Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Reasons for raising more swine
 Breeds of swine
 Methods of swine breeding
 Swine breeding program
 Care and management of the breeding...
 Feeds for swine
 Equipment for swine
 Common diseases and parasites of...
 Marketing hogs
 Slaughtering and curing pork
 Recipes for pork from U.S.D.A.
 Showing and judging hogs

Group Title: Bulletin Florida. Department of Agriculture
Title: Hog production and marketing in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089057/00001
 Material Information
Title: Hog production and marketing in Florida
Alternate Title: New series bulletin - Florida State Department of Agriculture ; 21
Physical Description: 278 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lewis, L. H ( Lester H )
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: March, 1946
Subject: Swine -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by L.H. Lewis.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "March, 1946".
General Note: Table of contents (p. 279-285).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089057
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ALD8293
oclc - 36127762
alephbibnum - 002198416

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Reasons for raising more swine
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Breeds of swine
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Methods of swine breeding
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Swine breeding program
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
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        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Care and management of the breeding herd
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
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        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Feeds for swine
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
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        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Equipment for swine
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
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        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Common diseases and parasites of swine
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
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        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Marketing hogs
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
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        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
    Slaughtering and curing pork
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
    Recipes for pork from U.S.D.A.
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
    Showing and judging hogs
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
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Full Text

vw Ini

iNATHAN -iMAYO, UfomtMIsstoner

Bulletin No. 21 New Series March, 1946

Hog Production

and Marketing

in Florida
Livestock Marketing Specialist of
Florida State Marketing Bureau
Jacksonville, Florida

NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner

V I N nutrition ................................. 69- 9-



We wish to express our appreciation to all agencies froi
whose data materials were taken and especially to the Florid
Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Extension Servici
Florida Livestock Sanitary Board, Agricultural agents of th
various railroads, U. S. Department of Agriculture, State Agr
cultural Experiment Stations, various Meat Packers and diJ
ferent Swine Breeders' Record Associations.

We wish to give personal expression of appreciation to Dri
A. L. Shealy, R. S. Glasscock, George Davis of the Florida E)
periment Station, and to Neill Rhodes of the State Marketin



Reasons For Raising More Swine
The hog is one of the most dependable sources of agricultural
income being widely recognized for its efficient utilization of
feed and its adaptation to various systems of farming, and being
produced on about three-fourths of the farms of the United
States and consuming from 40 to 50 per cent of the entire corn
crop. In agricultural value it represents about one-tenth of the
total agricultural income of the nation. (Before World War II).
There are many valuable qualities found in pork products,
and more pork is consumed per capital than any other meat in
the U. S. A. The South consumes a higher percentage of pork
than any other like area of the United States. The following
Table shows the regional annual per capital consumption of pork
for the U. S. A. (Furnished by Armour & Company)
Section Urban Rural Total
North Atlantic ...........61.5 pounds 85.5 pounds 67.7 pounds
East North Central ...... 69.3 pounds 109.9 pounds S8.5 pounds
West North Central ...... 67.2 pounds 113.1 pounds 97.8 pounds
South Atlantic ........... 76.3 pounds 117.6 pounds 107.1 pounds
South Central ............ 79.7 pounds 121.3 pounds 112.8 pounds
Western ................. 11.2 pounds 81.5 pounds 71.3 pounds
Total .................. 66.3 pounds 109.7 pounds 89.6 pounds

"During a 10-year period from 1932 to 1941, the average
annual per capital consumption of meat for the United States
was 137.84 pounds of which 68.83 pounds were pork, 54.53
pounds were beef, 7.75 pounds veal, 6.73 pounds were mutton
and lamb, and 12.67 pounds of lard, making a total of these
meats and lard of 150.51 pounds." (USDA).
There are numerous advantages of swine on Florida farms,
1. To provide a home-grown meat supply and to add variety
to the family food supply; pork is high in protein and fat, is
very palatable, and can be cooked with a greater number of
vegetables than any other meat; it is high in health-giving
qualities, containing a wide variety of amino acids and is very
high in the Vitamin B's; it is one of the richest and most easily
digested of all meats when eaten in the proper quantities.
2. It is suitable for curing, and smoking enhances its taste
and it is thought its keeping qualities. The fat of pork, if

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'hey use by-products of the field, dairy, and ac
ibers or roots, as well as grains, and seeds from
ume crops, garbage, etc.
. higher price is generally obtained by selling
rough hogs than by selling them as raw produce

best adapted to diversified and intensified farming, as they
have a peculiar advantage where a large income is expected on
a small investment or small acreage, and the income is usually
quick as they obtain market weight at an early age.
13. Swine will dress a higher per cent than most meat
animals, dressing on well-finished animals between 75 and 80
per cent.
14. They are prolific and capable of producing, under
proper care and management, two litters of pigs per year
weighing 200 pounds each in a period of 6 to 7 months; and
the gilts may be bred when from 9 to 10 months of age and
farrow on or before their first birthday anniversary. The fact
that hogs are prolific and early maturing adds to their useful-
ness and popularity.
15. With adequate fencing, self-feeding devices, etc. crops
can be harvested by hogs and save much labor. Numerous feed
crops can be grown in Florida adaptable to hog-feeding oper-

16. Purebred hogs and improved high grades have done
well in Florida.
17. There are approximately 35,000,000 acres of land in
Florida, of which 8,000,000 to 12,000,000 acres are adapted to
the production of feed crops suitable for swine-feeding; further-
more rainfall is abundant and temperature mild,-making for
a growth of feed for swine the year-round.
18. Florida is not producing its present pork needs, there-
fore there is an opportunity for the expansion of swine in

The origin or the ancestry of swine is lost in antiquity, but
the remains of one of the progenitors have been found in the
rocks of the Middle Miocene to the Pliocene age in India,
Africa, and Europe; also the earliest representatives of the
hog family appear in the formations of the Eocene period of
both Europe and North America. Geologists claim that it dates
from the Pliocene period--even before man. The exact origin
of domestic swine, according to zoology, is not definitely known,
but it is generally accepted that they descended from the wild
boar Sus scrofa of North Africa, Europe, and Asia.
The Orient appears to be the first section of the world to
have domesticated hogs. The names "hog" and "swine" seem

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hout knowing in advance the essential functions involve


2. The farmer's inclination to produce hogs; as he should
know that he likes hogs and that he will do everything he can
to make them thrive on his farm.
3. The quantity of by-products that could be-eaten by hogs
which otherwise would be wasted.
4. The division of the farm into suitable crops or pastures
for year-round grazing for hogs. Ample and necessary fencing
is a limiting factor.
5. Ample water of good quality and plenty of shade are
6. Producers should endeavor to produce two litters,
6 to 8 pigs per litter from each sow, or 12 to 16 pigs per sow
7. Plenty of feed for the young pigs and the brood sow,
and sufficient feed of the right kinds to finish the litters to 190
to 225 pounds, live weight, in 6 to 8 months.
8. The corn-hog ratio is the number of bushels of No. 3
yellow corn which equals the value of 100 lbs. of hog live
weight. The more bushels of corn one can purchase with 100
lbs. live weight of hog, generally the more profitable his feeding
9. The protection of hogs against disease, parasites, ex-
posure, starvation, etc.
10. The quality of breeding stock one intends to use. A
purebred boar of quality, breeding and type is indispensable:
likewise one should produce ample quantity and quality of
11. How do profits from hogs compare with other livestock
or will the crops be sold through livestock? (Hogs).
12. Is one generally informed on good breeding, feeding,
herd management and marketing practices?
13. Can the necessary grain equivalent or concentrate feeds
be raised which are suitable for finishing hogs ?
14. Does one intend to use the proper protein and mineral
supplements necessary for growth and development?
15. Can feeds be raised cheaply enough to stay with hogs
under adverse conditions?
16. The nearness to markets or kind of markets that are
accessible and thle degree of cooperation that may be obtained
from the neighbors in making sales. As far as possible one
should practice timely breeding to fit timely selling, to obtain
best prices..


November ............... 9.76 percent............ 8.90 percent


Breeds of Swine
Prior to the development of the railroads of the United States
and during their early history, the type of hog which went to
market existed in one 'which carried a large frame and strong

legs so that it could be driven. in most instances it was not a
highly finished market animal. With the opening up of the
West in what is known as the "Corn Belt," producers began
to ship hogs to market rather than drive them. This ultimately
resulted in a demand for a hog to consume large quantities of
corn and one with early maturing characteristics and less ability
to travel on foot.
Many breeders then selected the early maturing kind, with
less frame, finer in bone, and finally the "chuffy type." Later
producers saw the extreme to which they had gone in these
so-called "hot-bloods" or the "chuffy type," and the need
for making a change to a more desirable type. They then began
the selection of what is known as the "big type" which was
long, leggy, narrow and shallow, but had the redeeming feature
of large litters and plenty of milk. However this type was too
slow in maturing, was coarse, and about as undesirable and
unprofitable to producers as the smaller, fine boned, "chuffy,
hot-bloods" described above.
Fortunately there were many far-seeing breeders who held
the idea that the "Intermediate Type" hog was more profitable,
and beginning about 20 years ago much investigational and
experimental work was started to ascertain the type of hog
necessary to meet producer and consumer wishes. This resulted

. -.. a4-

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Report of teie aegtonat owsne ijreearng ijaooratory, Lme's,
Iowa, June 30, 1943, describes the possible dimensions of a well-
finished hog of 225 pounds, live weight, as being about 40
to 42 inches from the tail setting to a point between the ears,
width 11 to 12 inches uniformly throughout, depth 14 to 15
inches just back of the shoulders.
In Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 322
is found the following statement: "A number of measurements
were taken on different carcasses." While the authors were
unable to devise any system which was absolutely accurate, yet
it was found after some practice that certain measurements
could be made with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Table 2-A
shows the measurements taken and represent the average meas-
urements for the carcass of an Intermediate Type of hog, live
weight 225 pounds. (See Fig. 2 also.)

Fig. 2
Snout to rear toe.................. 67 inches
Snout to first thoracic vertebra..... 17 inches
Carcass ) First thoracic vertebra to H-bone... 28.5 inches
Measurements H-bone to rear toe ................ 22.8 inches
(See Cut) Depth of chest ..................... 11.5 inches
Depth of fat back ................. 1.8 inches
Circumference of fore shank ........ 5.8 inches

"The length of the body proper seemed to vary with th(
different individuals rather than with type. The Intermediate
type, either hand-fed or self-fed, proved the most desirable of tho
different types studied."

I --- R- *__ *,-

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-'I -


The following is suggested for Intermediate type or the
most desirable hog:
1. Productiveness,-
(a) Superior prolificacy.
(b) Broodiness-a good utilizer of feed, producer of
plenty of milk.
(c) Adequate length to insure 12-14 evenly spaced teats
6 to 7 on each side and opposite each other, extending
well forward and to the rear.
(d) Vigor, hardiness and forage ability, a hustler and a
2. Feeding Quality, -
(a) Be able to produce 200 or more pounds of pork per
animal in 180 days or less; adequate size, ruggedness
and quality without coarseness.
(b) Meaty, wide enough to give muscling, deep enough
for the elimination of excess fat back; and plenty of
good bacon; long enough, but not so long as to delay
early maturity.
(c) Strong straight legs of medium length over a short
nnoI4T* Qn .A cys4T c mrl an tho nr f nr tIm hna+lv

avoid too broad an anin


of ribs because it produces undesirable loin cuts. The
body should be oblong round but more oblong than
(e) A uniform gradual arched back of moderate height is
preferred (discard highly arched backs) and bring the
top of the arch near the center of the back instead of
toward the rear end of it.
(f) Meaty shoulders of reasonable spread across the top
is desirable but should be in line with the width of
the body with no depression behind them. The
shoulder smooth.
4. As to Meat, preferably more meat well finished with less
fat. As the war is over, excess lard will again become a drag
on the market.
(a) The flesh should be firm and solid even when in high
market condition.
(b) A heavy jowl, wasty middle, wrinkled flabby belly,
should be avoided, and boars should be avoided with
extra heavy sheaths.
(c) Avoid extreme wide backs, yet the animal should have
a good width-not a fish back (or narrow back).
5. Breed Character,-
(a) All medium type breeds should have firmness of flesh.
(b) Clean cut trimness without flabbiness or coarseness
(c) Head, clean jowled and face wide and full and medium
to short in length. Head should indicate character.
(d) Broodiness, prolificacy in sows; alertness and vigor
in boars.
(e) Any strong features characteristic of the breed that
are for the best interest of economy and breed char-
acter should be retained.

Type of Hogs vs. Production Efficiency
The material in Table 3 was taken from Departmental
Circular No. 698, U.S.D.A.
"While this work seems to have some merit, further experi-
mental work is necessary for final conclusion."
It is, however, the opinion of research workers on this
subject that the future hog must have prolificacy, early matur-
ity, be an economical utilize of feed, carry a high dressing per
cent when finished, and at the same time not produce an excess
of fat.


Within the American breeds of the Intermediate or Meat
type hog, there exists within each breed considerable variation
in type, so much so that it is more important to select for type
in swine production than for minor points. Often there exists as
much variation within the various breeds as between the
The number and weight, at 70 days of age, of pigs weaned from the
Small, Intermediate, and Large type of sows.
Per Cent Pigs Average Average Gain
Type of Sow Saved to Weight To Weaning
Weaning Per Pig Age
Small 68.4 32.1 29.6
Intermediate 71.3 37.5 84.7
Large 68.4 39.3 36.5
3 Tests Average Feed Per
Type of Sow Daily Gain 100 lbs. of Gain
Small 0.97 417 2/3
Intermediate 1.21 1/2 400 1/3
Large 1.14 2/8 408
Dressing Per Cent Live Weight 220-225 lbs.
Sm all ............................. 77.1%
Intermediate ...................... 74.8%
Large ................. .......... 74.9%

Some of the principal breeds of swine are-Duroc-Jersey,
Poland China, Spotted Poland China, Hampshire, Berkshire,
Chester White, and a few others. The relative popularity and
distribution of the principal breeds of hogs in the United
States or in Florida may be had by writing to the Secretary
of the different Swine Breeders' Record Associations. (These
Associations and addresses are listed in Appendix of this
bulletin, Page 276.)
The choice of a breed is largely a matter of personal prefer-
ence. It is generally wise, however, to choose that breed most
common in the neighborhood. Naturally in selecting animals
for breeding purposes, one should take ilto account certain
historic facts such as the type and adaptation, the number of
pigs per litter, the percentage of pigs weaned and fattened,
and rapidity of litter growth, since these are factors in econom-
ical production.
In the material which follows is found a list of the purebred
breeds of hogs and a description of each breed. The principal
-,-- -V +1,n +-;.1 TT T) A



-- -_- - __-
The Duroc-Jersey breed originated in the northeastern
section of the United States. It was derived from mating strains
Af red hogs developed in sections of New York and New Jersey.
Those in New Jersey were originally called Jersey Reds; those
in New York are said to have been developed by a man who
owned a noted stallion named "Duroc." Because of his popu-
larity the name "Duroc" was given to the red hogs which this
man was breeding. Several years after the independent breed-
ing of "Durocs" and "Jersey Reds," these hogs were intermin-
gled in breeding, with the result that there was formed the breed
known at the present time as Duroc-Jersey. This breed is red
in color, without admixture of any other colors. The popular
color is referred to as cherry red; some animals, however, are
quite dark, while others are quite light.
From its early history the Duroc-Jersey breed was noted for
hardiness and prolificacy. It became popular in the United
States at about the time Poland China breeders were producing
the small type of hogs or so-called "hot-bloods." This popu-
larity had much to do with making the Duroc-Jersey breed as
widespread as it is today. The legs are of medium length, with
good bone. The sows are prolific and are good milkers and
Pigs of this breed of good type attain a weight of 200 pounds
or more at 6 months of age and are capable of producing a
greater weight at a profit if market conditions justify their being
fed for a longer time. The feet and bones of Duroc-Jersey hogs
generally have good quality. Boars of the breed are massive
and have good length and depth with good backs. Duroc-Jersey
sows generally are upstanding, having good depth with good
backs, as well as good feet and legs.

Poland China
The Poland China hog originated in Butler and Warren
Counties, Ohio, and is possibly the oldest American breed of
hogs. In the seventies, two farmers-A. C. Moore, of Canton.
Ohio, and D. M. Magie, of Oxford, Ohio, developed a widespread
reputation for their hogs and advertised them quite extensively.
Their hogs were known at that time, respectively, as the "Moore
hogs" and the "Magie hogs.'" From the Moore and Magie hogs
was developed the breed now known as the "Poland China."
The early Poland China hog was a large, rugged, coarse-
eared, heavy-boned, prolific, spotted animal that attained a

Fig. 6-Poland China Boar-Chief of Staff. Courtesy American Poland China
Record Association, Union Stock Yards, Chicago, Ill.

Fig. 7-Gracious Lady. A 411 424. Ist Junior Yearling-Senior and Reserve
Grand Champion Sow. Iowa, 1944. Bred by Emmert Bros., Mason City, Iowa.
Owned and shown by Brown and Brown, Hampton, Iowa. Courtesy American Poland
China Record Association.


good market weight but was not of the easiest feeding type. On
only very few farms at present can one find any of the old "''hot-
blood" Poland Chinas. A large proportion of growers of
Poland Chinas now keep the Intermediate type. This is the type
that has become by far the most popular because of its great
utility. The boars have big, heavy bone, are rugged, possess
plenty of length and depth, and with it have good quality. The
sows are prolific, good sucklers, and are capable of raising large
litters. They have plenty of length, are smooth, with good,
full shoulders, and well rounded hams. They are naturally
active, take plenty of exercise, and are capable of producing
strong litters at farrowing time. The color of the present-day
Poland China generally is black. There are six white points
on Poland Chinas, namely, all four feet, the tip of the tail, and
a splash of white in the face.
The Poland China is not surpassed by any breed in produc-
ing a finished carcass at an early age. The meat finds ready
sale on the market. Pigs of this breed may be made to weigh
200 pounds at 6 months of age.

Fig. 8-Wildfire. The above photo is one of the easier feeding, thicker made
animals, harmonizing well with public opinion today. Courtesy National Spotted
Poland China Record Association.
Spotted Poland China
The Spotted Poland China in many ways is very much
like the Poland China but there is much more white on the body

VW I~..L1V1I2I1N i r i~ruixhlULI UIja

Fig. 9--Calico. Grand Champion Sow of Ohio State Fair. We present her
picture as near a perfect ideal in type and color. Courtesy National Spotted
Poland China Record Association, Indianapolis, Ind.

Fig. 10--Chester White Boar, "The Balancer," 454517. Courtesy Chester
White Swine Record Association.


of the former. The appearance is rather that of a black hog
with numerous white spots all over.
The general type found in this breed is a hog with good
length, fairly straight, broad .back, good depth of body, legs of
medium length with heavy bone of medium quality.. The head
is short and broad, and the ears are somewhat larger than those
of the Poland China breed. The sows are prolific and raise good-
sized litters.
Chester White
The Chester White breed had its origin in Chester County,
Pa. The large, coarse hogs found in the Eastern States,
especially in Pennsylvania, early in the nineteenth century, were
a mixture of the Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and Cheshire hogs,
all of which were of English origin. In Pennsylvania these
hogs were crossed on smaller-type hogs, but the most successful
cross was by using an imported hog from Bedfordshire, England.
This crossing was continuously improved up to 1848, when the
breed reached such a degree of purity that it could be relied on
to reproduce its desirable qualities. It was named "Chester
County White" in 1848, but the word "County" was soon
dropped and the present name, Chester White, became estab-

Fig. 11--Chester White Sow, Leslie Lillie, courtesy Chester White Swine
Record Ass'n., Levi P. Moore, Secy., Rochester, Ind.

Fig 12-Berkshire Boar-Courtesy American Berkshire Swine Record Ass'n.,
Springfield, I111.

Fig. 13-Berkshire Sow-Courtesy American Berkshire Swine Record Ass'n.
Springfield, Ill.


The Chester White is very prolific. It has a good disposition
and easily adapts itself to its environment. It matures early,
and, being a good grazer, a good feeder, and possessing good
dressing qualities, has demonstrated its utility on many farms
in the United States.
The Bershire is one of the oldest of the improved breeds
of swine. It was originated and developed in England and is
. .- I I 1 il 'i _-j -_ ll-- .- -- -- -1 0 -C l

white belt around its body, including the shoulders and front
legs. The remainder of the hog is black.
The Hampshire in general appearance is smooth and has
legs that are rather fine boned and of fairly good quality. The
body of a Hampshire hog is not so broad as that of a hog of
the other Intermediate breeds, but it is deep and smooth and
produces desirable sides for bacon. The jowls are light, the
head is small and narrow, the snout rather straight and of
medium length, the ears erect, the shoulders smooth and well


Fig. 14-A Grand Champion Hampshire Boar at 18 months
of age. Courtesy Hampshire Registry Association, Peoria, 111.

Fig. 15-A Maryland Grand Champion Hampshire Sow. She
has also qualified for Registry of Merit. Two years old. Cour-
tesy Hampshire Registry Association, Peoria, I11.
set, and the hams deep but not generally so thick as in the other
Intermediate or meat breeds. The flesh is of good quality.
Animals of this breed sell readily on the open market.
The Hampshire possesses good growing and fattening
Hog producers in the United States do not produce the
bacon-type hog to any great extent. The Tamworth and the
Yorkshire, of English origin, are the two breeds grown in the
United States. The Tamworth breed is established in many
localities. The Yorkshire is confined principally to the States
in the North.
Bacon hogs are different from Intermediate type hogs in
that they have extreme length, the object of breeders being to
produce the maximum amount of bacon with relatively small

Tamworth is one of the oldest
est of all breeds of hogs. There
ieen crossed with other modern bre
)ack more than 100 years. The 1
from the town of Tamworth, I
in Staffordshire, near the north
gland. Sir Robert Peel is credit

rhnhhlv nmn An

MS -


Fig. 17-Tamworth Sow-A useful type of a Grand Champion. Cou
Tamworth Swine Association, Ames, Iowa.

Fie. 18-Bacon-type sow (left) and lard-type sow (right)


ot the omtner Dreeas. 'rney autaln a marKet weigni at as
an age as any of the Intermediate or meat type breeds
in be fed profitably to greater weights.

ere are three distinct types of the Yorkshire breed, known
,rge, Middle, and Small Yorkshires. All originated in
nd. The Large Yorkshire is the type raised by practically
rkshire breeders in the United States. (See Figs. 19-20.)
ey are large, white hogs with smooth, even, deep bodies,
.ong, capable of dressing out a large percentage of meat
)acon of very good quality. The body is supported by legs
Ad length, having bone of medium size and generally of
good quality. Occasionally there are black pigment spots
skin of animals of this breed. Large Yorkshire sows are
ic and are generally very good sucklers.

ore cards differ upon the relative values of points, ana
forms of grouping, however a use of the score card should
ne in making a systematic examination of the animal
should give one a sense of relative values in judging. (See
4-Score card).

Cards for the Various Breeds of Hogs as Drafted by the
Respective Record Associations and the U. S.
Department of Agriculture
Intermediate type Bacon type

Points i '
,B B H H
Z Q1 r X 1 AW 4 W 0 i
_ a_5 g __ a __ a<

nd face ------ 4 4 4 4 4 7 4 5 6 5
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2
2 21 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 3
2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2
?r 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
12 12 12 12 12 6 12 10 8 10
nd loin 14 14 14 14 15 16 14 12 10 12
d ribs 9 8 9 8 8 6 8 12 13 12
nd flank .------ 4 4 4 4 6 5 4 4 3 4
nd rump 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 15 10
d legs 9 10 9 10 10 10 10 8 8 8
1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 4 3
S2 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 1i 2
I8 8 8 8 5 6 8 8 7 8
and style ---.---- 3 3 3 3 4 6 3 3 5 3
on ....------- 22 3 2 3 4 3 2 2 2 2
ition -- 2 2 2 2 3 -- 2 2 -- 2
,try of points 3 2 | 3 2 _--. 3 4 5 3
Total --....---- I 100 100 100 100 100 100 o 100 100 100 I 100


Fig. 19-Yorkshire boar. Courtesy Yorkshire Swine Breeders Associati

Fi-. 2n0--Yrlkhir. cnw Rlratfnrd-l Rp-i. "TR Pn,,rt 1-c Ynl -;ki Cu

-rT ,T A -Tt1 1Ar A DTi=LMTT1T/I1 TXT 'iT n(DTT"1


,ble 5 shows the body composition of swine at varying
es of finish at different slaughter weights. This table
ihed by Agricultural Research Center, U.S.D.A., Belts-

Wt. at Body Composition of body substance per cent
lition slaughter substance
Pounds Pounds Water Protein Fat Ash

106 100 56.3 14.9 26.8 3.1
tely fat 162 154 49.2 13.7 34.2 2.9
219 210 44.3 12.6 40.6 2.5
Lt --- 230 219 41.4 10.5 45.9 2.3
ely fat- 343 327 37.7 10.2 49.5 2.1


producers, by management practices, resolve themselves or
management practices into the following operational types:
hose raising fat hogs for market.
hose raising purebred hogs.
hose producing feeder pigs for sale to other producers for
ittenino or for workers.

Fig. 21-Old method of hog production should be exterminated


Methods of Swine Breeding
different producers practice different methods in produc-
.ogs. The type and kind of breeding stock used naturally
fies their methods.
icrub sows and scrub boars-nothing important.
,crub sows and grade boars-nothing much. A little
rrade sows and grade boars-progressing.
rood grade sows and purebred boars-doing well.
'urebred sows and purebred boars of different breeds
crossing)-doing excellent. (Use only purebred boars).
maintainingg a purebred herd of excellent quality-doing

Fig. 23-New method
Imparing Fig. 21 with Figs. 22 and 23 breed and feed makes the difference


practices used in maintaining a herd of hogs resolve them-
s into several methods of breeding, namely-
Trade breeding may be defined as gradually improving or
readingg up common stock with the use of purebred boars.
Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station in their bulletin
states :


Grading up hogs by use of purebred boars pays (see Tab
(a) "The use of purebred boars through three generf
resulted in marked improvement of pigs in
quality and ability to make rapid and cheap gain:
(b) "The length of time required to produce a 200-p
hog decreased as the percentage of pure bre
(c) "The age at which different groups of hogs re
200 pounds in weight was: scrubs, 243.67 day:
per cent grades, 201.33 days; 75 per cent grades
days; and 87.5 per cent grades, 187 days.
(d) "The average daily gain in the different groups
scrubs, 0.95 pounds; 50 per cent grades, 1.18 pol
75 per cent grades, 1.19 pounds; and 87.5 per
grades, 1.26 pounds.
(e) "The amount of feed required to produce a ur
gain decreased as the percentage of pure bre,
(f) "For each 100 pounds of gain the scrub hogs req
465.35 pounds of feed; the 50 per cent grades, 4
pounds; the 75 per cent grades, 387.63 pounds
the 87.5 per cent grades, 381.52 pounds.
(g) "The feed cost per 100 pounds gain was: sc
$9.31; 50 per cent grades, $8.07; 75 per cent gi
$7.75, and 87.5 per cent grades, $7.63.
Table 6 is set forth below:
Scrubs 50% grade 75% grade 87.50%
Days to reach 200 lbs...... 2483.67 201.33 201. 1I
Daily gain lbs.......... 0.95 1.18 1.19
Feed for 100 lbs. gain.... 465.85 403.87 387.63 38
Feed cost per 100 lbs. gain $ 9.31 $ 8.07 $ 7.75 $

"It was interesting to note that the average feed cos
producing 100 pounds gain from the 87.5 per cent grade,
only 82 per cent of the cost as compared with scrubs. The
in the above test were fed on the same rations so that the
difference existing between them was the amount of purn
blood in their veins.''
2. Crossbreeding is the mating of purebred anima
different breeds (a purebred boar should always be used)
University of Minnesota, Special Bulletin No. 180, state
advantages of crossbreeding in the following statements:
Crossbred boars should not be used as sires for follc


t) "A crossbred male mated to females of the same cross
will result in offspring with too much variability in
type and performance.
b) "One of the parents must be purebred in order to
stabilize the system, and to keep the crossing con-
tinuous. One good purebred boar can be purchased
easier and cheaper than a group of purebred females.
c) "Pigs are dependent on their mothers for 112-114 days
before birth, and about 56 days thereafter. During this
period the pigs benefit directly from the increased
vigor of the crossbred sow, but could not benefit in
any such manner from the increased vigor of a cross-
bred male parent."
The good purebred sire is the basis for the improvement of
i or any other class of commercial livestock. This is equally
of the methods of breeding swine proposed in this bulletin.
breeding will not solve any difficulties or contribute any-
to constructive pork production unless good purebred sires
!sed. The purebred breeder has nothing to fear from the
)sed methods of breeding swine. In fact, he has much to
Many farmers are still using grade sires. Farmers who
v one of the methods of crossbreeding outlined herein will
e purebred sires in the practice; hence an increased demand
urebred sires should follow."


"Crossbred sows proved superior to purebreds for
ing market pigs. The crossbred sows produced litters
averaged from two-thirds to two more pigs per sow at w
and each pig weighed from 5 to 7 lbs. more at weaning
litter averaged 63 to 96 lbs. heavier than the purebre(
crossbreeds reached market weight of 220 lbs. from 1'
days earlier than comparable purebreds and they read
weight on from 27 to 36 fewer pounds of grain."
Minnesota Bulletin 180 states: "By practicing crossb
generally, the following improvements are made:
(a) The sows produce larger litters.
(b) The pigs are generally larger at weaning time.
(c) A shorter time is required to reach market wei
(d) There is a decrease in feed necessary for a p(
The Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station. Ames
in Bulletin 380, states: "The results obtained, with 1.0
farrowed in 108 litters, crossing Landrace and Poland
as well as crosses of Landrace, Duroc-Jersey, etc.." are
"The percentage of stillborn pigs was smaller amnon
breds than among purebreds; crossbred pigs were so:
more vigorous at birth than purebreds as shown b:
ability to survive until weaning age; they averaged
pounds heavier at weaning time than purebreds; they
.09 to .12 lbs. more per day and saved 10 days to 2
time in getting to market weight of 225 pounds than di,
breds; they also saved 25 to 30 lbs. more feed than pui
Crossbreeding can be continued as a steady policy o
going to purebred herds for the boars needed for
ments. "
3. Natural Breeding is the mating of animals out
one's own blood or family lines. It is frequently referred
"outcrossing." One must be careful in this case to b:
better quality and type or his watchword should be "ir
ment." It is the mating of purebred animals of the sam
but one goes outside of his blood line to make selectii
breeding stock.
4. Inbreeding is the mating of parent and offspi
brother and sister. This is the most dangerous type of br
If one intensifies the blood of animals that are good, the
are usually good, but if the animals are poor in qlali
l*4-), *11r0 nnnr flr7'I'/l'#j nilr -/---1'i ;nton fd Tn nthlor

imals lack vigor and are constitutionally weak or have other
3ts, inbreeding intensifies it.
n work done by the Bureau of Animal Industry, Beltsville,
land, on inbreeding of hogs, they point out the following
which were taken from "Journal of Heredity," Vol. 22,
12, Dec., 1931.
a) "An attempt was made to establish an inbred strain
of Poland China swine by brother-sister mating failed
in the second generation, due to a decrease in fertility
and high mortality.
b) "In the first generation of inbreeding litter size did
not significantly decrease but average birth weight and
per cent of pigs raised to 70 days of age were less than in
the control stock.
c) "In the second generation litter size became very much
reduced and the vigor of the pigs greatly decreased;
very few second-generation inbreds were raised.
d) "There was a slightly higher percentage of "stillborn"
pigs among the inbreds than among the controls.
e) "The percentage of males was greater among the
inbreds than among the controls; differential prenatal
mortality is suggested as an explanation of this
f) "The segregation of several recessive genes is indi-
cated by the results, including cleft palate, scrotal
hernia, and the ridgeling character.
g) "There is no basis for assuming that the results of
this experiment are typical of the Poland China breed,
which was used in this experiment. Other strains of
breeding might show a very different result with the
same amount of inbreeding."
nbreeding is the process of breeding or mating of closely
;ed animals; varying degrees of intensity of inbreeding
be termed "Line-breeding," "Close-breeding" and "In-
ious-breeding." Inbreeding should be practiced only by
most skillful breeder, and then only when such breeder has
finite knowledge of the ancestry.
Line-breeding may be defined as the mating of more
intly related animals than those inbred, yet descending from
same common ancestry; or it is but one step removed from
feeding, and as a consequence less disastrous results may be
cted from it in the hands of the average breeder.
,. Pure-breeding is the maintaining of purebred or regis-
I stock of the same breed. Such breeders, however. mav

-1-1 1 11 A -11 T~r Tr rnr


practice inbreeding, line-breeding or may just breed p
hogs. He should have an ideal in mind and know w
market wants and strive through selection to produ
kind. The art of breeding reaches its zenith in the b
of purebreds-the most fascinating inspiring branch of
breeding when successfully followed, but the most c
and disappointing when not successful. This type of br,
far more than a business man or a farmer; he is an arl
the artistic appeal is possibly first in importance to hi
breeder's ability as a judge must be based on an instinct
to recognize animal types and carry them clearly in min
an experienced breeder, who is a good judge of hogs,
raise purebreds. There is much difference between prop
livestock and breeding livestock. The purebred breeder
be a "natural" with purebreds. "Like has a tendency t
like." How an animal will breed is told best from its ofj
(See Chapter 4 under the heading "Swine Breeding Pro
subheading "Reasons for Using Purebred Boars").


Swine Breeding Program

he swine breeding program resolves itself into a number
visions such as:
, Purebred herd which furnished the foundation animals,
ars as well as possibly females in many herds:

Fig. 24-A-Splendid litter. Courtesy Hampshire Swine
Registry Association
The grade herd which makes up most of the commercial
s in the State (these grade herds should use purebred
Woods hogs which possibly should not be produced for
*eason that they are,-
a) A poor quality and low in price and many are really
unfit for human consumption,
b) No control breeding is practiced,
c) They are a constant source for spreading diseases and
d) They destroy improved pastures for other livestock,
e) They break into other people's fields and destroy
good feed and,
f) They are a constant source of spreading screw worms.
Vhile it is difficult to include in this bulletin all the neces-
steps for a completely rounded out program of Swine
auction and Marketing, one should contact his County
it and Vocational Teacher, the Florida Agricultural Experi-


ment Station, and/or other recognized leading agri
agencies, etc. for further details and help.

The following are a few of the more important fact
swine program:
1. The breeding stock should be quiet and doc
adapted to local conditions. The Duroc-Jersey, Poland
Spotted Poland China, Hampshire, and Berkshire, an
breeds which will produce the "Intermediate" type
2. Good purebred boars should head up the herd
one is producing a registered or a grade herd, and sue
should possess those dominating characteristics of th
they represent.
Some of the advantages of using purebred boars ovei
or scrubs are:
(a) Purebred boars have better conformation and
(b) They produce more of a better product on le
or they are better utilizers of feed.
(c) There is a greater uniformity to their offspring
is generally of better quality, conformation. ai
capable of producing the most desirable finislt
(d) Their offspring will mature earlier and can
in better market condition, thereby saving ti
(e) Their offspring is more salable.
(f) Their offspring is more valuable.
3. One should use good gilts or sows in the herd.
animals if purebred should come with a good inheritai
performance record. If purebred or grades they shou
plenty of milk and have 10 to 12 well spaced and prop,
veloped teats. They should be prolific or capable of pr,
2 litters of pigs per year, 8 to 10 pigs per litter, of unifo:
and with birth weights 21/2 to 31/2 lbs. each. They shou
the ability to produce pigs which make rapid and eco
gains-pigs showing quality and thrift. They must in
be good mothers and take care of their pigs. The gilts re
sows should be better than the sows they replace, and th
replacing boars likewise better than, the boars replaced
has a tendency to beget like." If gilts are properly del
they may be bred when from 9 to 10 months of age s
farrow when about 14 months of age.
t ~ rv 1 i i -i i


.) By using good breeding stock.
I) By proper feeding, care and management of the herd.
) By keeping the herd free of parasites and diseases.
I) By keeping ample and suitable mineral and protein
ements accessible to the herd.
By providing ample and suitable grazing and hogging-
off crops for year-round production.
By providing plenty of shade and water.
ne cannot starve profits out of hogs, and cannot get a pig
with a herd on starvation rations.
After the pigs are born they should be permitted to grow
nd "make hogs of themselves." A stunted hog can never
ome being stunted or can never be the hog he might have
had he been given good care, proper feed, etc.
Keep the various classes and sizes segregated as to classes,
!h class will do better and save time and feed. The breed-
Lerd should be kept separate from the fattening herd;
away from boars until they are ready to breed; sows and
ing pigs separate from the boars and/or fattening herd
the pigs are nursing, for the reason that each class has
rent feed requirements, etc.
The herd should be treated for hog cholera, and disease
arasite control measures should be practiced. Treat the pigs
iolera at weaning time, or when about 8 to 10 weeks .of age.
The producer should provide a year-round production
Wd crops suitable for swine, so as to eliminate a starvation
I in Florida on hogs, which generally exists from March
July 1st. Some suggestions as to feed crops and feeds will
and in Chapter 7, "Feeds for Swine."
All boar pigs which will not be retained for breeding
)ses should be castrated when they are about 2 to 4 weeks
e, or certainly before weaning time.
i. Every producer should have suitable farm equipment
operly take care of his hogs which will include fencing,
eeders. waterers, shade, corrals, chutes, etc. This is dis-
I under heading-' 'Equipment for Hogs" Chapter 8, in
er section of this bulletin.
Good production and good marketing go hand in hand.
two great curses of each are-(a) poor breeding, (b) poor
i. Care and management and feed have an important bear-
pon accomplishing the most desirable results of production
marketing. Hogs should be finished to market weights of
o 225 pounds. If one is engaged in the production of
r pigs the feeder pigs should be good, so as to induce the
r buyer to use them. (See "Marketing" Chanter 10. as

4Z J-?JIrj.I .1IVYIN .I "r AJ. .t LI U1LUnr

Stunted Pigs-A Detriment
No one can starve profits out of hogs, on the other h.
tential profits may be had by proper practices. You
mals will not make economical gains while being fattei
less they have been raised so they are thrifty and vigo'
the skeletons of young animals have been injured by ina,
rations during the growth period. Animals must hav
feed than mere body maintenance, otherwise the feed t
has produced no worth, no profit, and has been waste,
than keeping the animal alive. Milk is the most natural ]
pigs and young animals. A thrifty young or growing
can better use feed than old animals, and one should t
vantage of a great stimulus to growth while the pigs are
"One cannot starve profits out of hogs."

Selecting Breeding Animals
The physical merits of the individual animal may be
by several means. The most dependable are:
(1) A critical examination of the animal and an
tion of other members of the litter, the sire, dam, an(
closely related hogs.
(2) The numbers, uniformity in size, and type of pig
litters; and
(3) the regularity of farrowing by the dam and gra
Forming a breeding herd with sows from unrelated(
and sires, if otherwise equally good, is preferable to s(
sows from those closely related. Subsequent breedin:
ties thus will allow wider range of selection and greater
tunities for matings within the herd.
Sows and boars are probably more desirable if sele(
the basis of weight attained at a given age under simil
teams of feeding, as this factor indicates the rate of ga
may be expected in the offspring. Number of pigs in
uniformity of litter size, and percentage of pigs wean
fattened are also important from the standpoint of loc
duction costs.
Selection of a Boar
Previously in this chapter we have given the reas(
using good, purebred boars, and such boars as are used
be good enough to produce the results stated as reas(
using them.
The final selection of the boar should not be mad
after he is possibly 6 months of age. He should be sti


characteristics in which the sows are weak or he should
ch type as to correct the faults of the sow and therefore
likely to transmit their weaknesses to their offspring.
ar should be of the "Intermediate" type, possessing
and masculinity. He should be wide between the eyes,
i short, thick and snugly fitted into the shoulder, with
less through the shield. The back should be well arched
width carried uniformly throughout; the hams well
I and full to the hock. A strong constitution is indicated
)od heart girth measured back of the shoulders. The
,pacity is indicated by the width between the front legs.
is indicated by a smooth covering of flesh, hair that
to it as indicated by a glossy appearance, pasterns that
and show strength, and bones that are strong and of
nt size to carry the weight at any age; a hide that is
and pliable with freedom from wrinkles and creases
ides or shoulders. The legs should be strong and straight.
purchasing a boar, one should study the records of his
-s through the pedigrees and performance, with special
is on the size of the litters, their uniformity and rapidity
th and note whether they are desirable in type and have
tly transmitted desirable characteristics to their off-

y few boars become great sires, and there is a sharp dis-
between breeding livestock and propogating them, as
mer is characterized by qualitative improvement, while
er implies increase in numbers. There is nothing more
o produce a sound night's sleep than to know one has a
feedingg boar. A high quality boar may be low in breed-
iciency as the result of poor or mismanagement. If the
es not accomplish improvement in his get another should
Place, however in making a decision in replacing him,
lild have several trial matings.

Selection of the Sows

sows should be of uniform type, show refinement, femni-

the hams should be full and well rounded; the body s
uniform in width carrying back evenly from the should
hams; udders well developed as previously discussed.
The sows must show quality, be smooth and trim, ye
with ample bone, and in purebreds no "swirls." The:
be of the "Intermediate" type and capable of produce
pigs which will finish in 180 days to weights 190 to 225
Feeding qualities are indicated by a good head, con,
and good length, width and depth of body. They should
early and reproduce their kind. Fleshing quality is indi
wide, plump hams and ample width of back and loir
smooth throughout. Vigor is indicated by a deep, wi(
strong heart girth, and a deep body-or by a strong cons
Breeding characteristics are shown by refinment
out and the ability to nurse 10 to 12 pigs; the dispositio
ally should be quiet and docile; they should have a gi
stitution and health; and in breed type, be characterist:
breed represented.

The sows should be properly developed to be able
early nurse 10 to 12,pigs, giving them all the milk they n
ing the first 6 to 8 weeks after farrowing.
1. The gestation period of sows is usually 112 to 114
2. Heat period recurs in sows in good condition at i
19-22 days.
3. After weaning pigs, sows will generally come
within three days to' week.
4. Sows remain in heat 2 to 3 days.
5. Well-grown out gilts may be bred at 9 to 10 month
6. Well-grown boars may be used for light service
10 months of age; allowing one service per day but n
than three per week for 2 to 3 weeks at the time.
7. Mature boars may breed two sows per day.
hours apart, but this heavy service should not last over
to 10 days.
8. Breed sows to farrow 2 litters per year, preferabl:
and September, April and October, or May and Novemb,
There is no one best breed of hogs. but Florida pi



Suckle pigs, from about September 1st to November 71
Pigs born September 1st, with proper feed, care an(
agement, should be ready to market the following Mar(
April at weights 190 to 225 pounds. See Fig. 25.
The following year, use the same breeding program
lined above. When sows are bred to farrow pigs Febri
to March 15, or from August 1 to September 15, the pi,
rowed in March may be finished on corn and grazing
while the pigs farrowing in August or September may
ished on peanuts and other grazing crops.
Under screw worm conditions each farmer may ha
sows bred in such way as to have pigs come when the least
worm flies are present, but he should grow two litters (
per year.


Species or Kind Age Number of M.
*Hogs Boar pigs, 8 to 12 months 15 to 20)
Yearling boars and over 30 to 40
Cattle Yearling bull 15 to 20
with good care, up to 25
2 years old and over 30 to 35 if in !
Sheep Young ram 8 to 10
Yearling ram 40 to 50 if in j

Gestation Table for Sows

Jan. 5 Apr. 25 July 5 Oc
Jan. 15 May 7 July 15 No
Jan. 25 May 17 July 25 No
Feb. 5 May 28 Aug. 5 No
Feb. 15 June 7 Aug. 15 De
Feb. 25 June 17 Aug. 25 De
Mar. 5 June 25 Sept. 5 De
Mar. 15 July 5 Sept. 16 Jai
Mar. 25 July 15 Sept. 25 Jai
Apr. 5 July 26 Oct. 5 Jai
Apr. 15 Aug. 5 Oct. 15 Fel
Apr. 25 Aug. 15 Oct. 25 Fel
May 5 Aug. 25 Nov. 5 Fel
May 15 Sept. 4 Nov. 15 Ma
May 25 Sept. 14 Nov. 25 Ma
June 5 Sept. 25 Dec. 5 Ma
June 15 Oct. 5 Dec. 15 Ap
June 25 Oct. 15 Dec. 25 Ap
The above dates are annroximate.


the annual report of the American Society of Animal
action, Volume 4, No. 3, August, 1945, is shown the fol-
results of some work done at the University of Minne-
sing number one gilts farrowing for the first time at ap-
lately one year of age.
"Litter size increased with an increase in the age of the
i farrowing time ... as gilts farrowing at 320 days aver-
ne pig less than gilts at 365 days, and gilts 410 days of
'eraged about one-half pig more than gilts 365 days of
therefore one should strive to have well developed gilts
for the first time when approximately 13 months of age.
"An increase of 10% in the inbreeding of dams of the
ige resulted in a decrease of about 0.6 pigs per litter.
"The heavier gilts at breeding time, on an average, far-
larger litters.
"The length of body may be associated with prolificacy.
"On an average, gilts making the greatest gains during
incy farrow the largest litters, but variations in gain
e an effect rather than a cause of variation in litter size.
"Age and weight at mating time account for 4% of the
ions in size of litters, and together they provide the most
e criteria for use in selection for fertility.''

Fig. 25-A-Lanark III. Courtesy Chester White Record Association,

Fig. 26

Record of Performance (USDA)


Age of sows --...
Number sows bred ...--....- .
Percent farrowing -.....--..-....
Pigs farrowed ...... ....
Pig weight at farrowing
Percent farrowed dead
Percent pigs weaned to
number farrowed
Pigs weaned per sow
Weaning weight ......
Pork produced at weaning***


66 60

5.58 5.65
35.3 33.2
189 172





*** A most important factor. First place. ** Second place. Source-U.S.D.A.



3 '/













The Table 10 shows brood sow performance. The earliest
age to breed a gilt is when she is about 9 months old so she will
farrow when 12 to 14 months old. Table 10 shows that 2 to
3-year old sows stand out in producing large and heavy litters
at weaning age, that sows 2 years old and up to 5 years pro-
duce slightly heavier litters than sows under 2 years of age.
Table 10 also shows that sows over 4 years old farrowed from
12.78% to as high as 31.48% of the pigs dead. Except when
one is breeding purebred hogs, the sows should be discarded
when about 4,/2 years old.

Table 11 was furnished by the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture. It shows that if pigs weigh less than 2 pounds at birth
it is difficult to save them and produce economical gai.ns. The
endeavor of each producer should be to so feed, care for and
manage the herd so that the sows will farrow pigs of uniform
weights of 21/2 to 31/2 lbs. each. The average per cent of pigs
raised as compared with pigs born for the U. S. A. as a whole
runs about 65 to 70%. Anything which may be done to in-
crease the per cent of pigs weaned would result in more ef-
ficient hog production. The average birth. weight of pigs for the
United States generally runs from 2 1/2 to 3 lbs. or about 2.65
pounds each. There are two difficulties involved if pigs at
birth weigh more than 31/2 pounds-first, the difficulty of sows
farrowing and, second the sows normally have too few pigs in
the litter if the pigs weigh over 31/2 lbs. each. It is i much more de-
sirable that the sows have 8 to 12 pigs per litter of average weight
2 3/4 lbs. each at birth, than it is for them to farrow three or
four pigs of average weight 4 lbs. The size of the pigs in tlc
litter should be uniform in weight and quality.
Sucking % Weaned Average Weight
Birth Period At 70 Gain 190 Days
Weight Average Days Fattening of Age
Gain Period
4 lbs. .629 lbs. 83 percent 1.44 lbs. 220 lbs.
81'/ lbs. .618 lbs. 79 percent 1.483 lbs. 218 lbs.
3 lbs. .556 lbs. 74 percent 1.35 lbs. 203 Ibs.
21/2 lbs. .522 lbs. 68 percent 1.32 lbs. 197 lbs.
2 lbs. .465 lbs. 56 percent 1.23 lbs. 179 lbs.
11/2 lbs. .375 lbs. 30 percent 1.18 lbs. 170 lbs.
1 lb. .266 lbs. 5 percent all died all died

Table 11 is illustrated in "PIG VALUES," "Weight at
Birth Determines Worth," as follows: (See Fig. 27).


W- WA M LD^ 1.944T41i

i DAD p IGS u

kig. 27-U. S. Department ot Agriculture.


ie illustration Fig. 27 "Pig Values," shows that all of the
born weighing one pound or less and most of those weigh-
ne and one-half pounds or less died before weaning age.
cannott starve profits out of hogs.
ie size of pigs at birth is a factor in efficient swine pro-
3n as is further illustrated in work done at Purdue Uni-
y with more than 700 sows. The average of this work is
i in Table 12.
Birth Weaning % Pigs % Pigs Died
Weight Weight Weaned Before Weaning
.50 lbs. 18.4 lbs. 18 percent 87 percent
.00 lbs. 21.0 lbs. 49 percent 51 percent
.50 lbs. 24.5 lbs. 67 percent 388 percent
.00 lbs. 27.5 lbs. 77 percent 23 percent
.50 lbs. 80.2 lbs. 85 percent 15 percent
.00 lbs. 84.7 lbs. 84 percent 16 percent
s stated above, it is difficult for sows to farrow pigs weigh-
iore than 31/2 pounds. Sows should farrow 8 to 12 pigs
ling 21/2 to 31/2 pounds each at birth. No man can make a
t out of what he loses. Save those pigs.

sr Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular No.
ie following are some of the facts growing out of the cost
ising pigs to weaning age:
This report includes records on 147 litters of pigs farrowed
ie Alabama Experiment Station farm during the period
to 1931, inclusive. The records show:
(1) That the average number of live pigs farrowed per
was 7.95; the average number weaned per litter was 5.76.
.oss of pigs during the suckling period was 27.5 per cent.
saved 72.5 per cent.
(2) That the average amount of concentrates required to
ice a litter of 5.76 pigs to weaning age was 915 pounds.
was an average of 159 pounds of concentrates for each pig
(3) That the feed required to raise a pig to weaning age
ters of two was 448 pounds, but in litters of nine it was
110 pounds per pig.
(4) That the feed cost of pigs raised to weaning age in
s of two was $9.36 each, but in litters of nine it was only
(5) That the average weight per pig when weaned, at
-pOlr-c f a- --rao 97 9q1 Ainlac "

f..... -_--_ -_-r-

-'e. r ^?r^j -^ ^ ^ ,^

Fig. 27A-Nine pigs from the World's Record Registry of Merit I
months with owner, John Soorholtz, Melbourne, Iowa. Courtesy H


L few of the many reasons why records of a sow's perform-
is necessary in selecting high producing stock are set forth

* Better hogs are produced by keeping sow-testing or herd
. These production test records for purebred swine result
better herd management practices.
* There is a close relationship between type, rapid gains,
economical production.
* The fast growing pigs result in superior carcasses and
rally more economical production.
. The fastest growing and heaviest litter weight pigs pro-
generally the best carcass cut-out, and 'are generally judged
outstanding from the producer-profit standpoint.
. Sow-testing is the only common-sense method devised for
ig the average swine producer in improving his herd.
. Successful hog producers are more inclined to practice
althy pig program (sanitation), balanced feed rations, and
,w improved breeding practices.
;. Finished hogs produce superior carcasses over unfin-
i hogs.
1. It pays to use production tested purebred stock in the
ding herd, either for pure-line breeding or commercial cross-

.n order to place registered hogs on a prosperous basis, type,
ity and conformation must be kept at a high level.
-. Have large enough unit to make a profitable operation.
2. As far as possible, stay out of debt.
i. As far as possible, produce all of the feeds needed on the
i, however, some high protein supplements and mineral
elements should be purchased. There is no better protein sup-
ient for hogs than tankage, fishmeal, or skim milk; all of
e are from animal sources.
1. Balance feed production; do not depend solely upon
or two crops. Hogs do better on a variety of feeds.
i. Endeavor to provide ample, suitable pasture, and main-
a high level of profitable crop yields per acre.


quality sires; as the quality of sales the purebred pr
makes, has a relation to the quality of animals sold.
8. A new breeder of purebreds should start with only
good purebred sows and a good purebred boar, gradually
hoping the herd from this foundation stock. His breedin(
should come from a reliable breeder having good indil
of well-known breeding.
It is generally best not to start into the purebred b;
until after one has had considerable experience with
grade herd. With this good grade herd he will develop
ences in feeding, breeding, care, and herd management
marketing practices which will prove of untold worth i
when he goes into the purebred business.

The breeding of purebred livestock is a fascinating
ness but it carries along with it certain responsibilities a
ligations, some of which are listed below:
1. To keep an accurate set of herd records.
2. The value of a breeding animal is determined by i
spring, therefore the producer should know the product,
tory of each breeding animal.
3. A strict culling program must be followed if one is
to improve his herd.
4. He must know how to select boars to correct the
in his females, and these boars should be an improvement
previous boars used.
5. He must know something of pedigrees.
6. He must be careful to supply registration and tr
papers, therefore he must keep his registration papei
7. He must keep the farm and premises neat and attr.
8. He must be honest but alert in his dealings.
9. Above all, he must have a real interest and enthi
for the breed he represents. Each breeder may find
"Musts" which should be added to this list.

A Few Rules for Recording Purebreds
1. Know the Secertary and/or the address of the Na
Association of the breed you represent, and belong to the
2. Know the general rules for recording in the Na


3. Naturally one needs to keep on hand a few application
anks of the breed.
4. Pedigrees must give the sex of the animal, date of far-
1w, number of pigs in the litter, number raised of each sex. If
.e breed has color markings these must be shown on the ap-
5. If the animal is ineligible for registry, the application
ill be returned; if other data are needed to register, the appli-
int will be informed by the National Association and the blank
turned for further information.
6. The name and number of sire and dam must be shown.
ive as complete data as possible about each.
7. If a recorded animal is sold, help should be given the
ew purchaser in making transfer of registration papers. Fol-
w up sales made and encourage new breeders. Send the orig-
.al pedigree for record, and not a copy of it, to the Association.
8. The registration fee must be sent with the application.
9. No purebred animal will be registered carrying a "swirl"
1 its back.

Fig. 28 Poland Chinas

When holding purebred sales, the following information
iould be given when advertising the sale:
1. The kind and date of sale-state breed, how many
males and/or males offered-open or bred, etc.
2. The location and time of sale, and how to reach the
ile noint: if out on a farm. one miah-it enclose a man for de-


3. State what entertainment, if any, and what hour
tertaininent will be.
4. Give full information about registration and t:
of papers and how the owner or sale manager will hel
such matters.
5. Make statement about health -.-rit'f,. tNr or treat
given the animal and what guarantees on same will I
nished. If animals are guaranteed to be breeders, so sta
6. Terms of the sale, stating cash or a letter of credit
be furnished by each purchaser; when and to whom pi
payment shall be made. If animals are purchased at c
risk or guaranteed as to soundness, health, etc. If absent
are accepted, to whom shall they be sent ? Give telephone
ber and telegraphic address, as well as state who the auc
will be.
7. Give a concise statement about shipments-will
be furnished free, if not state charges for same. If animt
be shipped by express, name the shipping point. If i
from sales clerk are to be obtained, so state in the catab
cular, or announce all conditions of sale before the sale
Who collects for sale, or whom does each purchaser pay
8. Transportation available, kind---whom to contact.
9. How long will animals be cared for after the sa]
any other features which will be mutually beneficial.

Fg .28 .. A .-.. goo fudtosw- ta -I dr
Fig. 28-A--A good foundation sow that embodies the qualities desirable
r,_,_l;, .>: _..1 /D.1...Jl.lri __ *_... n*


Care and Management of the

Breeding Herd

.e sow is the manufacturing plant in swine production.
breeding, size, vigor and development determines largely
,nd of litters she will produce. The size of litter and its
will govern largely the amounts of feed needed to prop-
eed the sow and the litter.
ir gilts to become successful brood sows they must be prop-
fed to develop size, bone, and store up vigor and reserve
ith. Gilts kept as replacements should be better than the
they replace and should be added to the breeding herd
about 9 months of age but kept separated from the fat-
7 herd after attaining the age of 4 to 5 months.
their ground oats one-half and corn one-half in a self-
r or in troughs, supplemented with proper protein and
-al mixtures, while they are grazing on pasture will do
to help develop gilts.
is unsafe to allow brood sows and bred gilts to follow cat-
* to remain in lots or pens of horses or mules; the danger
t their getting kicked or injured which. may mean the loss
e sow and a litter of pigs.
itamins, minerals, and protein supplements are necessary.
subject will be treated under the head of "Nutrition,"
ter 6 in this bulletin. The chart Fig. 29 shows the change
eight of sows covering a 6-months period, from 2 weeks
to breeding to gestation and a nursing period of 8 weeks.
data is taken from Extension Circular 151, North Caro-
Agricultural Extension Service. (Originally in "Pork Pro-
on," by Smith.)
bout two weeks prior to breeding date, one should increase
eed of the sows, and there should be a gradual increase in
it from breeding time to farrowing time, or the sows
ld gain from one-half pound to three-quarters of a pound
during this time; or a 325 pound sow at "flushing" time
d weigh approximately 400 pounds at farrowing time.
he breeding herd (sows) needs exercise and one of the
ways to get it is to allow them to forge in the fields and
ires where they can gather a large portion of their feed;
'rain may be scattered so that they may have to search for
The most successful breeders require their sows to forage
t a mile a day, however the sows should not be required

-T"lI A rrmI17rTm /r\ A /nITCT TTT mTTTlVt

to chase all over the farm to find a few mouthfuls of feed.
Sows and gilts need a continuous use of good, well-balanced,
nutritious feeds, and the pastures in which they run should
not be all "scenery" or bare ground. They will need other
feeds besides pasture.
Fig. 29
Desirable Changes Of Weight Of A 400-pound Sow For Six Months
Pounds - d-----------ns

400 --------- -----400

325' ----------=- -325

Two Weeks Sixteen Weeks Eight Weeks
FlushingPeriod Gestation Period Nursing Period
Adapted From Pork Production By Smith

1. Age to breed gilts is usually around 9 to 10 months so
they will farrow about the time they are 12 to 14 months of age.
2. Reasons for producing 2 litters of pigs per year. Two
litters per year are much more profitable than one litter for
the following reasons:
a. The producer can use his capital to the maximum or he
can keep his capital operating and thereby does not
lose time.
b. The income is more evenly distributed throughout the
year and needed money obtained from hogs may be used
in other farm operations. One gets better use of capital
c. The producer can make maximum use of hog equipment.
d. By systematizing hog production there is much less
danger in marketing when there is a drop in the market,
or one may breed and feed to remain off of the markets
when the prices are lowest, namely-December and
To-nn.r-r flTninorll >rtr..-+ nlrnao nrn'l -P-n1V Tnl-- 1 r;+,


through September and during March and April, there-
fore by timely breeding and feeding one may put hogs
on the market during the months when prices are best.
e. By having all of the sows farrow about the same time,
one will be able to give the sows better care than he
could if he had insufficient number to justify his time.
The producer will also be better able to take care of
orphan pigs.
f. The producer can improve his herd more rapidly by
producing 2 litters per year from each sow, due to the
fact he will have more pigs to select breeding stock
from, or he can give more careful selection.
g. The producer naturally will take greater interest in all
practices leading to a good hog production and market-
ing program.
3. The kinds and amounts of feed to give different classes
of hogs will be-discussed under Chapter 7-heading "Feeds for
Swine." Under that heading the amount, quality and kinds
of feed are presented. One should also read Chapter 6, on
4. The constant endeavor of every producer should be to
keep sows that ordinarily have large, uniform litters, that are
good mothers and have sufficient length of body and mammary
development to nurse 10 to 12 pigs.
5. Before farrowing. About 3 to 6 days before farrowing,
the sows or gilts should be removed from the breeding herd and
placed on temporary or supplemental grazing, and become
familiar with their new surroundings before farrowing. These
pastures will serve the useful purpose of producing "Healthy
Pigs." If farrowing houses are used, the best type to use is the
"A-type" or small "Colony" type. (See Chapter 8, Equip-
ment). These houses should be kept warm on cold days, the
sows be given some but not excess bedding; a guard rail should
be a part of these houses, being 8 to 10 inches from the floor
and extending from the wall about 8 to 10 inches, so as to protect
the pigs from being mashed by the sow. The feed of the sow
just prior to farrowing, and for a few days after farrowing.
should be of a slightly laxative nature. Prior to farrowing, the
sows should be scrubbed with water, using 1 lb. of soap to
10 gallons of water, or 1 lb. lye to 30 gallons of water, or by
all means brush all dirt and filth off of the udder before she
farrows. Such procedure will help to prevent pigs from getting
worm eggs with their first meal, thus helping to prevent internal
6. Farrowing time is an important event, and the producer
1 1 l 1 1 1 I- .. ..... ... .1 -21 _.. 4 .1.. '* _ A -


the pigs are born they should be dried off; if the weather
is cold some way of keeping the pigs warm should be provided
such as a jug of hot water, a pig-brooder, or warm bricks may bh
put in a basket covered with gunny sacks to help keep the pigs
warm. During warm or hot weather, other than adding to th(
comfort of the sow there is not much to be done except to dry
off the pigs. The "needle teeth" or "wolf teeth" of the pigs
should be clipped; and if purebred, it would be well to "mark'
or "notch" (see Fig. 30) their ears; in either case the navel
of the pigs should be treated with tincture of iodine to prevent
infection; and the owner should use Smearex 62 on the sows
and on the navels of the pigs to preclude screw worm troubles.


40 50 5 4

30 3

2 10 I 2
Fig. 30-A method of marking pigs with ear notches. (After Day: Productive
Swine Husbandry, Lippincott)
7. The feed after farrowing should be a light slop of some
of the grains carrying a large amount of bran. The sow, however,
should not be fed for the first 12 to 24 hours after farrowing.
preferably 24 hours, but should be given plenty of water. On the
second day give 2 to 3 pounds of a laxative feed and on the 3rd
day 2 pounds twice per day. The sow should be on full feed in
about 10 days after farrowing, and her feed from this point on
should be such as to stimulate milk flow. With good sows it will
be difficult to maintain her body weight during the suckling pe-
riod as a good sow is a heavy producer of milk, producing from
three-fourths to a gallon of milk per day. This is another
reason why sows should gain in weight during the gestation
period. "Good sows" will normally lose .about 40 lbs. or more
during the nursing period, as they are good milkers, while poor
or "counterfeit sows" may lose only from 10 to 20 pounds.
A good sow produces much milk and cares for her pigs, while
a poor one may not do either. Recommended feeds for nursing
sows will be found under the Chapter 7 "Feeds for Swine" and
Chanter 6 Nutrition."

8. To prevent anemia and scours in pigs, one should use
:he proper minerals along with other good feeds to the sows
mnd the pigs, and see that nothing interferes with the safety,
growth and development of the litter. (See Chapter on "Nu-
;rition" Chapter 9, Diseases, etc., and Chapter on "Feeds").
Pigs on good pasture are seldom affected with anemia.
Little pigs may develop scours. This condition may be caused
by over-feeding of sows, sudden change of feed, or mouldy feed.
heavy feeding of milk to the mother, or it may occur during
lamp, chilly or cloudy weather, or be due to filthy pen conditions.
exposure to drafts, or by letting the pigs get wet. White scours
ire caused by an organism which gets in the digestive tract of the
pigs through contamination of the sows' teats or by contaminated
feed. The control measure may be one tablespoonful of baking
powder or dried blood meal fed in the slop to the sows; one
should also clean the premises with some good disinfectant.
Often anemia is caused by lack of iron and copper, or iron in
the blood, therefore an ample supply of protein and especially
mineral supplements should be kept before all of the hogs at
all times.
9. After the pigs are about 10 days to 2 weeks old, the sow
should be on full feed, so she will give plenty of milk, and the
pigs should be taught to eat by this time. Self-feeders are
especially useful for this purpose and nothing is more valuable
than the use of plenty of nutritious green grazing.
10. The feed for the pigs during the nursing time will be
found in Chapter 7 on "Feeds" and Chapter 6 on "Nutrition."
For the first few days there is nothing better than the mother's
milk for the pigs. A good feed mixture to keep before the pigs
in a self-feeder or trough may consist of 80 lbs. of cracked corn.
10 lbs. of tankage or fishmeal, and 10 lbs. of peanut or cotton-
seed meal; or they may be given a mixture of 80 lbs. of ground
or cracked corn, and 20 lbs. of fishmeal or tankage. They cannot
use bulky or fibrous feeds to advantage. Avoid sudden changes
in feed and avoid feeding contaminated feeds; also see that the
troughs or self-feeders are kept clean and/or free from con-
A desirable feed for sows at this time may consist of 50
per cent ground oats, 50 per cent shelled corn, and one-half
to three-fourths of a gallon of skim milk or about one-half lb. of
tankage per head daily, allowing the sows to consume all of the
corn and oats they will eat. Keep mineral supplements before
them at all times.
11. Sunshine and exercise are valuable for pigs and sows,
but plenty of shade and water are also necessary. Sows should
be forced to walk at least a mile a day; the pigs may be given

should be kept clean and dry, as wet bedding frequently develops
colds in pigs, and at times the base of their tails may become
sore causing them to slough off.
12. Weaning time is an important time in the life of a pig.
About 4 days before the anticipated weaning date, one should
keep the pigs separated from their mothers for each 24 hour
period, letting them nurse only one time the first day (skipping
the second day), and nurse the third day. Whether or not the
pigs are permitted to nurse the third time will depend upon
the condition of the sow's udder. During this time the sow's
feed should be diminished, so as to diminish milk flow, and the
sow should be fed limited amount of feeds for about a week
after the pigs are weaned. Remove the sow from the pigs, leaving
the pigs in their old surroundings, taking the sow to a new
Pigs may be weaned when they are about 8 to 10 weeks of
age. The pigs should be castrated when from 2 to 4 weeks of
age, and should be vaccinated against cholera when they are
13. From here on the pigs are definitely "on their own"
and/or definitely in the hands of the owner from here out. The
pigs certainly need a well-balanced ration, all they will eat, and
be kept on good nutritious pasture.


The amount of milk which a sow will produce depends upon
the quality and breeding of the sow; that is, whether she is a
scrub, grade, or purebred, or whether she is a good mother or a
poor one; upon the number of pigs the sow is nursing; as well as
the feed, care and management of the sow.
In work done by the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, Bulletin 104, with three breeds--Poland Chinas, Berk-
shires, and Razor-backs-"The average daily milk yield from
these sows ranged from 4.9 to 6.3 lbs. The average total yield for
84 days was 429 to 526 pounds. These figures were obtained by
segregating the pigs from their mothers except for short suckling
periods, and weighing the pigs before and immediately after
suckling. The increase in weight was credited to the milk from
the sow."
Scrub sows and grade sows normally will produce from about
12 to 2/3 of a gallon of milk per day each, while the better qual-
ity or good sows will produce anywhere from 0.6 gallon to ap-
proximately one gallon of milk per day.



The following are a few of the advantages of properly
handling and feeding pigs:
1st. More spring, summer and early fall marketing.
2nd. More economical gains, as a stunted pig never really
overcomes being stunted. See subheading "stunted pigs," Chap-
ter 4.
3rd. This practice utilizes corn at a much greater return in
price if fed to hogs rather than being sold as corn. In other
words, it is better to sell the corn through hogs or pigs. Pro-
ducers have received generally about 60-75e per bushel for their
corn when sold as corn, but if such corn had been put through
hogs fed in combination with tankage and green feed, the price
of the corn would generally have been from 25 to 50 per cent
greater than when corn was fed alone.
4th. The South will never come into its own until its fields
are green in winter. There is nothing that will give cheaper
gains than having plenty of green feed for growing pigs, but
pigs should be given concentrate feeds.
5th. Thrifty, fast growing pigs are less susceptible to disease,
parasites, accidents, thievery, etc., for the reason that pigs well
cared for are, more often, behind fences and are under constant
supervision of the owner. Such pigs not only look more profit-
able but will be more profitable. Make hog production a busi-
ness and not something to be ashamed of.
6th. One can obtain 2 litters per sow per year, thereby
lowering, the investment on sows, loss of profits, as growing
hogs are more profitable.
7th. Such practice stimulates the growing of more corn per
acre. By good practice Florida producers generally can pro-
duce more than 20 bushels of corn per acre. This tonnage of
corn per acre when combined with tankage (and/or other
protein supplements) and green feed, will produce more pork
per acre than the average acre of peanuts. Producers should
not raise less hogs on peanuts but should raise more corn per
acre and widen and feed their markets. The markets are starving
for hogs during the same time that many hogs are being stunted
or starved for the lack of a year-round "thrifty pig" and
ultimately "thrifty hog program."
8th. Winter and spring pigs may well be grown out to go
on the markets from July 1st to October 1st. Late fall and
early winter pigs may go on the market during March and
Anril onnl nn+ in fhl Ilao+ intprfprp w'ith thl nrnilinotinn nf


iogs on peanuts. One should keep in mind that only 37.26%
)f the total hogs marketed a year are sold from March 1st to
)ctober 1st. (See Chapter 1, Page 10, Fig. 2.)
9th. By elimination of the starvation period, finer quality
logs can be marketed for the reason that stunted pigs can never
)e as profitable and of as good quality as thrifty pigs.
10th. Corn hogs, or hard hogs, produced and sold from
larch 1st to October 1st, generally bring from 30% to 36%
higher prices tllan if marketing from October 1st to March 1st.
'orn hogs generally bring 75c per hundred more than soft
iogs. If snelu hogs are parasite free, the producer will receive
I 7/c per hundred additional. Generally hogs bring, even when
led on the same feed, 1V2 to 21/2c more per pound sold during
lie summer and early fall months, than if sold during the winter
months; therefore when producers strive to eliminate the star-
*ation period by raising more corn, using protein, and mineral
supplements and with plenty of green feed, they reap the
additional profits of 75c, 371/2c and $1.50, or $2.621/ per
hundred more for hogs generally sold during summer months
han hogs generally sold during the winter months. This is
particularlyy true if the prevailing price on hogs in the fall is
;c a pound or more.
11th. The selling of finished hogs in the summer would
.ave pigs which otherwise would die or be stunted, and also
permitt the production of 2 litters of thrifty pigs per year
)er sow.
12th. Such practice ultimately would give a greater yearly
income from tihe farm and enable the packing companies to
operatee more efficiently. Then too, higher prices might be
maintained during the winter months if more hogs were finished
and sold during the spring, summer and early fall months. The
producerss should ever be mindful that a growing hog is the
nost profitable hog and that the markets must be fed for
efficiency to prevail from the producer through to the consumer


1. Are the hogs hard, firm, soft or oily?
2. Are the hogs purebreds, cross breeds, inbreds, grades
ir scrubs, if so, what per cent grades? All of these things affect
profits .
3. Have the hogs been treated for cholera or for disease
control ?
4. Have the hogs been grown under a "Healthy pig


5. Have they been provided with comfortable surroundings ?
6. Have the sows been carefully selected? Select big,
)omy gilts for thrifty litters).
7. Have ample balanced feeds been provided to include
roteins and mineral supplements and grazing crops?
8. Have the sows been bred to farrow at proper time to
t the best markets?
9. What facilities have been provided for water, shade, for
inshine, for shelter-all in the proportion to make the hog
More profits from hogs are obtained by practicing some or
.1 of the following methods:
1. By the use of better breeding stock.
2. Larger litters saved and two litters per year, timely
irrowed and timely marketed.
3. Prevention of hog cholera.
4. More and better grazing crops.
5. Better feeding methods-balanced rations, full feeding
1 the time.
6. Parasite control-controlling worms by sanitation, lice
v oiling, etc.
7. Timely production and finished product to go on timely
arkets-when markets are at their best, usually August,
eptember, October and March, and April. It is important to
zve more feed inside the fence than on the outside if hogs are
cpected to stay in the field. It takes more than a fence to
ake a pasture or to provide feed. Best results are obtained by
diligently planning one to three years ahead of all farm crops,
, that ample feed of the right proportions for balanced rations
id timely production may fit into timely marketing.
8. Feed sows better during winter and during suckling
period. Eliminate the starvation period from March through
9. Early castration of males.
10. Provide plenty of shade in hot weather.
11. Provide plenty of clean drinking water at all times.
12. Keep mineral-protein supplements before all the hogs
1 the time.
13. Start right, feed right; then the hogs will grow right and
market right.
14. The farmer should study economical production along
ith timely marketing.
15. Generally speaking, hogs bring the best prices between
e weights of 190 and 225 lbs.

T T1Z~

A few limiting factors in hog production are:
1. The kind of breeding stock.
2. Adequate fencing for feed utilization.
3. Labor-the kind to handle the livestock.
4. Adequate pastures and necessary feeds.
5. Adequate minerals and proteins essential for growth.
6. Adequate marketing facilities.
7. Elimination of bruises and injuries.
8. The use of Market News and the value of knowing grades.

The following are a few ways in which one may reduce
death losses in pigs:
1. By using quiet and docile breeding stock.
2. By proper feeding and management of the breeding
herd which will help prevent pigs being born weak or dead.
3. The use of suitable shelter in farrowing quarters as
such facilities may protect the young against cold in the winter
and provide shade in the summer; such quarters should have
proper ventilation and bedding.
4. The use of guard rails in every farrowing house or pen.
The producer should be with his sow at farrowing time to aid
her in every way possible.
5. Provide sanitary farrowing quarters; and pigs should
be kept on clean ground planted in grazing crops, all of which
will do much to prevent worms, scours, bull nose and sore mouth.
6. Vaccinate all pigs just before weaning to control hog
cholera or other diseases which can be controlled by vaccination.
7. The goal should be to market at least seven pigs from
every litter farrowed and to eliminate waste of feed by saving
these pigs. Table 13 furnished by the United States Department
of Agriculture shows death losses at given ages and weights in
terms of feed losses; included in these feed losses is the feed fed
the sow during gestation and suckling period. This table also
shows if a pig dies at birth it is equivalent to 28 Ibs. of pork
which took 140 Ibs. of feed.
Age of Pig Pounds of Pork Feed to Produce the
Equivalent Pork Equivalent
Birth 28 Ibs. 140 Ibs.
10 weeks 53 Ibs. 260 Ibs.
20 weeks 122 Ibs. 602 Ibs.
80 weeks 200 Ibs. 990 Ibs.


8. It pays to full-feed as there is no profit in a starvation
or a mere maintenance ration.
9. Due to nutritional factors, mishandling, parasites of
various kinds, etc., it is felt that here in the South a greater
portion of the livestock dollar is being lost than in most other
sections of the country.
10. The prevention of livestock losses from various causes
is a cooperative job which concerns producers, shippers, trans-
portation people, yard handlers, packing house employees, and
consumers. All of these people have been forced to recognize
or should recognize that animals are living, perishable, animate
creatures, and not lifeless objects of abuse, therefore each should
do his utmost to correct these abuses which take place on the
farm, in stockyards, in transit, or in terminal yards and packing

1. Probably the most desirable weights of hogs to follow
steers in feed lots range from 100 to 150 pounds.
2. The number of hogs to follow steers varies with the
size of the hogs and the size of the steers, the kind of feed, and
the way in which it is fed; for example, two hogs per steer on
chopped corn, three hogs to two steers on husked ear corn; one
hog per steer on shelled corn; and one hog to two or three
steers on ground corn.
3. The profit from feeding beef cattle on grain may some-
times prevent a loss in cattle feeding due to the fact that the
hogs make use of the undigested feed from the cattle. If there
are too many hogs used for each steer, the hogs need additional
4. When hogs follow grain-fed cattle they will gather waste
grain, etc.
5. Hogs that follow grain-fed steers in the summer should
have a separate pasture so that gains will be still further
6. It is often best to give some feed to the hogs ahead
of feeding steers, so as to keep the hogs out of the way of the
team and wagon and/or feed truck. Whenever hogs are given
grain in addition to what they get from cattle, it is best to feed
the hogs first so that they do not crowd around the cattle
troughs while the cattle are feeding.
7. With cattle that are fed a balanced feed, the hogs
naturally will get a balanced feed.
8. If the cattle are fed grain only, such as corn, the hogs


should have tankage or other protein and mineral supplements
to balance their feed.
9. When ground feed is given to cattle under one-year old,
it is not advisable to run hogs with them, as cattle use about
all of the feed for themselves.

The following facts are amply stated in Alabama Extension
Circular No. 101 as regarding this matter:
1. Go into the hog business slowly.
2. Stay with the hog business. When prices are low. it is a
poor time to sell out.
3. Market hogs when well-finished and weighing about
200 pounds. They should reach this weight at six to eight
4. Keep hog lots sanitary and free from mud puddles.
5. Keep fresh water before hogs at all times.
6. Group hogs according to their ages. Larger and older
hogs keep the pigs from getting their share of food and may
infest the pigs with parasites.
7. Gilts should not farrow before they are at least one year
8. Castrate pigs before weaning, when about 2 to 6 weeks
of age. Wean pigs when eight to ten weeks of age.
9. Double-treat pigs against cholera when about 8-10 weeks
old, just before or at weaning time.
10. Use home-grown feeds as much as possible, but do not
hesitate to buy tankage as a protein supplement, if skim milk
is not available.
11. Keep pigs on forage crops; it pays.
12. Stick to one breed of hogs. There is no best breed.
13. Feed hogs liberally. "You cannot starve profit into
a hog."
14. Keep a mineral mixture before the hogs at all times.


Nutrition is the act or process of nourishing or being
nourished; the sum of the process by which an animal or plant
absorbs, or takes in and utilizes food substances.
Nutrient furnishes nourishment, is nutritious; promotes
Metabolism is the sum of the processes concerned in the
building up of protoplasm and its destruction, incidental to
life; the chemical changes in living cells by which the energy is
provided for the vital processes and activities, and the new
material is assimilated to repair the waste; nutrients are used
to preserve life, to maintain the body, to replace worn-out and
build new tissues, and to produce work and growth. Metabolism
takes place in the presence of minerals.
Nutritious. A food to be nutritious must be nourishing, pro-
moting growth and repairing natural waste or conveying
Digestion is the process of rendering food absorbable by
dissolving it and breaking it down into simpler chemical com-
pounds, chiefly through the action of secretions containing
enzymes, as in the saliva, the gastric, pancreatic, bile, and
internal juices in the alimentary canal of higher animals.
Enzymes are organic compounds which bring about changes
in other organic compounds without breaking down or changing
themselevs, or is catalytic in its action; and are found in animals
from the mouth throughout the alimentary canal, playing a very
important part in digestion. Ptyalin in the saliva changes starch
into sugar; pepsin in the stomach attacks proteins; trypsin in
the small intestine further acts on proteins dividing them into
animo acids; such amino acids are readily absorbed by the
villi in the intestinal wall. Lipase in the small intestines splits
fats of foods into fatty acids and glycerine; bile renders
digestible fats absorable, or bile makes it possible for the in-
testines to absorb fats and fatty acids, or bile aids in the
absorption of vitamins K and A.
Digestible nutrients are those parts of food materials that
are digested and are appropriated to the animal's use.
Assimilation is the incorporation of the food nutrients into the
body. It is an essential and the final part of the process of nu-

Fig. 31-The Type and Quality of Hogs Desired o
Courtesy Florida Agricultural Exp

through the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal and
transportation of the absorbed nutritive matter by the blood
and lymph to its place of utilization. Food material thus absorbed
may be incorporated in the living protoplasm, stored for further
use, or used immediately to release energy.
Ration is the amount of food supplied to an animal for a
definite period-usually for a day. There are two kinds of
rations, namely, maintenance and productive. When animals
lack sufficient food to maintain their bodies they will soon
perish and cease to be profitable.
Maintenance ration is one that supplies the need of an animal
while resting without producing any labor and without loss
or gain of body substance. It takes a certain amount of food
to support life, repair waste tissue, maintain body temperature,
provide muscular activity, keep the vital organs working, etc.,
as these are demands on the body and result in the need for
maintenance; therefore such ration is known as a maintenance
ration for it keeps the animal living, neither producing nor
losing weight, nor producing work.
Productive ration is made of two parts: (1) that which
maintains the animal, and (2) that which produces work or
growth. If an animal is growing, it is producing or storing
energy; therefore a growing ration is a productive ration. While
a productive ration is supposed to produce increased weight,
yet the individuality of an animal determines to a large extent
whether the food given is profitable or unprofitable.
Balanced ration is one that contains feed nutrients in the
proper proportion to meet the needs of the animal for a given
purpose. The ability to balance a ration depends upon one's
knowledge of the composition and digestibility of the more
common foods. It is important to know the amount, kind and
quality of foods in balancing a ration. A balanced ration con-
tains the proportion of nutrients to properly nourish the animal
to which it is fed.
Nutritive ratio is the proportion between the digestible
protein in a given feed and the digestible carbohydrates and
fats. The carbohydrate equivalent is obtained by multiplying the
fat by 2%/4 and adding it to the carbohydrates. To obtain the
nutritive ratio, the digestible carbohydrate equivalent is divided
by the digestible protein. The nutritive ratio will be considered
"narrow" if it runs one part of digestible protein to less than
seven parts of digestible carbohydrate equivalent, and "wide"
if it runs from one part of protein to seven or more parts of
carbohydrate equivalent. The usual standard in computing a

ition is furnished by Morrison's Feed and Feeding, and every
)od stockman should have a copy of it.


Feeds are divided int
g'umes, vitamins, and enr
A- -- -_-


I concenti
de fiber.


, minerals



lilt, Ui Wvtigi L. Ur lintll, LnllAige, AtII1 U11 ll mCal I ICt, UUIICCIItLtrs.
Roughage is usually coarse and bulky in nature. Feeds such
s hays, straw, silage, and roots are generally considered as
Legumnes have the power to fix air nitrogen in nodules on
ieir roots. Such plants have bacteria that are capable of taking
itrogen out of the air. Legumes are usually rich in proteins and
minerals, more so than grass crops. Plants such as clovers,
)wpeas, soybeans, kudzu, and alfalfa, are legumes.
Vitamins are organic compounds derived from feeds usually

1 quan
de fibe

they i
,ion an
arse fit
t mude

;ary fo:
ion ag
t of pla

nal met;
ually of

Nitrogen-free extract is the portion of the feed which remains
after the determination of water, protein, fat, ash and crude
iber, and is composed principally of starches and sugars.
A feed supports life and reproduction. They provide reserve
energy to maintain temperature, growth, work and for body
maintenance. They enable the animal to replace worn out tissues,
nd are used in normal metabolism. The animal must have it
or continued existence.
The economical feeding of farm animals requires a knowledge
f the principles underlying feeding practices. The more
knowledgee one has of feed, its sources, use, composition, and
igestibility, and the more familiar one is with the function
f the various feed materials, the more intelligently one can
balancee rations or choose the feed which constitutes a good


Feeds further divide themselves into ingredients or classes
nown as (1) water, (2) ash or mineral compounds, (3) pro-
eins, (4) carbohydrates, (5) fats, (6) crude fiber.


Water is present in all feed, even to the driest. It varies
from 8 to 15 per cent in grains, and from 75 to 90 per cent in
eatery foods such as roots, tubers and silage, and in hays from
10 to 20 per cent. Water is the dissolving or liquifying agent
n the digestive tract. It aids in digestion, helps in assimila-
;ion, and is necessary for animal growth; plenty of it is very
essential and animals should have a clean, sanitary, plentiful
nmd convenient supply of it free-choice at all times. Hogs will
lot grow rapidly or fatten economically without it. The supply
)f water should be pure from fresh streams, if possible origi-
iating on the farm or from wells. It should be supplied in
simple quantities, if necessary carried to hogs in a bucket, or


Five to six gallons of water a day will
be consumed by a sow and litter in hot
summer weather. Hogs cannot cool them-
selves by sweating, but will get along
nicely without wallows if given shade
and plenty of clean, fresh water.

supplied from barrels as a drinking fountain. Animals forced
to drink stagnant or filthy water from wallows do not drink
enough. We presume no one would like to drink water from a
bath tub. Hogs will drink a lot of water no matter how much
slop they eat. If it has to be pumped it should be supplied to
them fresh 2 or 3 times daily, as the hog's stomach is not large.
There are several watering devices which may be used, but im-
portant thing is to see that the hogs get plenty of it.

'iame IA snows tne approximate amount oI water eaen spe-
cs or class of animal should receive daily:
ach 200 lb. hog .............................. 2 gallons per day
ach pig, about 75 lbs............................ 11/ gallons per day
ach 800 to 1000 lb. cow
(fed mostly dry feed) ......................... 20-25 gallons per day
ach steer or dry cow .......................... 10-12 gallons per day

ach sheep, mature ............................ 11/ ga
aeh 100 chickens (inil ................... ...... ..... a

ard v
o api
*: A

ang ti
F their
ie anu

more v
bible wo:
hat all
: water.
order t

ral is a
s a pro
e anima
limal ai
all plan
y is not

,Is are ou
needed; ;
may be
of "Eq

element o
anic proc
e kingdom
ife and i

ae fed as
's miner,
supply th

r feed
on co
be fo
ent j

It I
t is I
'ery d

ut in
ds of

ns per day
ns ner dav~

ys and
.n this

lot be-
ary in
e part

he ash

which contain co
rals, but young
) make rapid grn

-tault: itullUuILYu. i



ger percentages
. be before live-

tock at all times, whether such animals are breeding stock or
,rowing stock. One of the biggest mistakes any producer can
lake is in not providing plenty of minerals of the right kind
nd quality at all times to all of the animals.
The basis of good feed containing adequate minerals is in
ertile soils containing much humus and mineral matter. The
principal minerals needed by livestock and/or crops are cal-
ium, phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen, sulphur, iron, copper,
obalt, magnesium, manganese, sodium chloride (common salt),
inc, iodine.


Minerals have vital functions in an animal's body and are
tored in the body.

\-~-~~I~-~~~~~---~~--~~~~~ ~


1. Minerals build bone, such as calcium, phosphorus, man-
ganese, and nitrogen.
2. Common salt, a mineral, helps to control heat, or helps to
keep the animal cool in hot weather, and helps to keep
the body fluids normal.
3. Minerals stimulate the appetite and/or aid digestion,
such as cobalt, phosphorus, and salt.
4. Minerals improve the blood condition of the animal, such
as cobalt, copper, and iron.
5. Minerals give resistance to disease. A deficiency of any
essential mineral element predisposes an animal to disease.
6. Minerals help save feeds by helping to utilize other
feeds, such as phosphorus, salt, cobalt, copper, and
The minerals most likely to be lacking in Florida are com-
non salt, calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, and cobalt.
Calcium, commonly occurring as lime, helps build bone and
:eeth, and aids in clotting of the blood, and serves to keep the
heart beating. It is a factor in phosphorus utilization, or its
effectiveness; it helps maintain body acid-alkali balance. The
metabolism of calcium and phosphorus is closely associated with
Vitamin D. Important to young animals is the calcium-phos-
ohorus ratio, which should be between 1:1 and 2:1. A de-
ficiency of calcium may result in rickets, convulsions, or tetany.
Common sources of calcium (must be fluorine free) are:
around limestone, preferably a high calcium limestone, finely
ground oyster shell, precipitated calcium carbonate, and hard
Nood ashes. Faster weight gains, more efficient utilization of
feed, increased retention of calcium and phosporus, heavier bone
with greater breaking strength, and higher slaughter grades re-
sult when adequate calcium is included in the ration.
The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 372
states: "First symptoms of calcium deficiency, when feeder
gigs are fed peanuts and salt, are rough skin and hair, swollen
joints, stiffness and lameness. Advanced symptoms are loss
)f appetite, walking on knees, posterior paralysis, and finally
complete paralysis." The Missouri Station Research Bulletin
[67, states "that a ration for brood sows should contain not less
than 0.40% of calcium, otherwise there will be reduced vigor of
oigs at birth."
Phosphorus. The bones are composed largely of calcium
mnd phosphorus. Phosphorus is a vital portion of proteins,
present in the nuclei of all cells and a portion of all living pro-
:oplasm. Phosphorus combines with calcium in building strong
ones and teeth and helps to maintain the acid-alkali balance

of the blood by means of the prosphates it forms. Young ani-
nals need it to prevent and overcome stunted growth. Phos-
)horus helps to increase the pig crop and to maintain life by
tiding other functions necessary for proper growth and de-
The Kansas Station, in Technical Bulletin No. 41, states
:hat abnormalities resulted from feeding low-phosphorus
rations are,-
1. A lowering of the inorganic phosphorus in the blood.
2. A failure of normal growth and development of bone
and muscle.
3. A reduced utilization of feed, and storage of energy.
4. A loss of appetite.
5. A marked increase in thirst and a corresponding excre-
tion of urine.
"The minimum requirement of phosphorus in a ration of
growing pigs should be between 0.27 and 0.30 per cent, which
represents a daily intake of about 61/2 grams of phosporus per
100 pounds live weight for pigs weighing 50 pounds, or about
3 grams per head daily, and 4 grams per 100 lbs. live weights
For hogs weighing 200 lbs., or 8 grams per head daily."
Sources of phosporus are steamed bone meal, spent bone
meal, dicalcium phosphate, and superphosphate. Legumes are
rich in calcium. Grains and seeds are usually rich in phosphorus.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 372, Page
10, states: (See Table 15).
"The calcium and phosphorus requirements of growing
pigs, expressed in per cent of the dry ration, were indicated by
Mitchell and McClure and Ellis and Zeller to be as follows:
Calcium Content in Phosphorus Content in
Dry Ration Dry Ration
Weight Mitchell and Ellis and Mitchell and Ellis and
of Pigs McClure Zeller McClure Zeller
Pounds Percent Percent Percent Percent
30 0.53 ... 0.37
50 0.44 0.40 0.29 0.30
100 0.28 ... 0.23
150 0.22 0.30 0.20 0.25
200 0.20 ... 0.18 ...
250 0.20 0.20 0.18 0.20

Salt. The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulle-
tin 372 states:
",L.;, iI{l,.'.- of salt deficincYcr are rough skinr and !hair. loss

of and depraved appetite, and slow and poor gains. Salt
plays an important-part in maintaining the proper chemical
reaction of the body, and aids in the digestion of the feed.
Swine have only a small reserve of salt in body tissue, therefore
-,14 -1 -. 1 Ai I- ---- -1- 1c --- J-1 11 1' r- 7

copper arc

/116 oz.)
hb1enn A1 h,-+ '-

.--- __- _L- I-- '___ P___ - I I - -- I *I I I

r red coloring matter of the corpu
company the iron as it takes a small m
body in utilizing the iron. Iron he
id animals lacking iron and copper
iia, lose their appetite, become weak, c
hemoglobin or red corpuscles, iron bei
moglobin. Traces of copper are essei
re should be exercised not to give too
Suckling animals need more copper ar
these elements.
helps prevent certain anemic condit
with appetite, growth and thrift.
probably necessary for growth and hai
i combination with lead is a poison.
inc is necessary, feeds generally cor

or potassium iodide in small amounts
'not often found in Florida).

cles. Coppe
unt of coppe
ps to prevent
develop nutr,
id their bloo,
g an integro
,ial to anima
much as it i
I iron as mil.

ons for it i

Since only

should be no excuse for not using them.
The following minerals are recommended by the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station in Bulletin 401, August 1944.
(See Table 16).
Ingredients Florida Experimental
Swine Mineral Swine Mineral
)efluorinated superphosphate 50 pounds
Steamed bonemeal 50 pounds
Marble dust 50 pounds 50 pounds
Common salt 25 pounds 25 pounds
led oxide of iron 10-25 pounds 10-25 pounds
Copper sulfate 1 pound 1 pound
Cobalt sulfate 2 ounces 2 ounces

When using defluorinated superphosphate to replace
steamed bone meal it should contain from 10 to 14 per cent
)hosphorus, 25 to 28 per cent calcium, and less than 0.2 per

s low in i
)art of ht
ife but c,

cent fluorine. Steamed bone meal contains approximately 15
per cent phosphorus.
The amount of minerals contained in feeds or in individual
feed varies with the amount of minerals in soils on which such
feed is raised; therefore the necessity of properly mineralized
or fertilized pastures and crops. The basis of a good feed con-
taining minerals comes from plants grown on fertile soils con-
taining much humus and mineral matter, butt hogs should have
mineral supplements.
How to Feed Minerals to Hogs. Minerals may be fed as
mixtures from a self-feeder or from a trough or box. Keep
mineral mixtures before hogs at all times and at the most ac-
cessible points to encourage consumption. Minerals may be
mixed and fed to hogs in separate containers, or be a portion
of a protein supplement, or be mixed in prepared feeds; how-
ever if fed in separate containers hogs generally will not eat
more than their needs. If fed in a protein supplement it should
not be in excess of 1,/ of 1% of the total ration. Hog producers
can save feed by using good mineral mixtures.

Protein means primary or holding first place. It is the base
of all albuminous substances. Proteins are the essential con-
stituents of all living cells in both animal and vegetable life,
composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Sulphur
is found in most of them, phosphorus and iron in some of them,
and at times other minerals. Proteins are decomposed by acids.
alkalies, proteolytic enzymes, and putrefactive bacteria.
Protetin is a nutrient that is used to build tissues, nIere.
muscle, and all of the principal organs of the body. Proteins
help to supply heat, energy, fat, as well as blood, skin, hair,
hide, hoof, secretive organs, secretive organs, vigor, and con-
tinuous development. Without proteins there can be no life.
The large amounts of carbohydrates normally found in swine
feeds make the use of protein supplements for swine necessary.
Grains generally contain from 7 to 11 per cent protein, while
cottonseed meal, peanut meal, soybean meal, fish meal, and
tankage contain from 35 to 60%/. Generally speaking, there are
very few foods which are rich in protein; however those named
above should be kept before the hogs in the proper proportions.
At least 50% of a protein supplement for hogs should come
from animal sources like fish meal, tankage, and milk.
Proteins in order of their importance to hogs are: (1) tank-
age or fish me~'l alone, (2) taikage or fish meal 50 per cent, and
oil meals 50 per cent. A portion of a protein supplement may


ome from skim milk when fed 2 to 4 pounds per day per head.
'oo much milk adds bulk and is no better in hog feeding than in
mited quantities. Peanut meal and cottonseed meal when prop-
rly supplemented with minerals make excellent proteins for


Houston County Farmers produced'
100 pounds of gain with only
6 bushels of corn plus poundss
of tankage.,



Fig. 32-Save 5 bushels of corn on every 100 pound
a protein supplement.

Proteins are made up of amino acids, ai
;ids are more valuable than others. TI
elAsable amino acids, essential for life pi
essential or quality amino acids."

gain by using

certain of these
; certain indis-
sses, are called

u ULfll fltil aiN I 'I n.1t'.j iJ-VLf

vhen fed in the right proportion with other feeds.

The Protein Supplement Requirement of Hogs in Dry Lot

age of ment 100 LBS. OF MIX:1
protein to use
needed in (See With With With
ration below) With ground ground ground
corn wheat barley kafir
Pigs up to 50 lbs. 20 A 28 23 25 26
Pigs 50 to 80 lbs. 18 A 24 15 18 20
Pigs 80 to 120 lbs. 16 A 19 9 12 14
Pigs 120 to 165 lbs. 14 B 13 4 6 8
Pigs 165 to 220 lbs. 12 B 7 3* 3* 5
Bred sows2 14 B 13 4 6 8
Nursing sows 15 B 16 7 9 12
Breeding gilts and boars 15 B 16 7 9 12

- Five percent alfalfa meal should be included in all rations fed to growing and fat-
tening pigs in dry lot.
In feeding sows, ground alfalfa hay can be used to advantage up to 15 percent of
the ration if the alfalfa is high quality, fine-stemmed, and leafy.
The percentage of protein supplement in these rations was not reduced below 3 per-
cent in order to keep up the quality of the protein in the ration.
EXAMPLE: Feeding ground wheat to pigs weighing 50 to 80 pounds, in dry lot-
Use the line, "Pigs 50 to 80 lbs." On that line, under "Supplement to use,"
is "A," and under "With ground wheat" is "15." So in making the feed
mixture, start with 15 pounds of Supplement A, which is given below.
Add 5 pounds of alfalfa meal, making 20 pounds. Substract the 20 pounds from
100, which gives 80 pounds-the amount of ground wheat needed for 100
pounds of mixture.
Fig. 32 shows the results of feeding and not feeding a good
protein supplement:
As seen in Fig. 32, it took 11 bushels of corn alone to pro-
duce 100 lbs. gain. When 25 lbs. of tankage was used with corn,


it took only 6 bushels of corn to produce 100 lbs. gain, or in the
above feeding trial one pound of tankage replaced 111/2 pounds
of corn. A protein supplement helps save feed and helps utilize
other feeds, and also helps to keep the animal from "going off"
Carbohydrates and fats cannot take the place of proteins,
but proteins can be used in the place of carbohydrates and fats.
Other feeds are wasted when too little protein is used, and the
ration may be too expensive when feeding more proteins than are
needed. Proteins are economical when fed in the proper pro-
portions. Table 17 shows the per cent of protein needed in dif-
ferent rations for different weight swine (taken from Okla-
homa Agri. Exp. Sta. Circular 113)--or consult Morrison's
Feeds and Feeding.

The Protein Supplement Requirement of Hogs on Pasture

age of Supple- 100 LBS. OF MIX
Protein ment
Needed to use With With With
in (See With ground ground ground
Ration below) corn wheat barley kafir

Pigs up to 50 lbs. 18 A 24 18 19 20
Pigs 50 to 80 lbs. 16 A 18 11 12 14
Pigs 80 to 120 lbs. 14 B 13 5 7 9
Pigs 120 to 165 lbs. 12 B 8 3* 3* 4
Pigs 165 to 220 lbs. 10 B 3* 3- 3* 3*
Bred sowsl 12 B 8 3* 3* 4
Nursing sows 13 B 11 3* 4 5
Breeding gilts and boars 13 B 11 3* 4 5

1 In feeding sows, ground alfalfa hay can be used to advantage up to 15 percent of
the ration if the alfalfa is high quality, fine-stemmed, and leafy.
* The percentage of protein supplement in these rations was not reduced below 3
percent in order to keep up the quality of the protein in the ration.
EXAMPLE: Feeding corn to pigs weighing 80 to 120 pounds, on pasture--
Use the line, "Pigs 80 to 120 lbs." On that line, under "Supplement to Use,"
is "B," and under "With corn" is "13." So in making the feed mixture, simply
add 87 pounds (100-13=87) of corn to 13 pounds of Supplement B to make
100 pounds of feed mixture. Supplement B is described below.
Supplements A and B in tables above are made up as follows:
Supplement A (46% crude protein)
Meat scrap (50% protein) .......................... 50 lbs.
Soybean or peanut meal (41% protein) ...............25 lbs.
Cottonseed meal (43% ) .............................. 25 lbs.

100 lbs.
Supplement B (44% crude protein)
M eat scrap (50% ) ............... .................. 34 lbs.
Peanut meal (41%) ................................. 33 lbs.
Cottonseed meal (43%) .............................. 33 lbs.

100 lbs.


Protein Requirements For Swine
Protein is essential for growth. Different weight and stall
of growth of swine have different protein requirements. I
following is the minimum recommended on a broad scale a,
per cent of total concentrates:
Stage of Growth % to Feed in % to Feed
Not on Pasture Dry Lot Feeding on Pasture
Pigs up to 75 pounds 18-20 percent 15-17 percent
Pigs 75 to 150 pounds 16-17 percent 12-14 percent
Hogs 150 to 225 pounds 13-15 percent 10-12 percent
Bred sows 14-15 percent 10-12 percent
Lactating sows 16-17 percent 13-14 percent

When feeding swine with plenty of good pasture the p
tein may run from 3-4% less than in dry lot feeding or wh
pasture is scant. When pastures are scant or when dry lot fet
ing, a good bright green legume hay 5% of the ration should
added in order to help take care of vitamin A requirement
Dry or bred sows can use hay to better advantage than oti

'tes are comp
eat-energy fe,
itosans. The
ltes or saccha:
nd pentosans
crude fiber.
soluble in wa
like ptyalin
because of it
e tract may e
i of it may I
sed in hogs.
r is bulky. (
[ take the pla

class of neuti
oxygen of
,e mixtures.
rely, stearic,
ld glycerine.
r. Stearin is

snoUlci De avallaole lor all swi

of carbon,
They are
ars and star
or nitrogen:
complex ca
.gar is solu
iut is soluble
he saliva.
n it and bi
sed in cattle
,s cannot u
)hydrates c
r all fats in

ch the dif
s are glyce:
mittic and
ey are solu
ird, palmitt

hydrogen al
sugars, stare]
riches are call
n free extra
rbohydrates i
ble in water
le in tile press
Crude fiber
but certain 1
eak it down
e, but very
se much bull
an take the I
animal nutr

composed of


-on s!
irm, ar

gen, and
luloses an
ple carbon
the cellule
is relative
some enz,
least value
in the dig
a small p
any may
and crude
fats but c

Fat is
natural ft
fatty acid
cation the
soluble in

I- I U l, j IIV'IN INJ-1 lurT.iflf I I1N U kIN r tJUIXLfl'. 00

a soft fat at normal temperatures. A hog tends to transfer
fatty acids from feeds into its body as the same fatty acid, and
this accounts for certain feeds producing hard pork while others
may produce a firm pork while still others may produce oily
pork. A given weight of fat will develop 2 1/4 times as much
heat energy as a carbohydrate.

Nutritional Technologist, Agri. Exp. Sta., U. of Fla.,
Gainesville, Fla.
Vitamins may be defined as organic compounds which are
required for the normal growth and maintenance of the life of
animals. Animals are, as a rule, unable to synthesize these
compounds which are effective in small amounts. Swine in
many ways resemble humans more closely than any other non-
primate animal in their requirements for the vitamins. The
deficiency symptoms which occur in swine have their counter-
part in humans. An important exception is Vitamin C or As-
corbic Acid for which swine have a very low requirement.
The requirements of swine have been worked out for a lim-
ited number of the vitamins and these are discussed in more
detail in the following pages. Because of the general interest
in the vitamins as a whole, some additional vitamins are listed
with brief descriptions.
As information stands today any farmer using grains and
protein supplements and pasture need be concerned only with
Vitamins A, D, B,, Niacin and Pantothenic Acid. He will be
interested in others, particularly BI, B6 and Choline, but his
feed even under very poor conditions will supply adequate
Vitamin A
Pure Vitamin A occurs as pale yellow crystals at low tem-
peratures and as a viscous oil at room temperatures. Vitamin
A occurs only in the animal organism. It has never been found
in plants. In plants the precursors of Vitamin A are found
widely distributed, and there have been nine precursors of
Vitamin A discovered so far. The most important of these pre-
cursors or pro-vitamins A include alpha carotene, beta carotene
and gamma carotene which are the yellow pigments of grasses,
carrots, clovers and many vegetables, and cryptoxanthein which
is the pigment of yellow corn.
From the standpoint of animal feeding, the pro-vitamins A
are the most important sources of this vitamin. Carotene as

-v;ll aa L1.llc JUiIl jCf CLLI U1 Ut itlh hhh1 a ..Ul C- \ C-l 111 L11C
animal body to Vitamin A and in swine is about one-third as
effective as Vitamin A in supplying the needs for this vitamin.
Quantities of Vitamin A are expressed in international units.
An international unit of Vitamin A and of carotene is described
as six-tenths of a microgram of pure beta carotene. A gram of
pure Vitamin A has an activity of 4,500,000 international units.
Vitamin A and its precursors are easily oxidized and in feed-
stuffs losses are frequently large due to exposure to unfavorable
temperature and atmospheric conditions.
Vitamin A is known to have very definite functions within
the animal body. It forms part of the visual purple which is
the pigment in the eye that permits vision in poor light, con-
sequently, a deficiency of Vitamin A causes a loss of this pig-
ment and the development of "night blindness."
Another general function of Vitamin A is as a stimulant
to the formation of new cells, and it is essential in those tissues
that must be constantly replacing themselves because of wear,
and in young animals wherever there is a growth in tissues. A
deficiency in Vitamin A in swine results in night blindness,
keratinization (thickened and horny) of tissues including res-
piratory, urinary, intestinal and ocular tissues. Other symp-
toms include cessation of growth, interference with the proper
functioning of the reproductive system, interference with tooth
formation and blindness due to constriction of the optic nerve.
In sows a deficiency of Vitamin A may result in the birth of
blind pigs, or in some cases, in the birth of pigs without eyes.
The requirements of swine for Vitamin A are correlated
very closely with body weight and approximate 25 to 30 units
of Vitamin A per pound or from 120 to 200 units of carotene
per pound per day. Thus, a pig weighing 100 pounds would
have a daily requirement of Vitamin A of about 3,000 interna-
tional units.
Vitamin A is supplied in fish liver oils in a concentrated
form. Carotene or the precursor of Vitamin A is found in green
plants, young growing grasses, clover, green vegetable. hay
which has a green color, and in carrots. Yellow corn supplies
appreciable amounts of Vitamin A precursor in the form of
Vitamin D
Vitamin D occurs in several forms, the chief of which is D.2
or the ergosterol form, which occurs in plants which are irradi-
ated with ultro-violet light, and the D3 form which predolm-
inates in fish oils. The D vitamins are fat soluble and water in-
soluble, and are relatively heat stable. The vitamin occurs only


MJUl rAjKjU-UlV1uN AAIJu iVlAn lr>HjU Ii\ rivnl1I oU

in small amounts in animal tissues. Living plants contain no
detectable amount of Vitamin D but through irradiation of the
cut plants as in the preparation of hay Vitamin D is formed
from the precursors which are present. Good sources of the
Vitamin are found in fish liver oils and in some fish by-products
While fish fat is a good source of Vitamin D, the fat of other
animals is quite poor in this vitamin. The standard interna-
tional unit of Vitamin D is .025 microgram of pure crystalline
D2 in 1 microgram of olive oil. Thus, 1 gram of pure Vitamin
D2 is equivalent to 40,000,000 international units.
As Vitamin D functions in the animal body, it is very closely
related to the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, and a de-
ficiency of Vitamin D results in poor ossification or bone for-
nmation, and in young animals the condition known as rickets
develops. Vitamin D also influences the feed requirement for
gain and a lack of this vitamin results in an increased feed re-
quirement per unit gain. A typical result of Vitamin D de-
ficiency in young animals is "rib beading" (a thickening of the
ends of the rib bones), curvature of the long bones, and poor
dentition. The deficient animals are more susceptible to infec-
tious diseases and in older animals, osteomalacia and rarefica-
tion of the bones along with the increased suspectibility to dis-
ease may be the only signs of this deficiency.
The requirement of the pigs for this vitamin is closely re-
lated to body weight and the requirement has been determined
to be from 225 to 450 international units per 100 pounds of body
Vitamin B1 or Thiamin Hydrochloride
Pure Vitamin B1 is a water-soluble crystalline compound
that is nearly colorless and has a yeast or nutty odor. It is quite
stable in strong acid solutions or when dry, and can withstand
heat to 120 C. It is quite sensitive to oxidation and is readily
destroyed by sulfur dioxide. Thiamin is very essential to all
forms of life and functions as part of the cellular enzyme sys-
tem. It is not stored to any appreciable extent in the animal
body and a regular intake must be provided. Thiamin is inti-
mately tied up with carbohydrate metabolism and when a de-
ficiency occurs the disruption of the normal carbohydrate me-
tabolism causes the symptoms which are seen. Thiamin is
measured in international units and 1 gram of pure thiamin
hydrochloride equals 3,333,000 international units.
A deficiency of Vitamin B, in swine results in loss of appetite,
susceptibility to fatigue, nervous disorders, intestinal disturb-
ances, and unusual tenderness of muscles. Edema may develop
in the legs.


While thiamin is very important in the swine ration, it is
rarely deficient because the whole grains, young growing plants,
and the seed meals, such as cottonseed, peanut and soybean meals,
which constitute such a large part of swine rations, are good
sources of this vitamin.

Riboflavin or Vitamin B2
Pure Riboflavin is an orange yellow crystalline compound
which is slightly soluble in water. It is relatively stable to heat
and oxidation but is destroyed upon exposure to light. Quanti-
ties of vitamin B2 or riboflavin are expressed as milligrams or
micrograms of riboflavin. Riboflavin is widely distributed over
the plant and animal kingdoms, every cell apparently requires
a small quantity of this vitamin as a part of the normal cellular
Riboflavin in the ration promotes growth, prevents nervous
abnormalities and prevents some types of dermatitis. When a
deficiency occurs in suwine it results in retarded growth, diarrhea.
decreased resistance to disease, sterility, and if long continued
and severe, a deficiency of riboflavin will result in death.
The daily requirement of this vitamin by swine is between
1 and 3 milligrams of ;h,,,fla,t,,, per 100 pounds of body weight.
Good sources of this vitamin are milk, alfalfa, liver meal and
synthetic riboflavin. While riboflavin deficiency in swine does
not often occur, it will develop when a ration is composed
of too great a proportion of grains and the owner fails to include
pasture or animal protein in the ration.

Niacin or Niacinamide
Niacin with the commonly occurring compound of niacin.
niacinamide, is another member of the B vitamin complex. It is
a white crystalline compound that is water soluble and relatively
stable to heat. Quantities of this vitamin are expressed as milli-
grams of niacin or niacinamide and it has been found essential
for the normal functioning of all living cells, and is found in
all living organisms.
Niacin does not occur free in living tissues but. in the form
of niacinamide or still more frequently as compounds of niacina-
mide in enzyme systems. Niacin functions primarily as part
of the cellular enzymes and a deficiency results in abnormal
functioning of the body cells.
A deficiency of niacin in swine results in disturbances of
the gastro-intestinal tract which is shown by diarrhea. Resistance
to disease is lowered and necrotic enteritis may develop. Growth
is stopped and nervous disorders and dermatitis frequently


appear. The lack of any storage organs for niacin makes it
necessary that a regular supply be provided in the feed. Pigs
require between 5 and 14 milligrams of niacin per 100 pounds
of live weight daily.
Liver, yeast and wheat germ are especially rich in niacin.
Good sources are barley, peanut meal, wheat and fair supplies
may be secured from the oil seed meals and young growing
Pantothenic Acid
Pantothenic acid is a member of the B vitamin complex. It
is a white solid slightly soluble in water. It is stable to light
and to oxidizing agents but is unstable to prolonged heating.
Quantities of pantothenic acid are expressed as milligrams of
pantothenic acid.
Pantothenic acid occurs in small amounts in all animal
tissues as a part of the cell protoplasm. It usually occurs com-
bined with other materials.
While the exact functions of pantothenic acid are not known,
it appears to be concerned with the carbohydrate metabolism
of the animal. In swiine a deficiency results in a stilted gait,
diarrhea, anemia, paralysis of the hind quarters, loss of appetite,
retarded growth, nervous, disorders, and lowered disease re-
Practical swine rations may be quite low in this vitamin
and can result in a deficiency of pantothenic acid unless special
provisions are made for it by providing materials such as alfalfa
or green pasture. A requirement of swine is from 8 to 12
milligrams of pantothenic acid per 100 pounds daily.
Concentrated sources of the vitamin are found in dried
Brewer's yeast and in synthetic pantothenic acid. Good sources
are cane molasses, peanut meal and green growing grass. Alfalfa
and wheat bran are fair sources; the grains are extremely poor
in this vitamin.
Choline is sometimes considered as one of the B vitamin
complexes. It is related in its function to methionine. an
essential amino acid, and to betaine. All of these compounds
serve a similar capacity in the animal body. Methionine and
betaine can substitute for choline particularly if choline is
absent from the diet. Choline is found widely distributed in
small amounts, and is necessary for normal body metabolism.
Its primary function is as a source of "labile'' methyl groups
and it is closely related to the metabolism of the sulfur con-
+;_-_ -;- -;AlL1 nl -At~o l P -1-1 ___ _-__^^ ~ L


terms of milligrams. Unlike the other B vitamins which are
usually required in small amounts choline is required by swine
at a level of around 450 milligrams per 100 pounds live weight,
Because choline is so widely distributed in the usual swine
feeds, deficiencies are rarely if ever seen. When, deficiencies
are experimentally produced, the principal symptom is lack
of appetite, retarded growth in the development of fatty livers.
Good sources of this vitamins are the animal protein concen-
trates, cottonseed meal, peanut meal. alfalfa, dried skim milk.
and the wheat by-products.

Pyridoxin or Vitamin Bg
Pyridoxin is a member of the B vitamin complex that is
widely distributed in plant and animal tissues. Because de-
ficiencies of it have resulted in a symmetrical dermatitis in rats,
;+ l- Q o Cn1r I i l ar lf+ n -++; I ,-t-n -+ -Ii- -T^4- V-1 r i


Vitamin E or the Tocopherols
amin E or the Tocopherols has been intensely investigated

sms but the
deficiency syr
ich has been su
is a protector
European wor
vith vitamin IE
ciency rarely i

SrLuuauly IL
a abnormal sk
in deficiency
ie has not bei

lumber of cor
y and it is al
and cereals
als contain i
animal sour
ncerned as it i
t warm blood
been describe

d usually

Apparently it is re,
amounts required b:
nptoms in this spi

iggested as to its pos
of vitamin A, and I
kers claim to have o
3, but available infoi
if ever occurs in swi

Biotin or Vitamin I
* H is very widely di:
-ring mainly as a c]
s required by all anii
n and pigment chang<
but naturally occur
n observed.

Vitamin K
pounds have been she
indant in the green 1
ire poor sources of
,ry little vitamin K
e observed thus far.
with blood clotting t
I animals but a deficit
in pigs.

eous or Non-identifie
with vitamin-like
connection with a pf
described as new vita
previously known vi
)elow may be identic
ess unknown as regal
stance in the nutriti
horses and dogs.
I have been described
clarify their import.
concernedd in maintain
iod vessels. 2. Vit:

swine are so small
!cies have not been

sible role in reproduc-
n muscle metabolism.
Tercome barrenness in
mation indicates that

tributed in plant and
iemically bound com-
ials in small amounts.
!s have been attributed
ring biotin deficiency

wn to have vitamin K
eafy tissues of plants.
this vitamin. Animal
hog liver being the

me it may be essential
ency of vitamin K has

i Vitamins
properties have been
rticular species. Some
mins have been found
tamins and several of

LI 1 spPcuits s

in the literate
ing the norm
rin Ri--h Pnim

.U.\-/ I.V ..

ctt-ias ~-r. v ILinIii i,-nI-rPLll'e( Dry a pigeon, prooaDly l(tentlcal
with niacin. 5. Vitamin B7-required by pigeons to prevent
digestive disturbances. 6. Vitamin Bs-adenine or adenylic
acid, possibly aids in niacin treatment of pellagra in humans.
7. Vitamin B,.-a deficiency results in chick anemia. 8. Vitamin
B,--an anti-perosis vitamin. 9. Vitamin J or C2--tlle anti-
pneumonia factor for guinea pigs. 10. Vitamin Li and L_--
lactation vitamins necessary for the onset of normal lactation.
11. Folic Acid-perhaps the factor identical with vitamins Bi,,
and B,1. Required by rats for optimal growth. 12. Vitamin M
-a factor required by monkeys. 13. Factor T-required for the
maintenance of blood platelets in man and rats. 14. Factor V-
a growth-promoting factor for chicks. 15. Grass Juice Factor-
necessary for optimal growth of rats and guinea pigs. 16. Anti-
pernicious anemia factor-a factor postulated as preventing
pernicious anemia of humans. 17. Vitagens-a name given to
the essential fatty acids. Linolenic acid, linoleic acid and
arachidonic acid.

Sows and gilts may produce weak pigs at farrowing time.-
1. By feeding pregnant sows and gilts oil corn alone dur-
ing the gestation period, or by starvation, or a mere mainten-
ance ration.
2. By not feeding a protein supplement during gestation
and a reasonable protein supplement all the time.
3. By not feeding a simple mineral mixture such as the
one recommended by the Florida Agricultural Experiment
4. By not providing plenty of green feed (temporary or
supplementary grazing), or good bright legume hay in racks (to
the breeding herd), when other protein supplements are not
available. If rapid gains arce expected in market ihogs. lrgumec
ioay will not provide ample proteins.
5. By not providing sufficient water.
6. By not feeding a balanced ration.
Once a sow or hog begins to eat chickens, or a sow begins ti,
eat her own pigs, they- are difficult to stop. The control meth-
)ds are wrapped up in using proper feeds, for proper nutrition.
ind in good herd management practices. The owner is usually
it fault when hogs acquire this habit. Some of the causes are :-
1. Lack of feed-usually on a starvation ration.


2. Lack of sufficient minerals.
3. Lack of proper vitamins in the feed.
4. Lack of ample and a mixed variety of protein supple-
ments. (From one-third to one-half the protein supplement
should come from animal sources, like tankage, fish meal or
skim milk.)
5. Lack of ample good green nutritious pasture, and the
kind of program "to produce healthy hogs."
6. Anything causing restlessness, like unnecessary han-
dling, preceding, during and after farrowing; dogs or other
animals around the sows at or within 2 weeks after farrowing;
chickens should be kept away from sows at farrowing time or
for all time. Hogs should be comfortable, be provided with
ample shade and water and plenty of feed, which will add
materially to their comfort.
7. Hogs cannot be comfortable with lice and internal para-
sites, as these are conducive to a nervous condition and often
result in the sows eating pigs or eating chickens. When hogs
iare comfortable, they do their best.
The value of feed depends upon the digestibility of the
various materials of which it is composed and not on its com-
position as shown by the chemist. Digestion is a process of
chemical changes iu solution thruk the influence of various fer-
ments or digestive juices and enzymes as the feed passes thriu
the digestive tract. Each. digestive juice has its special work to
(do in the process of digestion.
The feed is take-n into the month, chewed, and reduced to
fine particles, and the finer the particles the better the juices
can perform their functions. The process of chewing and mix-
ing of saliva with the food is known as mastication. Ptyalin, an
enzvme in saliva, changes starch into sugar.
As the feed leaves the mouth, it passes into the stomach,
there a special digestive fluid, called gastric juice, comes in
contact with the feed product. A weak solution of hydro-
chloric acid is found in the stomach.
As the feed passes into the small intestines it comes in con-
tact with two digestive fluids-bile from the liver which acts
on fats, and pancreatic juice from the pancreas which has a
more complex function to perform, as it acts on the proteins
and on the starches and fats, its action being three-fold. No
one knows wholly or understands fully the entire course of
changes and actions along the digestive tract, but the above is
,rX'nr, cc or ;M~;n r rP con~ ,- +1, +tthnI n 1- n.-n I-


The amount of feed digested by an animal depends upon the
quality, kind and the amount of food or feed, the class of ani-
mal, and the condition or health of the animal, therefore in
feeding animals they should be kept in the most healthy condi-
tion and fed according to requirements.
The size of the digestive tract of an animal has much to do
with the kinds of feeds which may be fed to it. This capacity
in a hog is 7 to 8 gallons and less even than a sheep. The cow
and sheep have four stomachs each, known as paunch, honey-
comb, many-plies, and rennet. The paunch acts as a reservoir
and as a storage for feed; these animals are known as "Rumi-
nants" and can be fed more bulky feed than animals like hogs
and horses. Pigs and horses have only one stomach each. A
horse has a special way of taking care of additional roughages
while the pig does not, therefore pigs should be fed more con-
centrated feeds and can use less bulk than most other animals.
In the small intestines complete digestion and preparation
for assimilation of feed takes place. There are several enzymes
in the stomach which act on different feeds. The principal
enzymes of the pancreatic juice are trypsin, which acts on pro-
teins; anylase, which changes starch into malt sugar; and
lipase, which splits fats into fatty acids and glycerine.
The large intestine is the collecting place for undigested
matter and very little, if any, digestive fluids are produced
there, but absorption of digested nutrients is completed in the
large intestine.
An unwise choice or poor quality of feed may lead to a
shortage of some dietary essentials, and may result in the de-
velopment of serious nutritional diseases. Old feeds are usually
low in vitamins.
While chemical analyses may give very definite informa-
tion as to the nutrients present in feeds, they do not always give
a true picture of the availability of such feeds. A few important
factors to be emphasized in comparing various feeds are-
1. The availability of the nutrients. The availability of a
nutrient is to use the nutrient for its vital processes. The value
of the feed is determined by the availability of the nutrients in
it. In digestion trials corn, depending on grade, shows from
about 75 to 83% available nutrients, while bran shows
about 60%.
2. The quality of a nutrient is important in feeds. No. 2
corn carries approximately 72% carbohydrate equivalent of
which 70% is nitrogen free extract and 2% fiber. Another
feed might contain equal amounts of carbohydrate equivalent


mnd yet have 45% nitrogen free extract and 27% fiber. No. 1
corn carries a higher per cent of digestible nutrients than does
Mo. 2 corn, and some feeds carry greater bulk than others, mak-
ing them correspondingly less valuable.
3. Palatability is important for the reason that it makes
little difference how nutritious a feed may be if it lacks pala-
tability. Corn is very palatable while sweet potatoes in hog
Feeding lack palatability.
4. The quality or grade of the feed itself. There is con-
siderable difference in the feeding value of corn or other feeds
of different grades. Corn damaged by weevils and rats or de-
composed is far inferior to No. 2 or No. 1 corn. Barley may be
worth about as much, pound for pound, as corn, but corn usual-
ly runs fairly high in grade while barley grades are usually low.
5. Bulk. Feeds high in nitrogen free extract are high in
concentrates, while feeds high in fiber are low in concentrates.
Fiber is bulky and less valuable. A small amount of shorts is
valuable in a hog ration and shorts show about 80% as much
digestible nutrients as corn, pound for pound, but when meas-
ured a quart of shorts (being more bulky) has about 38% di-
gestible nutrients or about half that of corn. An excess of
shorts in hog feeding makes a ration too bulky. Brood sows
may use high quality legume hay to replace a fair portion of
protein supplement, but legume hay is too bulky to replace
much of the protein in fattening swine.
6. Form in which a feed is fed. One class of livestock can
use a certain feed to a better advantage than another, or one age
group of the same species may use more effectively a certain
feed than another age. Sows may use a certain amount of
corn-cob meal to advantage while pigs need more concentrate
feeds like corn itself instead of corn-cob meal. In hog feeding
operations generally sorghum grains can be used to better ad-
vantage if ground or cracked as compared with feeding whole.
VWhen barley is fed it is usually best to soak or cook it instead of
feeding it straight. The hog is a user of concentrates and cannot
use too much bulk, on the other hand, cattle can use a consid-
erable amount of bulky feed.
7. Difference in value according to how fed. There may be
as much as 25 to 50% difference between the value of a feed in
a balanced ration as compared with one not well balanced. The
feeding of corn alone to swine may take as much as 11 bushels
of corn to produce 100 pounds gain, while if 30 lbs. of tankage
is added to the corn it may take as little as 6 bushels of corn
and 30 lbs. of tankage to make a 100 lbs. gain. Different combi-
nations of feed have different physical as well as chemical re-
Actinns which mav affect digestion under some conditions.


Feeds For Swine
It will be difficult to fully treat this subject in this bulletin,
therefore the producer would do well if he purchased a copy
of Morrison's Feed and Feeding, care of Morrison Publishing
Co., Ithaca, N. Y., as well as obtain and study feeding tests put
out by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and use
the services of the Agricultural Extension Service, to obtain
further information on this subject. One might desire also to
obtain tests made by the Georgia Coastal Plains Station, Tifton,
Ga., and work done by Alabama at the Wiregrass Experiment
Station, Headland, Ala. The various Agricultural Experiment
Stations and the United States Department of Agriculture and
text books furnish excellent material on this subject.

Morrison's Feeds and Feeding state the requirements of
digestible nutrients in swine feeding by weights (for classes).
Showing the digestible crude protein, total digestible nutrients
and nutritive ratio, see Chapter 6, Nutrition-'' Protein require-
ments for swine drylot feeding and on pasture" in this
bulletin. (Table 18 courtesy Morrison Pub. Co.)
Requirement Digestible Total Dig. Nutritive
by Weight Crude Protein Nutrients Ratio
30- 50 pounds 7.8-8.5 pounds 41.0-45.4 pounds 1:4.0-1:4.5
50-100 pounds 5.5-6.0 pounds 32.9-36.4 pounds 1:5.0-1:5.6
100-150 pounds 4.4-4.9 pounds 28.8-81.9 pounds 1:5.5-1:6.2
150-200 pounds 3.5-3.9 pounds 25.8-28.5 pounds 1:6.2-1:7.0

For "digestible nutrients in feeds" and "weights of various,
feeds by measure" see the Appendix.
Experiments show that hogs fed a ration of corn with supple
ments, at levels of 4, 3, and 2 pounds of feed per 100 pounds of
live weight, gained from an initial weight of approximately 6,
pounds to 200 pounds at rates of 1.14, 1.03, and 0.77 pounds
per day, respectively. However, the feed consumption per unit
gain showed a significant decrease with the decrease in feed
level, and the group on the high-feed level required 34 per cen1
more feed than the group on the low-feed level, but they finished


Results with a wheat ration fed under conditions comparable
to those for the above-mentioned corn ration showed average
daily gains of 1.26, 0.95, and 0.62 pounds with decrease in feed
level. The feed consumption per unit gain was not decreased to
the extent of that of the corn ration.

The amount of feed required by hogs depends upon a number
of factors; upon the program and practices one expects to
follow, and whether one is interested in feeding a productive
rations, etc. Some of these factors are:
1. The quality, kind and weight of pigs.
2. The kind and quality of concentrate or grain feeds used.
3. The kind, quality and amount of proteins used.
4. The kind, quality and amount of mineral supplements
5. The kind and quality of green grazing or pastures used.
6: Whether the pigs are fed in drylot or in pasture.
7. Whether the crops are hogged-off or harvested and fed.
8. Whether the hogs are hand-fed or self-fed.
9. The weight of the pigs being fed.
10. And general herd management practices, shade, water,
Table 19, taken from Bulletin Kansas State Board of
Agriculture "Hogs in Kansas," shows the minimum gains to
be expected in fattening hogs if the operation is to be reasonably
CGain of Fattening Pigs Minimum Expected
Number of Total gain Gain per day
Stage of growth days pounds pounds
Birth to weaning (8 weeks) .......... 56 45 0.80
Weaning to 3 months................. 35 25 0.71
3 months to 6 months ............. . 91 80 0.88
3 months to 9 months ................ 91 85 0.93

Total 9 months ................. 273 days 235 pounds

It should not take over 9 months to produce a 235 pound
blog. Under good practices one should produce 200 to 225 pound
log in from 6 to 8 months, therefore Table 19 is given as a
minimum to be expected if one expects to obtain a reasonable
reward for efforts. Generally a growing hog is a thrifty hog
mnd a profitable one. "One cannot starve profits out of hogs."


Table 20 shows what may be expected in pounds daily gain
and the feed required to produce a one hundred pound gain
when hogs are fed a balanced ration containing corn, tankage
and mineral supplements while grazing.
Economy of Gain at Different Stages of Growth
State of Feed per Feed daily Daily gain Feed
growth head daily per 100 Ibs. per head required
pounds liveweight pounds pounds
Birth to 100 lbs....... 2.2 4.2 Ibs. 0.81 304
100 200 lbs.......... 6.1 4.2 1.70 359
200 300 lbs.......... 7.6 3.0 1.88 415
-Courtesy "Morrison's Feeds and Feeding."

It generally pays to full-feed hogs for the market from
pre-weaning stage to marketing stage. When one uses a mere
maintenance ration, outside of keeping the animal alive, the
feed is lost.

When swine of different weights are full-fed corn, tankage
and mineral while on pasture, Table 21 shows the "Composite
Records of Several Experiment Stations."
Pounds Lbs. of concen- Pounds
Stage of growth Daily trates used for Feed head
Gain 100 Ibs. gain Daily
From birth to 100 lbs. (live weight). 0.80 325 2.25
From 100 to 200 lbs. (live weight).. 1.68 380
From 200 to 300 lbs. (live weight).. 1.78 430 7.50
From 300 to 400 lbs. (live weight).. 490

Thrifty young animals make better use of feed than older
animals. The quality and age of the hogs as well as the feed
has much to do with gains. Corn, badly eaten with weevils or
rats, or moldy, cannot be expected to give the same results
as good corn.

A few of the principal concentrate feeds which may be
used in swine feeding, either "hogged-off" or "hand-fed" that
are generally considered adaptable to the swine-producing area
of west Florida are in Table 22. (These feeds were used in
hogging-off operations at the Georgia Coastal Plain Exp.
Station, Tifton, Ga., and most of them have adaptation to

jQci 3UItL k 0 r fltfryi1N tj-JJ i r Un\jr3-j-!jr nflIkjA
Result and Sequence of Hogging-off Crops
Bulletin 41, Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station (B. L. Southwell)
No. Pounds
years Earliest date Latest date pork
test CROP hogs placed hogs removed per
run on crop from crop acre
8 Mature small grains
(Oats, wheat and rye) .... May 6 July 15 306.3(8
8 Early dent corn ............. June 28 September 27 501.68
4 Grohoma sorghum and
Spanish peanuts........... July 29 October 25 314.18
Popcorn .................. August 6 November 8 369.1(i
Chufas .................... August S November 21 338.07
Sunflowers................. August 12 October 5 123.5t
3 Corn and Spanish peanuts.. August 12 January 4 541.72
3 Spanish peanuts............ August 17 October 26 342.96
8 Corn ..................... August 17 March 31 358.2S
Grohomas sorghum and
soybeans ................. September 2 November 2 359.94
7 Corn and soybeans ......... September 23 November 18 305.20
7 Runner peanuts............ November 7 March 17 361.35
7 Sweet potatoes............. November 7 March 17 457.42

"The length of the hogging-off period depends, of course.
upon seasonal conditions, crop yields, and the number of
hogs placed on the crop, and an effort should be made to use
the number of hogs on each crop which will consume it to the
best advantage. It is best to have some surplus feed than to
be short."

The Agricultural Experiment Station, Purdue University.
Leaflet 156, shows the comparative value of other grains with
corn in Table 23-page 99.

Corn, Oats and Rye
The question is often asked, is it more profitable to produce
corn, oats, barley or rye. Table 24-page 100--shows the results
of a 5-year test by the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station.
prepared by Dr. M. P. Jarnagin.
Referring to Table 23 comparing the feed value of shelled
corn with other grains, one will be able to determine in yields
per acre whether it is more profitable to raise corn, or oats, rye
and barley. Corn is one of the best hog feeds, but more hogs
are finished on peanuts in Florida than any other feed. However.
other grain crops should be produced for hogs.

uur rrlrrlr~ulr~ vr rzulr~uuuLvlru


Comparative Feed Value of Shelled Corn With Other Grains

Number Relative Approximate value when a bushel of -
of fattening corn is worth
FEED bushels values
inFEED a ton forhogs $0.20 $0.40 1 $0.60 $0.80 $1.00 $1.20 H

per cent* bu. bu. bu. bu. bu. bu.

Shelled corn ..- ..... 35.7 100 $0.20 $0.40 $0.60 $0.80 $1.00 $1.20 z
Ground wheat --- -----...- 33.3 105 .23 .45 .68 .90 1.13 1.35 t
Ground Barley ------ 41.7 90-95 .16 .32 .48 .63 .79 .95 4
Ground rye ------................... 35.7 90 .18 .36 .54 .72 .90 1.08 ;
Ground oats --.. ------.. 62.5 60-80 .08 .16 .24 .32 .40 .48 P
ton ton ton ton ton ton H
Hominy feed .--- 100 $7.14 $14.28 $21.42 $28.56 $35.70 $42.84
Wheat middlings 75-85 5.71 11.42 17.14 22.85 28.56 34.27 ^
W heat--------middlings------------------------7----
NOTE-The price figures for barley, oats and wheat middlings are based on average fattening values.
Wheat, rye and barley, should be ground, while it is not necessary to grind corn. Coarse grinding is recommended. z
Wheat middlings have a higher value as a supplementary feed than as a fattening feed, and are commonly used to supplement corn r
rather than to substitute for corn. t
With corn as a standard at 100 per cent, a like weight of wheat has a feeding value of 105 per cent, rye 90 per cent, and so on for the 0
other feeds. The price values at the right are based upon the percentage values shown in column 2.

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