• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Market hints
 Price of poultry and eggs
 Care of eggs on farm
 Marketing eggs
 Average price
 Egg production in Florida
 U.S. grade for eggs
 Candling eggs
 Terms defined
 Chart of standards
 Poultry marketing methods
 Cooperation poultry sales
 The turkey market
 Grades of dressed poultry
 Statistical data






Group Title: Bulletin new Series
Title: Marketing Florida poultry and eggs
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089071/00001
 Material Information
Title: Marketing Florida poultry and eggs
Alternate Title: New series bulletin - Florida State Department of Agriculture ; 72
Physical Description: 40 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Risher, F. W. ( Francis Washington )
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: August, 1934
Copyright Date: 1934
Edition: revised
 Subjects
Subject: Poultry industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Eggs -- Marketing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by F.W. Risher.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "August 1934."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089071
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF9681
oclc - 41483300
alephbibnum - 002454368

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Market hints
        Page 7
    Price of poultry and eggs
        Page 8
    Care of eggs on farm
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Marketing eggs
        Page 11
    Average price
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Egg production in Florida
        Page 19
    U.S. grade for eggs
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Candling eggs
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Terms defined
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Chart of standards
        Page 30
    Poultry marketing methods
        Page 31
    Cooperation poultry sales
        Page 32
    The turkey market
        Page 33
    Grades of dressed poultry
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Statistical data
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
Full Text
F 7r 6


NEW SERIES


NO. 72


Marketing

Florida Poultry

And Eggs


F. W. Risher, Specialist
State Marketing Bureau


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


MAYO, COMMISSIONER
August 1934










NEW SERIES


Marketing

Florida Poultry

And Eggs



By
F. W. Risher, Specialist
State Marketing Bureau


Florida Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida


Nathan Mayo, Commissioner


August 1934


-NO. 72










































































Farmers Loading Turkeys Cooperatively at Branford, Fla.


-Y














CONTENTS

Page
M a rk et H in ts .. ...................................................................... .............. 7

Prices of Poultry and Eggs .................... ................. ............. 8

Care of Eggs on Farm .......................................................................... 9

M ark etin g E g g s .......................................................................................... . .. 11

T ru ck B u y ers ...... ............................................... . ............................................ 11

Average Price ...... ........ ...... ....................................................... 12

Egg Production in Florida .................................................... .................. 19
U. S. Grade For Eggs .................................................................................. 20

Candling Eggs ....................................................................................................... 24

Terms Defined ........................... ................... ............................ 26

Chart of Standards ....................................................................... ................. 30

Poultry M marketing Methods ............ .... .................. 31

Cooperation Poultry Sales ................................................... ................... 32
The Turkey Market .... ...................................................................................... 33

Grades of Dressed Poultry .................................................... .................. 34

Statistical Data .................................................................................................. 37










Marketing

Florida Poultry

And Eggs

MARKET HINTS
Good quality in eggs is not an accident but the result of
careful management. When an egg is laid by a normal, healthy
hen it is a perfect food, provided she has had a balanced ration
and good water from clean vessels.

GOOD PRODUCTION PRACTICES
1. Keep strong, healthy, vigorous stock.
2. Gather eggs twice a day.
3. Cool the eggs before casing. Hold in a cool, moist place
like a cellar free from strong odors.
4. Never produce fertile eggs except for hatching.
5. Prevent dirty eggs by having clean nests and clean houses.
Confine layers when yards are muddy.
6. Feed properly.
7. Cull out hens laying thin shelled or misshaped eggs.
GOOD MARKET PRACTICES
1. Always grade or sell to some one who will grade and pay
for eggs on a graded basis.
2. Pack eggs in clean, strong cases with new flats and filters.
3. Sell eggs twice a week or more often if economically
possible.
4. Candle eggs before shipping and eliminate defective eggs.
5. Pack one color to the case.
6. Keep very large or thin shelled eggs at home. They often
break in transit.
7. Make the package neat and attractive.

















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Eggs on a Florida Poultry farm being packed in cartons for fancy trade.



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Car of White Leghorn Broilers being loaded by Florida farmers.


PRICES ON POULTRY AND EGGS

The Jacksonville price of eggs and poultry, as quoted by the
Florida State Marketing Bureau, is the average of the jobbing
price to the retail stores, as reported by producers and dealers
each market day. This price does not represent any particular
dealer's price since it is an average. There may be sales above
this figure as well as below.
The prices as reported by the Bureau are always influenced
by the supply of eggs and poultry being offered as well as by
the demand for eggs and poultry in Jacksonville and other








them in the egg crate. The best temperature to hold eggs at
is somewhere below 70 and above freezing. Not many farmers
can keep them cool unless they provide a special egg room or
a cellar. In many places they have found that iceless refriger-
ators are very good, and as they are easy to construct, most
any farmer could build one for keeping eggs in until time
to market. In tests in Massachusetts it was found that eggs
lost weight twice as fast when held at 85 as compared to those
kept at a temperature of 65. One hundred per cent of these
eggs graded Fancy the first day but when held at grocery
store temperature, around 850, for 9 days, only 8% or 8 out
of 100, graded Fancy. "Fancy" in this case was the equivalent
of U. S. Specials. The storage room or cellar should be free
from musty or strong odors, and the air should be moist, for
remember the eggs are composed of approximately 65% water
and the shell is porous, which allows evaporation if held in a
dry, hot room. New flats and fillers should he used for old,
soiled fillers and flats spoil the appearance of the eggs and
often cause them to get dirty, and are responsible for many
broken eggs.
In mid-summer 14,000 cases of eggs arriving in the New York
market were graded in a recent test to see what effect distance
from the market and source of origin had on egg quality. It
was found that the nearby eggs graded from 81% to as high
as 93% U. S. Extras to Specials, while those coming from states
like Pennsylvania, Washington, Virginia, Utah and Tennessee
graded out 65% to 75% Extras to Specials, and those from the
Cornbelt states graded from 5% to 12% Extras to Specials.
There is no use to produce quality eggs unless they are sold
to dealers who buy on a grade and quality basis, and advertise
the good qualities of nearby eggs to the housewife and give
her an identified product. When eggs are sold direct to the
consumer, a regular delivery must be maintained, otherwise
the customer will get eggs from some one who can be
depended on.








Florida markets. Not only the supply of fresh Florida eggs
must be taken into consideration, but also the supply and
price of shipped eggs and cold storage eggs must be considered.
If the price of fresh Florida eggs is quoted too high, it has the
effect of "killing the goose that laid the golden egg," for the
Florida market will be flooded with eggs from nearby markets
and soon the local producer finds it impossible to sell eggs
except at a great discount, then the market breaks to lower
levels than if it had been quoted correctly.
There is always a strong market at a premium price for
quality products. Consumers, many of them, prefer a fresh
egg and will pay a premium in price of from 2c to 5c and
possibly 10c over just eggs-however many Fresh Florida
eggs are just eggs. It may be a Florida egg but not always
fresh. Too many eggs are sold to small stores and held perhaps
a week or so, then sent to market. Often the eggs were held
on the farm a week before they were sold, therefore they are
two weeks old by the time they reach the consumer. A fertile
egg at a temperature of 70 degrees or above is incubating
whether it is in a nest or in a basket in the kitchen. Of course
infertile eggs do not show germ development, but they do
break down in quality when kept at high temperature. In
some states they class a fresh egg as one that makes the grade
of U. S. Extra or better. New rules and regulations of the
Inspection service of the.Florida Department of Agriculture
has defined the word "fresh" to mean any egg that meets the
requirements of the grade of U. S. Standard eggs or better.
While weight of an egg is not a quality factor, yet it must be
considered in grading, for nice large, white or brown eggs,
uniform in size and color, will find the most ready sale and
command a premium.

THE CARE OF EGGS ON THE FARM
In order to produce quality eggs for the market it is neces-
sary to properly care for them on the farm, for quality eggs are
produced by healthy hens, in clean quarters, fed the right kind
of feed, with plenty of pure water to drink. When these con-
ditions are met it is then necessary to gather the eggs often
and allow them to cool in trays or wire baskets before packing








MARKETING EGGS
The majority of eggs from the large commercial poultrymen,
who live near the centers of population in Florida, are delivered
direct to grocery stores, cafes, hotels, and to the wholesale
buyers. Some of the smaller producers have egg routes where
they deliver to the consumer, but this requires a lot of time and
expense; although the price received is higher it nets them
very little above that received by those who sell in large
quantities for a lower price.

TRUCK BUYERS
Many of the poultrymen who live a good way from the
market sell to truckers who make from one to two calls per
week to pick up eggs. These truckers usually pay several
cents under the market for eggs, most of them sort the eggs
by size and color. There are a few poultrymen who ship eggs
to city buyers by express, these are also graded to size and
color. Nearly all the larger dealers buy on a graded and
candled basis; this has done much to improve the quality of
Florida eggs.
In some sections, however, the small farm flock owners still
sell to the county merchant on an ungraded basis. These eggs
are very heavily discounted at all times on the Florida market,
and can only be sold to a very cheap class of trade at a very
much lower price.




WHITE EGGS
FIVE-YEAR MONTHLY AVERAGE OF PRICES
Average
Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. of period
1921-25
55.2 43.0 29.8 29.9 29.3 34.3 40.6 42.2 52.1 59.3 63.7 60.7 45.0
1926-30
48.5 36.1 30.6 29.8 29.1 31.9 36.4 41.1 46.5 53.7 54.0 50.2 40.6
1931
32.0 22.0 23.0 22.0 20.0 21.0 25.0 28.5 32.0 37.5 38.0 33.5 27.9
1932
26.5 16.5 18.0 15.5 14.7 18.3 21.0 25.0 28.2 31.5 32.6 35.2 23.6
1933
23.5 17.0 15.5 15.5 17.3 16.3 22.9 25.5 31.4 33.0 32.0 34.4 23.7


PRICE QUOTATIONS POULTRY AND EGGS-JACKSONVILLE MARKET
A-HENS B-FYERS C-WHITE EGGS-(Fla. Standards)
(Average 24 oz. to doz.) Yearly
Jan. Feb. March April M4ly June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Average
1925
A-31.6 29.2 29.7 28.0 28.0 26.6 25.9 29.0 30.0 31.0 28.1 29.3 28.7
B-41.4 44.0 45.6 45.9 43.7 39.4 36.0 35.0 38.0 39.0 37.0 38.6 40.3
C-56.8 45.3 30.2 33.5 30.3 38.6 44.4 48.4 55.2 64.0 65.6 67.0 48.3
1926
A-30.7 30.2 32.5 31.8 31.9 30.0 30.0 29.7 31.0 31.0 30.2 31.1 30.7
B-43.5 48.0 49.7 50.0 48.3 38.3 37.8 35.3 35.0 35.0 35.3 37.1 41.1
C-57.2 42.1 31.3 34.1 32.5 36.1 41.6 44.4 51.8 62.2 61.0 57.1 45.9
1927
A-30.0 30.0 29.8 29.1 29.0 24.7 23.7 25.6 26.0 26.0 25.0 25.0 26.9
B-42.0 45.0 45.0 46.3 43.0 36.1 31.8 30.0 30.0 31.1 33.1 35.8 37.4
C-47.6 35.9 28.0 29.2 27.9 29.7 33.9 41.4 49.0 52.1 55.0 50.4 40.0







JACKSONVILLE MARKET PRICES QUOTATIONS (Continued)

1928


A-25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 24.5 23.0
B-37.0 36.2 38.9 39.0 39.0 38.1
C-48.0 32.4 30.0 29.7 28.2 33.4

A-24.8 26.4 28.8 28.8 27.4 29.3
B-36.0 36.2 39.1 42.8 37.7 37.3
C-42.2 34.5 35.1 29.2 30.2 33.7

A-29.8 30.0 28.5 27.5 26.6 24.5
B-33.1 32.9 33.6 36.7 32.7 32.8
C-47.1 35.4 28.5 27.0 27.0 27.0

A-23.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 23.0 22.0
B-30.0 31.0 37.0 40.0 37.0 35.0
C-32.0 22.0 23.0 22.0 20.0 21.0

A-20.5 18.6 18.7 19.0 17.5 16.1
B-24.4 23.2 27.1 26.8 23.9 23.5
C-26.5 16.5 18.0 15.5 14.7 18.3


21.9 21.1 23.9 27.2 25.5 24.5
34.5 31.2 33.0 35.3 36.3 35.7
36.5 41.7 48.3 54.8 55.0 48.5
1929
28.0 29.0 31.2 29.5 29.5 29.8
31.0 31.1 35.0 34.2 36.1 36.8
39.3 43.2 45.2 54.1 55.3 54.0


1930
22.5
24.5
30.6
1931


22.6 23.0 22.8 23.0 23.0
27.4 29.0 29.0 29.0 29.0
34.9 38.2 45.4 43.9 40.9


21.0 20.0 21.5 23.0 22.5 22.0
29.0 27.0 27.5 26.0 24.5 24.5
25.0 28.5 32.0 37.5 38.0 33.0
1932
14.5 14.5 15.5 16.7 17.0 14.4
18.0 17.3 18.0 18.7 17.3 14.9
21.0 25.0 28.2 31.5 32.6 35.2


1933
A-13.2 13.5 13.0 14.7 14.1 13.1 13.0 14.6 15.8 16.7 15.4 14.0 14.3
B-14.6 20.4 22.2 24.3 22.1 18.0 15.4 16.1 17.0 17.0 15.7 16.1 18.2
C-23.5 17.0 15.5 15.5 17.3 16.3 22.9 25.5 31.4 33.0 32.0 34.4 23.7
The average of the Jacksonville quoted price on white eggs for 1933 was slightly better than the price quoted for
1932. The uncertainty caused by the acute banking situation in the spring of 1933 coupled with unemployment and heavy
egg production caused prices to be very low. Late summer and early fall saw more optimism as employment increased
in industry and on Federal projects resulting in a better market. This manifested itself after Christmas and resulted in
a higher January market in 1934 than in either 1933 or 1932.






















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New York City
Egg Prices
Nearby Hennery
Whites Specials

Cents per dozen
59.4
55.6
53.6
52.3
54.1
50.7
46.0
46.9
49.1
39.3
31.5
26.5
24.6


Jacksonville
White Egg Quote
Yearly Average
Price

Cents per dozen
48.1
40.6
42.8
44.4
48.3
45.9
40.0
40.4
41.5
35.5
27.9
23.6
23.7


Florida
Heavy Hens
Jacksonville
Quote Prices
28.8
25.6
24.2
27.1
28.1
30.7
26.9
24.3
28.5
25.3
22.0
16.9


Jacksonville
Quote Price
Fryers

37.2
32.6
33.1
35.4
40.3
41.1
37.4
36.3
36.1
30.9
30.6
21.0


Year


1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933


Year

1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932


New York
City Hen
Prices

29.4
27.6
25.7
23.7
25.1
26.6
25.6
26.3
27.6
23.5
20.2
16.9


















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MONTHLY AVERAGE POULTRY AND EGG PRICES


Std. White Eggs


Month 1930 a

January 47.1 53.9
February 35.4 37.8
March 28.5 28.9
April 27.0 28.4
May 27.0 27.9
June 27.0 28.4
July 30.6 31.6
August 34.9 32.8
September 38.2 39.3
October 45.4 44.8
November 43.9 45.7
December 40.9 41.6

Yearly Aver. 35.5 37.6


55.9
41.2
35.9
33.0
33.0
32.4
32.7
35.4
41.2
44.6
49.0
46.6

40.1


Heavy Hens


29.8
30.0
28.5
27.5
26.6
24.5
22.5
22.6
23.0
22.8
23.0
23.0

25.3


32.7
32.5
32.5
29.9
25.8
26.0
26.0
26.0
26.2
28.0
28.0
28.0

28.5


34.0
34.0
34.0
34.0
34.0
34.0
31.6
32.9
31.5
29.0
29.0
33.1
32.5

32.6


33.1
32.9
33.6
36.7
32.7
32.8
24.5
27.4
29.0
29.0
29.0
29.0

30.9


Fryers


a
35.5 34.0
35.5 34.0
36.0 34.0
37.9 34.0
36.4 34.0
35.6 34.0
33.1 34.0
31.5 34.0
32.7 34.0
33.5 27.0
33.5 27.0
33.5 27.7

34.5 32.3


Year Day Prices Highest Pt.
Reached Day Prices Reached Cts. Doz.
Highest Pt. Dropped in Prices Dropped

1933 Dec. 2 Dec. 13 37c 2c
1932 Dee. 13 Dec. 28 36c 2c,
1931 Oct. 9 Dec. 8 38c 2c
1930 Oct. 14 Nov. 5 48c 2c
1929 Nov. 7 Nov. 19 56c 2c
1928 Oct. 30 Nov. 8 58c 2c
1927 Oct. 22 Nov. 28 55c, 2c
1926 Oct. 18 Nov. 5 65c 2c
1925 Oct. 23 Jan. 6-1926 67c 2c
1924 Oct. 8 Dec. 9 67c 2c
1923 Nov. 27 Dec. 8 62c 2c
1922 Nov. 7 Nov. 27 65c, 5c
1921 Nov. 3 Dec. 5 65c 5c
1920 Nov. 22 Dee. 29 85c 2c









EGGS PRODUCED ON FLORIDA FARMS

(By Dozens)

County 1919 1929 1932
Alachua ............................. ................. 290,866 415,861 386,000
Baker .....................-........................ .. 51,727 116,235 109,000
Bay ..............................-........ ........ ... 22,243 71,394 64,000
Bradford ....................-.......-.............. 210,271 166,369 165,000
Brevard ....................................-...-.. 64,746 115,811 59,000
Broward ...............................................-. 17,439 81,853 301,000
Calhoun ..................--................--. 58,113 100,795 69,000
Charlotte ............................--- .....-- ............ 19,370 36,000
Citrus .....................-................-......... 18,336 80,694 60,000
Clay ..........-......................-.................. 73,089 247,001 353,000
Collier ............................................ -............ 100 51,000
Columbia .----..................... ................... 144,709 253,798 168,000
Dade ....................-...... ............. 97,258 276,709 1,397,000
DeSoto ......................... .... ............ 184,316 82,739 359,000
Dixie ..........................- .................... ............ 30,842 5,776
Duval ............................................... 169,601 888,360 1,653,000
Escambia ..............................-----.......... 112,415 253,790 516,000
Flagler ....................................... ......... 29,673 64,166 99,000
Franklin ................................-............ 734 5,022 62,000
Gadsden ................................................. 163,492 262,082 296,000
Gilchrist ........................................ ....-............ 138,120 138,000
Glades ...................................... .. ............ 104,222 113,000
Gulf .............................................. . ...-......- 8,211 26,000
Hamilton .....................-... ................. 121,980 123,679 282,000
H ardee .................................................. ......... 241,245 101,000
H endry ......................... ......................... ............ 30,352 500
Hernando ..........................-.................. 55,713 121,415 64,000
Highlands ........................................ .. ............ 103,427 291,000
Hillsborough ........................................ 511,906 1,085,797 3,000,000
Holmes ..................................................... 142,068 218,338 299,000
Indian River ........................................ ............ 65,978 13,000
Jackson .....................-.......-............... 397,201 467,094 475,000
Jefferson .................................... ......... 168,982 219,194 103,000
Lafayette ................................................ 96,633 111,710 11,000
Lake .............................. ................... 134,001 376,697 373,000
Lee --....................................... 56,790 116,898 220,000
Leon ....................... ............................ 125,036 216,878 425,000
Levy .............................. ... ................... 83,244 115,651 138,000
Liberty ........................... ................... 8,277 45,210 21,000
Madison ................................................. 205,861 251,552 256,000
Manatee .................................................. 90,200 189,015 180,000
Marion .....................-....................... 235,743 675,184 700,000
M artin ..................................................... ............ 79,393 62,000









EGGS PRODUCED ON FLORIDA FARMS-(Continued)
(By Dozens)
County 1919 1929 1932
Monroe .................................-. -- 5,214 2,041 2,000
Nassiu ..........-....... ............. ..... 66,487 786,272 538,000
Okaloosa ...-......~.-..- .- ..... ............. 120,623 137,123 51,000
Okeechobee ................................... 8,048 39,041 55,000
Orange ............-... ..-- .... ...... -- 127,297 396,748 115,000
Osceola ................ ...-----...-.......... -39,545 86,666 29,000
Palm Beach ..............--.................... 109,859 130,792 297,000
Pasco ................................. . .... 136,609 515,744 259,000
Pinellas .......-------... ........................ 149,082 329,900 321,000
Polk --................-- .... -----.......... 267,914 697,927 1,319,000
Putnam ...---...........-- ..... ...........-- .. -119,002 490,106 846,000
St. Johns ..-................... .......---- ..- .. 52,142 94,648 157,000
St. Lucie ...................... ....--- .. ..------ 68,146 57,197 5,000
Santa Rosa ............-......-...........- .... 75,702 155,898 285,000
Sarasota ....-..-........-- ....----.....-.. ---..-...-... 42,446 12,000
Seminole ........................... ...-- ...- 85,149 170,769 275,000
Sumter ......................... ........... 130,994 174,900 71,000
Suwannee ----------......... ..----------- 279,762 461,270 342,000
Taylor ........................... ........... .. 54,607 66,115 24,000
Union .................................... .. -----... .... .. 218,762 167,000
Volusia .....--- ............---........... 229,983 278,640 810,000
Wakulla .........................--------....- .. 50,895 68,383 88,285
W alton ........................... ..... .-------..... 101,332 178,288 524,000
Washington ..............----- ...........--.... 109,308 206,241 114,000

U. S. GRADES FOR EGGS
In order to have a yardstick to measure egg quality, the fol-
lowing standards of qualities for individual eggs have been
adopted by the U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Economics. They
have not been put into practice yet by the large city Market
Boards, however some dealers on every market recognize them
and handle eggs so graded. Besides the quality factors, three
sizs are recognized under each grade.
Large-those that average 24 oz. or better to dozen, with no
individual egg weighing less than at the rate of 22 oz. to the
dozen.
Medium-Eggs that average 2012 ounces to the dozen, with
minimum weight of 19 ounces per dozen for individual eggs.
Small-Eggs that average 17 ounces to the dozen, with mini-
tnum weight of 15 ounces per dozen for individual eggs.
20












DOZENS OF EGGS PRODUCED BY COUNTIES, 1932.
(Each dot-20,000 dozen)











































U. S. SPECIAL
Shell: clean, sound, normal.
Air cell: 1-8 inch or less, and must be
regular.
Yolk: Indistinct outline, well centered,
free from germ development.
White: firm, clear.
Germ: No visible development.


U. S. EXTRA
Shell: clean, sound, normal.
Air cell: 2-8 inch or less, regular, slightly
tremulous.
Yolk: Moderately defined, fairly well
centered.
White: firm, clear.
Germ: No visible development.


The above standards of egg quality, proposed by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture, were adopted in 1934.










22










































U. S. STANDARD
Shell: clean, sound, slightly abnormal.
Air cell: 3-8 inch or less, may show
movement not to exceed 1-2 inch.
Yolk: mobile and outline well defined
with slight defects.
White: reasonably lirm, and clear.
Germ: development may be slightly
visible.


U. S. TRADE
Shell: clean, sound, abnormal.
Air cell: may be over 3-8 inch, may show
movement in excess of 1-2 inch.
Yolk: may be plainly visible, freely mo-
bile, and cast dark shadow; may show
other defects.
White: may be weak and watery.
Germ: development may be clearly
visible but no blood showing.


If eggs are bought on a graded basis in your community,
they may not be sorted according to these standards but the
same quality factors will be considered.







23








MEASURING THE AIR CELL


The air cell is usually at the large end of the egg. As the
shell is porous, the size of the air cell is increased by evapora-
tion. The depth of the air cell when in its natural position, is
the distance from the end of the egg to the level of an imag-
inary line drawn through the lower edges of the air cell where
it touches the shell.
A simple method of measuring the depth of the air cell with
reasonable accuracy consists in placing the iar cell gauge over
the big end of the egg when it is held in front of the chandler.
When the air cell is abnormally located, as at the side, it is
necessary to estimate its depth. In commercial candling of
eggs it is not necessary to measure the depth of the air cell of
every egg. An experienced chandler soon fixes in his mind
the measurements of the air cell or the difference in standards
of quality. It is only the questionable eggs that need to be
measured.


AIR CELL GAUGE
Place over large end of egg before
the candle to measure depth of the
air cells.

S. Specials 1-8 inch
S. Extra 2-8 inch
S. Standard / 3-8 inch
U \

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PLAN OF CONSTRUCTION OF AN
EGG CANDUNG BOOTH

DESIGNED IN THE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL CCOMOMICS
U s. OEPARTHET OF AGRICULTURE










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EXPLANATION OF TERMS
TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF SHELL
1. Clean-A clean shell is one which is free from foreign
matter and from stains or discolorations. Eggs which show
traces of processing oil on the shell are considered clean when
classified as processed or shell treated eggs unless the shell is
otherwise soiled.
2. Sound-A sound shell is one that is free from checks,
cracks, or blind checks.
3. Normal-A normal shell is one which approximates the
usual shape and which is of good even texture and strength
and free from distinct ridges, rough areas, thin spots, or other
conditions not common to good shells.
4. Slightly Abnormal-A slightly abnormal shell is one
which may be somewhat unusual in shape or which may be
somewhat faulty in texture or strength. It may also show
distinct but not pronounced ridges, thin spots or rough areas.
5. Abnormal-An abnormal shell is one which may be de-
cidedly misshapen or which may be decidedly faulty in texture
or strength or which may show pronounced ridges, rough spots
or other defects.

TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF AIR CELL
6. Depth of Air Cell-The depth of the air cell when in its
natural position is the distance from the end of the egg to the
plane passing through the egg at the lower edge of the air cells
where it touches the shell.
7. Regular-A regular air cell is one which shows a prac,-
tically even, smooth outline (without any movement) when the
egg is twirled.
8. Slightly Tremulous-A slightly tremulous air cell is one
which retains a practically fixed position in the egg but shows
a slight movement, not to exceed 1/s inch, at any one point
where its lower edge touches the shell.
9. Movement Not in Excess of 1 Inch-An air cell which
shows a movement at one or more points where its lower edge
touches the shell, but not in excess of 1/ inch.








21. Slightly Mobile-A yolk which moves somewhat but not
freely from the center of the egg when it is twirled.
22. Mobile-A mobile yolk is one which shows considerable
movement away from the center of the egg when it is twirled
before the candle.
23. Freely Mobile-A freely mobile yolk is one which shows
a wide movement or swing away from the center of the egg
when it is twirled before the candle and comes sufficiently
close to the shell to cast a decidedly dark shadow.
24. Practically Free From Other Defects or Blemishes-A
yolk which may show a slightly mottled condition but other-
wise unblemished.
25. Other Definite But Not Serious Defects-A yolk which
is mottled, is slightly spread, or which shows moderate heat
spots.
26. Other Serious Defects-A yolk which is decidedly
spread or weak or which shows well developed heat spots or
other spots, or areas of a character which do not render the
egg inedible.
27. Free From Visible Germ Development-No visible de-
velopment of the germ indicates that there has been no develop-
ment of the germ spot or if slight development has occurred
that it has not proceeded to the point where it can be dis-
tinguished by candling.
28. Slightly Visible Germ Development-Slightly visible de-
velopment of the germ indicates that there has been some de-
velopment of the germ and that it has proceeded to the point
where it is visible before the candle as a deeper colored area on
the yolk.
29. Clearly Visible Germ Development-Clearly visible de-
velopment of the germ without blood showing, is a condition
that indicates that the development of the germ has progressed
to a point where it is plainly visible before the candle as a
deeper colored area or as a bubble or spot on the yolk.
30. No Blood-As used in connection with condition of the
germ refers to blood which shows before the candle and which
has formed as the result of embryo development. It does not
refer to blood spots which occur in fresh eggs not due to
embryo development.








10. Movement in Excess of 1 Inch-An air cell which
shows a movement at one or more points where its lower edge
touches the shell which may be in excess of /, inch.
11. Bubbly-A bubbly air cell is one which has several
rather small bubbles within or beneath it which gives it a
bubbly appearance.
12. Free-A free air cell is one which moves freely about
in the egg. Such an air cell will seek the uppermost point in
the egg, no matter in what position it may be turned.


TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF YOLK
13. Well Centered-A yolk that occupies the center of the
egg without much movement from that position when the egg
is twirled.
14. Fairly Well Centered-A yolk that occupies the center
of the egg but which may show a moderate movement from
that position when the egg it twirled.
15. Plainly Visible-A plainly visible yolk or yolk shadow
is one which has a plainly discernible outline before the candle
and may appear as a dark shadow.
16. Dark Shadow-A dark yolk shadow results when a
freely mobile yolk closely approaches the shell, when twirled
before the candle, and is distinctly discernible as a dark
shadow.
17. Outline Indistinct-A yolk or yolk shadow, the outline
of which is not clearly discernible when viewed before the
candle.
18. Outline Moderately Defined-A yolk or yolk shadow,
the outline of which may be seen but which is not well defined
before the candle.
19. Outline Well Defined-A yolk or yolk shadow, the out-
line of which is plainly discernible before the candle.
20. Motion Sluggish-A yolk which moves slowly and which
does not move far from its normal position in the center when
the egg is twirled.








TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF THE WHITE
31. Firm-A firm white is one which is sufficiently thick or
viscous to permit but little movement of the yolk from the
center of the egg. A firm white is one of the principal causes
of an indistinct or a moderately defined yolk outline.
32. Reasonably Firm-A reasonably firm white is one which
has a weakened viscous condition and thereby allows the yolk
to move more freely from its normal position in the center of
the egg and to approach the shell more closely when the egg is
twirled. When the white is reasonably firm, the outline of the
yolk may be well defined, but the yolk does not approach the
shell closely enough to cast a dark shadow.
33. Weak and Watery-A weak and watery white is one
which is thin and generally lacking in viscosity and therefore
permits the yolk to move freely from its normal position in
the center of the egg and closely approach the shell when the
egg is twirled. A weak and watery white is indicated by the
free movement and the decidedly dark shadow of the yolk
as the egg is twirled before the candle. Eggs with weak and
watery whites often develop a tremulous, bubbly or free air
cell.
34. Clear-A clear white is one which is free from discolor-
ation or from any foreign bodies in it which, before the candle,
appear as dark bodies. Prominent chalazae should not he con-
fused with foreign bodies.

INEDIBLE EGGS
Under the Federal Food and Drugs Act, eggs which are
filthy, putrid or decomposed in whole or in part are adulterated.
The following are regarded as inedible eggs: block rots, white
rots, mixed rots (addled eggs), sour eggs, eggs with green
whites, egs with stuck yolks, moldy eggs, eggs showing blood
rings, eggs containing embryo chicks, and any other eggs
which are filthy, decomposed or putrid.
Inedible or adulterated eggs shall not be considered as con-
forming to the requirements of any of the Official United
States Standards for Individual Eggs.
Eggs containing small meat spots or blood clots of such a
character that they can be readily removed shall be considered
edible eggs but not of a quality higher than U. S. Trade, U. S.
Trade Dirty, or U. S. Check.





CHART OF U. S. STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL EGGS

(The figures in parentheses refer to explanations of terms on the proceeding pages)

Quality SPECIFICATIONS OF EACH QUALITY FACTOR
Factors
U. S. Special I U. S. Extra I U. S. Standard I U. S. Trade
Clean (1); sound (2); Clean (1); sound (2); Clean (1); sound (2); Clean (1); sound (2);
Shell normal (3). normal (3). may be slightly abnormal may be abnormal (5).
1 (4).
1/8 in. or less in depth (6); 2-8 in. or less in depth 3-8 in. or less in depth May be over 3/ in. in
Air regular (7). 16); regular 17).* (6); may show movement depth (6); may show
not in excess of 1/2 inch movement in excess of 1/2
Cell (9). in. (10); may be bubbly
(11) or free (12).


well centered (13); out- Fairly weak centered Outline well defined (19);
line indistinct 117); mo- (14) outline moderately may be mobile (22); may
tion sluggish (20); free defined (18); may be show slightly visible germ
from visible germ de- slightly mobile (21); free development (28) and
velopment (27) and other from visible germ de- other definite but not
defects or blemishes (24). velopment (27) and prac- serious defects (25).
tically free from other
defects or blemishes (24).


(32);


May be plainly visible
(15); may be freely mo-
bile and cast dark shadow
(23); and show clearly
visible germ development
(29) but no blood (30);
may show other serious
defects (26).
May be weak and watery
(33).


*Eggs which otherwise fully meet the specifications of U. S. Extra but have slightly tremulous (8) air cell (a movement
not in excess of 1/, in.) may be classed as U. S. Extras in the retail grade of U. S. Extra.


Yolk


White Firm (31); clear (34). Firm (31); clear (34). Reasonably firm
I I Iclear (34).


--- -








POULTRY MARKETING METHODS
Most of the poultry produced in Florida, as elsewhere, is
sold alive, as this seems to be the most practical under pre-
vailing conditions. Not many farmers can afford to go to the
expense of equipping a dressing plant, and then too, very few
are trained in the art of properly killing and dressing poultry.
This industry is very much different from the meat packing
industry in that it is carried on by many small establishments
located in the producing centers or in the large centers of
population.

PRODUCER TO CONSUMER
Some live and dressed poultry is sold by the producers direct
to the consumer; this is especially true of turkeys in some cities
in Florida. The quantity though marketed in this manner is
only a small per cent of the total that is marketed; the price
received is usually good, however a lot of necessary expense
and extra time is involved in making delivery.

PRODUCER TO DEALER
The most common method of marketing live poultry is to
ship to a dealer either by express or by truck. Perhaps the
itinerant peddler that goes through the country and buys at
the farm handles more live poultry than almost any other
agency.

GOOD QUALITY BRINGS BEST PRICES
To sell to best advantage, poultry must be of the heavy type,
properly fed and in healthy condition. Quality of poultry is
influenced by the breed, age, and sex as well as feeding, hous-
ing and management. Perhaps it is to the advantage of most
producers to feed a heavy grain ration a week or ten days
before selling, as this will give some added weight; especially
is this true of hens that have been laying heavily or of those
not fed very heavy on the general farm. In the case of broil-
ers, if they are receiving full feed, no special feeding is
necessary.
Poultry should be shipped to arrive on the market by the
middle of the week, as Friday and Saturday are very busy days
31








at most poultry plants. Coops or shipping crates should be
strong and made of light material, they should be tagged on
both ends and show the name and address of the shipper and
the name and address of the party the shipment is consigned to.


















Farmers Selling Poultry at a Cooperative Sale.

COOPERATIVE POULTRY SALES
These sales, for all classes of poultry and turkeys, are con-
ducted in cooperation with County and Home Agents, Voca-
tional Agricultural Teachers, Railroad officials and other in-
terested parties. Wherever farmers have a surplus and are
cooperatively minded, the Poultry Marketing Specialist of the
State Marketing Bureau has been holding these sales. Some-
times a poultry car is run from one point on the railroad to
another until filled, other times a dealer will send a truck and
buy at one or two points.
These sales are sold to some poultry dealer on a bid a week
in advance, then these prices are advertised. When the day
of the sale arrives, the farmers bring their poultry and it is
weighed and graded and the cash paid on the grounds at the
time of delivery.
These sales have proven popular, especially among the turkey
producers, for often times the prices received at the ear are as
good as those being paid delivered to the large markets.



























Turkeys ready for market early November.

THE TURKEY MARKET
Production of turkeys in Florida has actually increased
every year for the last three or four years. Careful estimates
indicate that Florida poultrymen raised in 1933 almost 100,000
turkeys for the market, and they produced a revenue of
approximately $200,000.
The Crop Census of the Florida Department of Agriculture
for 1932 shows that the five leading turkey producing counties,
named in order of importance, are Gilchrist, Suwannee, Levy,
Jackson and Lafayette.
Because of the early spring and the long growing season,
the Florida turkeys are finished earlier in the fall than those
grown in other sections Their quality is unexcelled, in fact
most dealers prefer them to turkeys from other sections,
because of their superior quality and finish, and feature the
fact in their ads that they carry in stock at Thanksgiving and
Christmas, Florida Peanut Fed Turkeys.
Prices, though low the last few years, have ruled several
cents over that secured by producers in other sections. Despite
the fact that Florida offers, no doubt, the best market for
33







turkeys, production is not nearly up to consumptive demand
and thousands of dressed turkeys are imported each year to
supply the trade. The fact that this good market exists in
Florida is responsible for the production of turkeys increasing
in recent years despite the depression.


GRADES OF DRESSED POULTRY
(From Farmers Bulletin 1377 U. S. D. A.)
The following market classes of dressed poultry are in com-
mon use and some or all of them will be found in every im-
portant market:
Broilers-Broilers are young chickens, approximately 8 to
12 weeks old, of either sex, of marketable age but not weighing
over 21/ pounds each or 30 pounds to the dozen and sufficiently
soft-meated to be cooked tender by broiling. The lighter
weights are sometimes quoted as squab broilers.
Fryers-Fryers are young chickens, approximately 14 to 20
weeks old, of either sex, weighing over 21/ pounds but not
over 31/2 pounds each or 31 to 42 pounds to the dozen and suf-
ficiently soft-meated to be cooked tender by frying.
Roasters-Roasters are young chickens, approximately 5 to
9 months old, of either sex, weighing over 31/ pounds each or
over 42 pounds to the dozen and sufficiently soft-meated to be
cooked tender by roasting.
Stags-Stags are male birds, of any weight or age, with flesh
slightly darkened and toughened, and with comb and spur
development showing the bird to be in a state of maturity
between roasting chickens and cocks. Stags are less desirable
and bring a lower price than soft-meated chickens.
Capons-Capons are unsexed male birds weighing over 4
pounds, usually from 7 to 10 months old and with soft and
tender flesh. The heavier capons are usually quoted at a
higher price than the lighter capons.
Slips-Slips are incompletely caponized male birds, weighing
over 4 pounds, with comb, spur, and flesh development similar







to stags. They are sometimes called "capon roasts." The
price of slips is considerably below that of capons.
Cocks-Cocks are mature male birds of any weight with
darkened and toughened flesh. Sometimes they are quoted
under the name of old roosters.
Fowl-Fowl are mature female birds of any age or weight.
They are generally divided into several subclasses according
to weight and the lighter weights usually bring a lower price.
Ducks-Ducks are often quoted as such without any other
distinction but are quite commonly quoted as young or old
ducks. Old ducks are mature birds of either sex with tough-
ened flesh. Young ducks are immature birds, usually from
10 to 12 weeks old, with soft-meated flesh. At times young
ducks may be referred to as spring or "green" ducklings.
The Pekin ducklings produced on Long Island and on duck
farms in other sections have become widely known and are
commonly quoted as "Long Island ducklings."
Geese-Geese are commonly quoted as such but may be
referred to as young or old geese. Old geese are mature birds
of either sex more than 1 year old and of any weight. Young
geese are immature birds of either sex and of any weight,
usually less than 1 year old. Young geese quickly grown
and fattened for market are occasionally separately quoted
as "green" geese. The actual condition of geese influences the
price considerably and specially fattened geese usually bring
a premium. Mongrel geese, a name applied to birds produced
by crossing the wild gander on domestic geese, are particularly
favored on the Boston market and may bring a premium of
10 cents per pound. Wisconsin noodledd" geese (fattened
by hand feeding with noodles) generally command a sub-
stantial premium. Chinese or swan geese are usually quoted
separately and bring a lower price. Geese that have been
partly plucked for feathers or down within two weeks of the
time they are slaughtered, usually show small red spots on the
skin and usually bring a lower price than do full-feathered
geese.
Turkeys-Turkeys are commonly quoted as young and old
and as hens and toms. Old turkeys are those over 1 year old







with toughened flesh and hardened breastbone. Turkeys
classed as young are usually less than 1 year old, are soft-
meated and have flexible breastbones. Young tom turkeys
generally sell for the highest price, followed by young hens,
old hens, and old toms.
Guineas-Guineas may be quoted as young or old. Young
guineas are immature birds of either sex, are soft-meated and
usually weigh less than 2 pounds. Old guineas are mature
birds of either sex with toughened flesh and usually weigh 2
pounds or over. Guineas are used largely as a substitute for
game. They are often quoted by the pair. At certain seasons
guinea broilers may be quoted. In some markets guineas are
called "keets" or "guinea keets."
Squabs-Squabs are young pigeons of either sex, usually
from 31/2 to 41/2 weeks old, with muscle fiber undeveloped by
flying. At this age they retain their softness of flesh and
baby-fat. They are commonly quoted by the dozen. The best
grades run 10 to 12 pounds to the dozen.


KILLING AND DRESSING POULTRY
The farm method of killing for home use is to chop off the
head. This will not do in case of killing for the market for
the head is left on, as evidence the bird was in good health
when slaughtered.
A simple method of killing consists of looping a cord around
both legs and hang with head down, another is to use shackles
made of wire to hold the legs. The head is grasped with the
left hand, the mouth opened and the jugular vein is cut at the
base of the skull with a long narrow blade of a sharp knife.
This produces free bleeding and results in a better quality.
The most popular method of removing the feathers is to
use the semi-scald process, whereas dry picking was once most
used. The proper temperature for semi-scalding is about 125
to 128" Fahrenheit. The birds are held in the water for one-
quarter to a minute, depending on the class of poultry. A more
recent development is the paraffine method of picking. This









consists in dipping the rough picked semi-scalded chicken into
a vat of melted paraffine; after which the chicken is im-
mediately dipped in cold water to set the paraffine, then the
feathers are pealed off with the paraffine. This takes off most
of the feathers, however it is necessary to have the pin feathers
plucked by hand.



HUMAN POPULATION AND POULTRY POPULATION,
BY COUNTIES


og o


County County
P P


65,404
8,057
16,829
25,394
14,224
10,337
13,991
2,678
12,571
35,963
20
46,405
38,947
13,382
4,890
107,347
37,446
7,922
570
51,269
10,802
1,681
22,319
30,189
3,756
16,230
12,643
131,980
32,116
8,979
93,295
32,579
41,357


Lafayette
Lee
Leon
Levy
Liberty
Martin
Marion
Manatee
Madison
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
Sumter
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washington


4,411 15,600
14,974 12,989
23,522 33,113
12,411 23,941
4,067 6,957
5,126 6,908
29,560 81,543
22,478 22,508
15,615 40,030
13,370 347
9,372 75,510
9,772 19,511
4,099 6,431
49,702 53,537
10,661 11,919
51,784 17,016
10,581 54,950
61,696 39,675
72,120 86,926
17,669 57,846
14,059 26,486
12,417 6,950
18,727 19,926
10,635 22,883
18,506 15,035
7,003 6,340
15,757 71,241
13,140 12,614
7,400 31,758
42,725 34,228
5,468 9,471
16,649 28,868
12,178 26,970


Alachua
Bay
Baker
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade
DeSoto
Dixie
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsden
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lake


33,966
12,090
6,293
9,339
13,271
19,739
7,2)9
4,012
5,514
6,856
2,756
14,636
142,541
7,745
6,419
155,160
53,408
2,466
6,276
29,798
2,692
3,182
9,454
10,348
3,450
4,946
9,188
153,301
12,876
6,729
31,867
13,407
23,136








TEN LEADING POULTRY STATES


1930-According to U. S. Department of Agriculture


State
Iowa
Missouri
Illinois
Ohio
Kansas
Texas
Pennsylvania
Indiana
Minnesota
Oklahoma


California
Florida


Numerical
Rank

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10


SIZE OF THE POULTRY INDUSTRY IN
FLORIDA
Some kind of poultry is found on 43,000 farms. These
poultry farms produced, according to the Florida Department
of Agriculture, 20,000,000 dozen eggs in 1932, and there were
raised on these farms at the same time somewhere near 4,000,-
000 chickens.
The value of poultry and eggs produced in Florida in 1932
was estimated to be approximately $8,000,000. If Florida
people consume anywhere near the average number of eggs
per capital for the United States, which is placed by some at
241, it is necessary to import many eggs each year. We know
that there are many imported, for one year the city of Miami
alone imported 93 cars, and no records were available to show
how many came into the city by truck from out of the State.
Many authorities estimate the importation of poultry and
eggs for normal consumption costs Florida people anywhere
from four to six million dollars.


Number head on
farms Jan. 1, 1930
34,713,000
33,121,000
28,758,000
24,954,000
23,596,000
22,834,000
20,818,000
18,735,000
18,627,000
15,853,000
15,250,000
2,314,000

















VALUE OF POULTRY AND EGGS BY COUNTIES


Alachua
Baker ..


Year 1932-" Florida
.......................... $468,000
........... -.... ..- .... 33,600


Bay ............. ............
Bradford ....................
Brevard ...........................
Broward ........................
Calhoun ....- ..................
Charlotte ..................
Citrus ...... .................
C lay ..................................
Collier ....... ..................
Columbia ..... ..............
Dade ......... ........
DeSoto ......................
D ixie .........- ...... ... ...
Duval ......... ........
Escambia .................
Flagler ...... .............
Franklin ...................
Gadsden ....................
Gilchrist ..................
Glades ............ .............
G ulf ................... ..........
Hamilton ........................
H ardee ............................
Hendry .......................
Hernando ...................
Highlands ......................
Hillsborough ..................
H olm es ............................
Indian River ..................
Jackson ..........................
Jefferson .......................
Lafayette ..................


20,900
45,600
19,100
60,500
29,500
18,200
30,300
103,200
8,000
88,700
581,000
29,700
17,100
529,000
132,800
27,800
23,400
135,800
65,400
34,800
8,200
93,400
72,700
3,000
25,600
105,100
842,500
34,700
19,700
132,600
40,300
28,400


Dept. of Agriculture"
Lake ....... .................
Lee .................. ............
Leon .................................
Levy ..--- ----- .................
Liberty ..........................
Madison ......................
Manatee ....... .............
Marion ........................
Martin .... ...- .........
Monroe ....................
Nassau ........................
Okaloosa ...............-.........
Okeechobee ..................
Orange ........................
Osceola ......... ............
Palm Beach ....................
Pasco ...............................
Pinellas .....................
Polk .............................
Putnam .......................
Santa Rosa ..................
St. Johns ......................
St. Lucie .................
Sarasota ..................
Seminoe ....................
Sumter ............. .........
Suwannee .......... ..........
Taylor ............................
Union ................................
Volusia ............................
W akulla ..........................
W alton ...........................
W ashington ....................


111,100
90,100
90,400
80,800
16,700
43,900
48,100
222,600
12,200
1,100
161,500
36,400
16,600
29,500
31,000
124,100
139,500
124,200
522,000
265,700
71,200
55,600
27,600
6,200
79,100
42,900
133,' 00
25,900
49,200
257,000
24,200
86,800
47,200




-.4




VALUE OF POULTRY PRODUCTS BY COUNTIES IN 1932.
(One ,dot-$20,000)




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