0-4 -,& -q- lf 4-
J t(,i .i7
reword --- ..----.................... ----.. -...- .. --............. ----- -- 5
tichoke, Jerusalem ..--...-..... ......-----------------.. ----- --------...-- 140
paragus ....... .......-- .---- ..- .....-..............--- -- .- ..- ....- ..-....- ....-- 67
ans, Lima .--.............-------..-.--.. -------.... -----......-- ---- -----.......---------- 32
ans, Pole .............................- --.. ........ ......----------------------- ...... .............. 32
ans, Snap ....... -----.. --........................... ..--. -----. ---.....---- .- .....- 29
occoli .. .......--..-.-.--.--.- ...- ....- ..- ..- ..- ..- ..- ...-.. .... ... .. 102
occoli, Sauces for serving ...........................----................ 111-112
occoli, Research for iron content ..............--..... --.............. 113-119
bbage ............---...- ....--- ..-.....- ......-----.-... ----------......- 120
lory Table ..............--...- ..- ....-...- ..- ..-.- ..........--- ..--............. -- 167
ssava ............... --------...- .......-- ....- ..... .. ------.. .. --.... 151
uliflow er .........- .....- .......- .........----.- ....- ....-.....-........ 108
lery ...............-..- -.. ..... ........................................... 26
serving the Food Value in Vegetables ...............---.................. 160
uciferae ......-----................... ........ ...... ........ 90
cumbers ....-..........------......... .....--. ......-....-...----.. 34
plants ..................................-------....--....................... ...... 40
carole or Endive ............---- ....- ....- ......---- ---..........-.- ..-........- 72
)rida Vegetables .......-----...-.....-............... ---...................... 171
novel T om ato ........................................ ....................... 23
rusalem Artichoke .................................. ............----.-........ ... 140
ihl-rabi ....................................................................... ............ 132
ttuce ............... ---------.............. .................... .. ......... 44
market Gardening and Truck Farming ..................--..................... 7
ra ................------................................................. ...... ..... 59
:ra, Methods of preparing .....................----.......--..-- 61
lions ---.-.....- .....- .............................. .... -------- .....--- ..- 75
as, English ..................................-- ---.........................--...... 55
papers -----..... ............ ---..- -. ..................---- ..- ......------... ........ 36
tnting Charts ...-........-... ..... .................--- .. 87-88-89
ant Structure ....---- -.---..---........-..-..............-...-.....--.. .. 9
m aine .. .....------ ..----.. ------- ..... ----.---..- .........-- -- .--.....- 54
iselle, "Florida Cranberry" .................---......--.........----...... ... 135
uash ......- ... .......................................----...........- .......-- .--- ..... 64
m atoes ...................... ...................................... ........... 18
,lue of Florida Truck Crops ....................---................... .........--- 12
tamin Tables --.....--..-.............-....................-.......-- ....... 168-170
To make a success of raising vegetables of any kind
out the most important thing to consider is "how to sell
em at a profit" to the producer.
The market gardener as well as the truck farmer should
r to put himself in the position of the buyer. What
uld you like to get for your money if you went to a
,rket or a store to purchase vegetables for your home?
)uld you want the stale, wilted or dried-out vegetables
It are sometimes offered the housewife?
Of course, the final condition of the vegetables you
se is not entirely in your hands. You cannot always
*esee just what the commission merchant, or the vege-
)le stand, or the store will do with the vegetables after
ey are delivered to them, but a great deal depends on the
,nner in which the vegetables are first prepared for
.rket. If you will be absolutely sure that you have first,
rvested at the right stage of maturity; (the most im-
rtant step in marketing), second, properly graded the
getables, third, packed them in the right kind of crates,
skets, or containers, fourth, neither underpack nor over-
Ak them (what we mean by this is-not too many nor
Sfew of the articles in the crate), fifth, pack them as soon
er picking as humanly possible, sixth, deliver them to
- express office, (if you are shipping by express) or to
e motor truck for immediate shipment,-a great deal
11 be added to the value of vegetables you ship.
Much has been written and said about this very im-
rtant feature in the handling of vegetables and still, if all
the truck gardeners and farmers could go through the
ge commission houses and see first hand the poor qual-
of many shipments of produce sent to market they
uld realize why this instruction is repeated.
Luther Burbank is quoted as saying: "I do not blame
e housewife for not wanting to cook some of the wilted,
or quality vegetables that are offered them."
Harvest the vegetables when you know they are in
)per condition to stand shipment.
Don't take the risk of having your crop spoil in
DO NOT PERMIT YOUR CROP TO OVER-Mi
IN THE FIELD. IF YOU DO NOT KNOW WH:
HARVEST A CROP IT IS BEST TO LEARN ALL j
THIS VERY IMPORTANT PHASE OF SUCCE
VEGETABLE PRODUCTION BEFORE YOU ]
Next, grade correctly, pack and ship promptly
vegetables will remain in good condition a much
time. The old adage: "one bad apple remaining
barrel will spoil the entire barrel" will always be tn
bad bunch of vegetables will spoil the entire crate.
You are producing vegetables as a means of i
so study every phase of your procedure.
Market Gardening and Truck Farming
Olericulture as a general subject could be correctly
parated into two divisions and designated as market
rdening and truck farming. Most encyclopedias and
ctionaries make no distinction in their definitions, but
irket gardening which has as its object the raising of
rge quantities of many varieties of vegetables for local
irkets should be differentiated from truck farming.
Truck farming which may be restricted in the variety
products raised is conducted on a more extensive scale,
e production being confined to a few standard crops for
ipment to distant markets. The acreage returns are
eater in truck farming than in market gardening.
Vegetables in this state are now being raised as a mar-
t gardening product as well as a truck farming product.
Irrespective of how vegetables are raised, quick trans-
rtation facilities and good markets are most essential for
access. Without efficient, fast transportation develop-
nt of truck farming would be impossible.
VALUE OF NEW VEGETABLES
It is a trait of human nature to want something new
d this is no exception to food products. A new vegetable,
lew fruit, or a new canned product finds ready accept-
ce. Continued good quality will result in a permanent
Ice for the article after it has been properly introduced.
Those varieties of vegetables which ship well and which
lture during the season when there is a shortage of
ler fresh vegetables, and which are adapted to the cli-
.tes of the South, and particularly to certain districts of
)rida, will find ready acceptance on a great many of the
;t markets of the North and East.
BUSINESS METHODS NECESSARY FOR SUCCESS
However, truck farming or market-gardening depends
:n the man just as it does in any business. A good crop
)wer must be a good businessman. He should thor-
ghly know his business and have such knowledge that
will be able to overcome difficulties in crop-production
I understand marketing in all its details.
Before producing any product for market there should
-CLag;,UC: V U rVULtU LU any cFUrIp 11UUlU uepenU (
supply. It is most risky to plant a large acreag
hope that labor will be available when the crop :
for harvesting. This risk should by all means be
Crop rotation is necessary for successful opt
Any soil will wear out if used continuously to proi
same crop. Every time a crop is raised there g(
the crop certain elements of plant food from the i
unless land is given an opportunity to rebuild and
sisted through the proper application of fertilih
land so used will not produce a profitable crop.
REFERENCE TO SOILS AND FERTILIZE]
We want to recommend that the prospective I
of vegetables for the market write the Department
culture, Tallahassee, Florida, for a copy of their
No. 3, entitled "Soils and Fertilizers." Study this
thoroughly and give particular attention to pages 5
9, 10, 11 and 48, 49, 50, 51 and 52.
ENEMIES OF PLANT LIFE
A great many vegetables are subject to the sai
of diseases and the same insect enemies. Send to
apartment of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Fla., for the
tin, "Plant Diseases and Pests and their Treatmei
Land that has become infected with organism
iduce plant diseases must be abandoned until the disease
iducing organisms can be starved out. Such organisms
re the ability to perpetuate themselves year after year,
I for the reason that they develop in the plant tissues
y cannot be exterminated, nor in fact treated to any
Free of success through the external applications of
pounds used sometimes for the purpose.
Crop succession as a rule is more important to the
rket gardener than to the truck grower. Truck growers
d it advantageous to have two different crops growing
the same time. Double cropping or catch cropping is
[owed on high priced land. This makes possible a series
crops from the same acreage. Sometimes four crops
produced from the same land during a single year in
alities having long growing seasons.
Soil character determines to a great extent the length
maturing of the crop irrespective of climatic conditions.
Id retentive soils will be late in maturing a crop while
rm, light, sandy soils will produce an early crop. The
d, heavy soil that retains its moisture cannot be culti-
;ed as early in the season as the light, sandy soil which
es out more speedily.
When planting seeds in cold soil do not expect them to
rminate as quickly. Likewise the plants will not grow as
)idly. Your plan of growing and marketing should de-
mine the nature of soil preferable for your production.
ne crops demand a cold, retentive soil but that is some-
insect enemies and plant diseases on growing plants and
also the effect of fertilizers and moisture supp
them, we believe some information on plant struct
prove most valuable. Plants are composed of th
tinct parts, two above the ground and one beneath
These parts are known as the root, stem and leal
part of the plant performs certain functions ii
relation to the others.
The root function is both mechanical and physi
The mechanical function consists of furnishing an
for the plant and the necessary support to the stein
in turn carries the leaves. The physiological fur
properly classed as being of greatest importance
function covers the selection from the soil of tU
mineral foods necessary to plant growth. Some ,
foods are nitrogen, potash, phosphoric acid, lim
nesia, silica, iron and sulphur. Elements such ,
are obtained from the soil in what is termed soluti
they are carried in water, through the growing ti,
the roots. This tissue is generally restricted to th
near the tip of the root system. The rapid deve
of crops is possible through a good actively grow:
system. Since this development of vegetables is t
desirable feature to the growth it is of prime imj
that the soil conditions should be kept in such c
as to induce rapid growth.
The stem is the frame work which supports th(
flowers, and later the fruit and it also conducts
leaves and other parts of the plant the food elemen
ered through the root system. There are two sys
ducts in the stem which serve as carriers for th
materials in solution, one of which supplies the
flowers and fruit and the other which carries bad
various parts of the stem and the root system those
food elements which are used in building addition
tissue and roots, or they may be stored up in tl
structure for future use. From this it will be seen -
mechanical function of the stem is the most prone
The functions of the leaves of plants are the mc
plex of the many delicate organs of plants. Regar
whether leaves are broad and thin or otherwise constructed
ley have a proportionately large area that is exposed to
ir and sun. With but few exceptions leaves of plants are
green in color, providing the plant itself is in a normal
healthy condition. This surface area of leaves over which
lis green tissue is spread contains a very large number
E small openings, noticeably on the under side of the
aves. It is through these openings that the plant breathes
r takes in air as well as moisture. It is likewise through
these same openings that excess moisture is exuded.
Whenever the excess moisture is not disposed of the plant
ill become affected with edema and will appear drooping
nd somewhat wilted.
Minute microscopic bodies contained in the cells of the
aves give them their green color and they also serve to
build the outer layers of the leaf. These minute green
dies are known as chloroplasts and when present in cor-
ect quantities give the plant its healthy, characteristic,
reen color. The function of these microscopic bodies found
i the cells is the most important of any connected with
[ant growth. Sunlight enables these chloroplasts to take
12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
anchored in the trenches. Boarding up the ends of the
structure and covering the roof with Spanish moss or
other materials completes this inexpensive root cellar.
Value of Florida Truck Crops
The combined value of the truck crops grown each year
in Florida exceeds that of citrus fruits, giving vegetable,
melon, and other truck crop production in Florida the po-
sition of first importance in value of income to growers in
The list of vegetables and the varieties, grown in Flor-
ida is a long one, and only some of the most important
crops will be included in this publication.
The Department of Agriculture at Tallahassee, Florida,
have prepared special bulletins on a large number of crops
grown successfully in the State and if this bulletin does
not contain the information you desire it is suggested that
you write the Department of Agriculture and they will
forward information on any crop that can be produced here.
One of the universal crops of Florida is tomatoes.
Every county in Florida produces some tomatoes for home
use and several districts during the year ship carloads to
northern and eastern markets. The production of this crop
has proven profitable to those growers who understand
marketing as well as growing.
The value of the tomatoes shipped from Florida has
exceeded $12,000,000 annually.
Celery has brought as much as $5,000,000 to Florida
growers in a single year.
Snap beans have enriched our growers an additional
These figures on three vegetables indicate the im-
portance of truck crops to the State.
Irish potatoes, melons, lettuce, peppers, cucumbers,
eggplant, cabbage and other truck crops have brought ad-
ditional millions of dollars of income to the farmers of
Florida and nearly every section of the State has been
The total value of truck crops in a single year amounted
to $33,936,136 in the season of 1934-5.
The table of carlot shipments given on opposite page
will be found interesting.
From the middle of November, throughout the winter
and until the last of June, refrigerator cars carry Florida
STATISTICS AND ESTIMATES ON FLORIDA VEGETABLES, MELONS, AND NON-CITRUS
FOR SEASON 1934-1935
SHIPPED FROM FLORIDA, OR SOLD FROM FARMS FOR CANNING, OR FOR FLORIDA CONSUMPTION
Values for Commodities loaded F. 0. B. Cars or Trucks, and "Net to Farmer" at Farm m
CARLOT No. Rail & Estimate Florida Trucked Consumed Canned Estimate Trucked GRAND TOTAL
F. 0. B. Value Canned, Consumed FLORIDA i
EQUIVALENT Boat Out of in in
Cars Car Total Florida Florida Florida Volume Value Volume Value M
-I I I I
Strawberries -.-. .. 1,363 $ 1,751 $ 2,386,613 100 300 1 30 430 $ 516,000 1,793 $ 2,902,613
Watermelons -..-..-... 5,831 129 752,199 180 850 20 1,050 63.000 6.881 815,199
Other Non-Citrus ....... 1 660 660 30 150 40 220 83,600 221 | 84,260 J
Sub-Total ....---.......- 7,195 I$ Av. 436 $ 3,139,472 310 1,300 I 90 1,700 $ 662,600 1 8,895 1 $ 3,802,072 0
Beans and Limas 6,399 656 $ 4,197,744 1,000 1,000 60 1 2.060 $1,154,800 8.459 $ 5,352,544
Cabbage 2,196 699 1,535,004 425 700 1,125 641,250 3,321 2,176,254 (
Celery ............................ 7,251 687 4,981,437 400 450 850 483,000 8,101 5,464,437
Cucumbers -........ 895 781 698,995 80 170 Included 250 150,000 1,145 848.995
Eggplant ......--..-.... .-- 180 707 127,260 60 150 in 210 121,800 390 I 249,060
Lettuce --. ---. 316 447 141.252 40 50 Mixed 90 31,500 406 I 172,752
Peas, English 486 749 364,014 90 150 Vegetables 240 144,000 726 508,014
Peppers -.....--....-...... 1,424 788 1,122,112 140 280 420 273,000 1.844 1,395,112
Potatoes -------...--- 3,932 568 2,233,376 225 850 1,075 505,250 5.007 2,738,626
Tomatoes --..........-- 7,175 774 5,553,450 500 1,000 1,600 3,100 1,240,000 10,275 6.793,450
Mixed or Miscel. 4,087 630 2,574,810 525 4,000 125 4,650 1,860,009 8.737 4,434,810
Total Vegetables | 34,341 $ 697 $23,529,454 3,485 8,800 | 1,785 14,070 $6,604,600 48,411 I $30,134,054
GRAND TOTAL .... 41,536 $ 643 $26,668,926 3,795 10,100 1,875 I 15,770 $7,267,200 57,306 $33,936,136
I IIIII IIi
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
produce to many waiting markets. More care in harvest-
ing and grading should materially aid in creating increased
demand for Florida grown produce. Few cars are placed
in storage and very little is canned.
The chief competition of the Florida grower is the pro-
duce grown by greenhouse producers in the North. The
production of crops in greenhouses usually is more expen-
sive than field grown products. The shipper of Florida
products, however, must deduct the cost of transportation
from his returns.
The greatest percentage of Florida's truck crops is
raised during the cooler seasons of the year when insect
pests and plant diseases are more dormant and more easily
controlled. As the temperature rises greater vigilance is
imperative to bring the crop to a profitable income basis,
as plant diseases and insect pests will be found wherever
there is plant life.
Soil conditions, weed growth, and the root system of
the plants grown will determine the amount and times of
cultivation necessary to make a good crop, and here again
is evidence of the necessity of full knowledge of all the
operations covering the production of truck crops if a
profit is to be made.
A deficiency of humus content exists in most Florida
soils with the exception of some muck soils. All soils be-
come deficient in plant food after being used and crop
rotation will not rebuild the soil to its high point of pro-
duction unless good cover crops are planted and turned
under. There are a variety of native grasses that are good
for this purpose. Cowpeas, beggarweed and crotalaria also
make good cover crops.
Any cover crop should be plowed under at least twenty
days before planting the truck crop.
A number of Florida truck crops are started in seed-
beds, and when the young plants have reached the proper
size they are transplanted to the field. Seedbeds should
be carefully planned, and in advance of the transplanting
time, to assure good, strong, healthy plants in the field.
SOME FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS 15
The location, the exposure, water supply, drainage, condi-
tion of soil and freedom from insect pests and diseases are
some of the important things that must be considered be-
fore seedbeds are started. Some locations and conditions
call for special treatment and no general information can
be given except as a basis for establishing the seedbed.
The particular characteristics of the crop to be raised, the
results already achieved in the locality and a fund of infor-
mation on truck crop production are essentials to success.
Beds 31/. feet wide are suitable for celery, lettuce,
9 r r
Seedbeds, showing row-planting. (Courtesy A. A. Coult)
romaine, cabbage, escarole, endive, cauliflower and other
Old stable manure, or compost which is well decayed
should be thoroughly worked into the soil. A surface ap-
plication of hardwood ashes, in the proportion of a ton to
16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
the acre, should follow the manure or compost. About a
week later the application of commercial fertilizer contain-
ing 5 per cent each of ammonia, phosphoric acid and potash
is necessary and must be worked thoroughly into the soil.
(The reader should refer to Bulletin No. 3-"Soils and
Fertilizers," issued by the Department of Agriculture, Tal-
lahassee). The bed is made smooth and the seeds are sown
several days after the commercial fertilizer has been ap-
plied. Cover the seedbeds with cloth as shown in illustra-
tions, using 4-oz. cotton sheeting. A frame of lath and
wire will support the canvas covering, giving shade during
hot weather and protection against hard rains, winds and
Winter seedbeds are used for eggplants, peppers, toma-
toes and other plants of a similar nature. These beds
should be 41/ or 5 feet wide and boxed in with a wall 24"
high at the back, and 10" high in front. The beds should
run east and west to obtain full benefit of the sunshine.
Winter seedbeds must be so constructed that they can be
made tight to provide protection against frost and cold
t L - '~f ..F~.
i m *.( .i.~
;-~T~nh~, -~EL; ~~i~q
I~ '~IC~LIPE' IE
~16-~c : IIE
7ZttUi 0.11UU.LU. U p.AIU..LaUL 111i UWO LU mCLmIILILULNL ULUILI
ing, weeding and economical fertilizing. The distE
between the rows is usually about 4 to 6 inches. The s(
should not be planted more than one-half inch deep,
after planting covered lightly with soil. Very small s(
such as celery and lettuce will propagate better if sowr
top of the soil and covered lightly. After planting, p
burlap on top of the seeds and keep it wet until the s(
sprout and take root. Then remove the burlap.
After the seeds have sprouted keep the bed well wat(
About twelve days I
for transplanting, it is
a blade long enough fo
lateral roots are cut a
the block of plants. As
will establish a new rc
easier and also protect
Winter and early spring seed
7e the young plants are re
'isable to block them off,
.e purpose. In this manr
t two inches from each ,
results of this practice the
system and make transpl
newly set plants.
Do not cut th
system on both
the same day. (
one side, then i
few days to gi,
plants' roots ti:
over on the opposite
The early crop of tomatoes is planted during Nover
and December in South Florida and is ready for mark(
February and March. In the central sections of the S
the crop is planted in February or March. In the north
northwestern part of Florida plantings are made
the latter part of April and in May. This crop when
vested supplies the late markets. The early crop br
the best prices.
Tomatoes are planted in four foot rows about 15 tf
inches apart. Between 8,000 and 9,000 plants are requ
to set an acre.
SOME FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS 1
eld of tomatoes can be secured in I
A good yj
" -V, ,
Tomato field in South F]
Tomato field in South F]
To plant the seedbed about one-half pound of seed will
supply sufficient plants for each acre.
The more successful tomato growers apply from 1,50C
to 2,000 pounds of commercial fertilizer to the acre. The
formula most generally preferred is 4-8-8 (4% ammonia
8% available phosphoric acid, and 8% potash). The much
soils of Florida do not require as much fertilizer as the
lighter sandy soils.
All of the fertilizer is usually not applied at one time
The first application is made a week or ten days before
setting the plants. The second is applied about the time
or just before the first bloom appears. In working th(
second application of fertilizer into the soil, the cultivatior
must be shallow and care taken not to injure the roots
If the roots are injured the bloom will drop off.
Some tomato growers also apply 50 pounds of manga
Planr of CGlovel lomalo just before firnt harrest
nese sulphate to each acre, either mixed with the regular
fertilizer or used separately.
The early tomatoes bring the best prices. Harvestin
is an important step in the production of the crop.
Typical fruit of Glovel tomato (nal
When the fruit has reached the proper stage for ship-
aent the shading will be found to be changing from a dark
o a light green. Tomatoes should then be picked. Several
&ickings are necessary to harvest the entire crop. For
local markets the tomatoes should not be gathered so early,
iut allowed to ripen more, which will improve the flavor.
Baskets of a half bushel capacity are generally used in
harvesting. Soon after picking the fruit must be taken
o the packing house to be sorted, wrapped in paper and
)acked six baskets to the crate for shipment.
A good thing to remember about any truck crop is that
.11 of the preparatory work, labor in the field, fertilizer,
:tc., can be lost through improper attention to grading and
)acking. Don't overlook this last but most important step
n making money from truck crops.
Marglobe, Globe, Cooper's Special, Bonny Best, and
Plorida Special are popular varieties among the successful
THE GLOVEL TOMATO*
The new scarlet red variety of tomato named Glovel
vas produced co-operatively by the U. S. Department of
Agriculture and the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
,ion. The Glovel is both a local market and shipping va-
It was developed from a cross between Globe and Mar-
rel, made in the Department greenhouses in Washing-
.on, D. C.
The Marvel has very strong resistance to wilt and was
developed by selection from the French variety, Merveille
les Marches. The new Glovel, therefore, has the same
parentage as the scarlet red Marglobe, but it is not a
;election from that variety.
Marvel was chosen as one of the parents because of its
vigorous vine, its abundant and continuous fruit setting
iabit and its long bearing period. In addition to being re-
sistant to fusarium wilt it also has a high resistance to
The variety, Marvel produces fruits that are smooth,
uniformly red and well flavored, but they are a little small,
somewhat flat and rather late in maturing for marketing.
Likewise they are not sufficiently solid to make a desirable
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture circular No. 388, issued March, 1936.
Z4 U .LJ -~-."'.V 'IV~IT' UVr' ALrt U J,'I'U-kli
The variety, Globe was selected as the other parent
the reason that the fruits produced on its vines are lai
thick walled, globular and of a scarlet red. However
is very susceptible to nailhead rust which in some ye
has caused damage to tomato crops raised for wir
The primary purpose in developing the new GlI
was to produce a scarlet red tomato that would be resist
to diseases and have good shipping quality. By combine
the disease resistant characteristics of the Marvel with
fruit qualities of the Globe, there has been produced in
Glovel a pink fruited tomato which should appeal to tl
consumers and markets who prefer the new variety.
Celery is a very important truck crop in Flor
will grow on any type of soil that is well filled with
and retains moisture well. A large part of the c'
the State is grown where irrigation is available.
The land should be well prepared by thoroughly
ing and the surface harrowed. The surface of 1
should be practically level when ready to plant. C
always transplanted from the seedbed to the field
The rows should be 21/ feet apart and the ph
3 to 4 inches apart in the row. A trowel or dribble
for setting the plants. It is very important to hav
available to wet down the plants as soon as set.
60,000 to 70,000 plants are required to set an acre
After plowing the ground and about ten days
setting the plants, there should be from 1,500 t
pounds of fertilizer applied. Scatter it over the sui
the soil, working it in well with the harrow.
Many growers make a second application aboul
days after setting the plants. The amount varic
800 to 1,000 pounds to the acre. In some localiti.
applications of fertilizer are mixed with nitrate i
in quantities of 100 to 200 pounds an acre. Some
use 500 to 800 pounds of nitrate of soda to the ac
plants wnen transplanted
ig and Harvesting
n the celery plants have mat
her 12-inch boards set on ed
with 10 or 12-inch strips o
er is placed on each side of
re wickets. The blanching
before harvesting time.
ry is shipped in standard si2
in refrigerator cars contai
All cars are iced before shi
nuary to June.
;ured, they are bl
Ige on either side
if heavy building
rows and held ii
is started two o0
:ed containers 10:
ning from 340
pping, the seasor
Harvesting celery is a bus
5vetigce 1 4 bs
Snap beans originated in America. They have been
lmon in this country for several centuries. Florida
is in production of market garden beans. Beans are an
,ortant although a short season crop in Florida. They
;ure from 45 to 60 days after planting. String or snap
ns are cultivated in all parts of the State. In the
then and central parts of Florida they are grown for
hi early spring and early fall crops. They will grow on
ide variety of soils, including sandy loam and muck. On
,k soil it is necessary to crop it for at least two years be-
planting beans if satisfactory growth is to be obtained.
Beans will not produce well in excessive alkaline or very
i soils. High acidity can be corrected through the ap-
ation of lime, but care should be exercised not to over-
e. Both light and heavy soils are used for bean produc-
i, but alkaline soils should not be planted to beans. Very
vy soils are not good for bean crops. If the soil is very
it apply plenty of fertilizer.
Beans thrive in sunshine and warmth. With sufficient
isture, sunshine and warmth their growth is rapid. The
Id will vary greatly, depending on many factors, but as
general rule 125 to 200 or more hampers per acre may be
Pected on good land and with favorable weather
The seedbeds should be free from clods and well pul-
ized. In the event rains cause the top soil to harden it
y be necessary to break the crust to permit the plants
break through. Beans are not gross feeders and hence
unable to obtain their share of food from spring plowed
If beans follow a sod crop the land should be plowed in
fall. It is best to follow some cultivated crop with beans.
Beans should be planted when the soil has become warm
i after danger from frost is passed as they are very
Isitive to cold weather.
Bean seed are drilled in rows about three feet apart.
e bushel of seed is required to plant an acre. The crop
es not need to be thinned. Cultivate sufficiently to keep
In irrigated areas the soil should be sufficiently
to make irrigation unnecessary to start the crop. 1
of evaporation will control the frequency of irr
Beans should have sufficient water to prevent tl
coming dark green in color.
An application of 500 to 800 pounds of 5-7-4 fi
is recommended for each acre, depending on the
content of the soil. The ammonia content of the fi
is the most important. The fertilizer should be al
week or ten days prior to planting the seed.
Beans are picked by hand when the pods have
mature size, but before they begin to ripen. As th
do not all reach picking stage at one time, two o
pickings are necessary.
Regular bean hampers are used and when filled t
are fastened securely for shipment.
'YIJ~T tIl ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Lima or butter beans are not as important to Florida
as snap or string beans. Lima beans are grown through-
out the summer and they make a good mid-year crop in
In the extreme southern part of the State they are
raised as an early spring or late fall crop.
The method of cultivation is the same as for other
beans. Where runner varieties are grown, more distance
should be given both between the rows and plants in the
row. Many growers have found it an advantage to plant
corn in the row to act as a trellis or support for the bean
There are a number of varieties of lima beans suitable
for both shipping and for home use. Among the best are
Fordhook Bush Lima and the White or Mottled Florida
The cultural methods for pole beans are practically the
same as for other beans, except that supports of some kind
must be put in position for the vines to climb on.
The varieties generally grown are Kentucky Wonder
and Florida Pole.
Navy beans are not grown in Florida as a commercial
Loading. cucumbers. (Courtesy A. A. Coult)
Loading cucumbers. (Courtesy A. A. Coult)
The production of cucumbers in Florida is
volume that it ranks high in importance among tl
crops. They are grown as spring and fall crops, I
of the shipments being made between February ar
The earliest crop comes from the extreme south(
of the State and is usually distributed among tf
markets within the State. Later shipments con
the northern sections -of the State.
Cucumbers grow best on a sandy loam soil t:
retain a fair amount of moisture. Land subject
flow should not be planted to this crop. Neit]
it be advisable to plant on dry, sandy soil that is ]
suffer for lack of moisture. Soils with a southel
give very satisfactory results.
Cucumbers are invariably planted in the fiel(
they are to grow. The seed is drilled in rows four
feet apart. The hills are placed about two feet apai
to six seed are planted in each hill.
Plant as early in the season as possible after
from frost has passed. The majority of growers 1
least two plantings and some make three. The si
made from a week to ten days after the first,
third planting a week to ten days after the second.
plantings are all made in the same row. Plant
second and third time gives greater assurance of
in the event of low temperatures or high winds.
Protection from wind and cold is provided by
V-shaped troughs of 10 or 12-inch boards. Trou
be made in any convenient length, 10, 12, or 14 fe
The troughs are laid over the rows when the pit
When a good stand is secured and the plants are
a nice growth, they should be thinned, leaving oi
every 11/2 to 2 feet.
Two to three pounds of seed are necessary to ]
acre of land.
The most successful cucumber growers in Flol
from 1,000 to 2,000 pounds of 5-7-5 fertilizer to th(
About half of the fertilizer is applied ten days
eks before planting, and the remainder a short time be-
re the first blooms appear. The second application
would be just ahead of cultivation so that the one opera-
n will cultivate the crop and at the same time work the
'tilizer into the soil.
The crop is often helped by a side dressing of nitrate
soda or sulphate of ammonia, at the rate of 150 to 200
funds to the acre. If the fertilizer is not applied when
- foliage is dry, there is danger of burning the plants.
The crop is ready for picking when the fruit has at-
ned a size from five to eight inches in length, depending
its color. Cucumbers should be straight and of uniform
meter and of a dark green color. When a yellow color-
r appears it indicates over-ripeness. Such fruit has no
Several pickings are necessary for the cucumbers will
t all mature at the same time. The field should be gone
er carefully two or three times a week. The harvesting
ison may cover a period of two or three weeks.
Use field crates to gather the crop. These are taken
the packing shed where they are very carefully exam-
id and graded and packed for shipment.
The most popular are White Spine, Kirby Stay Green,
,rk Long Green, Davis Perfect, and Early Fortune.
The past twenty years have seen a large inci
the production of peppers in the United States. T]
is growing more popular as new methods of prepaid
discovered. Our native peppers are used in maki
enne, tobasco pepper sauce, pimientos, tobasco
paprika and chili powder. The common pepper, C,
annuum, is a distinct species from the black an,
pepper, Piper nigrum.
The pepper is a perfect flowered annual, th
growing usually from 1 to 21/2 feet high. It has
glossy, heart-shaped leaves that are elongated. The
are generally dull white, the fruit being green whei
ture and red when ripe.
Peppers require the same climatic conditions
which are necessary for the successful growth of t,
and eggplants. The pepper plant is more drought r
than the eggplant and tomato, but to assure a go
there should be an ample and well distributed r
supply. On account of their sensitiveness to frost
long growing season protection must be given to thE
The production of peppers is not confined to ;
section of Florida and for the reason that they arn
so universally they have become an important tru
in the State. Every county raises peppers.
A variety of soils that retain moisture will
Peppers continue to produce fruit over a long
and conditions being favorable the plants will be
for eight months.
Pepper seed requires from 15 to 20 days to gei
It takes about eight weeks for the plants to attain t.
size for transplanting. The seed can be sown in ti
beds either broadcast or in rows and are set to t
when the plants are about an inch high.
Peppers are planted every 18 or 20 inches in roN
feet apart. Ten thousand plants are required to
acre. The plants are produced in seedbeds and i
pound of seed should furnish sufficient plants for
In transplanting the young plants must be handle
fully as they are easily injured.
^ ..:j..-.,.... ^i lN I^
Picking peppers. Note rows of crates. (Courte
so .IJ ..ZLrIJ.1 VIf N I" Uj ^ r -rL J. J .I U-I"L ___
The quantity of fertilizer to be applied will de]
the length of time the plants produce a crop. Grov
from 1,800 to 3,000 pounds to the acre in two appli
One-half of the amount is used ten days before seti
plants and the remainder about thirty days after th
are set. Four or six weeks after the second applical
to 200 pounds of nitrate of soda should be used
acre. The condition of the soil will also deterrm
correct amount of fertilizer to use. We suggest s
the Agriculture Department's Bulletin No. 3.
When the fruit has matured and has reached t]
color and size it is picked and packed in standard
crates 1114x14x22 inches.
Peppers seem to be less seriously affected wit
diseases than most other vegetables. Bacteria,
Anthracnose, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium wilt, Phyto
blight, Cercospora leafspot, Sclerotium rot and Mo
the most common diseases. Bulletins issued by the
State Department of Agriculture contain informa
the control of these diseases.
Aphids, red spiders, and flea beetles may cau:
damage to the crop.
Peppers are shipped in refrigerator cars coi
from 360 to 400 crates.
Ruby King, World Beater, Ruby Giant, Florida
and Florida Giant are good varieties.
Eggplant such as these are generally profitable. (
40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
The eggplant is a native of the Old World. India is
probably its home. The Chinese and Arabs grew eggplants
in the ninth century. The early types had small egg-shaped
fruits which accounts for its name. Its botanical name is
Solanum melongena and it is closely related to the tomato,
potato, pepper and other solanaceous plants. Two of our
serious weed pests, the horse nettle and the nightshade,
belong to the genus. The eggplant will thrive under rela-
tively high temperature conditions.
Fertility, moisture supply and good drainage are neces-
sary to its successful propagation. Wherever soil is found
in Florida that will grow vegetables, eggplants can be pro,;
duced. In South Florida they are produced as a winter
crop; in the other sections of the State they are raised as
late fall or early spring crops.
Sandy loam soil supplied with vegetable matter, plus a
constant supply of moisture until the plants have become
firmly rooted is necessary to produce healthy plants.
Growing the Plants
The growing of the plants is evry important. Stunted
or injured plants will not develop into high yielding plants
and possibly will result in a crop failure. Eggplant seeds
should be sown in rich, mellow soil.
Eggplants are more sensitive to weather conditions
than any other vegetable planted in the same manner.
Local weather conditions should govern the time for set-
ting the plants in the field. Planting should be delayed
until all danger from frost has passed.
The production of eggplants is similar to that for toma-
toes, but they are not so easily raised and require more
The seedbed should receive the best of attention as egg-
plants are subject to more diseases than tomatoes. If in
the beginning of the crop this important phase is over-
looked the crop is likely to be a failure. Plant the seed-
beds four weeks before transplanting to the field.
In transplanting from the seedbed the young plants
must be carefully handled to prevent injury.
The plants mature in about four months after tra:
planting. Six ounces of seed in the seedbed should prodi
3,000 plants, which is sufficient for an acre. Place the plal
at distances of three feet in rows five feet apart. Again I
grower is cautioned to protect the delicate plants wl
transplanting as they are likely to wilt if set out in wa
weather. Shade should be provided for a few days. F
metto is used for this purpose, particularly for i
Commercial fertilizer and manure can be used w
profit in eggplant production. On fertile soils apply
tons of well rotted manure to the acre. It should be v
mixed with the soil while preparing the soil for planting
The fertilizer is divided and one-half applied two we(
before the plants are set and the remainder when the plal
are 10 to 12 inches high; 1,200 to 4,000 pounds of 5-,
fertilizer is used to each acre, depending on the fertil
of the soil.
The harvesting may be started any time after the fr
has attained sufficient size, and before the flesh becon
tough and the seed begins to harden.
Flea beetles, aphids, and the Colorado potato beetle
tack the eggplant. Spraying with a Bordeaux mixture c,
training calcium arsenate or dusting with dehydrated c,
per lime sulphate lime and calcium arsenate is effect
against flea beetles. This should also control the Color.
Prepare the Bordeaux mixture with four pounds of c,
nirp q1flnhnftp phrht nnnndrl of hvdrRtaprd lime. anli fifty P
4-,^ 4-1. rt
Wilt and truit rot are the most serious dii
ng eggplants. Fruit rot may be carried over 1
;he seed and in the debris in the soil from
;rop. Rotate the crop for three or four y(
lean seed. A Bordeaux mixture of 4-6-50 wit]
)f calcium arsenate has been found to' be
measure for the control of fruit rot. Wilt
plantss only in the cooler sections of the count
'Y YUL ~I)~YIII~YII~ VI ~UIVIVVYIVIUL;I
. _ ____ --- ___j V __ k' _j
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION OF LETTUCE*
The acreage planted to the commercial lettuce crop of
the United States in 1928, according to statistics recorded
in the 1928 Yearbook of the United States Department of
Agriculture, was 126,780 acres. The products of this area
was 18,589,000 crates of four dozen heads each, valued at
$31,601,300. This does not include small lots of lettuce
grown and marketed locally.
Lettuce, commercial crop: Acreage, production, and price per crate, by States
Season and State
North Carolina ----
South Carolina -..--
New Jersey --------
Oregon ...--.... .---
Wyoming ...-. .....
Price per crate
1925 1926 1927 1928 1925 1926 1927 1928 1925 1926 1927 1928
1,000 1,000 1,000 1,0001,000
Acres Acres Acres Acres crates crates' crates' crates3 Dolls. Dolls. Dolls. Dolls.
6,400 8,500 14,800 28,700 1,440 1,912 3,034 3,272 1.06 1.90 1.35 1.42
23,000 28,000 34,400-22,000 4,600 4.900 5,229 3,740 1.71 1.95 1.34 1.62
24,680 37,10 42,010 50, 570 4,368 5,565 6, 049 7,636 1.16 1.37 1.75 1.84
3,400 1,500 1,840 1,850 765 252 294 314 1.41 2.21 1.62 1.61
1,730 1,420 1,490 1,490 467 379 207 216 1.98 2.00 1.87 1.60
1, 480 780 700 750 247 133 158 112 1.69 1.81 1. 59 2.11
680 640 950 1,000 68 72 103 100 1.38 1.19 1.00 1.02
300 300 300 300 39 38 50 60 2.07 1.70 1.50 1.45
61,670 78,240 96,490106,660 11,99413,25115,12415,450 1.42 1.70 1.37 1.68
10,500 13,240 13,240 9,800 1,396 1,523 1,456 1,127 1.58 1.43 1.63 1.07
1.500 1,200 1,120 900 180 157 218 101 1.86 1.47 .96 1.67
2,200 2,400 2,450 2,300 541 541 503 612 442 1.64 1.08 2.04 1.89
1,400 1,030 410 400 280 77 59 18 1.76 1.66 .75 132
6,820 7,200 5,540 4,460 1,323 .1,246 1,457 1,004 1.42 1.60 1.48 2.68
300 360 300 100 45 18 1 7 1.92 1.42 1.25 1.?5
70 80 80 80 11 12 10 9 2.50 1.24 1.50 2.70
1,450 1,600 2,050 2,040 290 336 410 428 2.50 1.30 1.48 1.25
110 210 200 40 16 27 22 3 1.50 1.40 1.201 1.82
24. 350 27, 320
OZ 020105, 560
20, 1201 4, 082
1268, 7 16, 076
Lettuce: Car-lot shipments by State of origin, 1920-1928
State 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928
Cars Cars Cars Cars Cars Cars Cars Cars Cars
New York..---.-----.--------... 1,775 3,240 3,167 3,817 3,698 3,821 3,019 3,496 3, 138
New Jersey----------------- 208 469 571 456 417 463 303 308 144
North Carolina.----------.. 207 445 622 718 714 537 540 447 477
South Carolina-------------- 121 716 987 577 423 736 372 369 241
Florida ------.. ------.------ 2,940 2,267 3,323 3,146 2,257 1,519 987 929 813
Idaho ------------. -.... 25 180 889 1,241 532 501 398 196 67
Colorado.-------.------------ 129 234 812 1,436 1,036 3,096 2,795 2,848 2,368
Arizona------------------- 254 168 678 1,108 2,049 3,519 4,906 9,131 9,204
Washington--------------- 354 635 812 1,081 674 820 904 1,151 1, 232
California --.... .----------. 7,358 9,850 9,744 15, 113 18,480 21,618 27,341 27,574 33,446
Other States --------.--..- 417 534 635 792 655 676 540 401 316
Total----------------13,788 18,738 22,240 29,485 30,935 37,306 42,105 46,850 51,446
Farmers' Bulletin No. 1609. 3 United States Department of Agriculture, Statistical
Committee. Agricultural Statistics. U. S. Dept. of Agr. Yearbook 1927:876. 1928.
LtuCLLiUCe 1i aU1 11ipu-LaUIL r luI-ui LLEUCK CruOp. ILt i gruwn
for northern markets and for home use. Most of the crop
is shipped in refrigerator cars to distant markets. The
crop to do well must be grown during the cool months in
a warm soil.
Factors Governing the Field Production of Lettuce
Temperatures, moisture, and soil are important con-
tributing factors in the successful production of lettuce in
Florida. Lettuce requires a relatively low average temper-
ature, especially after the heads begin to form. Any good
trucking soil will grow lettuce, provided moisture and
plant-food conditions are suitable. Soil requirements con-
sist of adaptability to intensive cultivation, capacity to
retain moisture, and an abundance of plant food.
A large proportion of the commercial crop of head let-
tuce is started in beds and transplanted to the field. The
usual custom is to prepare seedbeds either in hotbeds, in
coldframes, or in the open ground, fertilize the soil of the
seed bed somewhat highly, about 4 pounds of fertilizer
per 100 square feet, and sow the seed thinly so as to produce
strong, healthy plants. One-half pound of good seed
planted in a special seedbed will produce enough plants
with which to set an acre of lettuce. Approximately 50
coldframe sash 3 by 6 feet will be required for growing
these plants. Where the beds are in the open and not cov-
ered with sash, a bed 100 feet long and 12 feet wide is
recommended. Great care must be taken in the watering
and ventilation of the plant beds in order to avoid losses
by damping off. This disease seldom gives trouble in the
open beds, except during seasons of excessive rainfall ac-
companied by warm weather.
Lettuce growers sometimes start the plants by drilling
the seed in rows in the open ground, using an ordinary
garden seed drill and spacing the rows 10 or 12 inches
apart. Where the seed is sown in this manner the plants
will be ready for setting in the field in from 30 to 40 days.
Lettuce seed retains its viability for several years if
stored under proper conditions, but in order to obtain
vigorous plants it is recommended that seed not more than
two years old be planted. Strictly fresh lettuce seed, that
is, seed that is planted the same season that it is grown,
is likely to give a poor germination, and for that reason it
is desirable to plant seed grown the previous season.
46 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Lettuce is transplanted when four leaves have formed.
A rich, moist, compact, sandy loam soil that can be thor-
oughly irrigated and well drained produces the best crops.
The soil should be well supplied with humus, and kept
moist constantly but with good drainage. It may be neces-
sary to irrigate. Care must be exercised as the crop is
easily ruined by too much water.
Crop rotation in lettuce growing has proved to be of
value, both in the control of diseases and in the mainte-
nance of soil fertility and physical conditions through the
use of green manures.
Hand cultivation is generally employed in the growing
of lettuce, but in a few sections the rows are spaced so
as to permit of horse cultivation. Small garden tractors
are now being employed extensively, both for drawing the
gangs of seed drills used in sowing the lettuce and for its
cultivation. The object of cultivation in lettuce growing is
primarily the control of weeds, as the soil is thoroughly
prepared before planting. Where the plants have been
transplanted in check rows they can be cultivated in both
directions until the heads begin to form. This will elimi-
nate a large part of the hand work of hoeing and weeding.
Manure containing a large proportion of undecayed
straw or other coarse bedding should not be applied, be-
cause the decay of coarse straw or other woody materials
results in the temporary depletion of the available nitrogen
in the soil. This is likewise true of soil improving crops
used as substitutes for manure, and these should be turned
under while green and in condition to decay quickly. Thor-
ough disking of the material in advance of plowing will
greatly facilitate the disintegration of the organic matter.
The manure for use on lettuce land should be composted
in a compact pile for at least three months and preferably
six months in advance of being spread on the land. During
this period the leachings from the pile should be collected
in a pit and pumped over the pile of manure from time to
time. If the manure is excessively dry at the time it is
piled for composting, enough water should be added to
cause it to decay rapidly. The manure is usually spread
broadcast over the land with a spreader or by hand at the
rate of 20 to 40 tons to the acre and thoroughly disked
into tne son. une sucn application every tree years inter-
spersed with at least two soil-building crops will usually
be sufficient to maintain the organic matter in the soil.
A liberal supply of plant food will produce tender let-
tuce. If the soil is deficient then liberal applications of
5-5-5 fertilizer is added. The quantity ranging from 1,500
to 2,500 pounds to the acre is divided and half of the
amount applied two weeks before the plants are set and
the remainder two weeks after setting the plants. Each
acre will have from 45,000 to 50,000 plants to feed and be
kept in good condition.
Lettuce requires a constant fairly high moisture con-
tent in the soil. Excessive rainfall or irrigation will seri-
ously damage the crop. Lack of moisture in the soil will
stunt the growth and produce poor heads. A moisture con-
dition in the soil which is just a little greater than that
required for good transplanting is satisfactory or just
about as great as is permissible for cultivation.
Lettuce intended for long-distance shipment is packed
without washing. Eastern-grown outdoor lettuce which is
shipped in carloads is packed in the field.
Under favorable conditions the greater part of a crop
t~S~II., ., T ,. .1 tl't!II f.lZCi ,iis -C
48 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
of lettuce can be harvested at one cutting, but it is often
necessary to go over the field three or four times, each time
cutting only the heads that are matured. The different
cuttings, however, may usually be made at intervals of
two or three days. Immature heads are spongy and do not
hold up well during transit and marketing. It frequently
happens that head lettuce matures and is at its best before
the heads are solid. The solidity of the heads at maturity
also depends to some degree upon variety.
The common practice of lettuce growers is to distribute
the crates or hampers along one side of the field and begin
cutting at that point. Cutting is usually done as early in
the morning as possible. Heads that have been frosted
in the field should never be handled while in that condition.
The first 10 or 12 rows of lettuce are cut and packed, and
the containers are loaded upon the wagons or trucks for
hauling to the car. Another section of 7 to 12 rows is
g and packing of the lettuce, the crates or h,
.l55llL La..Vao, U Ilt)VL J LU LL Ut) LI- t ll_ --M- j-I-A, -_
loaded into the cars. Lettuce should be hauled to the
packing shed promptly after it is cut, and there should
be no delay in having it crated and placed under ice. Rough
handling of the crates after they are packed should also be
Lettuce is ready for harvesting within 70 to 80 days
after transplanting when the heads have become fairly
solid. It is packed in standard crates 71/2"x18"x22" or in
standard hampers. A carload contains from 350 to 400
crates or hampers.
The lettuce plant is comparatively free from insect at-
tack. Cutworms are particularly destructive to the seedling
crop. Some winter in the soil in the immature worm stage,
and as soon as the weather becomes favorable in the spring
they attack the early-planted crop. Later in the season the
crop may be damaged by cutworms that pass the winter in
the egg stage. The crop is also subject to attack from
worms that hatch from eggs laid by the moth in early
spring and through the season. Cutworms damage the
crop by cutting the plants off near the ground. They feed
for the most part at night, spending the day inactive just
below the surface of the soil.
Cutworms may be controlled by the timely use of a
poisoned-bran bait, as shown in the directions that follow.
Poisoned bran bait for control of cutworms
Ingredient In small quantities In large quantities
Dry bran .... ..........................-.. .. 1 peck or 5 pounds..._. 25 pounds
White arsenic or Paris green --...... 4 pound.-------..-- I1 pound
Sirup or molasses --.......---...----....... 1 pint ..............------- 2 quarts
Water .......-....------.--... 3 or 4 quarts.:.._. 15 to 20 quarts
(1) Thoroughly dry mix the poison with the bran. This is im-
portant, as each particle of bran must carry a little poison in order
to get a good kill. When making small quantities mix the bait in a
bucket with a paddle, adding the poison slowly and stirring the bran
at the same time. A more effective way is to mix the poison and
the bran with the hands, but as soluble arsenic to a slight extent is
absorbed through the pores of the skin, there may be some objection
to this method. If the hands have any cuts, scratches, or other
Prepared by W. H. White, Entomologist, Division of Truck-Crop Insects,
Bureau of Entomologv.
;ies, the poison can be mixed with the bran on some flat, smooth
surface, using a shovel and rake in much the same way as m
(2) Mix the sirup with the water.
(3) Add the water and sirup solution to the mixture of bran and
poison, stirring slowly all the time. Large quantities of water added
it one time will wash the poison from the bran, resulting in an
Caution.-Add only enough liquid to make a crumbly mass. It is
a good plan to set aside a little of the mixture of dry bran and arse-
lic so that if too much water has been used this reserve can be
idded to bring the mixture to the proper consistency. Large quanti-
;ies can be made up in galvanized-iron or wooden washtubs, and
small quantities in buckets or similar containers.
How and when to use the bait.-Either broadcast the poisoned
bait or sow it by hand along the rows or about the base of the plants
Typical head of Big Boston lettuce
ate in the evening so that it will not dry out to any great extent be-
.ore the worms become active. Because cutworms overwinter in the
around, it is a good plan to broadcast the poisoned bait over the
cultivated areas a few days before the crop comes up or is set in the
field Where plants are to be transplanted to the field, this method
s particularly valuable. If hills are made for melons or tomatoes,
ipply the bait directly to the hills a few days before the crop is set
n the field. Such applications will rid the field of many of the
vorms before the crop is subject to attack.
Quantity of bait to use: 10 to 15 pounds of the wet bait is suffi-
cient for one application per acre. Where the bait is applied di-
A. f o e
A field of lettuce
1JEFA1T7MENT OF AURICULTURE
rectly to the rows or hills, a smaller quantity will suffice. It may
require two or three applications at intervals of two days to rid the
field of the pests.
Plant Lice and Other Pests
Plant lice or aphids sometimes attack the lettuce crop.
These pests can best be controlled, especially on the young
crop, by the use of nicotine dust containing 2 per cent of
nicotine. Apply the dust when the air temperature is above
70 F. and when the foliage of the plants is dry, and when
there is little air movement. The dust should be applied
to the under side of the leaves, where the insects feed.
Nicotine dust should be applied to the crop not later than
10 days before harvest.
The lettuce looper, army worms and wireworms, oc-
casionally become troublesome. Up to the present time no
Head of Iceberg lettuce
entirely satisfactory method has been developed for the
control of these pests, although arsenical treatments will
control the lettuce looper, such treatments are not recom-
mended on crops with edible foliage, except when the crop
is in the earliest stages of development.
Tipburn is a nonparasitic disease, occurring primarily
during warm weather, and particularly when warm bright
days follow periods of foggy or rainy weather. Although
resulting irom cnimalic concutlons, 1Lne trouDie is mucn
reduced by good cultural methods and care in fertilizing
ind irrigating. Lettuce varieties differ greatly in suscept-
ibility to tipburn.
Simple tipburn is manifested by brown dead areas
around the margins of the leaves without decay. Decay
Fungi and bacteria, however, often gain a foothold in these
lead margins, causing soft rot both in the field and in
shipment and markets. Shippers and dealers frequently
refer to this soft rot as slime. Soft rot may sometimes
effect heads that are free from tipburn.
Downy mildew also attacks wild lettuce, and this weed
should be eradicated from the vicinity of lettuce fields and
greenhouses. Crop rotation is advisable. Applications of
Bordeaux mixture to the small plants hold the diseases in
,heck while the plants are young.
Lettuce drop is caused by a fungus which usually at-
;acks the stem near the surface of the soil, causing a soft
eatery rot. This rot soon involves the entire stem and
eaf bases and results in the collapse of the plant. The
casual fungus may live in the soil for at least two years.
Crops recommended for rotation with lettuce are sweet
corn, tomatoes, potatoes, cucumbers, radishes, beets, spin-
ich, and onions. Celery and cabbage should not be grown
n the rotation as they are quite susceptible to the disease.
Damping off of small lettuce plants, which occurs par-
;icularly in seed beds, is caused by various fungi. Keep-
ng the surface of the soil and the plants as dry as possible
s of primary importance in preventing the trouble. Means
)f accomplishing this are the selection of a reasonable light
soil of a type that dries readily after watering, the sparing
ise of water, the avoiding of crowding of the plants. New
;oil that has been in grass or general farm crops for sev-
eral years usually gives less trouble than soil that has
grown vegetables or flowers for some time.
Some other diseases are bottom rot, anthracnose, bac-
;erial wilt, mosaic, and yellows.
JVI~Y ~YVI~IIJL~ ~I~U~a ~~rVrU
Romaine, a variety of lettuce, grows successfully where
other varieties of lettuce are grown. The demand is some-
Planting, cultivation, fertilizing, harvesting and mar-
keting are similar to lettuce.
Paris White Cos and Green Cos are the two varieties
Cross-section of head of Romaine or Cos lettuce
english peas are being raised in all sections of Florida.
in the preparation of the soil, the application of stable
ire in the bottom of the rows before the seeds are
ed will give greater assurance of a good crop. Peas
.d be planted in richer soil than that in which beans
-aised. If the soil is deficient in humus the plants
be weak and the crop correspondingly light. The
s should produce leaves and vines in abundance for
)d crop. The soil should be fairly moist but not wet.
land or new muck soil will not produce a good crop.
require nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Good hammock
that are well drained give the best yields.
le pea is a cool-weather plant. Not only will the seeds
inate and make vigorous growth at lower tempera-
with many vegetable crops, but cool weather is
sary for obtaining good yields and high quality. High
erature checks the growth of the plants and causes
to flower and form pods before the plants have at-
d sufficient size to bear a good crop, while cool
English Peas just beginning to bloom
SOME FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS
trate deeply into the ground. The crop usually receives
no cultural attention after the seed is sown. The opera-
tions before planting will influence, in part, the water con-
tent of the soil for the season of pea growing. The pre-
liminary preparation, furthermore, will control the devel-
opment of the root system and influence the extent of
The rows are generally laid out about four feet apart
and the seed sown fairly thick. About two bushels of seed
are required to the acre. Plant the seeds deep if the soil
' A., /^-VTT /' .i-.rb n+ Sl .H-n t-J1 wtI -. m- 4 1<- fl k T Ir\i , 1. v
Vill LUVtl I1U1011 OU LU
Ire green, do not al'
pickingg will depend oi
delivered to home ma
watched carefully if !
1A 1 J J rv LJ.1-J *v dif C
LldL M1iUML Ut
+n the roVwerrT
The crop is shipped in bushel hampers.
The pea crop is subject to the attacks of certain insect
pests. Among the insects that may cause damage are the
pea aphid and the pea weevil. The aphid is perhaps the
only insect that makes serious inroads on the growing
of green peas. The aphid can be controlled in part by
58 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
crop rotations. The presence of the weevil should be noted
at the time of planting. Weevil-infested seed may give a
germination as low as 30 per cent.
The pea plant is subject to two groups of plant diseases,
both of which vary in prevalence in different localities
from season to season. The more conspicuous and better-
known group consists of those which attack parts of the
plant above ground. Among these are the so-called pea
blight, leaf and pod spot, and mildew. The less conspicuous
and more important group of diseases cause decay of the
plant below ground, resulting in reduced growth and in
extreme cases the wilting of the entire plant. Against
both these groups of diseases only preventive measures
Nearly all of the foliage diseases are carried over from
year to year on dead straw and debris of the pea plant.
TT7- __ 4.---,-, Ai --- - ,,, 4---,,,1_1 _-,4-, ___,,
Roger's-K, Yellow Admiral ana senator.
Other varieties, even though they do not withstand
wilt, that are sometimes planted are Surprise, Horsford
and Canners Gem.
imbo" as :
ias for ma
:n naving mucn la
er stem. Its flower
i in size, shape, ai
is very little vari;
Kra being a crop ea
of the State. In so
I I I_ I I
.nds of seed are required to plant an
.ts are well established they should
1 C- I A. _ _ -1f -10 C -1 __ :- _-- 13*.-_ _
0 DEPARTMENT OF AUKICULI'TUKE
o 800 pounds of fertilizer to the acre applied the same as
or sweet corn should be added to the soil.
To obtain the full benefit from the crop the okra pods
should be cut every two or three days. Otherwise the pods
rill harden and be unfit to use. Cutting the pods increases
hie bearing of the plants.
Pack the pods in six-basket tomato carriers, or for
Flower and pods of okra. The pod in the center is in prime
condition for gathering; the larger pods have been allowed
to mature for seed
)me shipments in bushel hampers. When the market is
ood the grower will find it profitable to ship by express.
The pods should always be gathered, irrespective of
ize, while they are still soft and before the seeds are half
rown. The illustration shows a flower, together with
ie pods formed the two previous mornings, the middle
no r'f vwhinh in in thl nrnnuru rnnilf -inni fnr' rv+r.h rFl,_
SOME FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS 63
and browned, add about 3 quarts of boiling water and set on the
back of the stove to simmer for about an hour longer. Serve hot
with nicely boiled rice. Round steak may be substituted for chicken,
but it must be borne in mind that the chicken gumbo is the best
Another recipe for gumbo which is very similar to the
one just preceding, the process being practically the same,
is as follows:
1 quart of tomatoes, sliced One-half pound of corned
2 pounds of good beef, cut ham or pork, cut up
in small pieces Small piece of red pepper,
2 quarts of okra, sliced without the seeds
4 tablespoonfuls of butter Spray of parsley
Boil the young okra pods whole. When cold, dress with vinegar,
salt, and pepper, or, if preferred, use plain French dressing and
serve very cold. This is a most delightful summer salad, the okra
being very cooling.
1 quart of young ckra Salt and pepper to taste
1 tablespoonful of vinegar
Wash the okra well in cold water and place in a porcelain or
agate saucepan. Add a pint of water and a teaspoonful of salt.
Cover the saucepan and let the okra simmer for about half an hour.
Place in a dish, season with salt and pepper, pour over the okra a
tablespoonful of tarragon vinegar, and set to cool. Serve as a
salad with roast meats, etc.
Place a thin layer of rice in a baking dish, add a layer of sliced
okra, then a layer of sliced tomatoes; add salt, pepper, a little curry,
and a small lump of butter. Repeat with alternate layers of rice,
okra, and tomatoes until the dish is filled. Cover and bake in the
oven until the rice is thoroughly cooked. Remove cover and brown
on top. Serve in the baking dish. The rice should be washed in
cold water before using and the okra pods and tomatoes washed
and sliced rather thinly.
CANNED OKRA AND TOMATOES
Equal parts of okra and tomatoes may be canned together for
winter use. Cut the tender pods into short pieces and mix with
the tomatoes; pack in cans and process at least 10 minutes longer
than for tomatoes alone.
Another method is to blanch the okra pods for 10 minutes in
boiling water, then dip into cold water to cool. Cut into sections,
pack into the cans with the tomatoes, seal, and process as for
Most varieties of okra will ship well. Perkins Mam-
moth Podded has the preference, but Long Green and
White Velvet are also very good varieties.
The seeds should sprout within a few days and when
they have reached a height of two or three inches it is time
to thin them, leaving about three plants to the hill. During
warm weather the plants will grow rapidly necessitating
continuous cultivation or until the plants spread between
fertility of the soil.
the rows. Squash plants grow close to the ground and
obtain their food from the surface of the soil. In culti-
vating care must be taken not to bruise the plants.
Planting should be delayed until the soil has warmed
up and in good condition for germination of the seed. The
seed germinates best at a relatively high temperature and
is likely to decay if planted in a cold, wet soil.
The bush and small vine varieties may be planted in
hills as close as 4 by 4 feet, but the varieties having long
running vines should be spaced 8 to 12 feet apart each
way, depending on the growth habit of the variety and the
fertility of the soil.
If manure or compost are not available, 800 to 1,200
pounds of 4-8-4 commercial fertilizer should be applied to
each acre. The entire amount can be used before planting.
If the land is thin, sandy loam it is best to make two
applications, one-half before planting and the other after
66 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
the plants are about a month old. If manure or compost
is available the amount of fertilizer can be reduced to 600
to 1,000 pounds to the acre. Squash plants need a supply
of available ammonia.
Squashes are shipped in standard cabbage crates or
bushel hampers. When shipped early the grower gener-
ally realizes good profit on the basis of cost of production.
With ordinary care in harvesting there should be no diffi-
culty from rotting in transit. Ripe squash may be gath-
ered in late fall when some other vegetables are not grow-
ing in addition to being a good spring crop, making it one
SOME FIWRIDA TRUCK CROaP W7
IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY
Asparagus is one of the most valuable of the early vege-
is an excellent s
after than most vej
e of the crop to
t of production, th
te crop can be rai
rren of fresh aspa:
The advantages to the Florida grower ir
iragus seem to be early production and
ing the crop. With no fresh, green aspar2
ket until about the first of March, the tru(
his State should be able to find profitable i
Prh nrino nf froon acnrn lla -r +fli oorlr
DEiPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
So far as we know, asparagus was first discovered in
the north temperate regions of Europe, where there is a
continuance of cold weather for several months. Cold
weather prevents budding during these cold periods and
the growth is practically dormant. Following these dor-
mant periods the plants begin their normal growth and
the green tips will grow rapidly. Soon after, cutting of
the tips begins.
In South Carolina, where considerable asparagus is
grown profitably, the temperature during November to
February is sufficient to bring about a dormant condition
in growth. Like most natural desert areas, the tempera-
ture in the Imperial Valley Desert, California, (where as-
paragus is grown) has continuous cold nights which check
asparagus growth during one or two months of the year.
The average Florida temperature is mild with occa-
sional freezing weather lasting but a few days. Frost will
kill the asparagus tops, but warm days induce new growth.
In the course of a year the tops may be killed two or three
times. Every time new shoots develop, the reserve plant
food is depleted and the new crowns which are formed
lack strength and vigor.
In the northern and northwestern parts of Florida some
truck raisers have been able to maintain asparagus plants
in fair production for three or four years. This section
of Florida seems to offer encouragement to asparagus
raisers, but care must be taken in selection of soil, its
moisture content and fertility.
Planting In the Everglades
Several years ago 275 acres in the vicinity of Canal
Point was planted in the muck soil of the Everglades. In
May, 1928, approximately 40 acres were planted to two-
year-old asparagus roots shipped from the Imperial Valley
of California. Prior to September of the same year these
plants had made a very satisfactory growth. New crowns
had formed within four months from the time of planting.
Growers familiar with asparagus production in other parts
of the United States stated that they never seen such re-
markable plant growth. Indications for cutting a profit-
able crop during January to March of 1929 were excep-
tionally good, but the flood waters from Lake Okeechobee
during that year ruined most of the crop. Credit must be
given those growers who are persistently attempting to
overcome these difficulties.
Another tract of 75 acres was planted in the same area
Lern area is so
at new crowns
I in abundance
i grow rapidly.
La grass ana is essential to noia certain
is being used in the muck soils of the
siderable fertilizer rich in potash is being
.n other states and it would appear neces-
;soils since they are deficient in potash.
id potash should be used liberally on most
f asparagus, relative to the color of the
eted. The spears may be entirely green,
butts, or entirely white. The greatest
s for a green product, whereas most of
canning is white. Nearly all the green
vested with a small amount of white on
he entirely green product that is cut at
ie ground does not keep as well as that
- -1-- -U-,-4 0,- ,,---, 4-
oots below the surface ;
SOME FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS 71
inches long. It is not advisable to wash asparagus prior
to shipping unless it is extremely dirty.
The most commonly used crate is pyramidal in form,
having two compartments each holding six 2-pound to
21 -pound bunches.
At present the trade centers of Florida seem to offer
very good markets for asparagus. Since no other aspara-
gus areas can produce a crop during the winter months,
there should be no marketing problem for several years.
There are two insect pests that may be a menace to a
crop: First, the striped cucumber beetle; second, a "six-
point" mite. In case the ditch banks adjacent to the
Asparagus packed in crates ready for market. Note the pyramidal
shape of the containers
asparagus fields are kept clean and the grass and weeds
are allowed to stand in the asparagus rows, then some
danger results, as the insects are forced to come to the
asparagus. If the reverse conditions obtain, the insects
seem to prefer the native growth on the ditches, and prac-
tically leave asparagus unmolested.
Only the better varieties of the rust-resistant types
should be planted. Mary Washington and Martha Wash-
ington are popular with asparagus growers.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Escarole and Endive
Escarole or Broad Leafed Batavian Endive belongs tc
that group of plants known as the Composites, which iE
one of the largest families in the plant kingdom. Escarole
is a variety of chicory, endive has been cultivated in the
United States since 1806. Only five of the Composites
however, are known to have any appreciable economic
value as garden crops and are of importance in the order
Escarole or Endive;
Salsify or Oyster Plant.
Escarole is used principally as salad. In its unbleached
state it is also eaten as "greens." Florida produces over
$100,000 worth of escarole annually. Only within com-
paratively recent years has escarole become generally
known in American home gardens. It is gradually gain-
ing favor. When good lettuce is not obtainable escarole
makes a very good substitute. From mid-summer through
early fall and winter it will be found in our markets. Dur-
ing the hot summer months and early fall, solid head let-
tuce is difficult to purchase in some markets and un-
blanched escarole, having a better flavor meets with ready
acceptance among many consumers.
Poor land that is deficient in humus or that is dry and
exposed is not suitable for the cultivation of this crop. Any
soil that has ordinary fertility or that has been enriched
through the application of manure or other fertilizer will
produce escarole. A warm soil to which has been added
plenty of manure raises the best crop.
If the seed is sown in the field, the first planting may
be made in June and followed by other plantings through
August. The rows should be about twelve to twenty
inches apart. While the plants are small they are thinned,
leaving a foot of space between the plants in the rows.
The seed may be sown in seedbeds such as are used for
lettuce, and the young seedlings transplanted to the field.
Seedbeds are preferable when the ground is very dry as
this method of planting assures stronger plants. It is best
to transplant after a rain. if nnqihblp whilp th.e nil is
3f endive. The former
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
along each side of the rows. The tops of the boards are
brought together to keep out the light. The method of
blanching is similar to that used for celery except no light
is admitted at the top. The hearts of the plants are fully
covered. About three weeks are necessary to bleach the
plants to a delicate white or creamy color. The heart and
inner leaves will be crisp, tender and have a pleasant flavor.
To overcome the bitter flavor the leaves and hearts of
the plants must be well blanched.
Insect Enemies and Diseases
The diseases and insect enemies that attack spinach
and lettuce sometimes must be guarded against in the pro-
duction of this crop. The recommendations for their con-
trol is the same as for these crops.
The varieties preferred by most growers are Batavian,
French Moss Curled and Imperial.
The Green Curled variety has been popular with grow-
ers for many years. It has narrow, curled leaves. When
well blanched it is a very attractive vegetable. Broad
Leaf has wider and plain leaves and is a variety that is
gaining in popularity.
The curled varieties of Escarole or Endive are both
ornamental and attractive plants in the home garden.
sture. m'ne roots spread
hem being very. deep. In
, f-- +I,-t 'nk n^ -f 4-1-
UI.'krA-k'CWl'NT OF AURICULTUtRE
0N.. Texras Ind. Calf Moss. Ohio lich.
Showing onion production in thousands of bushels in the 7 leading states.
Texas is listed in the "early crop" column along with California and Louisiana.
The remainder of those given in the above graph are so-called
"late crop" states.
Best root development is obtained in relatively cool
soils. The young plants will withstand a temperature that
is several degrees below freezing.
During early growth it is highly essential that ample
soil moisture be maintained near the surface. New roots
will not develop in dry soil. Should the growth be sus-
pended the outer scales of the bulb mature, and when
growth is resumed the inner scales take on additional
growth, which results in splitting of the bulbs.
Onions grow best when there is plenty of daylight, or
during long days. Varieties differ in this respect but they
seem to do best when there are about 15 hours of daylight.
Possibly this explains why onions do not "bottom" early
irrespective of the time of planting. Plantings made in
January are less subject to weed growth, insect pests and
The bulk of the crop in Florida is planted directly in
the field. The soil must be in good tilth and thoroughly
pulverized. From 31/2 to 5 pounds of seed are required to
plant an acre. The seed is generally sown to a depth of
1/ to 1 inch although in muck soils the seed is often planted
2 inches deep.
The use of a seed drill is necessary for uniform dis-
tribution. The rows range from 14 to 24 inches apart
and are parallel to facilitate cultivating. Onion seed ger-
minate best when the soil temperature is about 65 degrees.
The root system of onions will not permit deep cultiva-
tion. If the field has been properly prepared in advance
of sowing the seed a minimum amount of cultivating will
be necessary. Hand tools are used almost exclusively in
the production of this crop as the plants in their early
-4.- ___ __ ';3_1; 4 ,-. -__-3 1 __ __ --
01Vj0gi rij1ttiiJA itnucr^. %tujn3
78 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
die the rows. With both types the double knife attachment
is used. This cuts a swath just beneath the soil surface
on both sides of the row. This kind of cultivating kills
small weeds and stirs the surface of the soil without cover-
ing the young plants. Weed growth, rainfall and other
conditions will determine the frequency of cultivating but
usually the plants are cultivated every week to ten days.
For the last cultivation some growers substitute a triple
set of shovels. The shovels turn a small amount of soil
against the rows, affording some protection to exposed
bulbs, giving them a better color. If the shovels are run
deep enough, many roots may be severed, thus hastening
maturity. This may be an important factor in Florida
under certain climatic or market conditions.
Irrigation and Drainage
The control of soil moisture is a prime necessity in
onion culture. Sub-irrigation or overhead systems are
quite satisfactory. Tiling of the land may serve a dual
purpose-drainage and irrigation-if properly done. While
there are no records available in Florida, irrigation plants
elsewhere have frequently more than doubled the yield. A
small area properly handled will be more productive, pro-
portionately, than larger areas carelessly managed.
The economical way to thin the rows is to bunch the
onions pulled and sell them on the local market. Thinning
White Bermuda onions grown in muck soil on the farm of the
University of Florida
is necessary and to permit proper growth a space of 4 to 5
inches should be left between the plants.
'able conditions for growth exi,
the field a crop may be made
the crop must be cured in some other:
has been successful, tobacco curing h
Muck soils are ordinarily well sut
but they require liberal amounts of p
'I'hcp D 1i a tfnrlanp'I nn th+ rlaQt +nf T
k-r--LJ --, I--
well in storage.
weather. One of the
is failure to cure the
T cured they will not
months of April and
ason for harvesting.
e crop not ripe then
manner. Kiln drying
houses being used for
applied with nitrogen,
hosDhate and potash.
rjvvu av~rvurnra 11an
ick soils. Experiments on these
rIIPAPr'TV'M'I.Tr A flr ArT.TC:T.TTT.MT?'-.
most crops, especially in the sandy soils of Florida, barn-
yard manure, chicken manure and most litter should be
conserved and made into compost. Onions thrive under
large quantities of organic matter. Organic matter not
only provides plant food but improves the physical condi-
tions of the soil, giving it greater water-holding capacity.
In many muck areas where onions are grown extensively,
it is not an unusual practice for the growers to give the land
a liberal application of barnyard manure. The beneficial
action of the bacteria is worth the cost. Usually it is good
practice to apply the manure to the crop grown ahead of
onions, unless it is well composted. Weed seed and a ten-
dency to keep the ground too open are the chief objections
to applying manure to onions.
Barnyard manure may not be available and cover crops
must then take its place. Most grasses, except nut and
Bermuda will add humus to the soil and should be allowed
to grow for the purpose of later turning under. Crotalaria,
a leguminous, rank-growing annual that is resistant to
nematode infection, is the most promising cover crop for
Florida truckers. Other good legumes are velvet beans,
cow peas and beggarweed.
There are advantages in starting onions in a good seed-
bed. The growing can be better controlled, the bulbs will
be more uniform and the yield per acre will probably be
Seed should be sown in drills in a well-prepared seed-
bed. About 2 pounds of seed should be planted for each
acre of field to be set. Both top and root pruning are
practiced to assist in developing stocky plants before they
are transplanted to the field. The leaves are cut back to
diameter) to fall
calls for onions o
necks, scallions, d:
caused by sprouti
or other injury. i
-nnf -4- nlnnr
decay. Grade No. 2 includes the
Sthe requirements of Grade No. 1.
LI )l: |_ nl~1:ui | J
82 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
1. Those propagated by divisions-Potato onions,
2. Those propagated by bulblets or top sets-Egyp-
tian or Winter onions.
3. Those propagated by seed-Yellow Globe Danvers,
Ebenezer, Prizetaker, Red Bermuda and other common
A very small proportion of the onions produced in the
United States fall in the first two classes. The leading
varieties of the third class are listed by Morse (1923) as
1. Australian Brown
2. Extra Early Red Flat
3. Ohio Yellow Globe
5. Red Wethersfield
6. Southern Red Globe
7. Southport White Globe
8. Southport Yellow Globe
9. White Portugal
10. Yellow Danvers
11. Yellow Globe Danvers
12. Yellow Strasburg
The Spanish varieties, Sweet Spanish, Denia, and Va-
Onions marketed in this manner find favor on many tables. They must be
used at an early stage or they will become too "hot"
SOME FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS
lencia, are increasing in favor. This is also true of
Recent studies have shown that Prizetaker and Yellow
Globe Danvers are not adapted to the short days in the
tropics and sub-tropics.
Australian Brown has many desirable qualities. It is
a very good keeper. It requires a longer time to mature,
however, than many other varieties and this is objection-
able because of the difficulty of curing during June.
White Portugal is grown as an early-market onion and
for sets. They do not keep as well as most of the yellow
varieties such as the Yellow Globe Danvers.
Carefully conducted strain and variety tests should be
used as a basis for selection and breeding. Some of the
Spanish varieties are preferred for this purpose.
Good seed is the first and most important factor in
successful onion production. Onion seed deteriorates rap-
idly in this climate. The following comparisons show how
onion seed in Connecticut lost vitality with age. The seed
were produced in California:
Seed less than 1 year old ........... 400 88.18
Seed between 1 and 2 years old...... 220 77.46
Seed between 2 and 3 years old...... 2,023 57.34
Seed between 3 and 4 years old --.... 1 10.00
Seedmen claim that in a single year onion seed loses
practically all its ability to germinate.
Uniformity in size, shape, color and time of maturity
of bulbs is essential. Methods usually employed in grow-
ing onion seed for the trade are not all that could be de-
sired. As a consequence there are usually wide variations
in a field grown from such seed from a single source. For
instance, the Ohio Experiment Station in an onion variety
test found one strain, supposedly a Globe variety, which
had but 65.8 per cent Globes. It showed 2 per cent scal-
lion, 9 per cent flat, 7 per cent off color and 26.1 per cent
bottle-neck. This was not the poorest lot tested. Off-
color is a serious trouble, since a red or yellow onion in a
pile of white ones is very conspicuous. Only 8 of the 66
strains tested passed a perfect record as to color.
This is one of the most destructive diseases in Florida.
It may be recognized by the furry, violet-colored growth
84 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
upon the leaves. It is especially conspicuous when the
leaves are wet with dew. Within a few days large areas
become pale green and then yellow. The seed stalk as
well as the leaves may be affected. They collapse and die.
The disease is caused by a fungus called "Pernospora
schleideniana" which works very rapidly in high tempera-
tures in the presence of dews, rains, cloudy and foggy
weather. It is often most destructive to a seed crop.
Control: Good aeration of the field will do much to-
ward controlling mildew. This may be facilitated by run-
ning the rows in the same direction as the prevailing winds
and by avoiding wind breaks or other obstructions to the
wind. If the rows are planted somewhat wider apart, bet-
ter aeration is possible.
Onions should not be planted on the same piece of land
oftener than once in three or four years. The resting
spores of the fungus are carried on diseased leaves. It is
imperative that these be kept away from diseasefree fields.
Spraying has been employed to some extent. A 4-4-50
bordeaux mixture, with 3 pounds of resin fish-oil soap to
each 50 gallons, is quite effective. Several applications
may be required to protect the young foliage.
ue on ac-
le lives in
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICU
age usually results when precipitation is highest and
temperatures are above normal.
Control: The spotted and convergent ladybird 1:
the insidious flower bug and the larva of the syrphi
prey upon thrips. Heavy rains often destroy many of
Dusts and sprays usually are not effective as c4
measures for thrips. A soap-nicotine-sulphate spray
5 per cent nicotine sulphate dust has been helpful.
of the most promising substances for spraying with
tine is "penetrol." This increases the effectiveness
nicotine by at least 33 per cent.
Control: Clean cultivation, burning or clearii
fence rows, ditch banks, etc., will be found effective.
tiplier onions or onion sets should not be planted n
field which is intended for onions, since they ser
breeding places. In Florida, plantings made in
weather are less likely to be seriously attacked. Ke(
plants growing by providing ample moisture and ava
plant food. An onion crop, if properly handled, mal
grow an attack of thrips.
This insect causes great loss in some places. I
are attacked at all stages of growth. The bulbs ar
neled, and this is usually followed by decay. The m
is white to yellowish. It is blunt behind, tapering t(
the head. Adults are greyish brown, hump-backed
that are sluggish in their movements.
Control: One of the most effective control met
is a trap crop. Where every 50th or 100th row is le
cant in seeding the field and later planted or set to
lions, a good breeding ground is provided for the maj
By destroying the plants at the proper stage, the ci
is quite effective.
A poisoned bait is sometimes used effectively. Li
recommends sodium arsenite. 1/ ounce; molasses, 1
water, 1 gallon; chopped onion, 1/2 pound. The b
placed in the field in shallow pans, about 24 of them*
acre. The flies are attracted to the bait prior to th(
of egg laying. Therefore, the bait must be in the
before this time.
Variety Plants D
Beans (snap) Giant Stringless % peck S
(Green) Black Valentine I F
Beans, Wax Davis White Wax A
Wardell Kidney Wax
Beans, Bush Fordhook Bush 60 pounds A
(Lima), Pole Seiva 30 pounds A
Broccoli Mammoth White 4 oz. seed I
Italian Green Sprouting
Cabbage Long Island 12 oz. seed E
Premium Flat Dutch
(Chinese) 8 oz.
Cauliflower Early Snowball 16 oz. C
I Erfurt | 9,000 plants
Early Golden Self-blanching
Celery Specials 8 oz. seed C
Late Green Top 60,000 plants
Easy Blanching I
Variety I Plani
I Per A,
Improved White Spine |
Cucumbers Davis Perfect 4 lbs. s(
Eggplants Florida Highbush 6 oz. se
Purple Spineless 3,000 pli
New Orleans Market pl_
Endive 12 ounci
Lettuce I Big Boston I 2 pound
Perkins Mammoth Podded
Okra Long Green 8 pounce
I White Velvet
Crystal Wax 8 to 12 bi
Onions White Bermuda 9,000 ph
Red Bermuda 5 lbs. se
I Seeds or I
Variety I Plants I 1
Alaska Extra Early
Peas (English) Thomas Laxton 2 bushels
Peppers Ruby King 12 oz.
World Beater (Ruby Giant) l 9,000 plants
Romaine I 12 oz.
Spinach I Improved Curled Savoy 10 lbs. seed
Squash Patty Pan 2 pounds
Early Crook Neck
Mammoth White Bush
Marglobe I/2 lb. seed
Tomatoes Livingston's Globe I 6,000 to
I Stone 9,000 plants
The Cruciferae are of considerable economic i:
ance. This family probably possesses a larger num
crop plants than any other.
The cultivated crucifers of importance as veq
crops in America are:
Brassica oleracea Var. Capitata (cabbage)
Brassica oleracea Var. botrytis (cauliflower)
Brassica oleracea Var. acephala (kale)
Brassica oleracea Var. gemmifera (Brussels spi
Brassica oleracea Var. caulo-rapa (kohl rabi)
Brassica oleracea Var. italica (broccoli)
Brassica Var. rapa (turnip)
Brassica Var. napobrassica (rutabaga)
Brassica oleracea Var. juncea (Chinese mus
Brassica oleracea Var. pekinensis (Chinese cable
Brassica oleracea Var. chinensis (Chinese cable
Raphanus sativus (Radish)
Armoracia rusticana (horse radish
Many of our common weeds which have been
duced from Europe, belong also to this family.
CLIMATIC AND SOIL REQUIREMENTS FOR CAU
FLOWER AND BROCCOLI
Temperature and Moisture
In most parts of Florida the plants can be left
open but in cold regions and at the approach ol
weather it is best to pull a number of plants with
adhered to their roots and store them in a suitable
cellar. When ready for transplanting the following ,
to the fields they would be in condition to form cur
These plants attain their most perfect develop,
those areas where the temperature during the latter p
the growing period is cool and uniform and where
moist conditions prevail. Low temperatures dela)
turity, reduce the size, and lower the yield per acre.
tremely low temperatures during the early growth ]
may cause them to "button" or head prematurely.
humidity and wind storms are injurious. Extremely
temperatures during the time when the curds are mal
may cause them to become yellow, ricey, fuzzy, or
and may cause such rapid growth of the curd that
* "Truck Crop Plants" by Jones & Rosa.
SOME FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS 91
ist impossible to harvest in the best stage of develop-
;, especially when large acreages are being handled.
y varieties, however, are often grown successfully as
ig or fall crops, in inland regions.
'here should always be a sufficient supply of moisture
.e soil to insure a continuous and steady growth. Uni-
.ly distributed rainfall or well-regulated irrigation is
ssary for the successful production of this crop.
Here a number of different soil types are available,
medium and heavy soils should be used for varieties
h mature in the fall and spring, as they are cool and
n moisture. When the crop is brought to maturity
ig the rainy season, it should be planted in sandy or
soils so that harvestingp can be done without PettinP
i or plants wnicn are space ui to iz incnes apart.
'o sow one acre of seedbed, 12 to 15 pounds of seed
sufficient, and it should produce plants sufficient for
cres. Plants which have been stunted by remaining in
seedbed too long should not be used.
action Against Frost
Vhen the local conditions are such as compel this crop
alloww one of another kind the same season, endeavor
ake the ground so firm either by rolling or tramping
re, planting is done on the
; so they will not be subme
*e Myo Ltl2 Illt i.LgcUli
id about 24 to 30 i
: FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS
with other truck crops, there is a considerable dif-
e of opinion among growers as to the value of the
s fertilizers. Many of the most successful growers
rge amounts of barnyard manure. Dairying makes
I combination with these crops, as an abundant sup-
manure can be obtained, and a good system of crop
)n can be established. In certain sections the pro-
ity of the soil must be maintained by the use of com-
il fertilizers. The Chinese growers in the west for-
used large quantities of fish meal as a source of
e market demand is for a pure white curd. Varieties
ave a small amount of foliage do not cover the curd
tect it from the sun. Exposed curds develop a brown
nt that is very objectionable. To prevent discolora-
he outer leaves must be gathered together and tied,
the small inner leaves still protect the curd. A dif-
kind of color or tying material may be used each
Le field is gone over, so that at the time of harvest,
ants which have been used the longest may be identi-
The method of breaking the leaves over the curd is
,tisfactory, as the leaves may be displaced by wind,
f decay starts the curd will become yellow. The
of time for curds to develop for market depends
rds may be ready for harvesting in 3 or 4 days during
weather. Two weeks or longer are needed to mature
op during cool weather. The curds of some varieties
cellent type of cart for hauling cauliflower, as well as other similar
vegetables, from the field to the packing shed
FTlP"TPA'1T':r/rVTr" MVfi Af~R.Tr
are protected and need not be tied. All curds do :
velop uniformly necessitating several cuttings. TI
should be gone over every few days and all curds
for marketing should be cut. There is very little
of cutting too early. They must be harvested wh
curds are compact. GRADE AND SHIP PROMPTLY
The heads are cut, trimmed and thrown into
wheeled cart and hauled to the ends of the rows,
they are transferred to wagons, or trucks, to be ha
the packing shed. A sufficient number of jacket
are left on at the time of harvest to give good prol
Many growers cut the stem to the desired length
field so that it will not need further trimming at t
packing. The tips of the leaves may be cut back ,
of harvest or they may be left intact until the c
packed. If the plants have not made a good group
curds will not grow large regardless of how long ti
main in the field.
The axles of the carts are bent, thus elevating t
above the top of the standing plants. The bed of t]
works on a hinge to facilitate unloading.
INSPECTION OF CURDS
It is necessary to keep in mind how the curd b
pear by the time it reaches the market. Appear(
an important factor in the sale of any commodity,
an over-mature head gets into the crate, it will p7
spoil the appearance of the entire crate. Over-i
curds are very conspicuous. Younger curds are mo:
cealed in their jacket leaves.
If a part of the field has become over-mature it
to accept the loss and continue to cut only the de
heads rather than attempt to harvest those that e
in the best marketable condition. Occasionally du
rush period the heads are cut and left inverted
field for a short time; this checks the growth and pi
losses which might otherwise occur.
YIELDS AND RETURNS
3 FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS
1leois al er Mney are reauy Lo cUL, ine sooner Lney
wilted after harvest. If the curds are spread by
ne they reach the markets they are almost unsale-
If the curd is slightly spread at time of packing,
inpsa is anlmaid hv t.hp plnnration nf
Dear tne inaviviaual power Duc
a granular appearance of the cu
+- o ;+ I-AlllXl l^ Th7;l1n -
,s. 'ilis conaltion
JrOuiLL~U IAJ u~ uur; IA) J9I'.J OruI, UULL USV~31 LLSC: UC3L
3: - -Cc - -; _- :- rmq- ; ---'-* .--- I- -
96 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
this temperature. At 5 C. the yellowing was slow
at 0 C. yellowing had just begun at the end of a n
Injury by worms reduces saleability of the cu
worms are present in the crate, they leave on th
curd a green excresence which destroys its saleabi
may cause condemnation of the entire lot by the in
The presence of aphis on the leaves at time of pa
also objectionable, as they will migrate to the
between the branches of the curd during transit.
These vegetables are more subject to deteriorn
transit than are many others. This makes necessa
Trimming and packing cauliflower. This is the standard ci
grading in order that the product can be placed u]
tant markets in good condition.
Shipment is made in single-layer "pony" crate
curds are set erect in the crate, the foliage is t
to a bulge, and the three narrow slats are nailed
the top. When placed in the car the crates are i
so that the melting ice water will trickle down c
The main system now used in the loading of
known as the "pigeon-hole method." By this sysi
~rr\r, C~n 1~,+Cm ,,~ r~rlrr Cr\~ ~me~o rr;Fln nn~ ~a+rrmn~r
98 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
in one side of the field. These are carefully roug(
the plants which produce the best curds are saved f
production. When following this method, unE
plants should not be allowed to flower in the vicinit
best means of obtaining good seed is to select a
the most desirable plants in the field and cage them
vent cross-pollination. A cage measuring about fo
each way and covered with muslin usually gives s,
tory service. If a few flies or other insects are e:
within the cage, pollination is usually facilitated.
best to have the side of the cage held together by
as these can be taken out without breaking the boai
the cages can be stored in knockeddown form. TI
editions within the cage usually favor aphis attack,
plant should be well dusted, or sprayed, when fi
closed. If 25 or 30 ladybird beetles are enclosed wil
plant there will not be much danger of the aphis
The vest aphid control is obtained when a cloth trailer is pulled be
duster to hold the dust near the plants. (From Agr. Ext. Cir. I
trouble. The seed from each plant should be ha)
separately, and the selections planted side by side in
lel rows for comparison. Under conditions of comic
production, it is best to retain only one of the p
lots. A number of the best plants within the selec
should be again caged, and the remainder of the
open-pollinated, and the seed used for the commerce
the following year. By following this system there
gradual improvement in uniformity and quality over
od of years.
large part of the seed, especially the early varieties,
n this country is imported from Denmark. This seed
wn mainly on the Island of Amager. It is sown in
,11 in seed beds. Later, the plants are transferred to
mnd grown in the greenhouse during the winter, and
spring, they are set in the field. The seed usually
'es in September.
INSECTS AND DISEASES
ese crops are subject to the same insect enemies as
ge, which are Aphis, Cabbage worm, Harlequin Cab-
worm and are controlled in the same manner. We
again to refer you to Volume 39, "Plant Diseases &
and Their Treatment," published by the State De-
ent of Agriculture.
me of the same diseases that affect cabbage must be
ed against in producing these crops.
)re specific diseases are noted below.
lyton (1924) reports whiptail, a malnutritional dis-
prevalent on Long Island. The leaves become nar-
than normal and have ruffled and irregular mar-
When badly affected, the plants are much dwarfed
o not produce a curd, while those plants less badly
ed produce curds that are ricey and leafy. The plants
how whiptail symptoms when very young and later
r and produce normal leaves and curds. Large plants
ed by whiptail, however, do not recover. This dis-
s due generally to unfavorable soil conditions and
found to be much more prevalent on soils heavily
I with commercial fertilizer (1 ton to the acre) than
1 not fertilized. Heavy applications of S (400 pounds
acre) also produced whiptail. The ill effects of
fertilizer and of S applications can be overcome by
Clayton states that it is becoming "increasingly
Ilt to grow potatoes and these crops in the same
)n. Liming to prevent whiptail makes conditions fa-
e for scab; sulphuring to prevent scab predisposes
ints to whiptail. Certain growers have already met
tuation by setting aside land for two' separate rota-
Severe aphis attack may also cause whiptail to
p. Tests conducted on Long Island showed a con-
ble difference among strains in susceptibility to this
1A Ul-VirbLL` C~L~~
100 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Brown Rot (Alternaria brassicae)
Brown Rot is mainly a transit disease and develops
most rapidly when the temperature and humidity are high.
The head is browned and spotted and is unmarketable when
infections are numerous. During most seasons the disease
is not sufficiently injurious to justify control measures
other than seedbed and field rotation. At time of packing,
all of the heads which show any brown or decayed spots
should be discarded. Weimer (1924) recommends that
Dect rnectlon. it is Dellevea that tne fungus normally enters
the host through the stomatal pore. After 2 to 4 weeks
the leaf may be so badly injured that it eventually drops
from the plant.
As to control, Weimer recommends (1) planting seed
in non-infected soil and protection of the seedbed from pos-
sible sources of infection by windbreaks and the removal
of infected plants from the vicinity; (2) immersing the
seeds in water for 10 minutes at 55 C. or 30 minutes at
50 C.; (3) a system of crop rotation, whereby cruciferous