• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Group Title: Florida. Dept. of Agriculture. Bulletin
Title: Landscape plants for Florida homes
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089063/00001
 Material Information
Title: Landscape plants for Florida homes
Series Title: Florida. Dept. of Agriculture. Bulletin
Physical Description: 120 p. : illus. part col. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watkins, John V ( John Vertrees )
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1955
 Subjects
Subject: Landscape gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Ornamental -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "April, 1955"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089063
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJB1110
oclc - 01574631
alephbibnum - 001698961
lccn - a 56009073

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Frontispiece
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    Title Page
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Full Text

I *A# %NORM% I= I


for FLORIDA HOME!
By JOHN V. WATKINS
Associate Professor of Horticulture, University of Florida
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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES
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LANDSCAPE PLANTS

for

FLORIDA HOMES




by
JOHN V. WATKINS

Associate Professor of Horticulture
University of Florida




STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner








LAINLU LArrIt rELnAI I run rUiniu-A nurMIVi7 ,

Landscape plantings in Florida have come of age. Gone
e the front yards of clean-swept earth, the hard-packed grass-
s backyards, the fenced-in suburban homes. In their places
e some of the most effectively planted and expertly main-
ned small home grounds in the world, and as a result, our
.te claims some of the most beautiful and home-like com-
imities to be found anywhere in the nation.
In the 1930's there began a trend in garden planning and
ilding that has led to this near perfection evident in so
mny Florida home grounds. Due to many complex factors,
-h as pride of ownership, the garden club movement, the
luence of home and garden magazines, and the institutions
higher learning through their extension efforts and the gradu-
on of young people trained in horticulture and in landscape
sign, Florida has become notably garden conscious.
Most home owners like to putter around in the yard and
-y find satisfaction in planning, planting and maintaining
eir own home ground. They have long since learned that
rdening is a healthful, engrossing hobby. It is for this ever
creasing number of home gardeners that this bulletin has
en prepared.
Sound principles in the use of plants are the same whether
e lives in Miami or Minneapolis, Tallahassee or Topeka,
lether one's property is large or small, whether the exposure
north or south. It is true that the kinds of plant materials
11 vary with the region and the spirit of no two gardens will
identical, but fundamental concepts of good planning are
- same regardless of locale. A unified, harmonious land-
ipe scene may result from good composition, and this implies
it the forms of order-repetition, dominance, sequence and
lance are present. Perhaps it might be well to recall a
finition: "Composition is the orderly organization of parts
to an harmonious whole." Just as a good painting, a winning
wer arrangement or a beautiful interior depends upon the
dered relation of its elements, the successful landscape is the
e which is skillfully composed.
Modern Florida homes are usually low and compact and
w-e or less centered on level. rectangular nlots- and so. it is





















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The architecture of the dwelling will influence the disposi-
in and kinds of plants as well as the materials of construction
walls and walks. It is considered good design to project
Lines of the house out-of-doors so that they become integral
rts of the garden itself. With houses of masonry, major
ills may extend to enclose carports, patios, service areas, or
me lawns. Here the material, texture and color of the house
repeated harmoniously out-of-doors.
Doors and windows serve as frames for garden pictures
it are viewed from within the house, and for this reason they
.ist be considered when arranging the landscape plants.
The public area embraces the ground between the dwelling
d the street and serves as a setting for the house. This should
simply planted to present a dignified picture. Usually a
w trees or palms to frame and to cast shadows, and a re-
rained base planting for transition and surface decoration,
e all the landscape plants that will be needed. As perma-
nt features, these plants may well be the choicest and most
stly in the landscape scheme. It is these plants that create
e setting for your home and you can well afford to expend
ought upon their selection and time and effort upon their care.
In southern Florida tropical settings are desirable and so
lms, yuccas, century plants, flowering tropical vines, euphor-
is and cacti are widely employed. Palm shadows cast upon
ills and upon the turf contribute to the feeling of the tropics.
For houses which stand upon piers a continuous planting
evergreen shrubs is essential, as the open space below the
or is best hidden. However, when a dwelling is built on a
ib just two steps above the ground level a few choice speci-
ens as accents and for wall decoration may be carefully
ranged, and in places the house may be allowed to merge
to the land, unadorned. Simple, restrained plantings are
e vogue today, as there is a trend away from the heavily
anted foundations of a decade ago. Many of these older
antings have grown well beyond their allotted space to hide,
most completely, the small houses they once complemented.
In Florida, as elsewhere, there is a notable tendency to
e some species too frequently. In the northern section the








6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

and croton. All of these are excellent plants, when pla
strong accents, but they are often employed too extensi
Growing out of the old backyard which all too of
a catchall for poultry houses, fuel piles, incinerators,
cans and other utilitarian items of household equipment
largest part of the modern residential property and this i
the outdoor living room or private area. This section ;
the closest relationship with the family and their guests
is used for relaxation, for entertaining and for parties.
In its modenl development with attractive bord(
open central area an outdoor living room is especially
in Florida where it is possible to spend so much time
doors. A side of the house with proper base plantings ,
green shrubbery will serve as one boundary, possibly the
or ell of the house will become another and the two rei
sides may well be planted with carefully chosen ev
shrubs. The objective is to create an attractive barrj
will exclude objectionable scenes and assure privacy wj











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LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 7

Where space permits, the most popular method of enclos-
ig the outdoor living room is an informal shrubbery border
.at has interesting bays and promontories and planned se-
iences in foliage color and texture. Perhaps five or seven
[ants of feijoa might merge into a group of six wax privets,
which, in turn, would have as neighbors, four oleanders. The
wanting distance in this type of layout may be four to six feet
ich way and the shrubs are set in groups, rather than spotted
ngly or alternated. The individual plant is subordinated
the total effect in this sort of planting. This simulated
edge row, completely informal or naturalistic, has wide appeal


mes, hardy, evergreen vines trained on chain-link fences arc
sed to screen the service area.
A backyard compost bin should be a part of every well
planned service area. A fenced bin or walled pit to hold peat,
eaves, lawn clippings, peanut hulls, pruned branches, watei
yacinths and some manure is a worthwhile investment. Th(
addition of a complete, balanced chemical fertilizer is recom
ended as an aid to decomposition and to fortify the end
product. Garden magazines carry advertisements of special





































LU 1llt3 LU dUUL 1110 WUIU LU
tice is of first importance ir
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it this


mperatures during s










High temperature, heavy rains, and rapid bacterial action
use organic materials to disappear at an astonishing rate in
orida and so frequent replacement is needed. After the
ulch has been in place for a while the roots will grow up into
and the sudden removal of this material may result in injury
a cherished specimen.
In some sections, drainage is a problem of first moment
.d adequate provision must be made to draw off water during
,t weather. Most garden plants will not tolerate water-logged
il. Roots must have air and when the water table rises the
r is forced out and the roots die. Leaf-fall, a hard, knarled
ndition of the twigs, debilitv and death may be indications
poor drainage.
Florida's coastline, the longest of any state in the union,
a favored place for vacation homes and certain sections, on
e east and west coasts, are thickly populated. On the Atlantic,
)uses are on the sand dunes, or immediately behind them
id, in some towns the entire strip of palmetto and pine barren
Atween the ocean and the tidewater lagoon to the west is resi-
ential property. Gardens unusual, distinctive tropical in feel-
g and strongly characteristic of the section are a part of these
aside homes.
Gardening on the coast of Florida is as difficult as garden-
g can be anywhere. The outer steep beach exposed to the
ill force of the east wind and the Atlantic surf, the ever-
resent shell that makes the earth alkaline in reaction, locking
3 vital mineral elements, and the sand, devoid of humus are
suitable for many inland garden subjects. Fortunately, a
ozen or so plants that grow naturally on our sand dunes lend
Lemselves to dramatic tropical compositions. In addition to
ie species that are native to the coastal sands, several exotics
tom desert regions will thrive in this environment. Plants
tom similar environments can make harmonious compositions
id their kindred wants reduce maintenance.
On the west coast, dunes are lower; undefined is the line
F demarcation between the shingle and the ridge of sand.
ome houses are built directly on the Gulf beach. The wind
ff the Gulf of Mexico is not as strong as that off the Atlantic








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Many dwellings for permanent or seasonal occupa
built on tidal basins. Although these bodies of brackis
may be known colloquially as rivers, lakes, bays, cre,
bayous, they are, nonetheless, tidewater lagoons. Man-i
natural, they make attractive settings for waterfront ho:
Gardens for waterfront homes may be quite simple
few well chosen plants to accent the architecture, grn
palms for framing and background, a lawn and boundary
ings for privacy will suffice. The private area is usu,
developed in detail as an off-scape over water is always
so complete enclosure as discussed previously, is not of ]
consideration. Axial lines are usually ignored excep
most pretentious gardens. Some beach dwellers are
to have wild front yards more or less sparsely inhale
native plants such as sea-oats, beach morning-glory and
ing succulents, but many orderly souls feel that they
have civilized greenswards like those at home.
Ground covers other than grasses come into their c
interesting effects are achieved with succulents such as f
gold, artillery plant, peperomia, or mesembryanthemur
For exotic shrubs and trees, planting holes must be p
with care. Dig oversized holes and fill with a mix
hammock soil, peat, leaf mold or compost. A sprint
one of the mineral mixtures from the seed store is lc
insurance against shortages of the so-called minor el
Minor though iron, zinc, copper, manganese, magnesit
boron may be on fertile soils, major they become ii
sands. In fact, any of the nutritional elements ma
become limiting factors for many trees, shrubs and
Choice palms, vines and annuals frequently exhibit the cl
stunted growth and dead tips that are manifestations of
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PLANTS FOR BEACH GARDENS


NATIVE E:

Cabbage palm C&


uasuariiia


Loconut palm
Gumbo-limbo


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12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

roofed loggia which is an integral part of it. The fo
of the modern Florida patio is frequently left open foi
view. Sometimes rolling screens of structural glass n
this open side during cold weather.
Windows and doors may or may not be grilled ii
day examples, but they must look across the court to
compositions.
Below are basic requirements of a modern patio.
PAVING: In Florida the following materials are
for covering the patio floor: Coralline Key Largo li
brick, glazed tiles, terrazo, Crab Orchard stone, simula
rock or combinations of these. Because of heavy trn
small space, grass will not survive, so its best use is i
between paving blocks.
CENTRAL FEATURE: A well or similar water featu
thentic, but sometimes a group of palms, a specimer
tree or sea-grape becomes the dominant plant of inter
tesian water, frequently available in coastal areas,
employed with telling effect as a part of the central
City water circulated by a hidden electric pump ma:
in a central pool, and move rapidly down a tiled ru
return through a closed system.
POTTED PLANTS: Dwarf palms in urns, season
annuals for winter color and succulents for interest
form are essential accessories. Wall brackets of wroi
are sometimes installed in groups. Orchids, anthuriu
meliads and other plants are hung in these brackets w
come into bloom. The tenderest, choicest plants will
this little enclosed, air-still area where partial shade,
and moisture may be kept at optimum levels.
SHADE: A tree whose foliage serves as a sector
roof to cool a part of the patio and the house, but
a sunny corner for chilly days is desirable. This n
native palm, a picturesque sea-grape or a dramatic guml
Plants within a patio are for wall decoration, f
and color interest and must not encroach too heavily
I I I .















walls, and never sprawl are the

ight be adequately planted with
atmosphere, a pair of flowering
election of potted plants for color
ipical plants in iron wall brackets.
to complete the patio for human


ED FOR MODERN PATIOS

GROUNDCOVERS
AL VINES AND EDGINGS
nvillea Dwarf lily-turf
n Fig-marigold
vine Hedera
chalice Pentas
's robe Peperomia
T-t- Pf1_








14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE







































Florida Cypress


Bananas, tropical aroids and palms stamp this scene










rough the generosity of Mrs. Alfred B. Maclay, the beautiful
nation, Killearn Gardens, became state property in 1952.
inks to masterful planning and a quarter-century of careful
intenance, this marvelous garden has become one of the most
ightful in the nation. Here may be viewed superb plant
trials at their mature best. Palms, native flowering trees,
ssed azaleas and tree-sized camellias are employed with
ing effect. In Tallahassee, also is located Florida State
diversity, which is noted for its beautiful campus. Here, ex-
lent well-grown specimens of species that thrive in western
,rida are on display. In Gainesville, on the University of
'rida campus will be found examples of mature plant ma-
ials in approved landscape uses. At all public institutions,
'sons in charge of the various plant cultures, will be pleased
show visitors around and to answer questions.
In St. Petersburg and in Sarasota are admission gardens
which may be viewed tropical plant materials in specimen
tus. Toward the center of the state at Winter Haven is
owned Cypress Gardens, noted for spectacular horticultural
plays and aquatic shows. Not far away is Bok Tower, a
luded, restful sanctuary, in which may be viewed some ex-
lent arrangements of plant material. On the east coast at
ro Beach is McKee Jungle Garden, a well-known admission
-den that is popular with tourists. On U. S. Highway 1 at
tart will be found Mr. Ed Menninger. The Flowering Tree
.11, who will be pleased to show his collection of tropical
es to visiting horticulturists. In Miami, Bay Front Park is
nous for tropical landscape plants at their mature best. Down
Homestead road is Florida's most famous arboretum, the
irchild Tropical Garden. This tropical arboretum on the
inland United States, continuously expanding, is destined to
one of the great botanic gardens of the world. Palms, vines,
ide trees and hibiscus, well-grown and carefully labeled, are
!n here at their best. At Homestead, the State of Florida
.intains a sub-tropical experiment station where excellent
imples of carefully labeled Florida trees are featured. Many
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16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

WATERING
Despite Florida's heavy rainfall, supplementary v
is needed during dry spells in autumn and springtime.
lished palms and trees will survive, but lawns, shru
flowers will need irrigation to keep them in active,
growth. During spring and summer plants need mor
than during cold weather when growth is arrested b,
temperatures. Yet it must not be forgotten that water i
up by roots during cold weather and therefore plants i
supplied with adequate amount of water at all times.
Annuals need most attention in the matter of water:
grasses require frequent irrigation for active growth
attractive deep green color. Italian rye grass winter law
unusually large amounts of water.
Permanent underground irrigation systems, that can
trolled by a single, easy-to-reach valve, are desired b,
home owner, but lacking this facility, it is desirable
spigots arranged so that every part of the grounds can be :
by one fifty-foot length of hose.
Not only are sprinklers needed to supply water to a
of the landscape planting during dry periods, but watei
force is helpful in reducing red spider mites and thrips
ing sunny, dry weather these pests can be very injur
azaleas, camellias and other choice shrubs.
It is always better to soak the ground thoroughly
sprinkle indifferently and often. Light sprinkling enci
shallow rooting whereas heavy soaking encourages the i
strike deep into the earth. During dry periods whi(
occur in November-December and March-May, good resi
had by weekly soakings when the hose is allowed to r
hours in each place before it is moved along. Good ga
do not wait for their plants to wilt before irrigating, y
are cautious not to over-water because they know that e)
soil moisture leaches away soluble nutrients and ma3
roots to rot off. Discretion in this, as in all phases of
maintenance, is needed.
Contrary to widespread opinion, watering gardens








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 17

irk, but there is not the slightest danger of burning garden
ants by watering at mid day.

PRUNING

In Florida, landscape plants grow very rapidly and for this
'ason frequent systematic pruning is needed.
For the most part, heading in to preserve natural form,
either than shearing to geometrical shapes, is preferred today.
:andard hand pruners are used to remove robust shoots well


jULuiUIII IaIvuIc LU i tI nc LU 1a. an --c jilt- ta
Coniferous evergreens and broadleaved species that are not
rown for their blossoms, should be headed back all through
)ring, summer and fall when shoots grow out of bounds.
herry-laurel, wax privet, wax-myrtle, podocarpus and the
snipers can be lightly headed back periodically during the
rowing season so that the plants are kept shapely and compact.
Hedges need frequent shearing from early spring until
utumn to keep them tidy and attractive. Hedge shears are
accompanied by directions which state that trimming must be
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te, all wounds over two inches in
with tree wound dressing. These
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LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 19

eight in nurseries. In Florida, many semi-tropical species
)w rapidly and assume gigantic sizes in a comparatively short
le. Many of these, too, cast very dense shade under which
is impossible to grow a lawn. These vigorous tropical trees
e not suited to residential landscaping and their use must
limited to parks, arboretums and roadside plantings. Ma-
e sizes will be indicated in the descriptive paragraphs which
low.
Shade is essential in Florida because of the large number
bright sunny days. Broadleaved evergreen trees may be
)sen if year-round shade is wanted, while deciduous species
e best in some positions so that sunlight may be enjoyed
ring the winter.
As suggested earlier, framing is an important function of
es in landscape design. Trees set toward the property lines
both sides, rather forward of the house, frame the dwelling
I the garden and give a finish and completeness that can be
ained in no other way. For this purpose, small erect-grow-
;, broadleaved, woody trees or palms should be chosen for
ist homes. Sometimes it is possible to keep existing native
es for these important positions, and in other cases it will
necessary to plant framing trees early in the landscape
velopment.
Two or three somewhat larger evergreen trees set near the
ir property line will furnish a background that gives solidarity
d definition to the landscape plan. Frequently property may
acquired upon which such trees may be growing.
Hardiness, adaptability to one's soil type, long life, freedom
nm diseases and insect pests and resistance to strong winds
e important considerations when selecting trees for home
hinting. Some species will be selected for their beautiful
ergreen foliage, others will be wanted for their striking blos-
ns, and there are all-time favorites which are wanted because
the fruits which they bear. Trees discussed in the paragraphs
[lowing may not possess all of these characteristics, however,
my will serve in the development of the basic landscape plan.
It must be remembered that many trees are protected by
w and cannot be dug from the woods without permission of
e nronertv owner. Everv riaht-thinkina citizen will respect








20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Wild trees, growing in competition with their n,
have far-reaching roots and it is impossible to dig tl
satisfactory, compact root systems. From every asr
more desirable to buy trees from a reputable nurn
nurseryman has transplanted, root-pruned, cultivated, f
sprayed and irrigated his stock and his trees will at
turity much more quickly than will trees of compare
from the woods. Today, when container-grown sto
widely available, small trees carefully taken from fi
or three gallon cans are unquestionably most desirable
one of these is bought at a nursery, the attendant wil
can so that it is a simple matter to set the tree, with ir
disturbed root system upon arrival back home. Thi
of growing landscape material in tin cans also ext,
transplanting season in Florida to include every day in
While it is considered best to transplant field-grown
tween December and February, container-grown stock
disturbed roots, is transplanted successfully at any tim
Even before trees are purchased it is a good plan to
the planting holes so that locations will be ready for
at the right time. Dig holes that are large enough tc
the sizes which you plan to acquire, place the sandy nt
aside and fill the hole with a rich, acid mixture of
and peat. Into this, mix a couple of handfuls of I
commercial fertilizer that has been fortified with trace f
This is long time insurance against deficiencies which m
upon occasion. When planting trees, whether they b
and burlapped, bare root or container-grown, be cern
they stand at exactly the same level at which they grew f
Too deep planting is harmful in many cases and must
fully avoided. Allow water to flow in gently from the
the soil is shoveled in so that all air pockets may be el:
and a close contact may be made between the roots and
particles. Finish with a saucer-like depression and
with water at least once each week that it does not raii
Newly planted trees have low resistance and so it i
mended that thie trunks be protected for the first two
Beginning at the ground level make a spiral wrap upwi










[low it to disintegrate gradually. This 'wrapping is good
protection against sunscald. excessive drying and borers and
will materially aid trees in recovering from the transplanting
operation.
Cutting back to reduce leaf-bearing surface in proportion
I the loss of the roots is very important. Head in lateral
ranches at least half their length; perhaps remove some of
ie limbs close down to the ground. Do not prune the central
!ader, but allow the single terminal growing point to maintain
s dominance.
Newly planted trees will not need to be fertilized during
ieir first growing season because of the fertility of the soil into
which they were set. However, during the following February,.
nd annually thereafter, all trees should be fed systematically.
A mixed commercial fertilizer is applied in punch-bar holes
round the tree. Use a heavy crow bar or similar tool to make
Ales about 10 to 12 inches deep concentrically around the
unk and then fill these holes with fertilizer. The number of
oles and the amount of fertilizer to apply will vary with the
)ecies, age, soil type and other factors, but, generally speak-
ig, a pound of fertilizer for each inch in Irunk diameter might
e about right. Of course, the holes should be equally dis-
'ibuted around the tree inside the drip of the branches.
Until shade trees, ornamental citrus and palms are well
Itablished, they should be grown in circles that are kept free
f grass by frequent cultivation. Ordinarily these rings of
iltivated earth may be five to eight feet in diameter, depend-
ig upon the species, the size of the individual, the fertility of
ie soil and other factors.
The best tool to use in keeping these circles free of grass
s a sharp, longhandled scuffle hoe, the common goosenecked
arden hoe being second choice. During the rainy season.
hallow cultivation should be practiced every week or ten (lays
while for the remainder of the year a light hoeing once a fort-
ight should suffice. So that feeder roots will not be injured,
ie soil must be flat-hoed, that is, the blade must not be allowed
Scut deeper that an inch. Another reason for recommending
ie scuffle hoe is that it serves as a good edger to cut the grass








22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

to encroach gradually so that it grows up to the trunk
five or six years.


is just prior to spring growth or immediately after bloon
Spanish moss, which grows so luxuriantly in parts o
ida, is harmful and must be removed annually if lawn tr
to be kept in good condition. This fast growing epiphyl
heavy shade, forces growth outward and causes many
branches to die. The most satisfactory way to remove S
moss is by hand picking but this is laborious, and if thi
many large trees, spraying is preferred. Lead arsenate s
on at the rate of one-half pound to fifty gallons of wat
result in the death of all but about 5 per cent of Spanisi
The efficiency of this arsenic killer will be increased if a
of detergent is added to the spray tank. Obviously, hig
sure will be needed to kill moss in tall trees. The disadvw
of spraying for controlling moss are that it is trouble
expensive and the garlands of dead moss hang in the tl
a long time. On the other hand, the disadvantages oJ
picking are obvious and experienced persons know that a
infestation of chiggers or red bugs may result from a










I diseases just as they are in commercial orchards. Un-
ayed fruit trees will not look thrifty and clean and they
not bear abundant fruits of good quality. Most home own-
cannot maintain equipment and hire help that is needed to
Ilv insecticides and fungicides efficiently to mature fruit
*s, so it is strongly recommended that local grove service
anizations, nurseries, or tree maintenance companies be
aged to apply spray materials in the approved manner at
correct time. Your county or home demonstration agent or
secretary of the chamber of commerce can furnish names
approved service organizations.
If there is over half an acre in landscaped ground and it is
irable to do the spraying yourself, a wheelbarrow sprayer
uld be used. Single or double wheeled models with iron
s or rubber tires are available. Hand-operated models are
.ient, capable of producing high pressure, they are easy to
in and easy to repair as they have a minimum of working
ts. Advanced models have electric motors or gasoline en-
es to run the pumps.
T 4. -.C.. : I_ __ 11 _._1 .-. .. __ .._ ... ,_ ___ . G ....,, ,,I










and varieties. Mostly semi-tropical acacias must be gi
the southern part of the state.
Propagation is by seeds, as is the case with most b
AFRICAN TULIP-TREE (Spathodea campanulata) 'i
is admired when its bright, orange-scarlet flowers are pi
in sheltered places on Florida's lower coasts. There, ii
played both in dooryard and avenue plantings. The hai
tall evergreen tree, though native to tropical Africa
common name suggests, is widely distributed in the Ai
tropics. This is a prominent arborescent member of the b
family, which is propagated by cuttings.
ALMOND (Terminalia catappa) 80 feet, is favoi
avenue planting in tropical cities. Its striking horizontal
ing, smooth, brownish-gray bark, and stiff, magnolia-likb
account for its popularity. Principal color is contribi



















p.-








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 25









































CAJEPUT TREE--(Melaleuca leucadendra)








26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

the leaves which turn red before being shed. This 1,
may be caused in Florida by cool weather, in the Ant
the excessive droughts which recur regularly. Though
are 100 species in Terminalia, T. catappa is the one mosi
seen in the New World tropics. Mr. Menninger has ^
baker's dozen in his garden at Stuart.
Propagation is by seeds.
BLACK-OLIVE (Bucida buceras) 70 feet. The nativ,
olive is in high favor in southern Florida because of it,
ability and great resistance to strong winds. Small lea
clustered near the ends of the branches of the symn
round head. As a street tree, windbreak or lawn sp
this tropical evergreen is highly commended to home
within its range. Identification may be made by the
described above, spikes of small greenish flowers and
curved, oval fruits.
Propagation is by seeds.
CAJEPUT (Melaleuca leucadendra) 50 feet. A n
sized tree of great distinction, the cajeput is a populb
specimen in central and southern sections. The thick, ir
layered bark, the strict habit, the small, narrow leaves
yellow-white, bottle-brush blossoms all contribute to m,
one of our outstanding ornamentals and make identi
easy. In some areas this Australian tree has established
in great cultures which demonstrate its adaptability tc
tions in Florida. Other species of bottlebrushes, are
ornamental trees or shrubs.
All are increased by seeds.
CAMPHOR (Cinnamomnum camnphora) 40 feet. Well
as a beautiful, hardy, evergreen tree, the camphor is sati,
on fertile soils that do not become excessively dry. Identi
is by the camphor smell of crushed leaves. Unattractive
foliage and an unthrifty condition may be accounted f,
mineral deficiency in the soil or red spider mites attack
leaves. Sulphur dust (325 mesh) or syringing with t]
are effective in reducing mites, but these controls are
employed for camphor trees. Florida red scale, those r





ne "Volck", "Niagrol", "Linoil" or "Sunoco." Complete
actions for use are printed on the labels. Recently parathion
Smalathion have come into use as scalecides but because of
ir toxicity to all animal life, precautions are necessary.
As they cast heavy shade and are voracious feeders, it is
ally difficult to maintain a good lawn under healthy camphor


1







~i
II


























':* .. o.-. i








"^0 tlfk1i -1l X"L 1VVlA I VL k U JllIU I U1 IUli


Camphor trees do not transplant readily, and for thi,
they are container-grown so they may be moved without
ing the root systems. Seeds, employed entirely for p
tion, are sown directly in these containers and the sinal
thinned to one to each vessel.

CASSIA is a genus of tropical trees rated very high
cerning gardeners. Cassia fistula, 30 feet (the golden sl
* --- _.* __A :_ VTI_-:JI_ T :I--. __ - _V I--_ I


this tree
to some
is easy t
Cassia n


VV IIILhIf I tUfC, IA 1 J. r T 11 J IIL CtJAAU, STJVIIl1
o come by and well worth growing in frost-free
wodosa, 50 feet, is a beautiful pink flowering t
- usefulness in many lands where it is a favor
d roadside tree. Perhaps, even more beautify
;eous apple-blossom cassia (Cassia javanica),
riTr tolnr, tn thP tnn re nll lifat nf wArthwhblm fl


-----I -- -.--- - - --C _-- -
hamiana, 70 feet, is considered the most hardy and
grown as far north as Gainesville, yet here it is kill
during most winters. C. lepidophloia, 60 feet, more
planted than any other species, has an attractive dar
color, dense habit and produces quantities of root
These become troublesome in backyard plantings yet 1
used to increase this last kind, while the others an
from seeds.

CHASTE-TREE (Vitex agnus-castus) 20 feet. As
doorvard tree, the vitex is quite popular because of it










variegata), with white-margined, 3-parted leaves is popular
I small tree. shrub or clipped hedge. Vitex may be grown
n softwood cuttings during summer. Identification is cer-
i bv the lavender spikes which appear in July.
CITRUS TREES and their allies (Citrus and Fortunella species
hybrids') are among the most decorative of all of the broad-
ved evergreen trees known to horticulture. As shade trees,
backgrounds, framing and as free-standing specimens, the
nges, tangerines, calanmondins, kumquats, and their hybrids
widely employed in Florida home grounds plantings. In
er that the health and beauty of the trees and the quality
the fruits may be of the best. a careful spray program (as
gested on page 23 ) is essential.
Citrus trees are usually sold as budded specimens and
ved while comparatively small in size. During the winter


,o








!rr







30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

they are moved with the greatest facility, but small or
can be successfully transplanted during any month in
It is the custom to grow citrus trees in circles tha
hoed free of grass. Thus, the trees can be cultil
fertilized most efficiently. The turf may be allowed,
close around mature, established calamondins, kum,
sour oranges that are grown purely as ornamentals
fertilizers are placed beneath the sod in punch bar he
COCK-SPUR CORAL TREE (Erythrina crista-galli)
is a woody member of the huge legume family which
trusses of coral-red, butterfly flowers in springtime
by frost, coral trees of all species are recommended f
southward, however, they serve as renewing perennials
sections. Coral trees are increased by seeds and cu
CRAPE-MYRTLE (Lagerstroemia indica), may be
shrub and as a tree in all tropical and semi-tropica
Flowering on current growth that elongates after leav
in springtime, the huge terminal panicles of white, ph
purple florets are borne at the beginning of the rair
Widely adapted to many soil types and different clin
cosmopolitan tree is justly popular. This gardener i
with the Superintendent of Hope Garden in Jamai
statement that the crape-myrtle is one of the finest
species for the tropics. Even more spectacular
Chinese species above is the queen crape-myrtle (Lage
speciosa) 60 feet, from India and Australia. This
which acquires a height of 60 feet and has upright groin
carries large, rough, deciduous leaves. These, which
huge guava leaves, may be as much as a foot in len
terminal panicles, up to two feet in length, are pro
current growth and are made up of gorgeous, crape-p,
soms about three inches across.
Control of powdery mildew on the foliage may b
by starting to dust with 325 mesh sulphur at first
continue through the rainy season. Customarily cral:
are headed back during early winter when the lea
This makes for heavy bloom, a compact head and he
_ 1 1 1 1








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 31

detract from the beauty of otherwise well grown crape-
tie trees.
DOGWOOD (Cornus florida) 40 feet. Native to the hanm-
ks of central and northern Florida, the flowering dogwood
ill known and widely planted as a lawn specimen. Graceful,
pitiful, in flower and fruit, small in size and attractive when
in leaf, this tree is strongly recommended to home owners
in its range. Nursery-grown, grafted trees are suggested
ie best for planting, and protection of the trunk against
rs by wrapping with moss or paper is essential for the first
3 years until a canopy of leaves is developed.
FRANGIPANIS, American trees or shrubs, which grow to a
ht of 15 feet, are much planted in tropical lands for their
;htfully fragrant flowers. Plumeria rubra has 6-inch broad
es with conspicuous marginal veins and red, pink or purple
soms, while Plumeria alba has leaves half as wide, without
heavy veins along the edges, and, as the specific name im-
;, is typically white-flowered. The thick, fleshy, sausage-
branches support tufts of leaves near their tips and, in
mnr;m ,nn:nn ~lr~nrrF,~r~1, 1-- A4-1~ /T,, _1__+_'1










leaves that make for coarse texture. The showy orang(
flowers are borne in terminal geranium-like clusters in
time.
GOLDEN RAIN-TREE (Koelreuteria paniculata) 30 fe
deserving its common name, this deciduous tree produce(
of golden blossoms in October when garden color is so i
A second show occurs within a fortnight as the seec
mature and develop their rosy-red colors. The dissect
pound leaves fall to allow the winter sun to penetrate
Seedlings usually occur in great numbers under fruitii
means.
GUMBO-LIMBO (Bursera simaruba) 50 feet. Be(
its bright tan bark that appears just to have been sh(
and unusual knarled and bent branches, this native tree
prized and widely planted as a landscape subject in t
Beach-Miami area. Well adapted to this section, the
limbo is particularly decorative. Propagation is usi
seeds but cuttings, even in huge sizes, root easily.
HIBISCUS TREES, in two species, both of which mi
tall as a three-story building, are worth growing i
peninsula's tip. Both resist salt and grow in alkali]
Mahoe (Hibiscus tileaceous), well established on tro
lands, has reclining branches and heart-shaped leave
linden. The single hibiscus flowers open yellow with
centers, and turn pinkish before they close at day's end.
fruits with persistent calyces follow. Tree hibiscus (.
elatus) is said to have larger leaves with longer tips,
which are red at first opening, turning dark maroon by
The fruits, according to Hortus, do not have calyces
and this is the identifying character.
HOLLY (Ilex spp.) 15-50 feet. Beloved by all, t
has come down through the ages as one of the most po
all evergreen trees. Thirteen species are native to Flo]
of these, six are classed as trees. Horticultural varj
these and several exotic types that grow well here are
hv nnrsppsri Gonrld sil nf nrid rpeation qn even qi










2f


Bu|








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 33

e neighborhood. Hollies are protected by law and must not
collected without permission of the property owner. When
Everything is considered, cutting-grown or grafted, true-to-name,
heavily fruiting trees from a nursery are much superior to
lose dug from the woods.
Our leading native species is the American holly, flex opaca.
ome trees bear leaves that have but one tiny thorn at the tip,
while others have leaves that are heavily armed with many
)ines. The latter type more nearly approaches the traditional
english holly, so varieties with armed foliage are most popular
)r clipping at Christmas time. Horticultural varieties of the
merican holly that bear spiny leaves are Croonenburg, Lake
ity, Savannah, Howard and Taber No. 4. East Palatka fruits
heavily every year, but as the leaves are almost smooth, this
iriety does not closely resemble the English holly type. It
; free fruiting well down the peninsula and is grown from
fittings taken in May or June.
Another native species of interest is the dune holly, Ilex
imulicola. Thriving on the light sand of interior dunes, this
nall tree has merit and certainly should be more widely grown.
Attractive upright habit of growth, thorny leaves, heavy bear-
ig and the ability to thrive on light sands are characteristics
f this good tree. Typically the leaves are quite heavily armed,
s is the commercial variety Fort McCoy, but occasionally an
individual with almost smooth leaves is found.
The dahoon holly, Ilex cassine, which grows throughout the
tate, may be classed either as a shrub or a small tree, in cultiva-
ion it is usually the latter. This species has long, narrow, un-
rmed leaves and small red berries that are borne in dense
lusters. As the dahoon prefers moist soil and will endure
lundation, it is useful in gardens that experience occasional
igh water.
While the three are the principal tree hollies native to
'lorida, several oriental species have become popular here.
perhapss the most spectacular of all is the very beautiful, heavy-
ruiting Japanese holly, Ilex rotunda. Introduced three decades
go by the Bureau of Plant Introduction, this striking tree has
demonstrated its ability to thrive in our state. Because of rapid










Propagation of tree hollies is accomplished by
cuttings.
JACARANDA (Jacaranda acutifolia) 50 feet. This is
Florida's most spectacular flowering tree. In springti
trumpet-shaped blue flowers make a never-to-be-forgoti
play. Native to South America, this large sprawling tr
fernlike, deciduous leaves demands little attention s,
careful planting and adequate moisture during the fi
years. Jacarandas are grown from seeds.
JERUSALEM-TI1ORN (Parkinsonia aculeata) 30 feel
lacy foliage, pendulous habit, attractive yellow blossom
green bark of the Jerusalem-thorn make it quite unust
attractive. For all parts of the state, this graceful littt
tree is of great ornamental value and is highly recomn
Seeds from mature brown pods may be sown directly
tainers so the roots of the young trees will not be distu
transplanting.
KAPOK TREE (Ceiba pentandra) is the standout in t
locations from the aspect of grandeur. Growing to fE
heights, with huge buttressed trunks, this giant is spc
once by all travelers to warm countries. When the lea
gone clusters of small white or rose flowers appear, late
followed by the fruits which bear the kapok of con
Every tropical metropolis (Miami, Nassau, Havana, Kii
has its famed ceiba tree that is adequately exploited as a
attraction. The mammoth kapok is too large for home
ings and must be restricted to municipal properties w
may assume its mature stature of one hundred twenty-fiv
LIGNUM-VITAE (Guaiacumn officinale) 25 feet, is a
slow-growing tree that has foliage of fine texture, a ver
pact round head, beautiful small blue blossoms and
yellow fruits. All of these characteristics combine to m,
lignum-vitae a tree of great distinction and of more tha
nary usefulness for small residential properties. It is
in Caribbean islands and up into the Florida keys.
Lignum-vitae grows very slowly from seeds.








L \NDSl)CSi \PL IL\NTS FOR FLOIII)\DA HOMES 35

[-rp spines ablouL an inchl in length. In late summlnler the
amy-white blossoms are produced inl profusion. Lily-thorn
grown from seeds.
LOQUAT (Eriobotrria japonica) 30 feeI. Over most of the
te a favorite doorvard tree is the loquat. The attractive.
rk. evergreen leaves. the decorative. delicious fruit and its
all size commends the tree to home owners. Easily and
ickly grown from seeds. this Chinese fruit tree can be had
everyone.
Unfortunately, loquats are host to fireblight, a disease which
.y cause branches to die back for a considerable distance.
'ected branches must be cut back well into healthy wood by
rilized shears as soon as the disease is discovered. Tools
ed for this work must be sterilized by dipping in alcohol after
cih cut is made.
While they will succeed and produce good crops of luscious
lit under light cultivation, a heavy mulch of leaves, compost
peat is ideal for loqiuat trees.
MAGNOLIA (IMagnolia grandiflora) 100 feet. Justly famous
-oughout the South, this native is one of our choicest trees.
ergreen, trim and graceful. the tree is highly desirable at
y time of the year, but in springtime, the huge, creamy-white
)ssoms put the magnolia in a class by itself. Choice varieties
e grafted but the species increases naturally by seeds. From
inesville westward the deciduous oriental magnolias (M.
flora, M. stellata, `1. soulangeana, and others) succeed if
yen fertile, acid soils and adequate moisture. Deciduous
ignolias are increased bv leafy, softwood cuttings taken in
ne-July.
Magnolias, of all classes, are forest dwellers, and thrive
th a thick, spongy blanket of leaves and twigs over their roots.
while clean cultivation is satisfactory, an organic mulch is
referred. Most serious pest is magnolia scale, a large, turtle-
elled scale insect that succumbs to 2 percent oil emulsion.
Magnolias may be secured as balled and burlapped speci-
ens from nurseries in late winter and early spring, and moved
rino thnt epnonn with tonmnlPet smicess







36 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

tree. Although evergreen, the tree does not cast dens
and lawns can be grown under it quite well. Mahogz
duces seeds in great abundance which germinate ar
rapidly.
MANGO (Mangifera indica) 50 feet. While esser
fruit tree, the mango is very ornamental and is much u:
street tree and lawn specimen from Vero Beach aro
coast to Tampa. Seedlings will grow easily and rapi
improved varieties, purchased as grafted trees, are
recommended because of the superior quality of their





Aw

r~









,po". iE










Insects and diseases must be controlled by an adequate
ay program (pages 22-23) and a mulch of leaves and grass
)pings, and 3 annual feedings are recommended for choice
Ided stock.
MIMOSA TREE (Albizia julibrissin) 40 feet. The mimosa
is so much at home here that it has become naturalized.
s popular because of its small size, horizontal branching and
-active, pink, globular blossoms which are borne for a long
iod each springtime. The graceful, fern-like leaves are
,duced in March-April. Propagation is by seeds, and growth
rapid even under trying conditions. For the first two or three
irs, clean cultivation will encourage strong growth, there-
er, the mimosa tree will succeed in turf. As this is written.
re are no serious diseases or insects to guard against in
irida, although cottony cushion scale, may, upon occasion,
ick trees which lack vigor. Volunteer seedlings are found
ler old trees.
MORETON BAY CHESTNUT (Castanospermum australe) 60
t. This is a tall tree that has attractive, evergreen, pinnate
ves and showy racemes of yellow flowers in springtime.


1 expendable containers so that the small plants can be trans-








38 DEPARTMENT OF AG\IIICULTUlLE

\alion or a niulch of leaves together with 2 springtime fc
\will assure health growth.
OAK (Quercus spp.) 100 feet. Several native specie
been extensively planted as street, roadside and shade
Their complete adaptability is beyond question and th
resistant to disease. insects and drought. Some thirty s
both evergreen and deciduous, are credited to Florida an(
range in size from the dwarf rumiing oak 1o the giants
hardwood hammocks.
The most desirable species is the live oak (Querci
giniana). identified by deeply corrugated gray bark ol
trunk and structural branches and by the thick, rough
that are shiny above and downy beneath, with inward
edges. This well known tree has the longest useful life
southern species and does not reach senility and break uI
less than fifty years old as may the laurel and watei
True. it grows less rapidly than the others, but, given goo,
its rate of growth is satisfactory and, at the half-century
it does not present hazards to public safety and nec(
costly replacement. It is suggested that moss be remov
nually either by spraying with lead arsenate or hand I
so that normal growth will not be impaired. This cl(
together with annual feeding of yotiung live oaks is all 11
that is needed.
Trees can be collected from the woods or grown from i
PINE (Pinus spp.). Native to our state and thriving
most trying conditions, the several species of pines are v
superiors for home grounds plantings. Where lofty, n
topped trees that cast light, broken shade can be used, the
pines will serve well. To break the direct rays of the su
azalea or camellia beds and for backgrounds. these coni
trees are unexcelled.
Transplant very small seedlings during midwinter or
beginning of tile rainy season and retain a ball of soil c
cient depth to encompass all of the far-reaching taproot
If mature pines exist on your building site, be certa








lTlINjDU IvTr I i.-A- Lo 1 "11 tLAJ1ILUJ Ixlljj tr,

Iks. Unfortunately, ianiay \;nllalle pine Irees are fatally
hired by construction crews.
PONGAM (Pongaiutia pinnat) P 75 feet. One or' tile best trees
street and windbreak planting because of its strength, this
stralian tree is highly recommended. Beautiful and fast-
wing, the pongam is well adapted to conditions in southern
rida where it seeds abundantly. These produce seedlings
ily. Identification is by the drooping branches, pinnate
yes and pinkish, pea-like flowers in pendant clusters.
I{EDBUD (Cercis can adensis 1 40 feet. Always popular be-
se of its delightful spring color. this small native tree is
[ely planted as a front lawn specimen. For the best soil
es that occur in northern Florida. the redbud cannot be too
hlyv recommended. The beautiful pink pea-like flowers.
ch precede the leaves in springtime are well known to all
idents of northern Florida. The trunks of newly transplanted
cimens should be wrapped. rings of lightly cultivated earth
uld surround the trees and an annual application of a bal-
ed fertilizer should ble made in punch bar holes as suggested
page 21.
Propagation can be accomplished by sowing seeds, but
serv-grown trees of improved types are grafted.
ROYAL POINCIANA (Delonix regia) 40 feet. This, Florida's
st spectacular tree, is tropical in its requirements and is
nd only in the warmest sections. The lacy, compound leaves
)ear in springtime, and as the rains commence, the flaming
nge-red trusses are produced. To visit Florida's southern-
st cities in June-July is a rare treat as then, the flamboyant
es are at their best. IUsually increased by seeds, there are
or variants from the orange-red type.
RUBBER TREE (Ficus spp.) 80 feet. This genus, contain-
several hundred species, is well represented by many orna-
utal kinds in tropical Florida. Typical of most species is
,id growth, great size and aerial roots that drop from the
ger branches to form multiple trunks. F. benjamin, the
:ping laurel, is favored as a beautiful avenue tree; F. elastica,







40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

cal Ficus trees require much space for full developmi
are not recommended for small properties. All of the
trees are increased by cuttings.
SAPODILLA (Achras zapota) 50 feet. This is a b(
evergreen tree native to the American tropics that ha,
a congenial home and a host of admirers in the Mian
The brown, sandy-skinned fruits are edible and latex
gum chicle from which chewing gum is manufactured.
thought of as a lawn specimen or shade tree, the sapo
widely planted within its climatic range. It is notably 1
of salt-laden winds of considerable force.
Trees are easily grown from seeds.




















ROYAL POINCIANA-(Delonix regia)
Southern Florida's most spectacular tree blooms in the sun

SATINLEAF (Chrysophyllium oliviforme) 60 feet. Thi.
native tree is well named because the under sides of the








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 41

SEA-GRAPE (Coccoloba uvifera) 20 feet. Native to the
stal dunes, this stout, much-branched, small tree is frequently
n as a landscape subject in its native habitat. Utterly distinc-
in appearance, because of its contorted branching and its
F, circular, red-veined, 8-inch leaves, the sea-grape exerts
trong tropical influence and is much appreciated in resort
as. Summertime dividend is the abundance of purple fruits
ch are decorative and excellent for jelly as well.
Propagation is by seeds which are found singly in the
*ple fruits.











to which bo
linger, the fl
; experiment
is group as
rally produce
havingg wel
.his large ge
,ns and mmu
n, perhaps i
with stiff av
yellow truml





IT'


ARTIMENT OF AGRICULTUREE

a genus of \liiericaii evergreen or deciduous
tanists ascribe a hundred species. Mr. Edwin
owering tree man, has several species growing
tal plantings at Stuart. He extolls the merits
he has great faith in its future in our state.
ing terminal panicles of trumpet-shaped flowers
11 on poor soils that may be deficient in moist-
nus of bignoneaceous trees promises much for
nicipal plantings in frost-free sections. Best
s silver trumpet-tree (Tabebuia argentea), 25
vkward branches, deciduous compound leaves
)et flowers in showy clusters.





CIi


ql~ _C__II LLII~1~1~~ I~ml~lY _













- foet This mai sivP trnni-


ornamental and is frequently s
ila. The leaves resemble th


een toward
lose of the


pagation is by set

REYA ( Torreva t
da trees, this mei
a restricted art


C


ds.

ixifolia) 50 feel. (
1 [' -1 <'


Jllt
1


er o01 tile vew ian
a on the banks of
crown is made up of


* of the rar
i 1 p


*est


Apalachicoi
)ing branch(


-d with sharp, evergreen leaves. which have a distinc-
ir whel crushed.


TREE INDEX


N iAI1J


PAGr L UViviU Niv N-,t r
23 Kapok tree


24 Lignum-
..... 24 Lily-thoi
9)C I trniii t


34
- 35


ces.


1*


tulip-I


seen toward
hose of the


IIIII1 Illl l 'l I '-


- --





- '-- '""""


1) 1


A














where in the co
he wide variety
n our state. Me
-s do much for F
native and exoti
magnificent tre(
employed with
They are appre
ousands of home
be enhanced by
Ims may be use
; in varvina heia


R FLORIDA LAN

ntinental United St
of palms that can
inlv trnnirml in rl;dt


:S


it possib
essfully
L_-


to
ti-


lorida's distinctively different landsca
species, varying from dwarfs of a f
c. -1-1,^ _+# -; 1 '-41. _-C -innt r- ,.


telling ettect in this se.
ciated for their full wc
*s that boast no palms,
additional specimens.
d in many ways in lar
hts can be so planted as
1 P


i-tropical tour
h, and yet the
iany others tl

scape planting
)form attract


_-----~


I "'||ll I 1 1 rL


to'








LAi-LN)kArt liLArN, runi VLUniIA flU IVZ. 4.)


When the palm is in place (slightly deeper than it grew)
with the fertile soil that was taken from the enriched hole,
w water to flow in from the hose to eliminate air pockets
to make a good contact between the roots and the particles


-~J -
t a saucer around the tree
it does not rain, fill this
becausee of the drastic ri
accepted practice to re:
Tie the uppermost le;
)n. Every effort must
ture. When a large pal
it does not fall hard and
'alms over eight feet in
e 2 x 4's spiked to the t


to hold water:
expressionn witl
Auction in th
nove the leav
if stems aroma
3e made not
m is felled, it
harm the bur
hn;nht hnlrllI


r. Once each week
i water.
e volume of roots,
es at transplanting
id the bud as pro-
to harm this vital
must be guyed so
i.
I be firmly braced.
nd and then firmly
.. r


ices. If these timbers remain in place for about 18 months
heavyy root system will have been built to hold the palm against
ong winds. Choice exotics may be braced each autumn as
itine protection.











8 ii










AFTERCAIRE
Young palms will grow rapidly to attain mature lar
ize if they are encouraged by proper cultivation and f(
lion. As already discussed on page 21 it is a good plan
a circle of clean earth around your young trees for t
few years. Cultivate a five-to-seven-foot ring frequent
a scuffle hoe, allow the hose to run slowly for several
(all night is better) once a week during dry spells and f
ini punch bar holes several times during the growing seaw
Palms that have been neglected can usually be second
by filling rotted cow manure into post holes that are
intervals around the trunk.
Most palms are particularly resistant to diseases,
and drought, and once they become established, the la
be allowed to grow up around the crown and little
maintenance is required.
Several species of the genus Phoenix together with th,
palm are likely to be attacked by the palm leaf skelel
This destructive insect despoils the leaves by its feeding
the warm months. In order that damage may be ke]
minimum, an arsenical spray, benzene hexachloride, o
with an adequate spreader should be applied at interva
ing the spring months. Fronds that have been made unati
by the palm leaf skeletonizer should he promptly remove
a pruning saw or pole pruner.
Palms are increased by seeds and by division. As
they are ripe, the seeds should be sown in beds, pots o0
of fertile soil. Cover the seeds to a depth approximation
diameter and cover the whole with one thickness of
This moisture will conserve moisture and discouragE
and rodents. In winter the seed beds must have full si
(luring the warmer months, they must be protected by
cloth or slat shade. At the beginning of the rainy seas
burlap should be renewed so that the seeds will not be
out of the soil.
Palm seeds vary greatly in the length of time requil
germination. Some will sprout in a few weeks, while








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 47

Seedlings max be potted shortly after gerlmillation; they
st be potted before tlhe roots attain much length. Then they
y be set individually in earthen flower pots, felt plant bands,
oden boxes or discarded refinery cans. The soil used in
se containers should Ie a fertile organic mixture of slightly
d reaction.
Coconuts are set ill rows and buried only one-half their
ckness, the upper portions being fully exposed. Germination
uld be complete in about five months.
Division is the method of vegetative propagation in which
'lant is divided into several units. Species of tile Phoenix.
rysalidocarpus, Rhapis and Caryota may be so multiplied
-n well rooted offsets are seen to be available. If the speci-
n is in a container, it can be turned out and cut into units
h shears or an axe, if it is a lawn specimen, sturdy offsets
eral years old can be severed from the old tree with the aid
a sharpened leaf from an automobile spring, large chisel
heavy crowbar. The several divisions may be potted or set
ectly in the garden where they are to grow.
Temperature, although only one factor that limits the dis-
iution of plants, is a very important one. Along the coast
rn Jupiter to Sarasota. it is possible to grow all but the most
der of tropical palms, as one progresses northward and in-
d. the list become notably shorter, until, finally, upon reach-
the Georgia line, only about a half-dozen species can lbe
ommended as being fully hardy in all winters.
Hardiness is very important as these plants can be con-
ered only as permanent elements in thlie landscape scheme.
-e chosen to serve a definite purpose in a planting, trees must
hardy in all weathers. The following list containi- the most
*ular palms arranged by hardiness zones:

PALMS FOR FLORIDA LANDSCAPES
ARRANGED BY HARDINESS ZONES
)up A. Tropical palms for warmest coastal positiol1.
Coconut Sargent palm
Fiji fan palm Sentinel palm
Madagascar palmn Silver palm








48 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Group B. Half hardy palms for the lower half of the Florid
peninsula.
Blackburn palm Pigmy date palm
Canary date palm Queen palm
Chinese fan palm Senegal date palm
Gru-gru palm Plus all of the palms in
Fish-tail palm Group C.
Group C. Hardy palms for gardens throughout Florida.
Cabbage palm Rhapis palm
Date palm Saw palmetto
Eropean fan palm Washington palm
Pindo palm Windmill palm

CABBAGE PALM (Sabal palmetto) 80 feet. The hardier
of our native palms, this well known species grows well through
out the state. Tolerant of a wide variety of soil types, sa
spray and brackish water, the cabbage palm well deserves ii
universal popularity. Two exotic species of this genus,
causiarum from Puerto Rico and S. umbraculifera from Hi
paniola are out-sized avenue palms, more tender than our cal
bage palms, that are sometimes seen in botanical collection
CANARY DATE PALM (Phoenix canariensis) 60 feet. Hard
over the Florida peninsula, this huge pinnate-leaved palm hl
been widely planted. Because of its massive trunk, low, drool
ing leaves and its susceptibility to attack by the palm-lee
skeletonizer it is not recommended as a dooryard tree. Unt
it attains some size its branches interfere with traffic and
cannot be recommended as a street tree. For municipal pro]
erties and large acreages its monumental size is well adapted
CHINESE FAN PALM (Livistona chinensis) 50 feet. Th:
is a beautiful fountain palm that has become popular in Florid
gardens because of its attractive leaves and comparative]
small size. Enduring a few degrees of frost, mature specimer
are to be found in several communities of the upper peninsula;
In central Florida, and southward from there, Chinese fan pall
is perfectly hardy, well adapted to soils and climate and grove































































The Tore eva tree found( only in Lib e rty Coiunt. Florida








.li viiYtJ3jfl ItI LI i J I Ilt I tV\IIALJ 1 IIVlItjUJ -ty

The pretty fan-shaped leaves, deeply pleated, and shining
-n, are displayed in attractive fountain arrangement. The
dulous, once-split leaf segments, bright green leaf-stems
i small, green, curved thorns at their edges, and the absence
curling, gray filaments characterize the Chinese fan palm
distinguish it from the more common Washington palm.
thermore, the Asiatic species has a more slender trunk that
prominently ringed and more heavily furnished with brown
r around the boots.
In most nurseries, voung trees can be bought in egg cans.
ause young plants are injured by hot sun, transplants must
protectedd bv a lath- or burlap-screen fitted above the foliage.
COCONUT (Cocos nucifera) 100 feet. The native coconut
n with its tall leaning trunk, immense leaves and spectacular
its lends a tropical aspect that can be equalled by no other
it. As a street tree, lawn specimen or background subject
palm is unsurpassed and can be recommended without
*rvation to all who live south of Fort Pierce and Palmetto.
DATE PALM (Phoenix dactylifera) 100 feet. The species
produces the date of commerce is occasionally seen as a
,le specimen in Florida, but because of the high humidity
e, edible dates are rarely produced.
EUROPEAN FAN PALM (Chamiaerops humilis) 30 feet. This
:urope's only contribution to Florida's palm flora. Growing
rally in a temperate climate, this dwarf fan palm will en-
e temperatures experienced in all sections of Florida.
Although there is only one species of Chamaerops, there
many varieties, some are true dwarfs, others may attain
;hts of thirty feet. Foliage variations, too, are notable.
,re is one characteristic which is constant for Chamaerops
n'ilis, and that is the habit of producing suckers from the
e of the stein. Though variations in stature, foliage and
it there may be. European fan palm invariably grows in
vy suckering clumps.
As an urn subject for terrace or patio this dwarf, fine-scale
in is popular, as it can be left outside all winter.
Fruits are produced in Florida, from which young stock








50 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

FIJI FAN PALM (Pritchardia pacifica) 30 feet. On
most graceful and distinctive of all, this tropical palm
beautiful pleated fan leaves folded to wedge-shaped
is well thought of in southern Florida. Easily injured


spray, me areca paim is nmilea in alsiriDunton as a
plant. Wherever it will grow successfully, however, ii
well liked and is strongly recommended. Identification
tive by the yellow leaf-stems.
MERRILL PALM (Adonidia merrillii) 25 feet. In hi
in southern Florida for street and lawn plantings, thj
species is being substituted for the larger growing royv








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 51

th; these are a bright cherry-red, that glistens in the sun-
to enhance the tropical scene and to appeal strongly to
ors.
Because of its complete adaptability to Florida's southern
.nd the limestone soils found there, and growth that is fast
.gh to please most people, as a lawn specimen near a ram-
r modern house, this small species would be preferred to
massive royal palm. As a framing tree, and for background,
it is equally effective.
PARLOR PALM (Neanthe bella) 6 feet. This diminutive,
ier-leafed palm has become so popular in southern Florida
nurseries must grow stock rapidly to supply the demand.
Though parlor palms reach a height of 6 feet out of doors
*r best conditions of growth, container-grown plants are
er half this size. They grow from a slender, ringed trunk
produce beautiful little feather-leaves with a dozen opposite
ae. Narrow, thin, dull green, symmetical in array, these
ier-parts give the palm its charm, which incidentally, is
Universal in its appeal.
.ntolerant of direct sun, bright, reflected light and dust-dry
, this plant is best suited to use in containers in the protec-
of a patio or screened porch where the environment may
modified to its needs. Apparently, overwatering can be
iful too, as can a soil that is severely acid in reaction.
PAUROTIS PALM (Paurotis wright) 30 feet. In high favor
landscape plantings, this clump-growing, fan-leaved palm
i southern Florida and the West Indies is found as a speci-
in some of Florida's most beautiful gardens. Paurotis
1 tolerates alkaline soil, salt wind and poor drainage.
)f easy culture, tolerant of reasonable amounts of salt drift,
principal requirement of the Paurotis palm is freedom
i frost.
Vlost wild cultures have been depleted, but cultivated speci-
s are available at some landscape nurseries within the
i's range.
PIGMY DATE PALM (Phoenix roebeleni) 7 feet. The best








52 UEFAKTIMEIN' OF AGRICULTURE

ing, the pigmy date is quite worthy of the high esteem
it is held. A partially shaded spot in which the soil
rich and slightly acid in reaction is to the liking of t.
This accounts in part for its wide acceptance as a pati,
and as a northside plant in the foundation planting scl
Subject to several species of scale insects, the pip
should be protected by several applications of a white
oil during the winter months. Container grown sp
apparently most prone to scale attack, can be covered c
if the foliage is swirled about in a deep container of a
oil mixture. For individuals growing in the open grc
oil must be applied by a mechanical sprayer, of cour


















PINDO PALM-(Butia capitata)
Blue-green leaves recurve sharply toward the grounm

PINDO PALM (Butia spp.) 30 feet. Extremely ha:
therefore capable of being grown in all sections, th
American palm can be depended upon to succeed in ei
den. The pendant, blue-green leaves arise from stou








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FUR FLIORIDA HOMES 53

parks and estates. Formerly this palm was erroneously
own in the nursery trade as Cocos austranlis. Seeds may
[uire 18 months or more to germinate.
QUEEN PALM (Arecastruni ronmanzo.fianuirn) 40 feet. Cen-
1 Florida's most popular palm, usually called "Cocos
imosa" is a native of Brazil. Wherever citrus will grow
!cessfully, the queen palm is highly recommended as an
enue tree, a lawn specimen. or as a background subject. Here
serves well as a substitute for the royal palm which is recom-
nded only for the most nearly frost-free sections.














.'
I-h,1 I,..,/I tl [ .lt .-n l. .. lrA T l,,ri.i '- t.i i ..- i |||.,t |uI.r |I in.

RHAPIS PALM (Rhapis spp,) 10 feet. This genus is comn.
ied of dwarf palms with lne, reed-like canes that fot r
mps by means of stolons. VAy satisfactory as tubbed -pea-
ms, patio plants or as a it.iI~.f the foundation plantings.
se hardy little palms can be ,lepr-ii.l.,l upon throughout Flor-
as they are hardy to cold, bIutAhey must be grown in shady
nations. Propagationi is accomplished by dividing old clumps.
RiOYAL PALM (Ro stonenl regica) ttO feet. The massive
lering, cement-grey trunks, the cleaii appearance, the bright
!en crown shaft, and attractive crown of dark green, pinnate





54 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE




- ,
^ s, a !S



<^^i










everyone who has visited in our southern Florida cities. Indig-
)us to moist, rich soils of Collier County, the Floridian royal
lm (Roystonea elata) is best adapted to such locations. Some-
at taller than the Cuban royal, thickened mostly toward the
per part, with shoulder at the top, and fruits that are nearly
)bular are characteristics which identify our native species.
is species is less widely planted as a street tree than the
ban royal, but it is the one seen at the famed Hialeah race-
irse.
SABAL PALMS (Sabal spp.). In addition to the native cab-
ge palm several exotic species of this genus are occasionally
mn as specimens. The Blackburn palm (S. umbraculifera)
>m Hispaniola and the Puerto Rican Hat Palm (S. causiarum),
th attain heights of 50 feet or so and are characterized by very
ut trunks and huge, grayish, fan-shaped leaves. These are
iking trees that are effectively employed as specimens or for
mnue planting. Sabal peregrina is planted in Key West and
West Indies.
SARGENT PALM (Pseudophoenix sargentii) 20 feet. Native
Caribbean islands, possibly, also Florida's keys, this little
lm resembles a scale-model royal palm. To 20 feet in height
th a ringed trunk only a foot thick, the pinnate leaves are
iyish-green and about 7 feet long. Positive identification is
the branched cluster of orange-red fruits that is sent out
iong the leaves. Useful because of its small size and moder-
Sgrowth rate, Sargent palm is recommended for moist, shady
nationss in the area between Palm Beach and Fort Myers.
SAW PALMETTO (Serenoa repens) 3 to 8 feet. The saw
Imettos are thought of as noxious weeds by stockmen and
rmers, but they do have definite landscape value. When one
building on land on which they grow, clumps can be left to
od advantage as they blend in well both as a foundation
jject and as a member of the informal shrubbery border. A
e-like form with erect trunk is occasionally found and this
likes an attractive fine-scale specimen palm.
SENEGAL DATE PALM (Phoenix reclinata) 20 feet. A lean-
palm that grows in large clumps made up of many slender










which grows with a single slender trunk is a palm of f
often used in landscape plantings.
SENTINEL PALM (Howea spp.) 35 feet. Former]
Kentias in the florist trade where tubbed specimens ar,
employed for decorating, the two species of Howea '
come well known. They are occasionally seen as lav
mens in the Miami area but they have not been widely
out of doors in America.
SILVER PALM (Coccothrinax argentata) 25 feet. I
der, fine-scale palm is native to the Bahama Islands, the
Keys and adjacent mainland. The very slender trunk i
by a small head of circular fan leaves 2 feet across w
silvery white beneath. Occasionally used as a landsca]
men in that section, the silver palm is distinctive and
The black fruits of half an inch across, said to be ed
used for increasing silver palms.
WASHINGTON PALM (Washingtonia robusta) 100 fe4
fan-leafed giant of northern Mexico grows very well
ida's humid climate where it attains a height of ne;
hundred feet. Hardy in the peninsula, this monumei
finds its greatest use for avenue planting. Identifi(
positive by the harsh thorns which are on both edge
leaf stalks.
WINDMILL PALM (Trachycarpus fortune) 30 fee
is a slow-growing fan-palm from eastern Asia that g
an erect trunk which is always clothed with an abun(
black, hair-like fiber, even after the boots slough of
single, hirsute stemn gives the little palm a distinctive
ance that makes it highly acceptable as a free-standing s
for small home grounds. Sometimes it is worked into i
shrubbery borders for accent. In northern Florida, an
extreme western part of the state, where palms are all
dom used, the windmill palm has value, and grows in
gardens there with telling effect.
Windmill palm is the exception to llhe rule that pi
northern Florida will grow south too. This Asian specie








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 57


PALM INDEX BY (:OMMON NAME
VIMON NAME PAGE
bbage palm ....... .. .. ... .........---- 48
nary date palm ............--. 48
inese fan-palm .... .. ................----- 48
conut ................ .... 49
te palm ......---......... ...... --------------- 49
ropean fan-palmn ...... 49
i fan-palm ..........- 50
sh-tail palm 50
u-gru palm ......- ..- .....- ........... .- 50
idagascar paln ..... 50
errill palm .... .... .. ... ......... ...... ...... O50
rlor palm ......... 51
urotis palm .. ....... ..... .... 51
gmy date palm .51
ido palm ..... ..... .......---- 52
ieen palm 5.3
Lapis palm ... .......-----------... ........-- -- 53
,yal palm ... 53
bal palm .... .......... ..----- 48. 55
rgent palm ---- 55
w palm etto ------..... ....... ........ ----- ........ .... 55
negal date palm 55
ntinel palm ... .. .. ... .. ..........----------- 56
Iver palm --....---...... 56
ashington palm .. ... . .... --------- 56
indmill palm .... --. 56







58 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


TREES AND PALMS FOR SPECIAL SITUATII

TREES AND PALMS FOR AVENUE PLANTING

COMMON NAME PAGE COMMON NAME
African tulip tree -----.... --... .. 24 Mango ................-...---
Almond ............--..-------.-----..... 24 Merrill palm ....--- -.....
Black-olive --....-....----.... -----.... 26 Pongam ............----.....--
Cabbage palm -------.....---..---. 48 Queen palm ---..----........---
Cajeput ..........-- -------.--- ..... 26 Redbud ...........- ....-----
Cassia ....-----...----..---....-.... 28, 75 Royal palm ...-----........
Coconut ...-----....... ------------..... 49 Royal poinciana ........-
Dogwood .........--------------.. ----.... 31 Rubber tree ....--..----...
Holly --..............-..- ..- ....- 32 Sapodilla ............-..-.--
Live oak .------. -------.... ... ----. 38 Tam arind ........... --....
Magnolia ----.-..----...........------.. 35 Washington palm ----.....
M ahogany ----------... .-----..... 35

TREES AND PALMS FOR LAWN SPECIMENS

COMMON NAME PAGE COMMON NAME
Acacia ----......---..---...---------.........----- 23 Holly ...............----------
Almond ...............------- ....... ---- 24 Jacaranda ......... .-..
Black-olive -------....... -----..... --- 26 Jerusalem-thorn .------..
Cabbage palm ..-..-----.----.... 48 Lily-thorn ...............
Cajeput ....--..-----....------...-----.--.. 26 Loquat ----...................-------.
Camphor ...-----.......----......----....----26 Madagascar palm -....
Cassia ................-------- 28, 75 M agnolia ................
Chaste-tree ----.....-----------.. .- 28 M ahogany ................
Chinese fan-palm ------...-.... 48 Mango ...........---------......
Citrus .............---------.... .... 29 M errill palm ...----.----.
Coconut .........------------....----.. 49 M imosa tree ............-..
Crape-myrtle ---.---...----...----- 30 Mountain-ebony -----..
Dogwood ---..-...............---------..-. 31 Paurotis palm ...-----.--
European fan palm ..-.....--- 49 Pigmy date palm ----......
Frangipani ......-.....--- ..--------. -- 31 Pindo palm ...........-----
Gru-gru palm ......----------... 50 Pongam ---...................








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 59


COMMON NAME
Royal palm --............-----------
Sapodilla -..........----.---------..
Sargent palm ............---------
Satinleaf -...................---
Sea-grape .........--.....-----..------------


PAGE
-. 53
40
55
40


COMMON NAME
Senegal date palm _
Sentinel palm ........-
Silver palm .....-----.
Windmill palm .....


TREES AND PALMS FOR THE SEASHORE


COMMON NAME
Almond ................---------....
Cabbage palm .-..............
Cajeput ...........-----............--------
Casuarina ....-----....---
Coconut --.--.--................----.-.-
Gumbo-limbo .....-----.........-----
Live oak ...--........ -----.......
Loquat -....-....-----.........-...-----...
Magnolia ..--...-..-..........--------
Mahoe -................... --..
Mahogany .........----.....--------.--


COMMON NAME
Acacia ........-......
Cajeput ........------
Cassia ...----.....----..
Chaste-tree --...--..--
Crape-myrtle ...----
Dogwood ....-.....
Frangipani ---.....---
Fringe tree .--....--
Geiger tree ----.......
Golden rain-tree.
Jacaranda .......


PAGE COMMON NAME


Paurotis palm ------........---
Pindo palm -..-------........----
Rubber tree .--........------...--
Sapodilla ....---.---.........-------
Sargent palm ---....--.....------.
Saw palmetto ...............
Sea-grape -----....-----..........
Senegal date palm -..---...
Silver palm .....--.--.....---....
Washington palm ---...--....


FLOWERING TREES

PAGE COMMON NAME


-......-..... 23
.-........... 26
..-- 28, 75
...-- ....- 28
..--..- 30
... -- .... 31
.--- -.. 31
.-.--. .. 31
- ...- .. ..- 31
-.. -.. 32
34


PAGE
-.... 51
-..-. 52
....- 39
..... 40
...-. 55
.... 55
..-.. 41
..... 55
-.... 56
-.... 56


AGE
34
34
34
35
37
37
37
30
39
39
42


Jerusalem-thorn ..............---
Lignum-vitae ..-----.-----..--.....---
Lily-thorn --....--------...........------
Magnolia -----....-----------------..........
Mimosa tree .-....-..--.........-----
Moreton Bay chestnut ......---
Mountain-ebony .-......-..-......-
Queen's crape-myrtle .--....-
Redbud .....-......------ .--------.
Royal poinciana --.....-----------
Tabebuia ....... --------------


PAGE
...-....... 55
-..-...... 56
-....-... .- 56
----. 56


PI











SHRUBS IN FLORIDA LANDSCAPE PLANTINGS
Shrubbery is considered an indispensable part of suburban
ing today. Through countless successful demonstrations.
rough the many useful articles in garden magazines, through
Work of the garden clubs, and by means of superlative plant
iterial, Floridians have carried this concept through to a state
near-perfection that was not dreamed of two generations ago.
Generally speaking, landscape material can be set about
3 feet out from the house and drip lines of the eaves are
regarded. When below-floor ventilators are present, in the
ir of the house, carry the plants out in small promontories
allow for the circulation of air and the entry of workmen.
No plant should be set closer to a choice specimen than five
t lQt t1;Q nfPP;IfTln hr rnATrAC'rl nt CF cn vm_'tr;il Ab -n


soil can be seen. Set the shrubs s
rered when planting is finished. 0
g must be avoided.
ring the soil with your feet and sc
Run the hose for a couple of hou
es not rain.







LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 01

[rip of the outer branches. If this is carefully attended to, dan-
;er of injuring shrubs with the lawn mower will be eliminated.
Shrubs will grow best under a mulch of oak leaves, peat,
line straw or compost. Clean cultivation, with a sharp scuffle
Loe is acceptable for the most robust species, yet mulch is pre-
erred for choicer kinds.





| I:l:s~-: s-~










iart way through with the hose, but this gardener holds thai
ertilizer is much more efficiently utilized if it is placed ir
ounch bar holes that extend well within the root zone. Again al
he beginning of the rainy season ornamental shrubs should
receive a second yearly application of a balanced fertilizer.
Within recent years several fertilizer companies have formu
ated special mixtures for azaleas and camellias. From experi
nce and observation, these are reliable and to be recommended
4ot only are these special acid, slowly available fertilizers ver3
;ood for azaleas and camellias, but they are recommended foi
;ardenias, hollies, hibiscus, magnolias and all types of choice
landscape material.








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES




SHRUBS IN FLORIDA LANDSCAPE PLANTINGS
COMMON NAME PAGE COMMON NAME F
A belia ............... ..----------... 65 Jasm ine ............--------.............
Allam anda ...........-....-...- .. 65 Juniper --..--------------............ ...
A ralia ..................---..... 7, 65 Lantana --------...................--
Azalea ......-------............-------.. .. 66 Lim e-berry .............--..-....
Boxthorn ......................... 69 Malpighia ----.................--------
Brazilian-pepper .............. 69 Nandina .-----... --.. --------
Bridal wreath ..........--...--.. 70 Natal-plum -.........--.------.....
Cam ellia ............-- ..--- ...-- .. 70 Oleander ................-------......
Cape-honeysuckle ....-...--.. 75 Orange-jessamine --.........
Cassia ........................ 28, 75 Pitch-apple ..........------...---
Century plant ..---------........ 75 Pittosporum ........--.....-......
Cherry-laurel ...--.....--.. 76 Plumbago ------------........-----.......
Cocculus --.............----- ---- 76 Podocarpus ...................
Coontie ........-------------..........--... 76 Poinsettia ......--..----......
Copperleaf .....---.-------....... 76 Privet .........--------.----.... 5,
Crape-jasmine ....--....-------. 76 Rice-paper plant --------.---..
Croton ...--...-------..... .......... 77 Rose-of-Sharon --..---------.-.
Eugenia ............................ 77 Scarlet-bush .-.---..........----...
Feijoa ....--------........--------.......... 77 Screw-pines ..............--------..
Firethorn ..----......-............ 77 Silver-thorn ..-----.........----......
Gardenia ..----------.................... 78 Snow-bush ...........--..........
Glory-bush --------....-........--.......--..... 82 Spanish-bayonet ----..........
Golden dewdrop --------............. 82 Sweet-olive
Hibiscus .-----------.............-...-........ 82 Thryallis -.....----.....-... -
Hydrangea --.......-------..--........--..... 84 Turk's cap ---.--.....-------.....
Ilex ....-...-------..--....-...-...---. 32, 84 Viburnum .......-..-...-
Ixora ....----........... .----...... 86 Wax-myrtle ......--------....--.........













































I, -, .
..... .d .J. ....-L

















ALLAMANDA-(Allamanda cathartica )

Huge waxv, yellow flowers are produced the year around.


* 8 '
^ *" "'







































l northern orida, Indian azaleas grow to perfeti,












II n iothenil Floridla, Indian azaleas grow to perfectly











SHRUBS RECOMMENDED FOR FLORIDA HOMES
ABELIA (Abelia grandiflora). Small, shiny foliage, bright
mson twigs, and clusters of white blossoms subtended by
ikish calyces make abelia a very choice shrub. Its best
)wtli is attained in sunny locations in the northern part of
e state, where it is accepted as one of the best plants for
Age making.
Hardwood cuttings, lined out in mid-winter should root
:isfactorily and grow into landscape material during tile
;ond season.
Clean cultivation is usually practiced to keep abelias free
)m weeds and grass, but these shrubs, like all others, grow
11 under a mulch of oak leaves, peat or compost.
Spraying is usually not required, but systematic pruning
needed to head in succulent canes that push out in spring-
ne.
ALLAMANDA (Allaimanda cathartica). The yellow-flowered
amandas are among the most colorful and free-growing of


are of little concern.








66 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

AZALEA (Rhododendron spp.). Throughout the Sout]
less millions of Indian and Kurume azaleas flower each
and the fame of these plants has spread to every part
nation. If one is careful about the preparation of the s
the growing position, these choice evergreen shrubs can
joyed in all sections of our state north of Tampa.
A rich but well drained soil of high organic contei
in reaction (pH 4.5-5.5), is essential as is broken sh6
most light sandy soils. In western Florida on fertile soi
properly mulched with oak leaves, pine straw or c
azaleas grow quite well in full sun. An abundant su]
moisture that can percolate beyond the root zone is ne
good bloom is expected.
Azaleas are effectively used in bold groups of a sing
or grouped for color sequence. As specimen plants
edgings, certain varieties are very strikingly employee
Azalea blight or azalea flower spot is a devastating
which is rather widespread in Florida during certain ,
Some years azalea blight is non-existent, the next it may
severe. When the disease is present the blossoms look
as though they had been drenched with boiling water. I
ing buds are infected and, as a result, normal bloom
possible.
It has been demonstrated that complete control is I
when the recommended spray program is followed. S
commences as soon as color shows and is repeated evei
days until the last blossom is shed. Dithane, zinc sulph
a spreader may be obtained in a kit that contains the
amount of each ingredient together with complete insti
for the preparation and application. It is probable
search now in progress will result in the formulation c
materials that will be useful in controlling this virulent
In order that full coverage by fine droplets be ol
a wheelbarrow or power sprayer must be used. Sma
knapsack sprayers do not atomize the liquid sufficient
the fungus lives over beneath the plants the mulch un
azalea bushes must be thoroughly drenched.










hiers over an extended period. Occasionally the typical mush-
om growths are found under infected plants. Pruning out
e dead branches is of no value in controlling mushroom root-
t. If you are certain that a given plant has died from this
use, other azaleas should not ])e used for replacement.
The principal pests of azaleas are red spider mites and
rips. Neither will become a problem if azaleas are syringed
equently during dry weather. In the event that red spider
ites become established, they are easily eradicated by dusting
th 325 mesh sulphur. Efficacious, too, is malathion and the
ghly dangerous parathion.
Upon occasion azalea defoliator appears. This large cater-
llar is controlled by chlordane dust or parathion applied at
e rate of one tablespoon of the 15'- wettable powder in a
lion of water. Azalea galls are grotesque proliferations
lich occasionally appear and are easily controlled by hand-
cking. Be certain that the galls are completely destroyed.
prevent re-infection.
Azaleas of all types have the characteristic of producing
;avy, succulent canes during the spring flush, and these vigor-
is shoots grow out beyond the contour to form that undesirable,
o-storied effect. In order that this condition may be avoided
e shoots must be pinched before the terminal bud reaches
e height of the upper branches. The thumb and forefinger
would be used several times during the spring and summer
months to execute this simple but necessary act of regulatory
uning.
In the event that these strong, irregular shoots were not
nched back while they were succulent, it will be necessary
employ the pruning shears to shape the plants. Azaleas
ust be pruned before August lest flower buds be sacrificed
the process.
Propagation may be accomplished by taking tip cuttings
June or by wrapping a wounded branch in moist sphagnum
oss or by covering a partially cut branch with sandy soil.
NATIVE AZALEAS, Rhododendron austrinum, R. canescens
id R. serrulatumi are protected by law which makes it a mis-








68 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


AZALEAS FOR FLORIDA HOMES

Indian azaleas (larger growers)
Kurume azaleas (the dwarf kinds)
WHITE
Fielder's White New White
Lediofolia Alba Snow
Indica Alba Hakata Shiro
Mrs. G. G. Gerbing Ramontacea
RED
Pride of Dorking Hexe
Red Macrantha Hinodegiri
Christmas Cheer Yayegiri
ORANGE
Dixie Sublanceolata
President Clay Flame
Prince of Orange Vesuvius
Coccinea Major
PALE PINK
Elegans Hortensia
George Lindley Taber Coral Bells
George Franc Sweetheart Supr
Macrantha Pink Peachblow
Apple Blossom Pink Pearl
BRIGHT PINK
Brilliant Prince of Wales
DEEP PINK TO MAGENTA
Formosa Morning Glow
Phoenicea Sunstar
Violaceae Rubra Mauve Queen
Southern Charm
SALMON
Lawsal Bridesmaid
Duc De Rohan Salmon Beauty








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 69

BOXTHORN (Severinia buxifolia) is one of the choicest
ibs for central Florida. The glossy oval leaves closely
ked on fine, thorny branchlets, are supplemented many
iths in the year by attractive globular jet-black fruits. Much
nclied, slow-growing, shade-tolerant, amenable to shearing.
citrus-relative is most highly commended to all gardeners
th of Gainesville. Scale insects must be controlled by two
ual applications of Volck or malathion and clean cultivation
nulching is accepted.
B6xthorn is usually grown front seeds.












AA






BOXTHORN-- Severinia buxifolia)
?nse, slow growing, hardy shrub of the citrus family that is excellent
for foundation plantings, hedges or specimens.

BRAZILIAN-PEPPER (Schinus terebinthifoliuis). Tall screens
windbreaks are effectively formed by planting the attrac-
red-fruited Brazilian-pepper at six-foot intervals. This
ky evergreen is suited to the citrus belt and must be pruned







70 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

be hoed back from the base of the plants and clean cu
used to encourage robust growth.
Seeds or cuttings can be planted for new stock, t
being preferred so that fruiting individuals may be per]
BRIDAL WREATH (Spiraea spp.). For Gainesvil]
ward and westward the several species of spirea are
as garden shrubs, blooming dependably each spring. Fc
of glistening white in informal shrubbery borders, t
ciduous shrubs are unsurpassed. Pruning must be d
after flowering lest bloom buds be sacrified. A mulch ol
matter over the roots, or hoed earth may be used at the d
of the cultivator.
Spireas of all types must be grown from softwood
wood cuttings.
Aphids, which frequently infest succulent, new sho
be controlled by nicotine dust, nicotine spray, or roten(
CAMELLIA (Camellia japonica). Long considered tl
crat of shrubs in the South, the japonica has been a
rural life since antebellum days. The compact growii
the beautiful glossy foliage, and the blossoms that a
winter and early springtime account in part for the pc
of this attractive shrub.
Like azaleas, camellias require a fertile soil that i1
reaction and retentive of moisture. In making up the
L,, _',, .-- _ ,-t L, --:A *..' rP.i L:- _-:11 L,


are known to contain 1
same level at which t.
result in the decline ol
Adequate moisture
A lack of drainage wi
be manifested above
tion, leaf-fall, bud-dro
In the peninsular


Camellias must always be s
grew originally. Deep plant
;or and the eventual death of
Spercolates through the soil is
sult in the loss of roots and
ind by a generally unthrift,
ead twigs and in time, death.
t of the st4te choiep enmrnll


tkUW i U11 I lIUL1 1, an il i ItUU, .uuI 1 isJ l uclL uy llttil
palms or the smaller deciduous oaks. On the better soils
ern Florida many beautiful camellias are thriving in
T_ ____ - __ 1_1_ , ,. 1 *L :




























P I~a T11 nnti ~r ii cnn P 3 rn nf t-rrrn mc~imi fo~ri


Ca 6allll IVaLU l i lln al llt. 111iLU. ItU UaL IUI LVVV V13 1 U LU
young mites that have hatched in the interim.
Scale insects of several species are forever a menace. Start-
in February and again in May and perhaps in September
October, a 1%1i or a 21 oil emulsion may be applied with
;ood sprayer. Because the leaves lie close together, shingle-
hion, diligence is needed to get complete coverage. Remember
cale insect must be covered with an insecticide if it is to die.
just a few bushes are in your collection and scale becomes
y bad on one of these, a sure way to get a cleanup is to mop
infested leaves with cotton dipped in the 2/,' oil emulsion
*ay. Caution-do not apply oils during very hot or very
d weather.
Under several brand names, these white summer oils are
* sale at your garden supply house. Parathion is sometimes
ective against certain camellia scales and may be used where
re is no danger to humans and higher animals, and mala-
on, less harmful to humans, is favored by some experts.
Camellia twig blight or dieback is a disease of great con-








72 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

As this is written no preventive measures have beel
out and the best we know to do is to remove infected
soon as possible. Use your pruning shears to nick a
branch and when you come to the normal, healthy, gre
bark, make a sharp, slanting cut. Be certain to destroy
twig and sterilize your shears by dipping in alcohol al
cut, as twig blight is transmitted by pruning tools. The
thus made should be mopped with paste of Bordeaux
wettable sulphur, or with a wash of Fermate. Pruning iP
not needed by camellias, yet rampant shoots formed
summer should be pinched to keep the plants compac
Yellow mottling has long been observed in camellia
and it is of virus origin. It was demonstrated by graf
seedlings with normal green leaves could be induced
tip growths that were yellow-spotted. It is widely ackno
that the presence of this virus will cause flowers o
wnrklel tinnn an Q;nfTitrl lpnr,-c. t' --n.m mi-nr-lnlA -.T;+


AnnrrwanT th- 1rnmnnarl-

















The camellia has long been considered the aristocrat of shrubs
.1 -, .1
*hi





The camellia has long been considered the aristocrat of shrubs







LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES

flora should be considered. For a heavy mass at the corr
the house, there is upright Herme, Aunt Jetty or Mathotia
If there is an expanse of unbroken masonry, surface d(
tion can be provided by informal, spreading Lady Cla
Gigantea of the japonica group and Mininoyuki and Hi
gumo of the sasanqua varieties. A dramatic solution t
monotony of an uninteresting plane is an espalier of Car
sasanqua. This, trained carefully to an exact pattern, c
strikingly effective. Espaliers may be procured from s(
specialty nurseries. Although sasanquas are usually us
espaliers, japonicas can also be trained to grow in fixed pa
if one begins with young plants.
When espaliers are used, no other plants should be r
too close to them lest they detract from the design's mea
beauty.
Under high windows on the utility side of the house,
species may be planted. Among the japonicas best suil
such locations are Donckelaari and Magnoliaeflora while
quas give us Hebe, Usu Beni and Hiodoshi.
When camellias are used as neutral fillers under wii
or by a screened porch, they may be set about 3 feet
Some plants must be given at least 5 feet lest their
branches be shaded by encroaching shrubs. Espaliers
have 10 feet to themselves.
To define boundaries of formalized settings, clipped I
of Camellias sasanqua cannot be surpassed. While a d
staggered row of plants at 18-inch intervals is ideal, a
row will serve almost as well. The plants must be pi
frequently to induce thick branching and clipped reg
during the growing season to insure a thick, compact he(
Although japonicas can be maintained as clipped h
the sasanquas are better because their finer texture make
ping easier. Briar Rose, Dainty Bess, and Rosea are exc
Bulbs, spring-flowering perennials, drifts of annuals p
in front of a camellia hedge make an enchanting sight.
Camellias may be used to enclose the service area b
they are hardy, evergreen, compact growers that will n
permanent barrier. Now that some of the robust, u
1 1 1 1 1 1 *








74 DEPARTMENT OF AGRJICULTUREL



















Camellias may be grouped to separate one area from another.
























(CHERRY-TAITRET.-- ( Priir.n7-c ar,/i,;'inn .. 1 .... 7 ,








I.ANDSCAPE PLANTS FUOfl FLORIDA HOMES

may be served, plants of one single variety should be s(
for the service-area screen. Sarah Frost, T. K. Varie
Herme and Elena Nobile might be considered for this I
space is not at a premniunm; while narrow pledges of tightly c
sasanqua varieties like Rosea. Texas Star or Dawn woi
best where there is but little room for the utility screen.
CAPE-HONEYSL CKLE (Tecomaria capensis). Orai
little trumpet flowers make this well known, vine-like
very showy most of the year. As a screen or division p
serves well because of its adaptability to conditions in
Florida. Clean cultivation is usual for cape-honeysuckl
generally, insects and diseases are of no concern. Identify
is positive by the toothed pinnate leaves and clusters of
funnel-shaped flowers and six-inch pods which follow.
Propagation is by cuttings or seeds.
CASSIA (Cassia bicapsularis). Cassia is a sprawling
which produces its golden butterflies in October, in nc
Florida to be ended by the first frost; in southern Floi
continue to the New Year. Other yellow flowered, shrub-i
(C. alata, C. bahamensis. C. corymnbosa and more) are
widely planted in Florida gardens. Tender to cold, th
back after frost, yet come back lustily to produce their
blossoms again in season. All shrub cassias are increa:
seeds and repay hoeing and fertilization with increased flov
CENTURY PLANT (Agave americana) is not a shru
since it is used as such in Florida landscaping it must be in,
here. Native. resistant to salt and strong wind, toler,
poorest sandy soils, even those which are strongly alkalir
succulent perennial has been widely planted through
Peninsular State to enhance the tropical atmosphere. Thb
upright leaves are green or banded in cream and are
with vicious thorns. These must be clipped off as soon as
unfurl. There are many other species of century plant
countless horticultural forms. Tall candelabra flower
may be sent aloft after ten to twenty years of favorable g
conditions.







i6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

CHERRY-LAUREL (Prunus caroliniana). Although this plan
becomes a good sized tree in our hardwood hammocks, its greal
est landscape use is as a shrub. Beautiful, shiny, evergreen
eaves are held in good condition the year around and, during;
;pringtime, the new growth is especially attractive. As a shearei
ledge or as a formal, clipped specimen, cherry-laurel is pai
icularly recommended in northern Florida. Wilted foliage
poisonous to livestock, must not be placed where grazing ani
nals can reach it.
Small plants may be collected in hammocks or they ma,
)e grown from seeds.
COCCULUS (Cocculus laurifolius). Because its long, ova
evergreen leaves are carried well to the ground by the droopint
green branches, this shrub is approved by those who admir,
rood landscaping material. For foundation plantings and fo
screens, this tropical shrub is offered by most central Florid,
nurseries. Ordinarily cocculus is kept free of grass and weed
)y flat hoeing and no pests or diseases are of great importance
Softwood cuttings root easily in summertime.
COONTIE (Zamia floridana) is a native cycad that is admire(
or its lacy, soft texture and its ability to grow in dense shade
rrunkless, coontie sends up its fernlike leaves from the large
ubterranean stem. Seeds are used for increase and transplant
ng is extremely difficult because of the deep, far-reaching roots
lorida red scale is a major pest that must be controlled bl
several annual sprayings of an oil emulsion.
COPPERLEAF (Acalypha wilkesiana). Much planted ir
southern Florida, this large-leafed, fast-growing ornamental i!
vell known to all gardeners in that section. Copperleaf grow!
:asily from cuttings and will succeed in any situation that i
lot too shady.
As a foundation material it is too coarse, usually gets out ol
cale, certainly it serves as too strong an accent. The greer
calypha with cut and dissected leaves marked with cream-coloi
s A. godseffiana heterophylla.
CRAPE-JASMINE (Ervatamia coronaria). With its opposite,
lossy, evergreen leaves and fragrant white flowers, crape
^n^'*,-, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1~ ' ^'-^ ^^ ,- ^ >.- - n *n '








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES

ance of nematodes in sandy soil than has gardenia. U
the double-flowered form is grown, and the scent is more rr
at night. The petals are ruffled or craped, giving rise
name crape-jasmine. A sunny location is best for this fin(
shrub, which is best used in borders. Propagation is b,
wood cuttings.
CROTON (Codiaeunm rariegatunm Tile world's most
ful and variable shrub comes into its own in southern F]
Here, crotons in endless variety, are seen in every conce
landscape usage. Good taste insists that they are mucl
used. Their garish, boldly variegated colors demand tha
be strong highlights in a green composition.
Crotons are easily grown from cuttings stuck in sand
beginning of the rainy season.
EUGENIA (Eugenia spp.). This is a diverse genus th
several important representatives in southern Florida.
pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) is in favor as a hedge mi
because it shears well and bears delicious and decorative
Brush-cherry (E. paniculata and varieties), is a favorite
scape material that is frequently seen as sheared accent
in foundation plantings. Both types are carried by so
Florida nurseries.
Eugenias are propagated by seeds and softwood cu
and hoeing and mulching will be satisfactory.
FEIJOA (Feijoa sellowiana). Hardy throughout our
this South American fruit plant is admirable for landsca
as well. The gray-green leaves with whitish under-su
make this a good plant for contrast and transition.
Seeds are sown when the fruits ripen in summertime'
seedlings grow very slowly.
FIRETHORN (Pyracantha spp.). Of all fruiting
that grow in the cooler sections of Florida none is more
during the winter months than the beautiful fire-thorn.
series supply the kinds that are known to be successful
area. As large pyracanthas do not transplant well fron
ground, it is suggested that small plants in expendable
-- i ,










of a plant may be lost. A mild copper fungicide directed int(
lie open blooms is said to arrest the development of organism!
broughtt in by bees and flies. As recommended for fire-bligh
n the loquat, the prompt removal of infected wood is imperative
Jse a sharp pruning implement to sever the dying member wel
'elow the point of apparent infection and paint the wound witl
ulphur paste or Fermate solution. Remember that the fire
light organism is carried on primning tools. so immediate dis
infection in alcohol is necessary.
A lace-bug, which attacks firethorn foliage, will be control
ed if a spray containing DDT. malathion or parathion is appliec
n April, June, and August. Wax scale, though not easy t(
radicate completely, can be held in check by two annual ap
ilications of a 2% white summer oil or by parathion.
As firethorns grow very rapidly within their climatic range.
pruning is usually necessary. They flower (and therefore fruit)
n current buds that arise from fruiting spurs one year old oi
Ider. It is obvious, then, that these handsome shrubs cannot
ruit the season after they have been cut to the ground. A
system of renewal pruning is advocated to keep firethornm
Within bounds yet to assure annual displays of the colorful fruits.
)ne or two large canes can be sawed off near the ground one
winter, allowing several to remain intact to carry their fruit;
ien when the new canes arise and develop fruiting spurs, the
nes which had been left originally may be discarded.
It is known that firethorns grow best, flower and fruil
lost satisfactorily when lawn grasses are kept out of the root
one and a mulch of oak leaves or peat moss is used as an
isulation against excessive heat and to assure a moist growing
medium.
Named varieties are propagated by cuttings, yet seeds will
erminate well and produce fast-growing young stock.
GARDENIA (Gardenia jasininoides). Ranking with the ca-
lellia, rose and hibiscus, the gardenia has long been a favorite
ooryard shrub in the South. Usually grown as a free-standing
specimen, this beautiful broadleaved evergreen is much planted
y urban and rural homeowners alike.
While botanists place 60 species of subtropical plants of





LAINUILAJ' EL FLAA-1:! VOH ItLOKIUA HOMIES

Howers in retail shops and those obtainable as landscape sl
in nurseries and chain stores.
A second species. Gardenia thMunbergia. is important bet
it is used as a root stock for outdoor gardenias in soul
Florida, as it resists attack of the rootknot neminatode and 1
rates the hot, inorganic sands. Quite unprepossessing in ap
dance and easily killed byv low temperatures, this tropical
serves only as the below-ground portion of southern Fl
gardenias.
In its natural habitat in China thle gardenia grows in a
fertile soil that is slightly acid in reaction, retentive of moi
and well supplied witli organic matter.
If it is feasible to treat thle gardenia plot with a soil I
gant in advance of planting it is anll excellent plan to do
Garden supply houses stock chemicals tliat will kill nema
and other soil-borne troubles. Patented applicators are
nished when the chemical is bought.
A location in full sun well away from trees or large sl
is recommended. Thle north side of a tall building is no
best location because of the absence of sunlight there, n
the south wall of a building a good location for gardenia
cause of the excessive heat of summertime and water lo
the sun.
The light, shifting shade cast by tall pine trees is gooi
gardenias and the fallen needles make an excellent mulch. (
headed turkey oaks and tall palns cast mild shade in v
gardenias grow well.
Gardenias thrive on lake banks if the water level is con,
The plants will be killed, however, by inundation.
A heavy mulch, four to six inches deep, of oak leaves,
straw, tobacco stems, cane bagasse, peanut hulls or other orl
material will be reflected in vigorous growth and heavy fl(
ing. Cultivation should be unnecessary under this system
large nurseries where gardenias are propagated on heavy f,
soil, clean cultivation is used.
In sections where the soil is of poor quality, of alk
reaction, or infested by rootknot nematodes, it may be desi
nto row gardenias nermanentlv in containers. These mn








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


bottom to allow the free passage of water, and an inch of neutral
silica gravel or broken flower pots should cover the bottom.
The growing medium may be composed of peat, cow manure
and soil. Because of the prevalence of rootknot nematodes and
soil-borne diseases, gardenia soil should be pasteurized by
heating to about 160 F. for three or four hours. The containers
should be placed upon an off-the-ground support so that infected
soil particles will not splash in from the earth.
When a potted gardenia is received at Easter or Mother's
Day it should be kept in a cool moist spot. The dry atmosphere
inside our houses is unsuitable to its continued welfare. Bud-


In southern Florida gardenias are grafted on Gardenia thunbergia
whir'h is resistant to rootknot nematodes.








LAiNUJLAFL FLANI5 tUti VLUiIJJ)A fUIViM 6iI

ip is die first response to an uncongenial environment. Sev-
1 times a day the foliage may be lightly moistened with the
;t from a hand atomizer. The applicator sold with window
waning fluid is suitable. After the flowering period the potted
nt can be plunged in a shrubbery bay or it can be knocked
of the container and planted as a permanent garden shrub.
Sooty mold, well known to everyone who grows gardenias.
i fungus disease that injures by withholding light and pre-
iting gaseous exchange. The leaves become covered by a
sty black film which is most unpleasant. This fungus lives
honey dew from white flies and aphids. A one per cent or
per cent white summer oil will cause the sooty film to roll
within hours after application.
Chlorosis is the manifestation of an abnormal condition.
e loss of normal green color so that the veins appear bright
!en on a yellow field may be due to several causes. In Florida
most outstanding cause of chlorosis is the lack of iron
mught about by an alkaline soil. A foliage spray of ferrous
phate at the rate of a teaspoon to a gallon of rain water with
ialf teaspoon of detergent as a spreader will usually work
iuick cure. If the soil is not corrected to an acid reaction.
ever, the foliage will develop chlorosis soon again, brown
!as will develop, and the plant will be stunted and unpro-
etive. The only permanent corrective method is to transplant
chlorotic gardenia to a new site that has been prepared with
known acid mixture that contains all necessary mineral ele-
nts. Never fertilize gardenias with bone meal, lime or any
triall that will make soil basic in reaction. Much municipal
ter in Florida is very alkaline and this, alone, is sufficient
induce chlorosis in potted gardenias.
Chlorosis of similar pattern may be caused by over-watering.
v soil temperatures in wintertime and by rootknot nematodes.
In Florida it is customary for specialty nurserymen to sell
dded field-grown, balled and burlapped gardenias through
iin stores in April. These are excellent plants, well grown,
an, free of rootknot and invariably well furnished with large
wer buds. The lifting, transporting, displaying, with attend-
t sacrifice of optimum environmental conditions, usually re-








82 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

buds. Gardenias, container grown or those carefully
planted by the balled and burlapped method early in the
should re-establish themselves well in advance of flowerin
GLORY-BUSH (Tibouchina semidecandra). Glory-1
somewhat distinctive in Florida gardens because of its
of violet-purple. Upright-growing, hairy-leaved, tender I
and too tall for foundation plantings, glory-bush is pr
best adapted to use in informal shrubbery borders. As
standing specimen it will display its large purple bloss
advantage, as they appear at the tips of the branches. Ii
is by softwood cuttings.
GOLDEN DEWDROP (Duranta repens). This large
growing shrub is widely distributed throughout Florid
as a garden plant and as an escape from cultivation.
background plant for gardens in the citrus belt it is
mended, but it ordinarily attains too great size to be em
as part of a foundation planting. Clean cultivation ord
is employed for these cosmopolitan plants as they grove
well without an organic mulch. Insect pests and disea&
of little concern.
HIBISCUS (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis). Sometimes call
Queen of Shrubs, the beautiful rose of China has mo
versal appeal than any tropical shrub the world around
graceful habit, beautiful glossy, evergreen leaves and tl
geous colorful blossoms all contribute to make this s'
top-flight landscape material. Propagation of most c<
varieties is by tip cuttings taken during the summer, bh
kinds are grafted upon understocks of the single red o
fast-growing variety. While for commonplace types
casional hoeing and watering will suffice, choice variety
set into carefully prepared planting holes and protect,
thick mulch of leaves or peat. Scale insects, mites, and
are held in check by spraying with malathion or parathior
one tablespoon of the 15% wettable powder in each ga
water. Becoming widespread throughout Florida is the r
hibiscus (Hibiscus eetveldeanus). This tender African
grows as a straggly shrub to about 8 feet in height and is (







LANDSCAPE PL-ANTS FOR FLORIDA HOMES 83





41












HIBISCS-I- f Hibiscus rosa-sineisis I
This handsome shrub has many uses in the landscape scene.











.4 ...t -, ~ ~ 1 r~








84 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ground by frost. Increase is easily accomplished by sol
cuttings or seeds when available. Credit for identificatic
first published record of red-leaf hibiscus must go to \
and Ledin, in their excellent garden book--400 Plants of
Florida.
Known in Florida gardens since earliest history is Con
ate-rose (Hibiscus mutabilis). The sprawling, untidy
with large hairy leaves, is cultured for the handsome bic
that open white during autumn mornings, turn pink, and :
red by evening. Sometimes known also as cotton-rose
like all hibiscus, is propagated by cuttings.
ROSE-OF-SHARON (Hibiscus syriacus), that hardy, deci
shrub of northern gardens, succeeds in upper Florida, th
particularly in places where the soil is heavy and fertile. S
time sees the first leaves after winter dormancy, and sui
time witnesses the arrival of the white, pink, rose or lav
single or double, bell-shaped flowers.
Hybrid mallows, involving four species of Hibisci
admired for their striking white, pink or red blossoms of d
plate size. These herbaceous hybrid mallows can be gro
fertile soil of the upper peninsula. Stock can be obtained
nurseries which advertise in garden magazines of nation.
culation.
HYDRANGEA (Hydrangea macrophylla). This deci
flowering shrub from Asia is another of universal appeal.
huge trusses of blue which appear above the attractive
leaves in late springtime are very striking. In Florida
plant is shade-demanding and the best position for hydrai
therefore, is a northern exposure. Any cutting back mi
done immediately after flowering, else blossom buds w
removed. Aluminum sulphate, which acidifies the soil, 1
for blue hydrangeas, and if you want them pink the soil
he limed so that it has a basic reaction.
Propagation is by hardwood or softwood cuttings.
ILEX (Ilex spp.). Several small-leaved hollies can bi
to shrub size by careful pruning and these are in high fa,
they are handsome plants. The most important is the st:
/ 77 \ -










Iges and sheared specimens. Nursery-grown, fruiting speci-
ns are much more satisfactory than are plants collected from
odlots. Yaupons are protected by a law which makes it a
demeanor to cut or dig wild plants.
The Japanese holly (Ilex crenata variety convexa) has be-
ne very popular for foundation work in northern Florida,



























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'it fr .-^ .' .A- " .<*. ->'- *V -








86 DEPARTMENT OF AG lICULTULRE

but it is not tolerant of adverse growing conditions, so
side location and an adequate mulch are held to be n
for its well-being. Small shining evergreen leaves arn
packed alternately on much-branched, green stems. N
black fruits are attractive highlights during fall and
This choice landscape plant is grown from cuttings.
The Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta) is another favor
scape subject from Asia that is offered by most nur,
northern Florida. The variety Burford, with single-
waxy, green leaves and small clusters of large red berri<
form of Chinese holly most frequently seen in Florida
IXORA (Ixora coccinea). Garden forms with showy,
flowers in shades of red and yellow are seen in the
sections. Counted as one of the best ornamentals th
ixora serves as a hedge, specimen or base planting r
Likely to display evidences of nutritional deficiei
sandy calcareous soils in southern Florida, ixoras sb
set with care in made-up acid planting holes. A sprin
a mineral mixture should be given with the fertilizer in
and June. A heavy mulch of leaves or peat should pr,
roots at all times.
Tender tips root in white sand in summer.
JASMINE (Jasminum spp.). This genus furnishes
sprawling evergreen shrubs that are widely employed
scape plantings. For the colder sections, the flowering
(J. floridum) and the primrose jasmine (J. inesnyi) ai
lent, hardy, yellow-flowering shrubs; in the citrus belt tt
flowered star jasmine (J. multiflorum) is often seen as
and as a vine, while in the warmest locations, the
Jasminum gracile (syn. J. simplicifolium) is in hig]
There are many other species, some of which are grown
plants by nurseries and plant collectors. All of the j
root readily as cuttings and where canes touch the gro
JUNIPER (Juniperus spp.). This is the most der
genus of coniferous shrubs for Florida. Many beautif
cultural forms, which will thrive in northern and west
tions, are available at the nurseries. One of the best low











(Juniperus chinensis pfitzeriana} identified bv outward-
nting branch tips, while one of the very best of the tall
rgreens for a sheared accent is the beautiful pyramidal
anese juniper (Juniperus chinensis columnaris). This can
told by the strong upright trunk and the two types of leaves
every branch.


14




I"










LIME-BERRY (Triphasia trifolia) is a favored
plant for southern Florida. Graceful, dense, evergre
able to shearing, this beautiful plant well deserves
esteem in which it is held by nurserymen and landscape
Its susceptibility to rootknot nematode seriously limi
fulness, however.
Seeds are employed to increase stocks.
MALPIGHIA (Malpighia coccigera) is popular m
owners in southern Florida because of its dwarf habit (
It has fine-textured, spiny-toothed, holly-like leaves,
rose blossoms, red fruits, and grows quite well in t
Nurserymen grow large numbers of seedlings to si
constant demand, yet they, and their customers mu!
rootknot-free soil, and constant mulch if malpighias
successful. Barbados-cherry (Malpighia glabra) prn
3-lobed, cherry-like fruits on a taller, more straggly
is not widely grown in home grounds beautification.
NANDINA (Nandina domestica. West of Live Oa
soils, this decorative ornamental grows to perfection. '
reed-like, erect stems, lacy, compound leaves and han
ters of rich, red fruits make this a must-have for gardi
its range. Nandina does not look its best on the open
sands of peninsular Florida.
Seeds germinate slowly, but are used for propa
are suckers that come from old plants.
NATAL-PLUM (Carissa grandiflora). This Wes
fruit plant serves well as an ornamental in the Pal
Miami area where it is favored for ocean-front local
compact habit, horizontal branching, oval, evergre(
beautiful white flowers and decorative red fruits, ac
the high favor in which the natal-plum is held. Le,
posite leaves accompanied by sharp, forked thorns me
fiction positive.
Plants are grown from seeds and are available
landscape nurseries in southern Florida. Malathion,
or an oil emulsion spray will be needed to control ,
a heavv mulch of leaves is better than clean cultivat













































tt








ire





Ca lias thrive in broken, shifting shade.S






Qirr~ellias thrive in broken, shifting shade.








LANDSCAPE PLANTS FJOl FLORIDA HOMES

It is too coarse and fast-growing for foundation planting
Adapted to almost any soil, resistant to reasonable amoi
salt spray, the oleander, in many attractive colors, is vw
for tall screens and windbreaks. DDT and parathi(
effective in controlling the oleander caterpillar which
principal pest.
Propagation is easily accomplished by cuttings taker
most any season.
In landscape plantings oleanders are usually kept I
weeds and grass by flat hoeing and seldom are mulch
played. Fertilizer can be applied in January and in Ju
countless oleanders grow without hand feeding.
WARNING: Oleanders are extremely poisonous, ar
ple have died from breathing the smoke from burning ol
wood. In some cities it is unlawful to burn oleanders,
all cases, the prunings must be disposed of with caution
ORANGE-JESSAMINE (Murraya paniculata) is identil
the 7 to 9 rhombic leaflets, fragrant, white flowers and red
fruit. Well adapted to frost-free sections, this citrus-I
is recommended for tall, informal screens, clipped hedge
free-standing specimens. A mulch will make for better g
conditions, and this beautiful plant responds to this extr
Seeds germinate well and softwood cuttings strike
factorily.
PITCH-APPLE (Clusia rosea). Although it is a tree
may grow half a hundred feet in height, this native
Florida keys is currently used as a shrub by landscape n
men in frost-free sections for the curiosity of the huge, le
broad-oval leaves. The three-inch pink flowers are fc
by greenish-white fruits of about the same diameter, whi
black and split open to discharge the seeds which are u
increase. Mulching and twice-annual fertilization is
mended for pitch-apple.
PITTOSPORUM (Pittosporum tobira). For clipped
particularly near salt water, this attractive broad-leave
green is liked. In these coastal areas and in western








"II J{ xl 2J I I klJ ULI UJVL I

lalathion or parathion must be added to control aphids and
ottony cushion scale.
The variegated form is popular as a point of interest in a
reen composition and it must be increased by cuttings. The
reen type is grown from seeds in western Florida, from tip
uttings on the peninsula where seeds do not set every year.


















PITTOSPORUM- (Pittosporum tobira)
This broad-leaved evergreen can be clipped in any desired form.

PLUMBAGO (Plumbago capensis). Because of its small size,
impact growth and attractive blossoms of soft blue, this is
withoutt doubt, one of Florida's most widely used landscape
irubs. From Marion County southward it is seldom killed
y frost and it is highly recommended. A fertile soil, full sun,
n adequate supply of moisture and annual cutting back in early
)ring are requirements for its success. A white-flowered form
Popular as a change from the blue type.
Plumbago is grown from seeds or root cuttings.
PODOCARPUS (Podocarpus spp.). Among the best narrow-
4afed evergreens that grow in Florida gardens are the several








LANDSCAPE PLANTS lFOR' FLO1,1DA HOMES

section of our state, tlls admirable plant justifies its popu
Podocarpus nagi is characterized by a rigid trunk and
spaced, horizontal branclhes amd makes an excellent
plant. This species also grows from cuttings and seeds.
carpus elongata. with its graceful weeping habit, very fil
tured foliage, and its slow growth is one of southern Fl(
best evergreens for corner planting. Tlhe weeping podo
;I ...I.. fl--m PJ,,1h,,(- :,,Il hl'.'HI, it iK lender to fro,


__ PCI marOhll /(SereI uei
=--p r ni vl in 11...1.. iiii.iliM
IPnnnfIARPlTT--t Podci'DrnniS macronhvrlla I (Sheared snecir










Podocarpus specimens are valuable plants that should be
rown with a generous mulch, three annual feedings and ade-
uate moisture during periods of drought.
POINSETTIA (Euphorbia pulcherinia). Because of its com-
lete adaptability to Florida's soil and climate, because it
owers faithfully for Christmas each year, the poinsettia is
widely planted and greatly admired here. The coarse texture,
old color and the temporary character of the plant suggest
iat it might be best planted with hardy evergreen shrubbery
i the out-of-door living area. In this position the glowing
ed will show to excellent effect and, when the plants are cut
Sthe ground by cold, their absence will not be apparent.
Single red types are most frequently seen, but the double
oinsettia is more in demand now as it is realized that it grows
ist as easily and the heads are much fuller. Pink or white
poinsettias may be grown for contrast, but the true Christmas
ed will always be the most popular color.
In January, leafless stalks are cut into 12-inch lengths and
iese large cuttings are placed where flowering plants are
ranted. As growth is very rapid in warm weather, it is sug-
ested that the tip buds be pinched out in late summer. This
rill cause the plants to branch and grow more compactly.
PRIVET (Ligustrum spp.). Scores of species and varieties
f privet have been available in the nursery trade over many
ears and their widespread use has been the inevitable result.
'he name of wax privet should be used to designate the species
igustrum japonicum. The glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum)
quickly grows to tree size and its use in foundation plantings
s discouraged as it soon gets out of scale. As a shade tree up
) 40 feet in height, Ligustrum lucidum is acceptable through-
ut the Gulf South. This species has large leaves like a pear
ree and produces clusters of blue-black fruits.
In western Florida the small-leaved California privet (L.
valifolium) serves well as a sheared hedge and for other
)piary effects.
All ligustrums can be increased by cuttings, many by seeds,
ut some nurseries prefer to sell plants grafted on a rootknot-
esistant understock. Lipustrum auihoui.





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