 263,
61 226,!
6 1506,
1| 205,:
11 179,.
51 73.
21 160.
51 553.
3 374.
6 271.
21 150,
31 324,
;91 40,
59| 124,
51 5,
141 48,
.61 417.
iO0 29,
61 1,428,
i5| 294,
15 65,
:21 495,
i91 163
g81 75
821 975.
50] 85
261 161
)71 61
51 220,
141 451
281 41
371 32
)3j 225
)71 123
144 133
19 281
i81 14
--I-
37111.359
n of 15 y
er cent) ,
cent in I!
in 1900;


GAINFUL FE3I-

d Unknown I
i--I--
Gainfully | Tc
|occupied |Nun

0| 92,1161 52
8| 10,6581 8
2l 40,2111 38
4 231,8791 1,28
381 36,9901 22
3 118,7961 33
34 11.3371 5
11 41.0611 10
)3| 44.8671 32
01 111,8631 57
;71 9,9851 9
21 4 17.8571 1,70
I91 118,538] 74
31 95.5611 54
11 60,2346] 41
i0| 67,2431 54
!01 75,3501 4!
141 35,7981 11
i3| 85,5811 34
)01 359,5951 8(
!91 189,1351 1,01
)01 134,3581 51
551 66,9611 4(
88 154.8261 8'
391 15,8901 1(
371 51.5781 !f
161 1,9641 ]
)31 27.1961 5
781 266,648] 8i
081 8.8441
I71 924,9331 2,7"
271 124.0761 5!
361 23,5291 1
311 297 7061 1.41
081 48.5711 5
011 33.,9091 32
ill 534,6871 1,9!
801 59.0001 1
671 79,2381 3
491 21,9591 1:
29( 78,6571 5.
511 166,5871 1,2
181 16.348
591 15.3101
461 84.806] 4'
691 56.1971 3
07 42,6091 3
041 138,4341 6
141 5,3281

3815,734,825123,1
6rs The percer
ere gainfully emi
0; was 11.7 in
nd 5.6, in 1900


Vidowedo

Total
Number

123.099
16.998
79,653!
338.6351
47.350
64,453
10,668
32,758
77.973
147,484
12.922
339,737
147.375
101.688
78.661
105.768
99.283
38,110
75,205
196.895
179,500
92,.387
92,963
179,384
17.162
50.161
3,76C
23,682
168.23K
14.48C
553.,57E
110.554
15.76(f

87.17S
45,27;
381.43!
30.871
73,361
19.38,
119,26.
250.,94
17,691
17.58(
99,81E
69,75;
52 47
107,48:
6,21V

5,307.35i
women
sex in tl
)20: 10.'
90.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


MINERAL PRODUCTS-STATES THEY COME FROM
(Data on this page are from the U. S. Bureau of Mines.)


Mineral.

Aluminum.............
Antimony ore..........
Arsenious oxide ........
Asbestos .............
Ahphalt ..............

Barytes (crude) ........
Bauxite ...............
Borates ...............
Bromine .............
Cadmium .............
Calcium-magnes. chloride.
Cem ent ...............
Chromite ..............
Clay products..........
Clay, raw .............
Coal:
Bituminous.........
Anthracite. .........
Coke ..................
Copper ..............
Diatomaceous earth.....
Em ery ................
Feldspar (crude) ......
Ferroalloys ............
Fluospar ..............
Fuller's earth ........ .
Garnet, abrasive........
Gold .................
Graphite .. .............
Grindstones and
pulpstones. .........

Gypsum ...............
Iron ore..............
Iron, pig ..............
Lead. .................
L im e ............ ....


Chief States.
N. Y., N. C., Tenn.
Idaho
Nev., Utah. Mont., S. D.
Md., Cal., Ga.. Ariz.
Cal., Tex., Ill., Ky.,
Utah, Okla.
Ga., Mo., Tenn., Va.
Ark., Ga., Tenn., Ala.
Cal., Nev.
Mich., W. Va.. Ohio
Not separable by States.
Mich., W. Va., Ohio.
Pa., Cal., Ind., Mich.
Md., Cal., Ore.
Ohio. Pa., N. J., Ill.
N. J., Pa., Mo., Ga.

Pa., W. Va., Ill., Ky.
Pa.
Pa., Ind., Ohio, Ill., Ala.
Ariz., Mont., Utah, Mich.
Cal., Okla., Ill., Mo.
Va., N. Y.
N. C., Me., N. H., N. Y.
Pa., N. Y., Md., Ohio.
Ill., Ky., Col., N. M.
Fla.. Ga., Tex., Ill.
N. Y., N. H.. N. C.
Cal., Col., S. D., Alaska.
Ala., Tex., R. I., Mich.

Ohio, W. Va., Mich.,
Wash.
N. Y., Iowa. Ohio, Mich.
Minn., Mich., Ala., N. Y.
Pa., Ohio, Ill., Ind., Ala.
Mo., Idaho, Utah, Okla.
Ohio, Pa.., Mass., Mo.


Mineral. Chief States.
Magnesite (crude) ... Cal Wash.
Magnesium ............ N. Y.. Mich.
Magnesium chloride ..... Mich., Cal.
Magnesium sulphate ..... Micih.. Wah.. Cal.
Manganese ore......... Mont., Ark.. Va.. Col.
Manganiferous ore .... Minn., Wis., Mich.. Colo.
Magnaniferous zinc. .... N. J.
Mica........... ....... N. C., N. H.. N. M. Va.
Millstones.. ......... N. Y.. Va.. N. C.. N. H.
Mineral paints......... Pa.. Ill.. Cel.. Ohio.
Mineral waters......... Wis.. N. Y.. Cal.. Me.
Natural gas ............ W. Va.. Pa., Okla.. Cal.,
Tex.
Natural gas gasoline . 'Okla., Cal., Tex., W. Va.
Oilstones, etc........... Ark. Ind.. Ohio. N. H.
Peat ............... .. .... N. J.. Cal.. Ind.
Petroleum............. Okla.. Cal.. Tex., Ark.,
Kan.
Phosphate rock ...... Fla., Tenn.. Idaho. Ky.
Platinum and allied
metals Cal., Ore., Alaska. Utah.
Potash (K20) .......... Cal.. Md.. Pa.. Ind.
Pumice. ............ .. Kan., Neb.. Cal.. Utah.
Pyrites............... Cal., Va.. N. Y., W is.
Quicksilver ............ Cal.. Tex.. Nev., Ore.
Salt .................. Mich.. N. Y.. Ohio. Kan.
Sand and gravel........ ll., N. Y.. Ind.. -Mich.
Sand-lime brick ........ .Mich., Mass.. Wis.. N. J.
Silicia (quartz) ........ Wis.. Md., Cal., Nev
Silver. ............... Utah, Mont.. Nev.. Idaho.
Slate ................ Pa., Vt., N. Y., Me.
Stone ............... Pa.. Ind., Ohio, N. Y.
Sulphur ............... Tex., La., Nev., Utah.
Talc and soapstone ....... N.Y., Va.. Vt., Cal.
Tin ............ ...... Alaska.
Titanir.m ore: Rutile .... Fla., Va.
Tungsten ............. Calif.. Colo., S. D.
Uranium, vanadium ores. Utah., Col.
Zinc .................. Okla., Kan.., N. J., .M ont.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 91
















MINERAL PRODUCING STATES AND THEIR LEADING MINERAL PRODUCTS.

State Products. State Products.
Ala.... Coal, iron, ore, cement, clay products. N. H.... Stone. clay products, sand and gravel,
Alaska. Copper, gold, coal, silver, feldspar.
Ariz.... Copper, gold, silver, lead. N. J.... Clay products, zinc, cement, sand and
Ark.... Petroleum, coal, natural gas, bauxite, gravel.
Cal... Petroleum, cement, natural gas, clay N. M... Coal, copper, zinc, silver.
products. N. Y.. .. .Clay products, cement, gypsum. stone.
Col.... Coal, gold, clay products, silver. N. C.... Stone, clay products, sand and gravel,
Conn... Clay products, stone, lime, sand and feldspar.
gravel. N. D.... Coal, clay products, mineral waters, sand
Del.... Clay products, stone, sand and gravel, and gravel.
D. of C. Sand and gravel, clay products, sand- Ohio... Clay products, coal, natural gas, petro-
lime brick, stone, leum and lime.
Fla..... Phosphate rock, stone, Fuller's earth, Okla... Petroleum, zinc, natural gas, natural-gas
sand and gravel, gasoline.
Ga.... Clay products, stone, cement, Fuller's Ore.... Cement, stone, sand and gravel, clay
earth, products.
Idaho.. Lead. silver, zinc, gold. Pa.. . Coal, cement, clay products, natural gas.
Ill... Coal, clay products, petroleum, cement. R[. I.. Stone, clay products, lime, sand and
Ind.... Coal, cement, stone, clay products, gravel.
Iowa Coal, Cement, clay products, gypsum. S. C.. . Stone, clay products, sand and gravel,
Kan.... Petroleum, zinc, coal, natural gas. barytes.
Ky.... Coal, petroleum, clay products, natural S. D.... .Gold, stone, sand and gravel, silver.
gas. Tenn... Coal, clay products, cement, stone.
La.... Petroleum, sulphur, natural gas, natural- Texas.. Petroleum, sulphur, natural-gas gasoline,
gas gasoline. natural gas.
Me..... Stone, lime, clay products, slate. IUtah.. Copper, silver, lead, coal.
Md..... Coal, clay products, cement, sand and Vt..... Stone, slate, lime, talc.
gravel. Va.. . Coal, clay products, stone, cement.
Mass... Stone, clay products, lime, sand and Wash... Coal. cement, clay products, sand and
gravel, gravel.
Mich... Iron ore, copper, cement, salt. W. Va... Coal, natural gas, petroleum, clay
Minn... Iron ore, stone, cement, clay products, products.
Miss.. ... Sand and gravel, cloy products, mineral Wis ... Stone, sand and gravel, mineral waters,
waters, stone, iron ore.
Mo..... Lead, clay products, cement, coal. Wyo... Petroleum, coal, natural gas, natural-gas
Mont.. Copper, silver, coal, zinc. gasoline.
Neb.... Cement, clay products, sand and gravel,
stone.
Nev.... Copper, silver, gold, gypsum.








92 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


CEMENT AND OTHER QUARRY PRODUCTION AND VALUES.
(Figures Collected by the United States Bureau of Mines.)

Year Cement Clay Clay products Lime Sand and Gravel
(Cal.) Barrels Dollars Dollars Dollars Short tons Dollars Short tons Dollars
1918... 71,348,474 113,717,616 8,332,641220,573,493 3,206,01C 26,808,909 61,824,426 37,927.079
1919... 86.141,488 147,318,398 7,090,631 275 346,378 3,330,347 29,448,553 70,576,407 45,951,556
1920... 97,079,200 195589,91511,276,663 373,670,102 3,570,141 37,543,840 82,041,38' 65,661,605
1921... 96,046,549181,675,440 6,055,300270,738,536 2,532,153 24,895,370 79,845,00 56,484,245
.1922... 118,590,644208,464,028 8,330,514321,494,403 3,639,617 33,255,039 94,867,04r 64,617.664
1923... 137,183,792259,631,77611,188,913424,582,628 4,076,243 39,993,652 139,932,153 90,903,654
1924... 147,466,010266,053,26711,507,536 415,779,378 4,072,000 39,596,423 156,230,063 97,013,115
1925... 159,046,937 281,075,691 12,736,632 423,446,917 4,580,823 42,609,141 172,001,473 107,542,123
1926... 164,218,941 280,785,583 14,105,589 430,428,494 4,560,398 41,566,452 183 100,818 111,338,701
1927... 174,023,051 281,735,676 13,697,159 403,363,270 4,414,932 38,638,413 197,454,269 115,529,786
1928... 178,051,977278,883,042 14,200,739 373.550,882 4,458,412 36,449,635 209,118,8681119,207,937.
1929... 172,027,452255,104,506 14850,744373,409,391 4,269,768 33,478,848 222,571,905132.835,979
1930... 160,846,3501231,249,287 12,521,495 275.134,322 3,387,880 25,616.486 197,051,726115.176.543
1931... 128.325,382.142,528.789 ..................... 2,710,000 18.506.000 154,000,000 85,400.030
Asphalt Asphalt
Year Slate Stone Asphalt (mine) (from dom. petrol.) (from for. petrol.)
(Cal.) Dollars Short tons Dollars Shortt'ns Dollars Short tons Dollars Short tons Dollars
1918.. 4,841,120 68,563,360 82,700,430 60,034 780,808 604,723 8,796,541 597,697 9.417,818
1919.. 6,030,648 65,539,000 96,709,143 88,281 682,989 614,692 8,727,372 674,876 7,711,510
1920.. 8,726,442 78,527,000 133.541,960 198,497 1,213,908 700,496 11,985,457 1,045,779 14,272,862
1921.. 7,322,006 63,538.740 106,962,266 296,412 1,985,583 624,220 9,048,221 90S,093 11,761,358
1922.. 9,176,784 80,211,560 122,066,928 327,792 2,253,180 805,145 10.385,925 1,242.163 13,899,407
1923.. 12,076,624 103,318,660 159 470,241 400,236 2,885,631 995,654 13,060,174 1,378,722 16,840.045
1924.. 11,776,016 103,184,120 161,870,I11 562,367 3,958,339 1,158,456 14,305,007 1,920,915 21.710,793
1925.. 12,575,326 115,851,370 174,216,792 584,850 4,148,400 1,206,700 15,305,760 1,971,670 27,520,010
1926.. 12,352 767 124,496,360 188 308,590 715,180 4,484,960 1,245,160 15,452,940 2 213,310 31,098,460
1927.. 11,380,736 136,345,130 198647.,222 839,040 5,605,850 1,525,420 19.019,150 2426,030 35,771,940
1928.. 11,472,291 133,869,510 196,820,697 807, 860 5,175,055 1,930,536 22,060.312 2,298,848 30,056,866
1929.. 11,245,178 141,109,580 202,692,762 804027 5,470,4932,332,973 24,135,787 2,355,498 27,057,368
1930.. 7,911,618 126,996,340 178,948,611 702,777 4,663,0922,273,546 21,570,439 1,986,92621,261,117
1931.. 5.498,336 96,200,000 131,248,000 503.383 2,930.451 2,200.337 16,539,894 ......... ..........
The-United States lacks adequate domestic supplies of asbestos, chromite, graphite, manganese, mica.
platinum, nitrate, thorium, tungsten, and vanadium; it lacks almost entirely supplies of diamonds and
other gems, nickel, and tin.

COAL-MINE FATALITIES AND PRODUCTION.
Men Prod. Men Prod. Men Prod.
Year Em- Men Per Year Em- Men Per Year Em- Men Per
(Cal.) played Killed Death (Cal.) played Killed Death (Cal.) played Killed Death
No. No. Sh. tons No. No. Sh. tons No. No. Sh. tons
1910...... 725,030 2,821 177,808 1918..... 762,426 2,580 262,873 1926 ...... 759,033 2,518 261,241
1911...... 728,348 2,656 186,887 1919.. .. 776,569 2,323 238,464 9127 ..... 759,177 2,231 267,978
1912.... 722,662 2,419 220,945 1920...... 784,621 2,272 289,729 1928 .... 682,831 2,176 264,749
1913.. 747,644 2,785 204,685 1921 ...... 823,253 1,995253,832 1929 ..... 654,494 2,1S7 278,389
1914... 763,185 2 454 209,261 1922 ... 44,807 1,984240,399 1930 ..... 644,006 2 063260,257
1915...... 734,008 2,269 234,297 1923 ...... 862,536 2,462 267 223 1931 ...... ...... 1.430 .......
1916..... 720971 2226265094 1924 ...... 779,613 2, 402 237,974
1917.....757317 2,696 24161 1925 ...... 748,805 2,231 260,461

GREAT COAL-MINE DISASTERS IN THE UNITED STATES.
Date Location of Mine Killed Date Location of Mine Killed

1869.... Sept. 6 Avondale, Pa........... 179 1908.... Nov. 2' Marianna, Pa ......... 154
1884.. March 13 Pocahontas, Va. ........ 112 1909.. .. Nov. 13 Cherry, Ill1............ 259
1891.... Jan. 27 Mount Pleasant, Pa...... 109 1911.... April S Littleton, Ala......... 128
1892.. Jan. 7 Krebs, Okla............. 100 1913.. Oct. 22 Dawson, N. M. ......... 263
1900.. May 1 Seofield, Utah.......... 200 1914.. .. April 28 Eccles, W. Va. ..... 181
1902.. May 19 Coal Creek. Tenn.. ..... 184 1915.. March 2 Layland, W. Va...... 112
1902.. .. July 10 Johnstown, Pa ........... 112 1917.. pril 27 Hastings, Colo ........[ 121
1903.. June 30 Hanna, Wyo ............ 169 1923.. Feb. 8 Dawson, N. M ......... 120
1904.... Jan. 25 Cheswick, Pa............ 179 1924..I. March 8 Castle Gate, t all..... 171
1905.... Feb. 20 Virginia City. Ala....... 108 1924.... April 28 Benwood. 2W. Va....... 119
1907.... Dec. 61 Monongah, W. Va....... 361 1928.... May 19S Mather, Pa.. .......... 195
1907.... Dee. 19 Jacobs Creek, Pa.. ...... 239
The above were due to explosions except Sept. 6, 1869 and Nov. 13, 1909, where fire raged.














I AC TI- IF PPlITI ATINrn An Til r NITiNTRi


STATES, ETC., OF THE N
A WkTr MIT IT>V>Cf


.-ILfLJ InI JJ IVA


In this table the p(


Country

ted States (with outly:
possessions)
bama
ska
ona-- --- ---
:ansas
ifornia
al Zone
orado
inecticut
aware
trict of Columbia---
rida
rgia --- -
Lm -----------------------
vaiian Islands
ho
ois----
iana
a ---------- ----------------
isas ------------
itucky -- ---------
tisiana
mne -----------------------
Ioe
ryland ------
ssachusetts
chigan -.....------
inesota
ssissippi --- -----
souri
ntana
)raska
rada
v Hampshire-- --
w Jersey
v Mexico.--------
v York -----------
rth Carolina
*th Dakota
0 --- ---------- ----- -__--_---------
lahoma
egon
insylvania
llipine Islands -.......---..
'to Rico
Mde Island ---..----
iona (American) -...-
ith Carolina
ith Dakota
inessee ------- ...-
:as
ah ----------------
rmont
ginia --- -----
gin Islands
shington
est Virginia -----
sconsin
oming
rssinia ------------
in -------
ghanistan ----- -----------


.a0 %r


WORLE

INHA


in every


3.


919 W
646 M
59 Jt
436 P]
,854 Li
677 Sa
39
036 D,
,607 H
238 D
487 W
468 Ti
,909 A
19 A.
368 H
445 B.
,631 Si
,239 In
,471 D
,881 T.
,615 Fl
,102 B:
797 A
,632 A
,250 B
,842 L;
,564 Si
.010 Ji
,629 J(
538 H
,378 L
91 C:
465 C,
,041 T2
423 S:
,588 A
,170 R.
681 B
,647 C.
,396 0
9654 S:
,631 H
,082 M
,544 S4
687 P*
10 A
.739 C.
693 P
,617 N
,825 A
508 S;
360 M
,422 R
22
,563 0
,729 C
,939 M
226 C.
,000 A
582 A
,380 K
- A


) WITH THEIR CAPITALS

BITANTS FOR 1930.


case, is shown in thousands.


Capital Pop.


'ashington .. ---------- 48
ontgomery 6
ineau
phoenix .--------- 4
little Rock ------------ 8
icramento -- ------------- 9

en ver ... _... ...---- ---- -- ---- -- 2 8
artford ..-. -----16
over
'ashington 48
allahassee -1-------- --------- 1
tlanta -------- ------ 27
gana
onolulu ----------- 13
eise ...---- --.. ------ ------- 2
pringfield ------ -.- ---------- 7
idianapolis 36
es Moines --- -- ----- ------- 14
opeka 6
rankfort -- ----------- 1
aton Rouge --------------- 3
ugusta -------------- 1
nnapolis 1
oston ------ ----- 78
ansing 7
t. Paul 27
ackson 4
efferson City -- ---- --- 2
elena 1
incoln 7
arson City
oncord 2
renton 12


elgn
mark ---
umbus
ahoma City
?mn ---- ------ -----
rrisburg -----
nila ---- --
Juan
evidence -.e---
a
a --------------
umbia
rre -------
;hville
Atin
L Lake City --
ntpelier
hmond

mpia
irleston
dison
eyene ---
lis Abbaba
hin
)ul


60
58
17
40
12
200
157


7
6
3
8
2
4

7
4
5
7
1
0
9
8
2
2
4
3
4
2
1
7
3
81
8
2
48
2
2
6
2
35
23


"" n"~""""'"" T;rr\~ n*~nn~n~n








V4 jrjLfrIA1iV11N1 ur f1IUXLLUUUL1Uint



SUMMARY OF THE POPULATIONS-Continued.


Country Pop. Capital Pop.

Albania (est.) 8--.. --. ...-.... 800 Skutari ...................
Algeria 5,197 Algiers ... ----- -- __ 2
A n a m -- --- -- 5 ,2 0 0 H u e - --.- ..... . ..
Andorra --- --- ---- 5 Andorra
Angola -. ......... 4,119 St. Paul de Loanda ..
Angora --.. .... 347 ----- ----
Anhalt --- --- ---. ....- ........- 331 Dessau
Anhwei ---..--.-.. ... ............ 4,478 Anking . ...... ... 2
Arabia .... .... .. ... ....... 5,000 Damascus ----....-- --- --- -- 1
Argentine Republic -... 8,699 Buenos Aires ....... .......... 1,7
Armenian Republic .... 1,214 Erivan ........ .......









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 95


SUN


Country

Ecuador
Egypt ---- -
England
Eritrea
Esthonia
Federated Ma]
Fiji Islands
Finland --
Flume
Flanders, E.
Flanders, W.
France
French Cochin
French Congo
French Guianm
French Guinea
French Indo-C
Galicia --------
Gambia ---
Georgia, Repul
Germany ........
Gibraltar
Great Britain
Greece
Guatemala ----
Haiti
Hamburg --..
Hejaz
Hesse ..--.--
Honduras --
Hongkong --...
Hungary
Iceland ....---
India ......---
Ireland
Isle of Man
Italy
Ivory Coast
Jamaica
Japan ----.--
Java
Johore
Jugoslavia
Kamerun
Kashmir
Kenya Protec
Khiva
Kiaochow
Kurdistan
Labrador
Laos (est.)
Latvia
Leeward Isles
Liberia
Liechtenstein
Lippe
Lithuania
Livonia
TLubeck ----
Luxemburg
Madagascar
Madras ----.
Malta
Manchuria (e
Mecklenburg-I


IMARY OF THE POPUI


Pop.

1.324 Qui
-------- ---- 12751 Cai
35,679 Lon
450 Ma!
1,750 Rev
lay States ---- 1,037
157 Suv
3,329 Hel
50
1,115 Gh(
839 Bru
--------- 39,210 Par
-China -------------.. 3.795 Sail
2,846
----------- 49 Cay
1,813 Kor
hina -. ---- 16,990 Hal
8,026
.--...- ..-.. ----- 9 Bat
blic (1916) ------ 2,372 Tifll
-...-.- ---.--- -- 59,857 Ber
25
-- ---------- 42,768 Lor
5,536 Atl
2,000 Gut
2,045 Por
1,050 Hal
900 Me
.-- 1,291 Dar
..-- 673 Teg
625 Vic
8,084 Bui
.. ..... -.... .. -- 85 Re1
------. .------- 315,156 Del
4,390 Dul
... 60 Do,
38,836 KRo
1,546 Bin
858 Kir
76.988 To]
35,017 Bat
282 Job
---- 12,017 Bel
2,540 Bu
3,322 Sri
torate --- ~~~--- 2,376 Nai
519 Kh
192 Tsi
2,470 Dia
4
800 Vie
1,886 Rit
128 St.
2,100 Mo
--- ----- 11 Va,
154 De
2.293 Vil
1,301 Rig
120 Lu
264 Lu
3.613 Tai
. ..--.- .. 42,319 Ma
299 Va
st.) 20,000 Mu
Schwerin ---.-- 657 Scl
trelitz -- 109 Ne
Sna lo


LATIONS-


Capital

to .---..-.. ---.-
ro --- ---
idon
ssowah
'al ....- ..----.

a --..---------------
singfors

ent -----.-
iges ------
*is
gon -.-----

'enne ...----
nakry
noi ------

bhurst ..---
is -------.
rlin ...- ---

idon ..----- .
iens ------.
atemala __-
rt au Prince
mburg ....--.
kka ..----
rmstadt --
gucigalpa --
toria ----
dapest ..---
ykjavik ---
hi .......---
blin ..---.-
uglas ----
me -.------
igerville
igston --
kyo ------
:avia -------
lore Bahru __
grade ....---
ea -...- ---- --
nagar ..---.-
irobi ..-.---------
iva ------
ngtau ----
.rbekr .--.--

en-tiane --

John ....--
nrovia
duz ......- --
tmold -----
na
ra -- ----
beck ...------
xemburg
nanarivo .--..---
,dras -----
letta -------
ikden .......
Iwerin
ustrelitz --
^.A-A


-Continued.


Pop.

... -.---. ----- 80
791
7,253
8
-.----- -- -- -- -- -- -.- 8
-- ---.----.- 124
-.----------------..-.. - --

200

.... ..-.... 1 6 6
54
2,906
-.... .----. ----- 72

- - - 12
.. ..... .- ---- 7
- .-.-------- 90

- - - -- - - - - -- - - - - 5
347
.----. - 1,902
- ---- -- .- ------- ----
...... ... .......... ...- 7 ,2 5 3
301
116
179
986
70
82
29
366
929
.-.. ....... -. 181
304
305
21
689
.--- -.-- ---- ....... . 6
63
---- ------- 2.173
---.---. ---- .. 139

---------- -- 1 1 2

.... .... .- 1 4 2
..--.------ 14
-------------- .. ..--- .-- 5
44
.. .--.-.---.-- ... 38


280
...... .. - ...- 9

... ..... ... ......-- .- 1
----------------------.-- 15
215
280
.-------- 99
.-.-.-. ------. 46
63
5....- 527
23
158
45
11
*79?;


Mongolia --- -.-- ---.......-- 1,800 Urga .. -------------- 40








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SUMMARY OF THE POPULATIONS-Continued.


Country


Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique -..-...-
Mysore ...-...
Natal ... ......... .......
Nepal
Netherlands
New South Wales
New Zealand .........
Nicaragua ---. ......
Nigeria (est.) ...... ....
Norway
Nyassaland -..-...--.
Oldenburg --. --
Oman .. ---......
Orange Free State
Palestine
Panama
Paraguay
Persia
Peru
Poland
Portugal .. -- ...
Portuguese Guinea
Prussia ------ ..--
Punjab ----. ..-- ....-
Queensland .......
Rajputana
Rhodesia .-...
Roumania
Russia ------....---
Salvador
Sardinia
Saxony ...---- ..- ...
Schaumburg-Lippe _.
Scotland -. --. -
Senegal
Serbia
Siam ...-- -- - -
Siberia, E.; and
Siberia, W ........- .
Sierra Leone (colony)
Silesia .......
Slovenia ---
Somaliland, Br ........
Somaliland, It.
Spain ---- .......
Spanish Guinea
Straits Settlements
Sudan, Egypt ..........
Sudan, Fr ...-..
Sumatra
Swaziland ----------
Sweden
Switzerland ...........
Syria --....--------
Taiwan -------..
Tasmania ..-----
Thuringia ....-------- --
Tibet
Togoland .... .----
Tonkin ... ..
Transcaucasia
Transvaal ---.. ....---
Trinidad ..---.....-
Tripoli ------ -- ..
Tunis
Turkestan
Turkey


-------------


Pop.

200
6,000
3,120
S 5,979
1,429
5,600
7,087
2,102
1,219
638
17,000
2,650
1,218
518
500
628
762
401
1,000
9,500
5,500
27,200
6,032
290
36,691
20,685
756
9,844
1,738
17,393
132,000
1,299
881
4,663
46
4,882
1,226
4,130
9,207

10,769
85
6,087
1,056
300
650
21,347
200
907
5.912
2,538
5,852
108
5,904
3,880
3.86,75
3,654
214
1,508
2,000
1,032
6,470
7,500
2,088
366
523
2,094
7,202
8,000


Berbera ...-
Barava ....
Madrid -- --
Santa Isabel -.-
Singapore ....
Khartum
Bamaku ----

Bremersdorp
Stockholm
Bern
Damascus

Hobart ......-
Weimar
Lassa
Lome


Pretoria
Port of Spain
Tripoli -----
Tunis
Tashkend -
Constantinople


Capital 8

Cetinje ........ ....... .- ...

Lourenco Marques - ---
M ysore ...---- --...... ........... ....
Pietermaritzburg ..
Khatmandu ------- -------- ---
Hague -----.... ....---- ..... ..
Sydney ------------ ....
W ellington ..... ......... ..
M anagua ------ ---.......---- -----------

O slo ... ...
Zom ba -------------- ---- -----------
Oldenburg ........-- ---- ------- -----
M askat ..--..........--- --------
Bloemfontein
Jerusalem
Panama ........-----
Asuncion ---------- ---..
Teheran ........-- ----------
Lima .. ..----------
W arsaw ---- --..-- ..----
Lisbon --- ---------- ----------
B issau -------- ----........... ....--
Berlin ....
Lahore ------ .. .
Brisbane .------ ....
Jaipur --.... --. ...-- ---..-----

Bucharest -- ----
Moscow
San Salvador ------ --------
Cagliari
Dresden -.. -- -- --- ---
Buckeburg -----
Edinburg -------- -------
Saint Louis
Belgrade ---------- ---
Bangkok ...------- ----- ------ ---
Irkutsk ...-- ..--
Tobolsk -- ----------
Freetown ------- .... ......


5S
62
73
172
272
S 881


Pop.

5

13
S4
36
50
366
S29
71
60

25S

45
25
39
64
67
100
220
176
636
490

1.902
2S2
210
120

309

81
62
5SS
6
420
23
112
931
76
25
3S









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 97



SUMMARY OF THE POPULATIONS-Continued.

Country Pop. Capital Pop.

Uganda Protectorate ...----- 3,318 Entebbe ---..--.-
Ukrain6 --- .-.- o--- 26,002 Kief ......-...-- .. .. -......... .. 404
Union of S. Africa -- -- 6,929 Cape Town .. -.......... ....... 207
Uruguay .-~..- --- 1,565 Monteviedo -.....--.......... 362
Venezuela .... ---- ... -- 2,412 Caracas --... ...-.......... 73
W ales ..-. ..... .......---------- 2,207 Cardiff ....--.... ............ ......... 200
Western Australia -------... 333 Perth ..------...... 162
Westphalia ........ ------ 4,488 Munster 100
Windward Islands ..--..-...- 166 St. George -----..-.-.---...... 5
Wurttemberg--------- -- 2,526 Stuttgart 3--------------------.. 309
Zanzibar ....... ....- --- 197 Zanzibar ------- -------------. 35









MONTHLY AND ANNUAL MEAN TEMPERATURE


" i I = *< | = *
......... | ..... ... .|..... ...I .. ... ...... ..... ... .. ..... ; 71.3 63.7 5:.3
........ I 50.6 53.9 59,.0 70.( 78.11 81.0 | 80.8 80.9 77.5 (37.8 56.5 50.
........ 51.9 59.0 |59..0 69.1 In75.4 80.1 | 83.2 81.3 78.3 6 36.2 1 58.9 55
....... . 54.4 58.0 65.9) 69.2 74.6i 81.6) 79!.8 81.0 77.2 69.1 64.6 59
........ 57.4 55.8 (4.1,) 65.8 74.61 80.01 85..3 78.9 77.0' 66.4' 64.6 57.
........ 59.2 60.0 61(0.0 68.4 75.2 81.8 84.8 82.4 80.0 65.4 i 59.2 48
......... 57.2 55.6 60.0 67.5 i 7:2. 1 81.8 I 83.0 81.4 79.8 71.8 62.4 563.
......... I 52.6 [56.4 6.5.0 I 71.01 77.4 80.41 8:1.2 84.4 78.0 i (9.8 i 61.8 '53
........ 54.2 I 55.4 165.3 67.3 1 74.2 1 79.5 84.2 1 82.0 7 77.2 74.2 64.0 632
........ [ 62.88 61.5 69.0 72.3 174.32 82.2 83.51 81.6 77.8, 69.7 63 .0 .55
........ i 53.3 58.4 59..7 67.4 175.8 83.2 84.41 83.!' 80.9 75.6i 66.4 63
........ 62.8 61.8 67.4 71.4 74.8 81.2 82.0 823.8 78.6 ,: 73.5 60.8 54
........ 58.3! 65.2 60.6 71.0 73.8 81.8 84.4 81.8 77.2 75.4 64.1 61
........ 52.0 63.1 67.0 68.8 77.3 77.2 83.2 80.2 '; 7.S 73.1 63.3 .58
........ 56.7 55.0 58.2 8..6 74.8 81.01 83.3 82.2' 79.5 6.S4 11.0 54.
........ 51.3 54.3 6i0.2 67.0 76.0 81.2 8 81. 1 81.6 79.4 70.2 6".1 53
........ 50.4 66.2 6i 0.2 67.8 74.1 78.8 82.8 81.8 -76.6 -70.6 60.8 55
........ 58.0 61.0 60.9 71.3 75.6 80.6 81.9 823.5 77.0 69.9 i1.i 53
........ 55.32 52.4 59.1 6(7.8 14.6 78.! 81.9 79.7 78.1 67.3 63.9 632
........ 63.4 64.8 60.2 69.8 74.4 71.8 81.0 80.4 79.1 71.3 135.6 55
........ 54.2 65.6 61.6([ 67.4 73,8 81.1 81.2 82.3 77.6 66.9 60.0 59
........ 53.0 58.0 60.0 69.4 75.2 77.8 1 81.7 1 81.4 76.8 G 69.3 59.9 57
........ 49.2 61.6 60.6 72.6 75.3 80.0 S: 3.(; 81.4 78.9 i t0.9 632.0 58
........ 58.6 58,8 66.0 68.6 75.3 78.0 80.5 82.32 78.6 ] 71.5 61.4 57
........ 56.1 47.6 63.011 67.2 73.8 80.2 81.8 82.9 | 79.1 69.7 61.0 53
........ 53.5 57.2 60.8 70.0 77.7 79.9 813.l 82.8 79.2 70.4 67.4 53
........ 52.1 I600 (18.8 69.0 73.2 83.4 83.4 1 S .2 763 71 .7 ,65 3 5
........ 59. 55.6 66.7 66.7 76.5 81.4 82.0 82.1 79.8 I 70.0 62.6 54
......... | 55.2 55.4 64.6 66.0 78.3 80.1 81.2 82.8 77.4 71.8 64.6 54
......... 52.7 54.7 61.2 69.4 7 74.6 1 79.6 8 .2 84.1 80.4 74.4 63.5 56
........ 54.% 52.4 60.4 663.3 75.4 78.9 82.6 80.5, 78.0 1 69.5 56.4 53
......... 52.2 50.(; 62.4 4 67.2 77.8 80.3 83.0 81.0 77.4 71L9 65.9 57
......... I 52.8 59.2 66.8 65.5 7-2.5 77.9 81.2 82.0 -76.8 68.8 59.6 50
........ ] 50.3 56.6( 65.6 [66.4 7-:1.0 77.6 80.4 80.4 78.0 70.3 60.6 55
....... .. 49.8 52.8 6:1.4 68.7 78.1 7-,). 6 82.0 -79.!: 79.8 70.4 63.,8 53
........ 56.0 54.3 6i0. 6 68.6 7:1.% 50.8 80.4 81.4 80.1 68.2 62.9 56
........ 61.1 58.2 69.8 64.0 74.8 78.3 81.7 81.8 79.0 68.3 62.3 55
......... 54.6 53.2 6(17.7 73.8 75.2 78.4 80.21 80.4 '76..:' 67.0 63.6 0 60
........ i 59.2 58.2 6:3.6I 69.8 13.8 80.4I 80.8 81.7 77.0 -' 70.3 64.8 51
........ 53.0 55 .2 64.6 67.9 74.9 78.8 I 81.1 80.5 78.6 72.0 59.5 50
........ 58.2 61.0 64.3 70.0 :3.-7 82.4 I 81.0 80.6( 81.5 I 759 61.9 60
.... .... 52.0 52.5 62.6 70.8 77.6 78.2 81.8 81.8 81.0 73. 59.6 59
....... 63.6 58.4 64.8 67.3 1 74.3 78.3 83.. 80.8 77.: 69,2 63.32 58
....... ;55.2 55.3 57.7 70.1 ;4.8 82.8 8'!.0 82.0 77. 71.. 61.6 54
........ ] 54.6 55.6 55.8 1 66.9 77.8 179..8 81.81 823.8 79.8 73.4 (36.0 53
......... 62.4 57.2 59.5 1 67.0 75.6 79.4 80.4 1 81.6 76.8 69.5 63.1 58
....... . 61.2 56 .8 65. I (;169.6 73.1 79.2 I 81.0 1 81.2 75.. i 7.0 58.0 48
......... 50.0 62.8 67.8 I 67.0 74.3 79.8 79.0 1 81.32' 75.8 74.5 60.4 58
........ 55.3 576 163.81 67.31 74.8 77.41 81.0 81.5 77.4 78.6 66.6 561
......... 1 57.3 5:i.9 59(.5 68.8 71.91 78.6 8 80.2 80.0 78.8' 68.8 61.6 55
......... 58.0 59.(I 70.0 67.8 7 .9 80.0 72918 -,9.4 1 80.5 81.6 69.2 65.8 59
S......... 53.4 62.0 6 1.8 71 4 76.4 80.0 8'!.0 78.8 76.8 -72.6 64.8 61
......... | 59.2 58.0 64.6 69.2 713.23 78.81 80.0 1 81.9 78.6 69.9 59.6 61
......... 53.7 54.6 58.2 67.7 74.0 81.2 81.2 82.3 77.2 68.4 62.4 58
......... 58.0 60.3 64.0 69.0 732.5 79.4 832.2 80.2 I 83.2! 72.6 (60.0 54
S......... 54.2 58.0 58.0 66.6 -3.8 79.0 80.2 82.2 1 79.2 72.0 1 60.0 60
......... 55.6 64.9 64.2 71.0 76.7 81.2 81.2 81.0 1 78.5 1 71.8 65.7 55
......... 52.5 57.0 63.8 66.6 71.6 79.0 81.5 81.0 1 77.5 1 72.7 61.0 1 55
........ 59.5 59.1 166.8 71.4 74. 6 77.6 79.6 1 80.8 1 77.2 | 70.4 65.0 55
........ 57.0 60.8 58.7 68.8 75.7 76.9 82.8 79.8 1 81.0 67.8 (60.6 51
........ 53.6 56.4 57.8 B5.8 7:3.2 79.6 83.8 80.8 i 80.0 72.9 66.4 67
......... 64.2 66.0 59.2 68.7 74.9 78.8 84.0 81.2 78.0 71.5 60.0 1 62
......... 59.4 59.8 6 .4 67.4 78.6 79.0 81.10 1 83.0 82.1 72.0 61.0 63
......... [ 58.0 54.2 61.4 69.5 74.0 80.7 8'3.5 1 83.2 1 79.2 1 73.0 64.3 55
......... 57.2 56.8 68.8 70.4 77.0 1 81.4 80.8 1 82.6 78.0 72.4 64.0 49
......... 54.9 5;1.7 04.7 68.9 74.6 79.0 82.4 82.1 80.4 73.2 60.6 57

......... 55.8 57.8 (32.9 ] 68.6 | 74.9 T 79.`9| 81.9 81.5 78.5 '70.8 62.3 56


FROST DATA
killing frost ill spring ',- 19:14 ................................................









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 99

MONTHLY ANI) ANNUAL PRECIPITATION


1871. .........
1872. ....... .
1873 .........
1874. .........
1875 .........
18s .. .......
1877 .........
1878 .. .......
1879. ....... .
1880 ..........
1881. .........
188. .........
1880. ....... ..
1884. .........
1885. ....... .
1886......... .

188.7 ........
1888 .........
1889 ....... I
1890......... .
1891 .........
1892. ........ .
1890. ........ .
18941. ........ .
1895 ....... ..
1896 ........ .
189 .........
1898. ....... .
1899. ....... .
1900. ....... .
1901 ........ .
190' ......... I
1903. ....... .
1901. ........ .
1905 .........
190 0 ..........
1907. ....... .
1908 ....... ..
1909!......... .
1910 .........
1911......... .
1913 .........
1914..........
1914. .........
1915 ....... .
1917 .........
191 ... ......
1918. ....... .
1919. ........ .
1920 ........ I
1921. .........
1922 ........ .
1923 ......... .I
1924 .........I
19.25 .........
1926. .........
192 ......... .
1928. ........ .I
19290 ... .......
1930. ....... .
19312 ........ .
193.3 ........I
1933......... .
1934 .. .... .
1935. ....... .
1936 ....... I

Means .......


. . .. I.. . . . . . 1.
3.441 2.701 7.321
3.961 0.591 5.291
0.821 7.331 2.13!
4.481 8.931 1.801
0.611 3.051 5.41
2.651 1.09, 2.531
3.141 5.321 2.37!
0.631 3.511 1.351
3.171 6.17l 1.69[
9.12| 1.121 2.89,
2.581 1.09[ 0.891
4.771 0.481 3.841
4.781 2.451 2.631
7.181 5.231 5.661
2.811 1.871 6.741
4.341 0.341 3.511
0.491 4.381 1.571
5.891 3.851 1.381
0.631 0.511 2.891
1.191 0.321 4.021
3.991 0.771 0.76!
0.981 6.871 8.901
2.291 3.441 3.121
4.631 3.611 3.631
2.531 1.66! 2.51!
1.891 7.10l 1.601
0.43] 2.101 2.04|
3.981 3.381 1.351
1.711 3.171 7.951
2.641 6.761 6.571
0.081 3.641 4.201
4.441 5.231 2.551
6.77! 2.701 1.351
1.801 4.651 6.471
3.46! 3.061 1.031
0.14! 0.551 0.761
2.24: 2.981 1.161
1.171 1.511 4.241
1.061 2.431 1.891
0.891 0.131 2.16|
4.76! 2.651 3.27!
1.53] 4.871 5.871
3.311 4.551 1.841
4.101 23.441 2.471
0.900 0.191 0.591
0.411 1.461 1.811
2.781 0.211 2.311
1.731 3.771 3.241
1.211 9.161 0.821
2.041 0.021 0.571
3.211 5.561 3.691
1.371 1.931 1.151
5.091 2.651 7.18!
4.521 0.901 1.141
4.891 1.661 2.20!
0.401 3.541 1.671
0.681 3.541 4.381
3.961 1.281 2.141
2.55| 2.611 10.00i
3.361 1.491 4.69
0.401 1.121 5.051
2.181 3.231 2.971
1.081 3.481 2.181
2.771 1.691 1.131
1.821 5.111 2.931

2.691 3.011 3.161


WBO. Jacksonville. 1-9-35-500.


.. 1........ 3.621
2.43! 1.25; 6.671 2.921 6.41110.791 6.371
0.561 5.521 8.411 7.751 6.211 10.471 5.65
1.601 5.381 5.921 7.481 6.89! 7.071 0.101
2.981 9.081 5.41, 0.141 10.191 4.50! 4.49i
7.891 1.871 4.171 2.821 8.071 3.731 8.921
3.011 2.471 10.47, 4.82 4.821 5.151 6.75
5.38! 1.521 5.031 4.6131 ".851 21.12 3.811
2.971 4.251 1.251 5.44! 8.39] 8.241 9.451
1.501 6.24, 3.001 5.941 8.961 .-21 16'.25
4.571 2.611 2.821 7.611 10.231 4.581 2.871
5.23! 2.201 5.141 5.75! 5.65! 4.391 10.301
4.481 3.161 7.051 6.881 7.631 7.28, 7.26[
2.321 5.451 6.801 6.021 5.211 5.68[ 4.12
1.241 7.741 8.98! 7.161 7.56 319.6:j 3.361
3.081 2.81! 4.78114.971 6.251 4.01[ %.47
4.151 7.151 9.681 8.901 5.76 9.401 1.57
0.931 5.461 2.92] 8.301 4.89 11.151 6.001
3.951 0.51! 6.89] 8.241 5.251 8.491 1.261
0.951 9.20 1.801 9.701 4.261 4.88! 9.07!
1.721 ?.781 3.31! 4.081 3.67 10.831 4.431
0.111 1.341 6.381 3.161 4.84114.041 3.34!
2.67! 4.181 4.65! 4.54110.02! 6.091 4.48!
0.83! 1.491 4.931 7.10| 9.24116.631 3.24'
4.40! 2.261 4.98! 11.21 2.541 4.66' 0.581
0.491 1.241 9.41 4.251 6.161 2.191 3.03[
5.18! 1.35! 5.01 3.671 6.27110.23! 6.00!
2.45! 1.81 2.13112.03j 5.44! 3.461 6.74
3.211 1.86 4.521 6.121 3.90! 5.10i 2.73
7.341 2.901 8.45! 3.83! 2.07! 4.331 7.141
1.081 5.31! 9.641 4.26 6.121 7.381 1.37[
2.02! 1.821 3.651 6.69 4.74112.781 5.90,
1.54114.80i 3.22! 2.541 6.601 2.801 2.831
0.811 2.90, 4.92! 5.251 2.74] 0i.009111.701
2.02! 6.681 2.721 5.141 10.971 6.181 2.89!
0.30! 14.311 4.581 8.961 5.381 2.291 2.391
5.271 5.40! 2.711 5.55! 6.531 10.441 1 .37
2.93 :3.071 4.351 9.681 2.901 21.7911 2.97!
1.801 2.261 8.98! 8.431 5.181 t4.!oni 0.081
0.601 2.181 6.752 6.13! 5.82! 3.1%2 8.021
0.361 3.331 2.961 2.35110.161 0.90 5.26
4.961 3.53, 9.621 6.74i 5.321 7.69! 3.17!
1.321 1.06! 4.551 6.281 3.321 3.741 1.35i
0.301 2.001 1.32! 5.131 8.47i 6.39! 2.341
0.491 3.671 1.551 9.361 4.081 8.411 5.45!
0.46! 3.321 6.45! 3.931 6.76! 5.251 4.77!
0.821 1.831 3.03110.306 6.651 3.47| 0.38!
5.961 2.50! 3.32! 3.351 3.121 6.17 3.97i
1.261 7.321 13.79i 6.321 6.9 5.631 1.81!
3.421 7.411 8.271 5.471 7.461 7.141 0.111
1.23! 4.021 2.711 9.761 7.70! 1.73' 6.37
1.391 7.181 5.881 3.911 7.711 6.701 8.84!
0.981 8.731 4.911 5.141 4.67 4.891 4.751
3.001 0.491 4.21! 12.171 3.551 8.88 8.08!
1.54! 4.751 5.651 5.221 5.631 2.411 3.131
3.89!1 .661 9.381 10.811 3.181 9.551 2.232
0.18! 0.09! 7.561 6.85] 1.981 2.391 2.20!
8.191 2.331 4.101 8.961 5.851 9.251 2.33;
5.091 6.091 4.101 8.211 6.021 8.581 0.83!
1.861 3.70110.131 4.741 0.761 3.62! 1.57!
3.411 5.931 2.971 2.201 4.861 0.071 1.86;
3.20! 2.25123.321 6.92! 4.26! 6.611 2.62!
7.161 3.041 6.81110.801 4.68! 3.761 11.99!
2.921 6.33 13.26! 5.071 5.98! 1.991 5.24i
2.66! 5.281 3.03! 9.87] 9.07l 9.151 0.401
1.771 2.38 6.151 5.881 5.99! 1.611 12.621

2.671 4.061 5.871 6.521 5.861 6.991 4.52
I I I i I I


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2.651 ......
4.811 56.87
3.381 60.67
0.651 48.31
3.42! 57.60
6.121 55.26
3.321 51.57
3.861 60.42
0.46! 47.18
1.291 65.51
2.811 54.!19
4.341 53.26
0.421 53.34
4.041 55.02
7.761 82.00
3.201 54.86
3.701 58.60
2.88! 53.13
T. | 46.22
1.371 47.52
3.461 41.34
2.521 41.89
3.081 5823
0.811 56.84
1.L8 46.80
2.171 40.19
4.831 60.69
4.741 45.71
2.3,5! 38.57
3.901 53.85
2.73! 54.22
5.821 55.52
1.661 52 03
1.681 49.17
5.65! 55.77
1.091 46.86
4.39| 45 07
0.901 55.44
2.301 41.87
1.07! 40.68
4.201 35 .38
2.911 55 44
4.491 38.70
5.201 44.72
3.461 46.55
7.47 42.85
2.111 32.56
2.601 39.55
4.611 57.50
3.35[ 59.20
1.601 40.62
2.541 57.19
1.381 39.99
1.151 56.83
6.981 43.38
1.58i 54.34
2.75] 30.44
1.341 51.62
3.021 49.40
3.111 47.34
2.571 34.38
0.491 61.79
0.721 58.32
0.70l 48.51
1.341 47.60
1.98! 49.03

2.891 50.23
1


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