Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Quality of product
 Breeds of swine and thier...
 Florida is a good state for the...
 The importance of hogs to Florida...
 Breeds of the lard type
 Chester white
 Spotted Poland-China
 Breeds of the bacon type
 Breeding-up process
 Selection of the boar
 Type of hog
 Grading up hogs with pure bred...
 How many hogs to raise?
 Judging hogs
 Hog lot equipment
 Feed troughs
 Dripping vats
 Fresh water for hogs
 How to mix
 Management of brood sows and their...
 Gestation table for sows
 Gestation table
 History of a sow's life
 How much does it cost to raise...
 Pig values
 Brodd sow performance
 Castration of hogs
 Operative procedure
 Operation on ruptured pigs
 Operation for riggling
 Restraining big boars
 Bermuda grass
 Green feeds
 Crab grass
 Oats for hogs
 Florida beggarweed
 Hog farm, planting schedule
 Field peas (cow peas)
 Velvet beans
 Sweet potatoes
 Feeds - hogging off corn
 Feeding corn
 Corn products
 Feeding peanuts and supplement...
 Some results of soft-pork...
 Feeding garbage
 Care of hogs following beef...
 Production season
 Things to remember
 Fattening and growing hogs for...
 Rations for fattening hogs
 Feed to pigs
 Protein pays profits
 Hogs 150 to 200 pounds
 Rations for weaninling pigs 8 to...
 Fattening sows and stags for...
 Protein supplements for hogs
 Digestible protien content of common...
 Cotton seed meal
 Minerals for hogs
 Other rations, including minerals,...
 Market classes and grades...
 Selling hogs
 Federal grades
 Hog schedule
 Classes of hogs
 Uses of hohs in packing plants
 Loading hogs in cars
 Auction markets
 Reducing losses while shipping
 Marketing organizations
 Marketing methods
 A good manager is indispensable...
 What forms are needed
 Member's satement
 Killing, curing and canning
 Care just before slaughtering
 Curing and smoking
 Curing prok
 Sugar cure
 Pickling pig's feet
 Smoking cured meat
 Wrapping and storing smoked...
 Testing smoked meats
 Pork cuts and their uses
 Time-table for cooking pork
 Fresh sausage
 Liver sausage
 Canning pork
 Diseases of hogs
 Facts about hog cholera
 Control and eredication of hog...
 Controlling kidney worms in swine...
 Adult screw worm fly
 Feeding sows separately
 Anemia in pigs
 Summary of the swine-sanitation...
 Sixteen suggestions for farm...
 Statistical data
 Dressing percentage
 Pork consumption in the United...
 The world distribution of hogs
 American swine record associat...
 The meat packing industry by States...
 Hogs: number on farms and value...
 Hogs: receipts at public stockyards,...
 Lard, refined: average prices per...
 Hogs: numbers in countries having...
 Duration and frequency of a heat...
 Weight of various concentrates
 Grooming hogs for show
 General terms as applied on...
 Fiscal facts, 1936-37
 Agricultural investments
 Leading markets
 Some leading meat growing...
 Table of Contents

Group Title: Bulletin. New series
Title: Profitable hog production in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089056/00001
 Material Information
Title: Profitable hog production in Florida
Alternate Title: New series bulletin - Florida Department of Agriculture ; 21
Physical Description: 230 p. : ill, maps, ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lewis, L. H. ( Lester H )
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla
Publication Date: December, 1938
Copyright Date: 1938
Subject: Swine -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by L.H. Lewis.
General Note: "December, 1938."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089056
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF0509
oclc - 41414446
alephbibnum - 002445269

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Quality of product
        Page 7
    Breeds of swine and thier improvement
        Page 8
    Florida is a good state for the production of hogs
        Page 9
    The importance of hogs to Florida farmers
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Breeds of the lard type
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Chester white
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Spotted Poland-China
        Page 21
    Breeds of the bacon type
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Breeding-up process
        Page 27
    Selection of the boar
        Page 28
    Type of hog
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Grading up hogs with pure bred sires - advantages
        Page 31
    How many hogs to raise?
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Judging hogs
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Hog lot equipment
        Page 39
    Feed troughs
        Page 40
    Dripping vats
        Page 41
    Fresh water for hogs
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    How to mix
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Management of brood sows and their litters
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Gestation table for sows
        Page 61
    Gestation table
        Page 62
    History of a sow's life
        Page 63
    How much does it cost to raise pigs to weaning age?
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Pig values
        Page 68
    Brodd sow performance
        Page 69
    Castration of hogs
        Page 71
    Operative procedure
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Operation on ruptured pigs
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Operation for riggling
        Page 77
    Restraining big boars
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Bermuda grass
        Page 89
    Green feeds
        Page 85
    Crab grass
        Page 90
    Oats for hogs
        Page 87
    Florida beggarweed
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Hog farm, planting schedule
        Page 86
        Page 88
    Field peas (cow peas)
        Page 94
    Velvet beans
        Page 95
    Sweet potatoes
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Feeds - hogging off corn
        Page 98
    Feeding corn
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Corn products
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Feeding peanuts and supplements
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Some results of soft-pork investigations
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Feeding garbage
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Care of hogs following beef cattle
        Page 111
    Production season
        Page 112
    Things to remember
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Fattening and growing hogs for market
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Rations for fattening hogs
        Page 117
    Feed to pigs
        Page 118
    Protein pays profits
        Page 119
    Hogs 150 to 200 pounds
        Page 120
    Rations for weaninling pigs 8 to 10 weeks
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Fattening sows and stags for market
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Protein supplements for hogs
        Page 127
    Digestible protien content of common roughages
        Page 128
    Cotton seed meal
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Minerals for hogs
        Page 131
    Other rations, including minerals, for hogs
        Page 132
    Market classes and grades of hogs
        Page 133
    Selling hogs
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Federal grades
        Page 136
    Hog schedule
        Page 137
    Classes of hogs
        Page 138
    Uses of hohs in packing plants
        Page 139
    Loading hogs in cars
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Auction markets
        Page 143
    Reducing losses while shipping
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Marketing organizations
        Page 147
    Marketing methods
        Page 148
        Page 149
    A good manager is indispensable to cooperative success
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    What forms are needed
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Member's satement
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Killing, curing and canning
        Page 167
    Care just before slaughtering
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Curing and smoking
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
    Curing prok
        Page 180
    Sugar cure
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Pickling pig's feet
        Page 183
    Smoking cured meat
        Page 184
    Wrapping and storing smoked meats
        Page 185
    Testing smoked meats
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Pork cuts and their uses
        Page 188
    Time-table for cooking pork
        Page 189
    Fresh sausage
        Page 190
    Liver sausage
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Canning pork
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    Diseases of hogs
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Facts about hog cholera
        Page 199
        Page 200
    Control and eredication of hog lice and mange
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
    Controlling kidney worms in swine in the southern states
        Page 204
        Page 205
    Adult screw worm fly
        Page 208
    Feeding sows separately
        Page 206
    Anemia in pigs
        Page 209
    Summary of the swine-sanitation system
        Page 207
    Sixteen suggestions for farm improvement
        Page 210
    Statistical data
        Page 211
    Dressing percentage
        Page 212
    Pork consumption in the United States
        Page 213
    The world distribution of hogs
        Page 214
    American swine record associations
        Page 215
    The meat packing industry by States (1935)
        Page 216
    Hogs: number on farms and value per head in the United States 1840, 1850, 1860, 1867-1936
        Page 217
    Hogs: receipts at public stockyards, 1926-35
        Page 218
    Lard, refined: average prices per 100 pounds at Chicago, by months, 1926-35
        Page 219
    Hogs: numbers in countries having 150,000 and over, for 1934
        Page 220
    Duration and frequency of a heat in farm animals in regular condition
        Page 221
    Weight of various concentrates
        Page 222
    Grooming hogs for show
        Page 223
        Page 224
    General terms as applied on markets
        Page 225
    Fiscal facts, 1936-37
        Page 226
    Agricultural investments
        Page 227
        Page 228
    Leading markets
        Page 229
    Some leading meat growing states
        Page 230
    Table of Contents
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
Full Text

Bulletin No. 21 New Series December. W3S


Hog Production

in Florida
Livestock Specialist of
Florida State Marketing Bureau
Jacksonville, Florida

NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner


Bulletin No. 21

New Series

December. 1938

Bulletill No. 21 New Series~ I )eceniher. 19:38


Hog Production

in Florida

Livestock Specialist of
Florida State Marketing Bureau
Jacksonville, Florida

Excellent Type Poland-China Sow
Pansy A-190630 Grand Champion Poland-China Sow at the National
Swine Show, 1934
-Compliments of Seminole Farms, Donalsonville, Ga.

NATIAN MAYO, Comm8issioner

Bulletin No. 21

New Series

December, 1938


The origin of the ancestry of swine is lost in antiquity.
Fossil forms of the genus Sus, one of the progenitors of swine
have been found in the rocks of the Middle Miocene to the
Pleistocene age in India, Africa and Europe. The earliest
representatives of the Hog Family appear in the formations
of the Eocene period of both Europe and North America.
Swine belong to the natural family Suidae, native to the
tropical countries, as represented by several genera, the chief
of which is Sus.
The family Suidae is closely allied to the Hippopotomidae
and the Dicotylidae peccariess). These three families form a
group known as Suina, each having its own distinct charac-
Animals similar to hogs, but of other genera are native to
many parts of the world. The peccaries, whose range extends
from South America to Arizona in North America, the habi-
russa of East India, and the tiarthog of South Africa (the only
near relative found on the American Continent) are all swine-
like animals. None of these have been domesticated.
The names hog and swine seem to have their origin in hag,
meaning to cut; in the Icelandic word hoggva; Swedish,
hugga; German, haven, meaning to hew, etc. German, Schwein,
swine; Latin, suinus; English, sow, etc.
The exact origin of domestic hogs, according to zoology is
not definitely known. It is generally accepted that they de-
scended from the wild boar, Sis scrofa of North Africa, Europe
and Asia. The Indian species, Sus cristatus or Sus indicus,
it is believed, also entered into the evolution of this world-
known animal.
Wild boars (sus scrofa) still roam in forests in parts of
Asia and Central and Southern Europe.
The Orient appears to be the first section of the world to
have domesticated hogs. The domestication of these animals
has spread until they are now known in practically every part
of the world. The domestic hog will become wild when lib-
erated in mild climates.
The hog is a non-perspiring animal. He does not perspire
in the manner of man or horses.
Hogs are considered by many people to be dirty and unclean
animals. This depends on the manner in which they are raised.
Hogs would be clean if given the opportunity.


The raising of swine or hogs properly divides itself into two
divisions,-large scale production by the exclusive stock-raiser
and the few or many on the average farm.
The farmer raises hogs more as a by-product, whereas the
stock-raiser makes a special business of hog-raising.
Better breeds, better attention to the details of hog-raising
such as feeding, grading, and marketing are a few of the things
studied by the successful producer of hogs on the stock farm.
The farmer with his small or large herd of swine is, as a
rule, so busy with the other manifold duties on his farm that
the hogs he is raising do not get the full attention they should.
There are many facilities for obtaining marketing informa-
tion, but there is still much to be learned before hogs from the
average farm can be marketed in the proper manner and at the
right time.
There is an old adage that seems to apply especially to the
raising of hogs, "We must give to get."
To "get" much from the production of any farm product
the producer must "give" time, energy, and last, but by no
means least, his thought. A carefully thought-out plan start-
ing with the breed, the feeding, foraging, housing, renovating
of the stock pens, grading, butchering, and marketing is neces-
sary if any degree of success is to be assured.
Particularly good advice, is, Don't go into tihe raising of
any product on a broad scale without knowing in advance
the essential funlcion involved in its production. There is no
justification in believing that because hogs brought a good
price this year they will the following year. Only a study of
market conditions can assist the hog raiser in a reasonably
correct analysis of this most important factor. Since hogs are
raised in many sections of the world, market conditions should
be studied from an international or world-wide standpoint.
Every farmer must be his own judge as to the amount of
hogs he should raise. No farmer wants to raise anything and
find when he comes to market his crop that lie cannot obtain
the cost of production, to say nothing of the profit to which he
is rightfully entitled.
A few hogs can be raised profitably on almost every farm
even though they are entirely for home consumption. The
breed should be selected according to farm location, climatic
conditions, and general market demands.
This bulletin contains some interesting and detailed infor-
mation. It has been prepared to assist the Florida hog raiser
in obtaining more satisfactory returns for his efforts.

Comparison of types of Poland China sows: A, small type, weight 275
pounds at 1 year, (or 249 days); B, intermediate type, weight 473 pounds
at 1 year, (or 255 days); C, big type, weight 474 pounds at 1 year, (or
256 days).


Quality and Efficiency Paramount
Widely recognized for its efficient utilization of feed and its
adaptability to various systems of farming, the hog is one of
the most dependable sources of agricultural income. Swine are
raised on approximately three-fourths of the farms in the
United States. The total number on January 1, of each of the
last five years, has ranged from about 52,000,000 to 62,000,000.
Swine consume from 40 to 50 per cent of the corn crop and fur-
nish approximately half the meat consumed in the United
States. hi value, they represent about one-tenth of all agri-
cultural production. The hog's prolificacy and early-maturing
qualities, together with the excellent keeping properties of the
meat, when properly cured or canned, add further to its use-
fulness and popularity.
With changing conditions in the country's development the
type of hog also has changed. The typical porker of today is
a vastly different animal from the coarse, large-boned, long-
legged hog of pioneer days. According to record, hogs were
first brought into this country on the second voyage of Colum-
bus, by way of the West Indies. Later, other hogs in large
numbers were brought directly to Florida by DeSoto and dis-
tributed throughout the South. These animals, of Spanish ori-
gin, descendants of wild European hogs, were permitted to run
at large. In this unrestricted mingling of hogs there was ran-
dom breeding, which in the course of a few generations pro-
duced a common type.
Meanwhile hogs of a better grade, maturing early because
of an admixture of blood of Chinese hogs, were brought into
the country from England and distributed along the Atlantic
coast at various points from New England to Virginia. These
hogs represented breeds already popular and regarded as ef
ticient producers of pork in the British Isles and in the Nether-
lands. These hogs, too, were obliged to roam beyond the set-
tlements and get their feed chiefly from the mast (acorns.
beechnuts, etc.) in the woods bordering the clearings of the
As the pioneers moved westward, taking livestock with
them, the hogs of British origin from the Atlantic coast and
the descendants of those from Spain were merged in the east-
ern and southern sections of what is now known as the Corn
Belt. There remained, however, here and there in the settled
*U. S. Dept. of Agr. Yearbook of Agriculture, 1933


sections of the country, some more or less pure representatives
of the original imported hogs, especially those from Great
Britain. In the great bulk of hogs there was considerable de-
terioration in quality at all the settlements owing to manage-
ment practices followed under pioneering conditions. Real in-
terest in and effort toward improving hogs did not become of
general concern to farmers before about 1800. Since then
marked improvements have been made, as indicated by the
superior quality of swine in each of the breeds now found
throughout the United States.

Breeds of Swine and Their Improvement
The relative distribution and popularity of the standard
breeds of hogs are indicated in the numbers of purebred reg-
istered swine throughout the United States according to the
1930 census.
Number Number
Breed registered Breed registered
Duroc-Jersey............ 116,942 Hampshire ..............30,740
Poland China............ 110,284 Berkshire ............... 8,423
Chester W hite............ 41.614 Tamworth............... 2,758
Spotted Poland China.... 33,564 All other breeds.......... 12,754
Characteristic differences in conformation and in color ex-
ist among the several swine breeds, though all of them possess
innate qualities for quick growth, early maturity, and the pro-
pensity for storing in their carcasses large quantities of fat
with rather simple systems of feeding. No marked differences
that are distinctively breed characteristics exist among mar-
ket grades. There are as great differences within the breeds
as among the breeds.
Purebred lines are maintained by strict adherence to purity
of blood lines as indicated by pedigree and registration.
Breeding for type and efficiency involves the same general
practices in all breeds, and is dependent upon known perform-
ances and wise mating of sires and danms that possess the forn
and qualities the breeder desires to perpetuate and improve.
In attempting to improve swine the breeder must keep produc-
tion costs in mind. These costs can be lowered only by increas-
ing efficiency or reducing losses.
The choice of breed is largely a matter of personal prefer-
ence, color, and type frequently being the dominating influ-
ences. It is generally wise, however, to choose that breed most
common to the neighborhood. After the breed has been select-
ed, the important matter of selecting individual sows and boars
for the breeding herd is to be considered. There may be ad-
vantages in making selections from localities beyond the im-
mediate neighborhood in order to get new blood with which
later to supply demand from near-by breeders. Any factors


involved in the selection of individuals for a new herd apply
equally to the selection of additions and replacements.
The purity of blood lines and the systems of breeding that
have developed the individuals under consideration are deter-
mined from pedigrees. The physical merits of the individual
animal, however, may be judged by several means. The most
dependable are: (1) A critical examination of the animal and
an inspection of other members of the litter, the sire, dam, and
other closely related hogs; (2) the numbers, uniformity in size,
and type of pigs in the litters; and (3) the regularity of far-
rowing by the dam and granddam.
Forming a breeding herd with sows from unrelated dams
and sires, if otherwise equally good, is preferable to selecting
sows front those closely related. Subsequent breeding prac-
tices thus will allow wider range of selection and greater op-
portunities for matings within the herd.
Sows and boars are probably more desirable if selected on
the basis of weight attained at a given age under similar sys-
tems of feeding, as this factor indicates the rate of gain that
may be expected in the offspring. Number of pigs in litters,
uniformity of litter size, and percentage of pigs weaned and
fattened are also important from the standpoint of low pro-
duction costs.

Among the enterprises adopted by the farmers of Florida,
hog raising has taken a prominent place. The long growing
season and having the prevailing soils favorable to the produc-
tion and grazing of forage crops suitable for hogs. Many farm-
ers having but little experience are going into the business.
In this state of mild winters and year-round pastures, the
amount of dry feeds needed to supplement the crops grazed is
much smaller than that required in colder sections. Practi-
cally all of the crops here used for finishing hogs for market
are grazed off instead of being harvested before feeding.
It is so generally recognized that feeds constitute the bulk
of the cost of hog production, that it is usual to state the cost
in terms of the feed used. Profits and losses shown by feeding
experiments are commonly calculated solely upon the basis of
the feeds consumed.
With the rapidly increasing production of hogs in the
region the growers have given closer attention to all phases of
the business, including the growing of grazing crops during all
months of the year. The result is that more complete grazing


systems are being worked out on the farms. A study of the
experiences and methods of the most successful hog producers
should be of special interest.

The Importance of Hogs to Florida Farmers
Only good prolific sows will assure profit in hog produc-
tion. They should be uniform in width and length, with good,
strong pasterns, and arched backs. The underline in young
sows should be straight, and have a regular width throughout.
Short heads and good, strong mouths indicate capacity to
take in feed.
Breed the sows to give two litters of pigs each year. Keep
fewer good sows and raise more pigs each litter. Good sows
are good mothers, and have from 12 to 14 evenly well spaced
udders and properly developed teats. A good sow will take
care of her pigs and is a good rustler.
Hogs should be sold the year round instead of seasonally.
Highest prices are obtained generally during the months of
August, September, March and April. Generally, in Florida,
hogs are sold from September 1st to March 1st. Florida should
raise more hogs to go on the market from March 1st till Sep-
tember 1st. This may be (lone by arranging feed crops for
Florida has between 40,000 and 45,000 sows. This is less
than one-half sow per farm. Florida needs at least one sow
on each farm for adequate meat supply. Florida imports $11,-
000,000.00 worth of pork annually. The farmers of this State
should raise more hogs and make this profit for themselves.
Hogs multiply fast and can be bred early in life-usually
from 9 to 12 months of age, consequently, it takes only a short
time for the farmer to increase his hogs.
If one brood sow is bought and brings two litters of pigs
each year, of six pigs each, and one-half of them are females,
and these in turn are bred on the above schedule twice yearly,
with six pigs each, etc., for three years, it does not take long
to have a herd of 500 hogs.
The investment for housing and equipment is small as colm-
pared with other livestock.
Hog meat can always be raised cheaper than other live
stock meats-pork can be raised cheaper than it can be bought
on most farms in Florida. Tennessee Experiment Station
found that it cost their farmers 35% more to buy their pork
than it cost to raise it.
There is always a ready market for hogs. More pork is used
in the United States than any other meat. Based on a recent
survey 54% is pork, 251/2% is beef, and 211/2 % is poultry, of
the three major meats produced in the United States.


The hog is the most efficient consumer of by-products on
the farm. On an average basis of live weight it takes six
pounds of grain and six pounds of hay to produce a pound of
lamb or mutton; and ten pounds of grain or concentrates and
ten pounds of hay to produce a pound of beef; while it takes
only 5.6 pounds of grain (corn) to produce one pound of pork.
Hogs dress out a larger per cent of meat than any other
animal, averaging about 75%; sheep (lambs) 50 to 65%, most-
ly 50 to 60% ; steers from 50 to 70%, generally 55%.
Hogs are scavengers-they can use refuse from the kitchen.
garden, field, dairy, etc., therefore many by-products from the
farm can be converted into profit by raising hogs.
Hogs being prolific and early maturing, grow into money
quickly, assuring a quicker turn-over than any other animal
except chickens.
Hogs require less labor, less equipment, less capital and
make greater gains per hundred pounds than any animal for
the money invested.
Florida farmers would, therefore, do well to raise their ovwn
meat, plus some for the market. Florida produces about one-
fourth its pork supply.
To make profit from hogs, a plan covering a period of years
must be worked out, and then-work the plan.


Breeds of Swine*


Every hog raiser knows that the most profitable hog is the
one which can be grown to the required market weight in the
least possible time. The best market weight is generally from
175 to 225 pounds. The hog that commands the best market
price is the one which will "kill out" with a good, firm car-
cass. The most profitable type of hog to grow is the one which
produces high-class hams and bacon and only lard enough to
supply market demands. Well-bred and well-fed animals of
this type attain market weights at from 6 to 10 months of age.
Hogs are classified according to size, utility and color. The
lard-hog type of North America includes such well known
breeds as the Berkshire, Chester-White, Duroc-Jersey, Essex,
Poland-China. Hampshire and Spotted Poland-China.
The large Yorkshire and Tamworth are known as bacon-
Breeds of the Lard Type
Within the last 25 years the lard-type hog has been changed
to a considerable extent in its general appearance. Formerly
it was a rather low-set, broad, blocky type of hog. Today lard-
type hogs are fairly upstanding, having good length and depth,
with medium width. The shoulders should be full and smooth,
not coarse; the hams full and as wide as the shoulders, car-
ried back well to the root of the tail, and fleshed down to the
hock. The flesh should be evenly distributed over the body. As
a class, lard-type hogs do not have the quality and density of
bone that prevail in the bacon breed.

The Duroc-Jersey breed originated in the northeastern sec-
tion of the United States. It was derived from mating strains
of red hogs developed in sections of New York and New Jersey.
Those in New Jersey were originally called Jersey Reds;
those in New York are said to have been developed by a man
who owned the noted stallion Duroc, and people in that vicin-
ity called the red hogs which this man was breeding "Duroc"
hogs. Several years after the independent breeding of Durocs
and Jersey Reds, these hogs were intermingled in breeding,
with the result that there was formed the breed known at the
present time as Duroc-Jersey. This breed is red in color, with-
*Reference: Farmers Bulletin 1263.


Duroc-Jersey boar

Excellent Type Duroc-Jersey Sow
24 months old-Leader's Lassie, first prized aged sow, and grand champion at
the 1931 National Swine Show.

- -


out admixture of any other colors. The popular color is re-
ferred to as cherry red; some animals, however, are quite dark,
while others are quite light.
From its early history the Duroc-Jersey breed was noted
for hardiness and prolificacy. It began to be popular in the
United States at about the time Poland-China breeders were
producing the small type of hogs or so-called "hot bloods."
This popularity had much to do with making the Duroc-Jersey
breed as widespread as it is today. The legs are of medium
length, with good bone. The sows are prolific and are good
milkers and mothers. Duroc-Jerseys are good grazers and are
profitably adapted to following cattle in the feed lots.
Pigs of this breed of good type attain a weight of 200
pounds at 6( months of age and are capable of producing a
greater weight at a profit if market conditions justify their
being fed for a longer time. The feet and bones of Duroc-Jer-
sey hogs generally have good quality. Boars of the breed are
massive and have good length and depth with good backs.
Duroc-Jersey sows generally are upstanding, having good
depth with good backs, as well as good feet and legs. One sel-
dom finds a sow of this breed cross or fretful.
The Poland-China hog originated in Butler and Warren
Counties, Ohio. This breed undoubtedly was derived from the

Poland-China boar


crossing of several breeds. In the seventies two farmers-
A. C. Moore, of Canton, Ohio, and D. M. Magie, of Oxford, Ohio,
developed a widespread reputation for their hogs and adver-
tised them quite extensively. Their hogs were known at that
time, respectively, as the Moore hogs and the Magie hogs. From
the Moore and Magie hogs was developed the breed now known
as the Poland-China.
The early Poland-China hog was a large, rugged, coarse-
eared, heavy-boned, prolific, spotted animal that attained a
good market weight but was not of the easiest feeding type.
On only very few farms can one find any of the old "hot-blood"
Poland-Chinas. A large proportion of growers of Poland-
Chinas now keep the big type. This is the type that has be-
come by far the most popular because of its great utility. The
boars have big, heavy bone, are rugged, possess plenty of length
and depth, and with it all have good quality. The sows are
prolific, good sucklers, and are capable of raising good-sized
litters. They have plenty of length, are smooth, with good, full
shoulders and well rounded hams. They are naturally active,
take plenty of exercise, and are capable of producing strong
litters at farrowing time. The color of the present-day Poland-
China generally is black. Many of them have white spots on
different parts of the body.
The Poland-China is not surpassed by any breed in produc-
ing a finished carcass at an early age. The meat finds ready
sale on the market. Pigs of this breed may be made to weigh
200 pounds at 6 months of age.

Poland-China sow


There are six white points oin Polandl C'linas. namely, all
four feet, the tip of the tail, and the nose. Spotted Poland
Chinas are black and white, being spotted all over.

Chester White boar

Chester White
The Chester White breed had its origin in Chester County.
Pa. The large, coarse hogs found in the Eastern States, espe-
cially in Pennsylvania, early in the nineteenth century, were
a mixture of the Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and Cheshire hogs,
all of which were of English origin. In Pennsylvania these
hogs were crossed on smaller-type hogs, but the most success-
ful cross was by using an imported hog from Bedfordshire.
England. This crossing was continuously improved up to
1848, when the breed reached such a degree of purity that ii
could be relied on to reproduce its desirable qualities. It was
named "Chester County White" in 1848, but the word "Coun-
ty" was soon dropped and the present name became estab-
The Chester White is a very prolific hog. It has a good dis-
position and easily adapts itself to its environment. It ma-
tures early, and, being a good grazer, a good feeder, and pos-
sessing good dressing qualities, has demonstrated its utility on
many farms in the United States.


Chester White sow

Berkshire boar


The Berkshire is one of the oldest of the improved breeds
of swine. It was originated and developed in England and is
still raised extensively in that country. Many animals of this
breed have been imported into the United States and Canada
from English herds. Mention is made of the Berkshire hogs in
England and Scotland as early as 1789, large specimens being
compared with those of other breeds.
They are of medium size, generally smooth and of good
length and depth, having legs of medium length with fair size
and fair quality of bone. In color this breed is similar to the
Poland-China, but has not so many white spots as are usually
found on the Polands. The peculiarity of the Berkshire breed
is the short, upturned nose. The face is usually dished and the
ears are erect but inclined slightly forward. Berkshire hogs
have good width of body, the back broad and the ribs well
sprung. The hams and shoulders are generally smooth and
well fleshed. The meat of the Berkshire is good in quality.
Good Berkshire pigs can be fed to market weight, 200
pounds, at from 6 to S months of age.

Berkshire sow
The Hampshire breed originated in the English County of
the same name and was introduced into the United States dur-
ing the first half of the last century. When the Hampshire
hog first began to be popular in the United States it was often


Hampshire boar

Hampshire sow

'- >,


referred to as the Thin Rind hog, and was classed as a bacon
breed. It is now recognized as one of the lard breeds. Sows
of the breed or prolific. The mothers are good sucklers and
make good use of grass in pastures.
The most striking characteristic of the Hampshire is the
white belt around its body. including the shoulders and front
The Hampshire in general appearance is smooth and has
legs that are rather fine boned and of fairly good quality. The
body of a Hampshire hog is not so broad as that of a hog of

Spotted Poland-China boar

the other lard breeds, but it is deep and smooth and produces
desirable sides for bacon. The jowls are light, the head is
small and narrow, the snont rather straight and of medium
length, the ears erect, the shoulders smooth and well set, and
the hams deep but not generally so thick as in the other lard
breeds. The flesh is of good quality. Animals of this breed
sell readily on the open market.
The Hampshire possesses good growing and fattening quali-
Spotted Poland-China
The Spotted Poland-China in many ways is very much like
the Poland China, but there is much more white on the body


of the former. The appearance is rather that of a black hog
with numerous white spots.
The general type found in this breed is a hog with good
length, fairly straight, broad back, good depth of body, legs
of medium length with heavy bone of medium quality. The
head is short and broad, and the ears are somewhat larger
than those of the Poland-China breed. The sows are prolific
and raise good-sized litters.

Spotted Poland-China sow

Hog growers in the United States do not raise the bacon-
type hog to any great extent. The Tamworth and the York-
shire, of English origin, are the two breeds grown in the
United States. The Tamworth breed is established in many
localities. The Yorkshire is confined principally to the States
in the North.
Bacon hogs are different from lard-type hogs in that they
have extreme length, the object of breeders being to produce
the maximum amount of bacon with relatively small hams and
shoulders. Animals of this type have good depth, deep sides,
and are comparatively narrow, with generally smoother bodies
than most of the hogs of the lard breeds.


The Tamworth is one of the oldest and probably one of the
purest of all breeds of hogs. There is no evidence of its hav-
ing been crossed with other modern breeds, its pure breeding
dating back more than 100 years. The name of the breed is
derived from the town of Tamworth, located on the River
Thames, in Staffordshire, near the north border of Warwick-
shire. England. Sir Robert Peel is credited with having intro-
duced these hogs into England from Ireland about 1812.
though their real origin is obscure. The first record of any of

Tamworth boar

this breed having been
to have been in 1881.

brought to the United States appears

Hogs of the Tamworth breed are rather long-legged, with
long, deep, smooth bodies, good backs, narrow heads, rather
long snouts, and fairly large ears, usually erect and often in-
clined forward. The jowls are light and the bone is medium
in size, but generally of very good quality. The color is red,
varying from light to dark. These hogs are good grazers and
take on flesh readily. Pigs of 200 pounds weight at 6 months
of age are not uncommon. They do not mature quite so early
as some of the other breeds. They attain a market weight at
as early an age as any of the lard-type breeds and can be fed
profitably to greater weights.


Tamworth sow

Bacon-type sow (left) and lard-type sow (right)


Yorkshire boar

Yorkshire sow


There are three distinct types of the Yorkshire breed,
known as Large, Middle, and Small Yorkshires. All originated
in England. The Large Yorkshire is the type raised by prac-
tically all Yorkshire breeders in the United States.
They are large, white hogs with smooth, even, deep bodies,
very long, capable of dressing out a large percentage of meat
with bacon of very good quality. The body is supported by
legs of good length, having bone of medium size and generally
of very good quality. Occasionally there are black pigment
spots in the skin of animals of this breed. Large Yorkshire
sows are prolific and are generally very good sucklers.


Breeding-up Process
There is no one best breed; in fact more difference often
occurs among individuals within the breed than among breeds
themselves. In the selection of a breed, consideration should
be given to the one most common in the neighborhood.
The fact that hogs multiply rapidly makes it possible to

A good foundation sow that embodies the qualities desirable in a breeding animal
(Poland-China sow, good type)

purchase a few good, purebred sows at little additional cost.
It is desirable to purchase purebred hogs when founding a
herd. The question whether the sow or boar has the greater
influence on the offspring is still open for discussion.

Points of Good Sows
The sows should be of uniform type, should show refine-
ment, femininity, and docility; should possess neat-appearing
heads, rather thin necks, good, clear eyes with plenty of width
*United States Department of Agriculture Yearbook of Agriculture, 1928


between them, and ears of fair size but not obstructing the
vision. They should be upstanding, with sufficient body height
to prevent the udder from dragging during the suckling period.
The legs well placed under the body, have good-quality bone,
and move about freely and easily. The pasterns should be
short and straight. There should be plenty of width between
the front legs. The back well arched and well muscled over
the loin with full, well-rounded hams. The bodies should be
uniform in width, carrying back evenly from the shoulders to
the hams. The udder should be well developed, with at least
six well-developed teats in each of the two rows.

Selection of the Boar
When possible, final selection of the boar should not be
made until he is at least 6 months of age. Be sure that the

A tried boar of desirable type with a record of transmitting uniformity to his
offspring (Poland-China boar, good type)

boar is particularly strong in those characters in which the
sows are weak in order that their faults may be less likely to
be transmitted to the offspring. Type, quality, and mascu-
linity are three essentials necessary for a herd boar. He
should possess the same general type as that of the sows in
the herd.
Quality is indicated by a smooth covering of flesh, hair
that has life to it as indicated by a glossy appearance; pas-
lerns that are up and show strength, bones that are strong


and of sufficient size to carry the weight at all ages, and a
hide that is mellow and pliable, with freedom from wrinkles
or creases in the sides or shoulders.
The head should be massive, with plenty of width between
the eyes. The neck short, thick, and well crested; be snugly
made over the shoulders, and smooth through the shield. The
back well arched, the width carried back uniformly. The hams
should be well rounded and full to the hocks. Constitution is
indicated by heart girth as measured back of the shoulders.
Chest capacity is indicated by the width between the front legs
as viewed when one stands directly in front of the boar. At-
tention should also be given to the disposition of the boar.
Study the record of their ancestors, through the pedigree.
with special emphasis on the size of the litter. When possible.
see the sire and dam of the animal to be purchased and note
whether they are desirable in type and have uniformly trans-
mitted that character to the offspring.
Never trust a boar at any time, as lie may strike when
least expected.
Type of Hog
There are three generally accepted types of hogs, the chuffy,
the intermediate, and the long type. The type most adapted
to farm conditions and generally the most profitable to pro-
ducers as well as butchers and consumers is the intermediate
type. The picture below shows the type of hog which gen-

The Wholesale Cuts of Pork on the Live Hog-1, Shoulder Butt;
2, Back and Loin; 3, Ham; 4, Belly; 5, Picnic Shoulder; 6, Head.


The Wholesale Cuts in the Carcass

erally goes to market. It also shows the wholesale cuts of
pork on the live hog, as well as the wholesale cuts in the
The following cut is inserted as the more ideal type for
producers to imitate, and is probably the best type ultimately
for the packer as well as the consumer.


Grand Champion Pen of Barrows, Pacific International, 1930
Grand Champion Pen of Barrows, Pacific International, 1930

~d HAy


Importance of Cross-Breeding Breeds of Hogs*
The importance of using nothing but good, pure bred reg-
istered boars for the herd should never be overlooked. The
summary of conclusions reached by practicing good methods in
cross-breeding of hogs may be summed up as follows:
1. If this practice were generally put into use, it would
save this state probably $500,000 annually in feed costs alone,
depending upon the number of pigs raised and price of feed.
This is only a part of the saving that would result.
2. Cross breeds are generally superior to pure breds.
3. Cross bred sows have proved superior to pure breds
for producing market pigs. Their boar offspring should never
be used for breeding purposes; always use pure bred regis-
tered boar.
4. By practicing cross-breeding generally the following
improvements are made: (1st) the sows produce larger litters;
(2nd) the pigs are generally larger at weaning time; (3rd) a
shorter time is required to reach market weight; (4th) there
is a decrease in feed necessary for a pound of gain.

"The use of pure bred boars through three generations re-
sulted in marked improvement of pigs in type, quality and
ability to make rapid and cheap gains.
"The length of time required to produce a 200-pound hog
decreased as the percentage of pure breeding increased.
"The age at which different groups of hogs reached 200
pounds in weight was: scrubs, 243.67 days; 50 per cent grades,
201.33 days; 75 per cent grades, 201 days; and 87.5 per cent
grades, 187 days.
"The average daily gain in the different groups was: scrubs.
0.95 pounds; 50 per cent grades, 1.18 pounds; 75 per cent
grades, 1.19 pounds; and 87.5 per cent grades, 1.26.
"The amount of feed required to produce a unit of gain de-
creased as the percentage of pure breeding increased.
"For each 100 pounds of gain the scrub hogs required
165.35 pounds of feed; the 50 per cent grades, 403.37 pounds;
the 75 per cent grades, 387.63 pounds; and the 87.5 per cent
grades, 381.52 pounds."
It was interesting to note that the average feed cost for
producing 100 pounds gain of 87.5 per cent grades was only 82
per cent of the cost as compared with scrubs. This represents
*Reference: University of Minnesota Bulletin 180, November, 1936.
tAlabama Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 234.


a difference of 18 per cent, which is a big profit on any invest-
ment, therefore the method of grading up hogs by the use of
purebred sires is very necessary for the greatest profits. The
above hogs were fed on the same rations, so that the only dif-
ference existing between them was the amount of pure bred
blood in their veins.

How Many Hogs to Raise?
These factors should govern the number of hoys to raise:
1. Adaptability of the soil to growing economically crops
suitable for hogs.
2. The farmer's inclination to hogs. The farmer should
know that he will like to raise hogs and that he will do every-
thing he can to make them thrive on his farm.
3. The quantity of by-products that could be eaten by
hogs which otherwise would be wasted.
4. Division of the farm into suitable pastures for year
around grazing, and other crops for hogs.
5. Ample water of good quality and plenty of shade for
the hogs.
6. Provisions to raise 2 litters of 6 to 8 pigs per litter
from each sow on the farm annually, or 12 to 18 pigs per sow
7. Plenty of feed for the young pigs and the brood sows.
8. Sufficient feeds of the right kinds to finish the litters
to 150 225 pounds live weight.
9. Nearness to markets. Kind of markets that are ac-
10. Degree of co-operation that will be given the pigs so
that they can develop into good hogs with a profit to the
11. Protection of hogs against disease, parasites, exposure,
starvation, etc.

Year-'Round Hog Production
Most producers are acquainted with the fact that during
the months of late March, April, May and early June, many
hogs go on a starvation ration. What shall be done with hogs
during this time? Profits cannot be starved out of hogs, but
such hogs should be kept in thrifty growing condition and
never stunted. Many of these winter and early spring pigs are
stunted until early feeds. like early corn or early Spanish
peanuts, are ready to graze. The use of corn, tankage, and


early green feed in the form of pasture will do much to make
these pigs into hogs, to go on the market during the summer
and early fall months. Only 17% of the total yearly hogs
marketed go to market from March 1st to October 1st. Pro-
ducers may avail themselves of higher prices prevailing during
these months by feeding corn, tankage, etc.


Poland-China gilt

' ~- *

Courtesy Atlantic Coast Line Railroad
Hampshire hogs ready for the feed lot in the southern part of Florida. Note the quality and thrift of these pigs.
Ulmerton Ranch, Largo, Florida.

1. *



The proper handling and feeding of these pigs mean:
1st. More summer and early fall marketing.
2nd. More economical gains, as a stunted pig never really
overcomes being stunted.
3rd. This practice utilizes corn at a much greater return
in price if fed to hogs rather than being sold as corn. In other
words, it is better to sell the corn through hogs. Producers
have received generally from 40c to (60c per bushel for their
corn when sold as corn, but if such corn had been put through
hogs fed in combination with tankage and green feed, the price
of the corn would generally have doubled. This is particularly
true if hogs bring 7c per pound or more, or producers would
have received for their corn from '$1.00 to '1.25 per bushel.
4th. The South will never come into its own until its fields
are green in winter. There is nothing that will give cheaper
gains than having plenty of green feed for growing pigs.
5th. Thrifty or fast growing pigs are less susceptible to
starvation, disease, parasites, accidents, thievery, etc., for the
reason that pigs well cared for are, more often, behind fences
and are under constant supervision of the owner. Such pigs
not only look more profitable but are more profitable.
6th. One can obtain 2 litters per sow per year, thereby
lowering the investment on sows. loss of profits, as growing
hogs are more profitable.
7th. Such practice stimulates the growing of more corn
per acre. Land producing 23 bushels of corn or more per acre
is equal to and superior to the poundage produced from an
acre of peanuts, in proportion as the bushels of corn are in-
creased per acre. By good practice Florida producers gen-
erally can produce more than 20 bushels of corn per acre. This
tonnage of corn per acre when combined wilh tankage (and/or
other protein supplements) and green feed, will produce more
pork per acre than the average acre of peanuts. Producers
should not raise less hogs on peanuts but should raise more
corn per acre and widen and feed their markets. The markets
are starving for hogs during the same time that many hogs
are being stunted or starved for the lack of a year-'rounl
thrifty pig and ultimately thrifty hog production.
8th. Winter and spring pigs may well be grown out to
go on the markets from May 1st to October 1st. Late fall
and early winter pigs may go on the market from March 1st
to October 1st and in the least not interfere with economic
production of hogs on peanuts. One should keep in mind that
only 17% of the total hogs marketed a year are sold from
March 1st to October 1st.


9th. By elimination of the starvation period, finer quality
hogs can be marketed for the reason that stunted pigs can
never be as profitable and of as good quality as unstunted or
thrifty pigs.
10th. Corn hogs, or hard hogs, produced and sold from
March 1st to October 1st, generally bring from 22% to 35%
higher prices than if marketed from October 1st to March 1st.
Corn hogs generally bring 75c per hundred more than soft
hogs. If such hogs are parasite free, the producer will receive
:1''7c per hundred additional. Generally hogs bring, even when
fed on the same feed, about 112c more per pound sold during
the summer and early fall months than if sold during the win-
ter months, therefore when producers strive to eliminate the
starvation period by raising more corn, using protein supple-
ments, and providing themselves with plenty of green feed,
they reap the additional profits of 75c, 371/2c and 150c, or
$2.621/2 per hundred more for hogs generally sold during sum-
mer months and hogs generally sold during the winter months.
This is particularly true if the prevailing price on hogs in the
fall is Sc a pound or more. The facts are, corn or hard hogs
bring 75c a hundred more than peanut or soft hogs; (2nd) no
parasite or thrifty hogs produce 371c more, and with hogs
selling in the late spring, summer, and early fall for Ic to 1,c
a lb. more than winter marketed hogs, producers would do
well to avail themselves of these additional profits, which
would not be ultimately in excess of cost of producing hogs on
11th. The selling of finished hogs in the summer would
save pigs which otherwise would die or be stunted, and also
permit the useful production of 2 litters of thrifty pigs per
year per sow.
12th. Such practice ultimately gives a greater yearly in-
come from the farm. The producer obtains more nearly a
monthly income from his hogs each year. Such practice en-
ables the slaughtering companies to operate more efficiently.
Then too, higher prices might be maintained during the win-
ter months if more hogs were finished and sold during the
summer. Producers should ever be mindful that a growing
hog is the most profitable hog, and that the markets must be
fed for efficiency to prevail from the producer through to the
The following points should be considered in judging hogs:
Size, type and form, quality, constitution, sex characteristics,
breed types, etc. A study of pictures and breed score cards


will acquaint one with the breed requirements. This material
may be obtained from the various breeders' associations for
their respective breeds. Detailed description of an animal ap-
proaching the ideal is as follows:
Head-Short, broad, smooth.
Eyes-Large, bright, clear.
Ears-Medium sized and covered with fine hair.
\rck-Short and of sufficient breadth and depth to join
smoothly with the head and shoulders.
Shoulders-Broad and well covered over sides and tops with
a thick layer of flesh. The shoulders should not have ;
thickness that is out of proportion to the rest of the
Ribs-Well sprung, lolg and giving a good breadth and depth
of chest. There should be no depression back of the
,ide's-Long. deep and smooth.
Uddecr-Well developed, with twelve to fourteen evenly spaced
Harck-Long, broad, well arched, the arch extending from head
to root of tail.
Loin-Broad, strong and heavily covered.
Rumip-Long, broad, sloping gradually.
Ham-Long and deep as viewed from side, broad and deep as
viewed from rear.
Lrgs-Straight, of good length.
Pasterns-Strong, short.
Toes-Short, close together.
Hoac-Medium size, smooth, hard.
In judging swine, study the animals from the time they
enter the ring until satisfactory placings are made. Judging
requires intelligence and concentrated efforts. The animal most
nearly approaching the ideal is placed first and so on through
the class. Probably every animal in the class will show sonme
defects, and it requires study, experience, observation and a
keen eye to know the relative value that breeders and experi-
enced judges give to different points. There is no point so
important that it always places the hog at the top of the class.
and there are few defects so bad that they always place the
hog at the bottom of the class. This is particularly true in
close competitive classes.


Good and sufficient reason, based on the relative value
that experienced breeders and judges give to various points,
is important in judging. The reasons for placing should be
definite and clear.

Show Classifications of Hogs
(1) Boar, 2 years old and over.
(2) Boar, senior yearling, 18 mo. and under 24.
(3) Boar, junior yearling, 12 months and under 18.
(4) Boar, senior pig, 6 months and under 12.
(5) Boar, junior pig, under 6 months.
(6) Sow. 2 years old and over.
(7) Sow, senior yearling, 18 months and under 24.
(8) Sow, junior yearling, 12 months and under 18.
(9) Sow, senior pig, 6 months and under 12.
(10) Sow, junior pig, under 6 months.
Aged Herd-1 boar and 3 sows 1 year old or over.
Breeders' aged herd.
Young herd-1 boar and 3 sows under 1 year old.
Breeders' young herd-Young herd bre:l by exhibitor.
Get of boar-4 animals, any age, sired by 1 boar, bred of
owned by exhibitor.
Produce of sow-4 animals, any age, farrowed by one sow,
but not necessarily of one litter and must be owned by
Senior champion boar. Senior champion sow.
Junior champion boar. Junior champion sow.
Grand champion boar. Grand champion sow.
Base dates for swine on March 1 and September 1. At
shows held after September 1, the animals may be older than
limits stated above.

Fat Classes of Swine
(1) Barrow, under 6 months old.
(2) Barrow, 6 months old and under 12.
(3) Pen of three barrows under 6 months old.
(4) Pen of three barrows 6 months old and under 12.
(5) Champion barrow-any age.
(6) Champion pen of three-any age.


Hog Lot Equipment

Hogs should not be permitted to get into the habit of
breaking in or out of the places where they are being kept.
A well fed hog will rarely break out of any place; when a hog
breaks out apparently more feed is outside.
WAYS. Many farmers have lost the profit they should have
made by permitting their hogs to roam along the highways, to
be killed by passing vehicles, to contract diseases (and bring
them back to the farm) or to wander away and fail to return.
TAKE CARE OF YOUR LIVESTOCK is the best advice we
can give to you.
Generally hogs break out of a field to get more feed. Prop-
erly nourished and well-fed hogs usually are contented and
remain where you put them. Keep the feed well balanced and
give the hogs all they want to eat.
Good hog lot equipment is very important in successful
hog production. It starts with the fences, which can be made
of rails, wood, or wire, but they must be hog proof.
Shelter comes next. Hogs must be kept in comfortable
quarters from the time they appear in the litters as little pigs,
until they are ready to market.
Farrowing Pens
Good farrowing pens or houses should be provided. For a
large sow a portable house about 5 feet high and with 8 feet
square floor space is necessary. Provide openings for both
sunshine and ventilation, and guard rails to protect the suck-
ling pigs. The roof is likewise most important. Corrugated
iron gives good service and when properly laid should last a
long time. Avoid leaks in the roof.
Hog Sheds
Hog sheds should be built to run east and west, if possible.
They will provide the necessary shade, and if the ends are
closed there will be protection against rain, cold and excessive
sun during hot weather. These sheds may be made of upright
poles covered with permanent roofs, or they may be temporary
structures of poles properly held together and covered with


Spanish moss, or pine tops. Many peanut fields do not have
proper shade, as well as water. These things are very necessary.
Feed Troughs
Build good feed troughs. They can be made with either
flat bottoms or "V" shaped. Use materials 2" thick, make the
inside walls either 2x6 or 2x8. Flat bottom troughs should
have bottoms made of 2x10 material or 2x12. Nail board
across the trough, to keep the pigs out of the trough. These
cross boards may be of material 1x3's.

Pig Creeps
Pig creeps help to make better hogs and often save the lives
of pigs. They are made usually of 4 upright posts 3 feet high
with sufficient boards fastened to the posts to keep out the
other animals on the farm. Openings are provided on one
side to permit the pigs to enter but small enough to keep out
sows. Doors hinged at the top will close automatically and
keep out chickens. This pen may be covered with wire. Self-
feeders or feed troughs are placed inside these creeps. Creeps
are sometimes made in one corner of the field, which would
make necessary the building of but two sides, the fence serving
to complete the enclosure.
Self-feeders are very popular throughout the United States.
The size of them depends on the number of pigs being fed. A
self-feeder 4 feet long will accommodate 20 to 30 pigs during
the period that the pigs are with their mothers on pasture.
Self-feeders are designed for outdoor use, and therefore are
Feeding Floors
Feeding floors are valuable. Concrete floors are the most
satisfactory. Allow eight square feet for each hog; for pigs
less space will be all right.
Mineral Feed Boxes
Boxes will aid in the feeding of mineral mixtures. Build
them of 2 inch material and put roofs on them to protect the
contents from rain.
Hogs need wallows during the summer months in Florida.
They are best when provided with pure running water. Wal-
lows should be kept sanitary and the best material to make
them of, when placed away from running streams, is concrete.
Place the wallows near shade but never under shade. If wal-


lows are placed directly under the shade the hogs may remain
in the water too long and thereby retard growth.

Drinking Water for Hogs
Plenty of good drinking water that is kept fresh for the
hogs, either in troughs or by other types of water systems.
should be available at all times.

Hurdles assist in moving hogs. They are especially useful
in driving and handling boars, and in giving protection to the
man driving them. Construct the hurdles of strong, light
materials. Make them about 4 feet long at the bottom, 3 feet at
the top and about 21/2 feet high. Half of a discarded buggy
wheel rim makes a good frame for a hurdle.

Dipping Vats
Dipping vats can hardly be dispensed with in the produc-
tion of hogs. They are necessary in the control of lice and
The remedy for both lice and mange is either crude oil,
crank case oil, or fuel oil. Fuel oil is preferred for summer
use. The oil is applied to the bodies of the hogs by the use of
mechanical oilers or poured on top of the water to form a film
about one inch thick in the dipping vats. Make the dipping
vats deep enough to permit the complete immersion of the
hogs. The end of the vat is made with an incline of about 25
degrees to enable the hogs to walk out of it easily. A roof
over the approach to the vat will prevent the hogs from jump-
ing into it.
Loading Chutes
Portable loading and unloading chutes are a necessary part
of hog lot equipment on every farm that raises a number of
hogs for shipment. Lifting hogs into a wagon often results in
injury to them.
Shipping Crates
Shipping crates are constructed with two objects in view:
1. To make secure against accident in transit;
2. To get the maximum amount of space with the lowest
weight of the crate.
Use strong light weight material for the purpose. Make
shipping crates neat and attractive in appearance. Doors are
placed at each end to permit the hog to walk in and out when-
ever necessary. The crate is smooth on the inside. The braces
are piut on the outside of the crate.


The table below gives the dimensions of shipping crates for
different sizes of hogs:

Weight in Lbs. Length Height Width
50 3' -3" 23" 12"
100 3' 6" 24" 14"
150 3' 8" 28" 15"
200 4' -2" 30" 16"
250 4'- 6" 33" 17"
300 5'-0" 34" 18"
400 5' 4" 36" 20"
500 5'- 8" 37" 21"
600 6' 0" 38" 22"

Fresh Water for Hogs
1. Water for hogs should be pure, clean and fresh; and
supplied to them two or three times daily, more often in hot
2. Hogs will not grow rapidly nor fatten economically
without plenty of fresh, pure water.
3. The ideal water supply is from streams of pure water
that run through the field or yard.
4. Hogs compelled to drink stagnant water or from filthy
wallows won't take the quantity they should, and as a result
serious intestinal troubles sometimes develop.
5. Hogs do not get sufficient water in the slops fed to
them. These animals drink a lot of water, and the more often
it is furnished to them the better, as their stomachs are not
6. There are several systems of water supply which can be
used. Illustrations will be found herein.
7. Windmills are economical and when placed over good
wells furnish a good supply of fresh running water when
8. A number of illustrations reproduced from U. S. Dept.
of Agr. F. B. numbers 1487, 1490 and 1501 are to be found
herein and hog farmers are requested to study them closely.
Further detailed information can be supplied either through
the Florida Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, or from
the U. S. Dept. of Agr., Washington, D. C., relative to any of
the hog lot equipment shown. See your County Agent.


The box-type house; a convenient, well-lighted, durable, and portable hog house



Detailed plan for construction of flat-bottomed trough


A-type hog house

SZ"x4" -X'X3X 8"ANGLES.

2 4"-'

** s


"x x

1 4! 6. T



Detailed plan for construction of breeding crate



Detailed plan for construction of shipping crate


Guardrail to prevent sow from crushing pigs


A cheaply constructed hog shade

Flat-bottomed trough


Detailed plan for construction of creep in the corner of the field



The pigs are weaned by placing a fence, with creeps for the pigs (see arrow), around
the self-feeder three or four days before the sows are taken away


Creep for suckling pigs

Self-feeder which may be used for sows and litters and fattening hogs

~tb d; 'C

'~ :*" r


Detailed plan for construction of self-feeder

Detailed plan for construction of hayrack




Detailed plan for construction of waterer

Sanitary drinking fountain

I Fv


Detailed plan for construction of movable loading chute

Detailed plan for construction of portable scale rack


/I /
,I /

I /I


,. 1 ,,
\ I I l
', II

- 4'-o" I


Detailed plan for construction of hurdles



I \


-r -~

Dipping vat showing roof over approach to prevent hogs from jumping into vat

(Used on Lighthouses, etc., by the U. S. Government)
Whitewash all hog lot equipment. It will keep it in a sani-
tary condition.
How to Mix
Carefully slake one-half bushel (:SS pounds) of good quick-
lime; cover during the process to keep the steam in. Strain
the paste while still thick through wire fly screen and add
about four gallons of water. While stirring vigorously, pour
into the lime mixture a solution made by first dissolving 12
pounds of salt and six ounces of alum in about four gallons of
hot water, and then adding one quart of molasses. Thin with
Another method for mixing:
One-half bushel of good unslaked lime; slake with boiling
water; cover during the process to keep the steam in. Strain
the liquid through a sieve fine enough to retain all unslaked
lumps. Dissolve a peck of clean salt in a little water and add
to the solution; boil to a thin paste three pounds of rice and
put into the mixture while hot, and one pound of glue, previ-
ously melted over a fire, and one half pound of whiting. Mix
well and then add five gallons of hot water, stirring well.
Cover closely and let stand several days.


Coloring matter may be added for any tint desired.
The above proportions are right for any quantity.
If whitewash is applied while hot it will remain on the sir-
face for a longer period of time.
Developments in livestock sanitary work have shown the
increasing importance of detecting the origin of diseased con-
ditions among animals and the channels through which infec-
tion spreads. The tattoo method of marking hogs is a prac-
tical means of identification and control of diseases.
The method is simple, inexpensive, and easily used. It is
a definite means of preserving the identity of hogs between
farm and market. In the field of cooperative marketing, where
shipments include numerous small lots of animals, the tattoo

Applying the tattoo mark to a hog. The operation is performed by striking the
hog smartly with the tattoo instrument
mark is particularly useful, because of its conclusive evidence
of every hog's origin. Such information is highly desirable as
a basis for payment when diseased conditions appear at the
time of slaughter.
The method described represents a development of more
than five years, during which no serious objections to the tat-
too system has arisen.
The structure of a hog's skin makes it well adapted for
*U. S. Dept. of Agr. mis. circular No. 57


tattooing; nor does the hair or scurf interfere with the rapid
application of the tattoo mark. The instrument described does
not, however, leave a mark that can be discerned satisfactorily
on living hogs. For live hogs the customary ear tag or system
of ear notches is a preferred means of identification.
The tattoo mark is applied merely by striking the hog
smartly on the back, preferably in an oblique direction back
of the shoulder. This manner of application, with the aver-
age hog, is convenient for the operator, and the marking por
tion of the instrument strikes a nearly flat surface of the hog's
Hogs are sometimes marked with ear tags put in with ear
punches or with "V" shaped notches in the end of the ears, as
a means of identifying litters.

Courtesy Atlantic Coast Line Railroad

Young Hampshire gilts

L- .9. -



Management of Brood Sows and

Their Litters

The brood sow is the manufacturing plant for hogs. Her
breeding, size, vigor and development determines largely the
kind of litters she will produce. The size of the litter, their
vigor and strength is governed largely by the feeds used and
methods employed in feeding the sow and her litter.
For gilts to become successful brood sows they must be fed
to develop their size, and bone; and to store p) vigor and re-
serve strength. Gilts to be bred should be separated from fat-
tening hogs when they are four to five months of age. These
gilts should be given a development ration. It is not advisable
to give them too much corn. Either ground oats, one-half, and
corn one-half, in a self-feeder or in troughs, supplemented with
one of the protein mixtures and kept on green feed (all the
gilts will consume) will develop them into good sows. If these
gilts are hand-fed corn, followm'in protein supplement should
be /ireti to them:
1/2 to 3% gallon skim milk daily, or
1 pound of tankage, or
1/3 pound of a mixture made iup of 2 parts tankage, one
part cottonseed meal, and one part fish meal.
This should furnish enough protein, especially if they get
grain and are put on green pastures. This protein feed may
be hand fed or mixed together in a self-feeder where they will
have access to grain, protein supplement, mineral mixture and
green feed at all times-free to choose the feed they want. Too
much fat on a gilt at breeding time may cause the production
of small, weak litters.
The gilts should gain about a pound per day throughout
the pregnancy period. The amount a sow will gain depends
largely upon her condition at breeding time. It takes well
developed gilts to make good brood sows.
Minerals and vitamins are necessary. If weakness occurs
in brood sows with suckling pigs, in most instances it shows
the lack of sufficient minerals or vitamins. To prevent such
troubles it is necessary to provide plenty of materials in the
ration of the pregnant sow to offset these difficulties. It is a
good plan where such difficulties occur to force-feed minerals
to the sows by mixing four or five pounds of a good mineral
mixture with each hundred pounds of a protein supplement.


Roughage is valuable in the brood sows' ration. Legume
hays such as soy bean, peanut hay, cowpea hay, Austrian win-
ter pea hay and Vetch hay, contain high quality of protein as
well as mineral elements, such as phosphorus, calcium, and
also supply some vitamins necessary for health and growth.
Such roughage as described above distends the digestive system
and makes for a roomier brood sow.
It is very unsafe to allow brood sows to follow cattle or to
remain in lots or pens with horses or mules. The danger lies
in the sow getting kicked or injured. Sows heavy with pigs
should be in small lots to themselves. During the latter half
of the pregnancy period is the period of greatest need for pro-
tein, mineral and vitamin substance.
Sows need exercise. It is therefore best to allow them to
forage in fields where they can gather a large proportion of
their feed, or in pastures. Sows may be made to exercise by
scattering their feed some distance from their sleeping quar-
ters. Most successful breeders require their sows to forage
about a mile per day. Ample feed must accompany the exer-
Farrowing time is an important time. The sows should be
thoroughly scrubbed with water which has been boiled and al-
lowed to cool;-using one pound of soap to 10 gallons of
water, or one pound of lye to 30 gallons of water. The bed-
ding should be light and should consist of clean straw (either
oat straw, rye straw, pine straw or mowed wire grass which
has been allowed to cure for hay). Give the sow an oppor-
tunity to become accustomed to the farrowing pen or lot before
farrowing, shutting her up in the pen at night and letting her
out during the day. Many pigs will be saved by looking after
the sows at farrowing time. Many good hog men place a;
fender about the pen so as to allow the pigs to get behind and
under same when the sow lies down. By all means brush off
all dirt and see that the sow is free of filth on her belly and
udders before farrowing time. A solution of warm, soapy
water should be adequate for this purpose. Such procedure
will prevent many pigs from becoming contaminated with
Hog production can be made unprofitable by growing too
few pigs in each litter.
When the pigs are born they should be dried off, put in a
basket of dry straw, or if the weather is cold some warm bricks
may be put in the bottom of the basket and covered with gunny
sacks and the pigs placed in these baskets. If the sow has
difficulty in farrowing she should not be left more than four
or five hours without being given aid. The more pigs per litter,


the more profit. The greater the percentage of pigs raised in
each litter, the greater the profit.
For a few days after farrowing the sow should be fed light-
ly. It is very important that a good supply of clean, fresh
water be given during this period. It is generally best to feed
light slops or a few handful of grain. All meals before and
after farrowing do much to condition the sow and relieve con-
stipation and a feverish condition at this time. Feed lightly
just after farrowing. Sows should be placed on full feed in
about ten days after farrowing. Supply the feeds which stimu-
late milk flow. The sow should be fed during the suckling
period, so as to maintain her weight, if possible. This means
much to her litter and aids in an ample milk supply for the
pigs. For the litter of pigs to rapidly develop, sows must
maintain or practically retain their flesh during and after
farrowing time.
Too few self-feeders are used in southern climates. Self-
feeders for nursing sows reduce labor, stimulate milk produc-
tion and help to maintain the flesh of the sow. They may
be placed on feeders about ten days after farrowing. Sows
must consume a large amount of concentrated feed at this
time. It is not advisable to feed nursing sows excessively on
either skim milk or buttermilk. as they need roughage and
solid foods for the best milk flow. Milk, in moderation (a gal-
lon per day) may be used to replace proteins in the feed. A
good ration for a brood sow with a litter of pigs consists of
shelled corn, whole or ground oats, about 50 per cent corn and
50 per cent oats, with a good mineral mixture and plenty of
green feed.
There are several good grain mixtures which may be fed.
Any good, well-balanced feed or ration may be given during
this time. A good grain mixture may consist of 100 pounds
of ground oats, 100 pounds of ground corn and 25 to 50 pounds
of tankage, thoroughly mixed and given as a slop. This may
be mixed with water or milk or it may be given with full feed-
ing of corn with satisfactory results. Do not overlook plenty
of green feed nor the minerals at this time, as green feed will
save much in concentrates and add much to the milk flow. If
the sow is not allowed to run on pasture, give some good le-
gume hay. In Florida ample green feeds can be had throughout
the year and sows should be allowed to run on pasture.
Sunshine and exercise are valuable for pigs and sows but
plenty of shade and clean water also are necessary. If sows
are confined to pens some provision should be made for the
pigs to exercise. This may be done by allowing small openings
in the pen to permit the pigs to run in an alley where they can
play. Frequently newspapers or old automobile tires or other


harmless objects will give the pigs things to play with and
,See that the bedding is kept clean and dry; frequently pigs
develop colds, diseases or will become sore at the base of their
tails, causing their tails to slough off. Pigs farrowed in pas-
tures seldom are bothered with troubles of this sort. It is
advisable to remove long teeth in the little pigs' mouths when
they are born, as they are born natural fighters. This will pre-
vent bruising and cutting. Jigs when born should be treated
with pine tar oil at tih navel cords to prevent screw worm in-
festation. Sows should also be watched and treated for possi-
ble infestation of screw worms.
The feeding of winall pigs is something that should not be
overlooked. They should be given very little other than their
mother's milk until they are ten days old. A small pen or
creel) may be provided in whicl concentrated feeds are kept so
as to teach tlemi to eat. This will lighten the burden on the
sow and make for faster gains. The pigs' digestive system is
small, therefore they cannot take in bulky or fibrous feeds to
an advantage. Too much fibrous feed in a small pig's ration
has a tendency to develop a runty, pot-bellied, slow-gaining
pig. Farm produced carbohydrate feeds such as shelled,
cracked or soaked shelled corn or ground oats may be used as
a grain supplement. It is not advisable to use oats on suckling
pigs unless the oats have been hulled.
A good protein miixture to keep before pigs may consist of
60 pounds of corn, 20 pounds of tankage, 10 pounds of fish
meal, 10 pounds of peanut meal; or a simpler mixture may
consist of 75 pounds of ground or cracked corn. 25 pounds of
fish meal or tankage or peanut meal. Milk may be fed. Any
sudden change from one feed to another will cause digestive
troubles. All mixtures may be self-fed or hand-fed along with
corn or in combination with grains and simple mineral mix-
Pigs should not be ireuned until they are about eight weeks
old, and if they have made slow growth it is advisable to wait
until they are ten weeks old. If pigs are pushed and allowed
to grow into hogs rapidly they can easily be weaned when
eight weeks old. Just before pigs are weaned they should be
vaccinated against hog cholera.
Most of Florida is lacking n n, minerals. Frequently pigs
have anemia due to being confined for too long a period in
pens during the period when they receive no other feed than
the milk of the mother. Anemia is due largely to the lack of
iron and copper in the blood of the pigs; precautions, there-
fore, should be taken to keep the pigs in thrifty condition. En-


courage the pigs to eat protein feeds and grains at earliest pos-
sible date in order to get the pigs started right. Pigs raised
on pasture are seldom affected with anemia.
Occasionally littlH pigs may dcrclop s.cours. This is gener-
ally due to over-feeding of the sows. sudden change of feed,
heavy feeding of milk to tile mlotler. dalimp, chilly or cloudy
weather or filthy pen conditions, exposure to drafts, or the pigs
getting wet. White scours are caused by an organism which
gets into the digestive tract of the pig through contamination
of the sow's teats, or through contamination of the feed. Thor-
oughly clean all pens and bedding materials as a control meas-
ure for scours. A tablespoonful of baking powder or dried
blood meal fed in the slop to the sow may be used and does
much to check scours in pigs.
Swine Production in Relation to Nutrition
Morrison's Standard of Feeds and Feeding gives the re-
quirements for feeding pigs as follows:

Requirement Digestible Total Digestible Nutritive
by Weight Crude Protein Nutrients Ratio
30- 50 bs. 7.8-8.5 lbs. 41.0-45.4 lbs. 1:4.0-1:4.5
50-100 lbs. 5.5-6.0 lbs. 32.9-36.4 lbs. 1:5.0-1:5.6
100-150 lbs. 4.4-4.9 lbs. 28.8-31.9 lbs. 1:5.5-1:6.2
150-200 lbs. 3.5-3.9 lbs. 25.8-28.5 lbs. 1:6.2-1:7.0

Sows. boars and pigs need a balanced ration at all times
for profitable results. It should contain protein in such a re-
lationship to carbohydrates and fats, etc., that there is one
pound of available protein from' five to seven pounds of avail-
able feed in carbohydrates and fats. Hogs require vitamins
which are generally to be had not only in concentrates but in
a larger way in green feeds.
Pigs require more protein per hundred pounds than shoats;
shoats require more protein per hundred pounds than more
mature hogs. Failure in hogs nine times out of ten is due to a
lack of balance in feed, poor breeding, poor feeding, or poor
management. Hogs will pay if given reasonable care.

Gestation Table for Sows
The following table represents approximately dates of
breeding and also due dates to farrow. If the sow is bred a
few days before the date shown in the first column a corre-
sponding deduction should be made from the date in the second


Gestation Table

Date Bred Due to Farrow Date Bred Due to Farrow
Jani. 5 Apr. 25 July 5 Oct. 26
.Jan. 15 May 7 July 15 Nov. 5
Jan. 25 May 17 July 25 Nov. 15
Feb. 5 May 28 Aug. 5 Nov. 25
Feb. 15 June 7 Aug. 15 Dec. 5
Feb. 25 June 17 Aug. 25 Dec. 15
Mar. 5 June 25 Sept. 5 Dec. 26
Mar. 15 July 5 Sept. 16 Jan. 5
Mar. 25 July 15 Sept. 25 Jan. 15
Apr. 5 July 26 Oct. 5 Jan. 25
Apr. 15 Aug. 5 Oct. 15 Feb. 4
Apr. 25 Aug. 15 Oct. 25 Feb. 14
May 5 Aug. 25 Nov. 5 Feb. 25
May 15 Sept. 4 Nov. 15 Mar. 7
May 25 Sept. 14 Nov. 25 Mar. 17
June 5 Sept. 25 Dec. 5 Mar. 27
IJune 15 Oct. 5 Dec. 15 Apr. 6
.Jlune 25 Oct. 15 Dec. 25 Apr. 16

Gestation period from 112 to 117 days, or about 3 months
and 20 days.
The following represents some of the ways in which grow-
ers may increase profits from hogs:
1. By using better breeding stock. Always use good pure
bred boars.
2. By selecting sows which produce large litters, or by
saving sows out of large litters. The production of two litters
of pigs per year.
3. By prevention of hog cholera and hog parasites, by prac-
ticing sanitary methods of hog production.
4. More and better grazing crops the year round.
5. Better feeding methods; sell some hogs each month in
the year, using corn to produce more hogs to be marketed
from March 1st through October 1st.
6. Parasite control of worms, lice and mange, etc.
7. Timely marketing of hogs selling principally during the
months of July, August, September and early October; and
during the months of February, March and April. These are
generally the highest priced months for hogs.
8. By taking better care of the sows during the winter and


especially during the spring and early summer months. Sows
should be well taken care of during the nursing period.
9. Early castration of males.
10. Providing plenty of shade in hot weather.
11. By providing plenty of good. clean drinking water at
all times.
12. By keeping mineral mixtures before the hogs at all
Producers should study economical production along with
timely marketing. Hogs should be finished to weights 185 to
2L-10 pounds. Producers should be discouraged in selling pigs
weighing 50 to 1:0 lbs. Hogs larger than 240 pounds generally
have a tendency to go too much to lard, and lard generally is
cheap. Hogs ulner 15.) pounds are inclined to be soft, even
though fed on the same kind of feeds as those weighing 180 to
240 pounds. Too many hogs are going to market in December
and January. The market is being starved from March 1st to
October 1st.
History of a Sow's Life
The history of one year of a sow's life should approximate
about the following:
Breed for spring litter, November 10.
Gestation period, November 10 to March I.
Farrowing time, March 1.
Suckle pigs. March 1 to May 7.
Pigs weaned, May 7.
With good feeding and proper minamgemnnt, pigs may be
sold weighing from 160 to 240 pounds when (; months old, or
by September 15.
Breed sow for fall litter, May 10.
Gestation period, May 10 to September 1.
Farrowing time, September 1.
Suckle pigs, September 1 to November 7.
Pigs born September 1, with proper feed and management,
should be ready to go on the market the following March and
Sows may be bred to drop pigs from February 1st to March
15 and from July 1st to August 15th. Pigs farrowed in Feb-
ruary may be finished on corn: pigs farrowed in July, etc.,
to be finished on peanuts.
Under screw worm conditions, sows may be bred to drop
pigs when less screw worm flies are present, but the producer
should ever keep in mind feeds as well as feeding the market.


How Much Does It Cost to Raise Pigs to Weaning Age?
"This report includes records on 147 litters of pigs far-
rowed on the Alabama Experiment Station farm during the
period 1926 to 1931, inclusive. The records show:
"The average number of live pigs farrowed per litter was
7.95; the average number weaned per litter was 5.76. The loss
of pigs during the suckling period was 27.5 per cent.
"The average amount of concentrates required to produce
a litter of 5.76 pigs to weaning age was 915 pounds. This was
an average of 159 pounds of concentrates for each pig raised.
"The feed required to raise a pig to weaning age in litters
of two was 448 pounds, but in litters of nine it was only 110
"The feed cost of pigs raised to weaning age in litters of
two was $9.36 each, but in litters of nine it was only $2.29 each.
The average weight per pig when weaned, at eight weeks
of age, was 27.23 pounds."
Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Circular No. 68.


Excerpt from the Journal of Heredity, Washington, D. C., Vol. XXII,
No. 12, December, 1931.
An Inbreeding Experiment With Poland-China Hogs
The experiment which has furnished the data for this report
is a part of an investigation initiated by the Bureau of Animal
Industry at Beltsville, Maryland, in the spring of 1922. The
primary object in view was to produce true breeding strains of
swine with known characteristics for use in critical research
in genetics and nutrition. The original plan was to develop at
least two unrelated inbred strains in each breed used and to
make crosses at a later date between both the inbred strains
of the same and of different breeds.
The start was made in the fall of 1922 when six gilts and
their litter brothers were selected to start inbred lines in the
Poland-China breed. The following year selections of founda-
tion stock for inbred lines in the Tamworth and Chester White
breeds were made. This report concerns only the Poland-
('ina part of the investigation.
The reaction of the breeder of purebred swine toward such
experiments may not be il all cases an entirely favorable one
due to the fact that the end result as measured in terms of
market hogs. was rather disastrous. A careful consideration
of the situation, both from the viewpoint of the geneticist and
that of the breeder, however, mIay show that the situation is
not as bad as it first appeared to be. The breeder is naturally
interested in having all of his pigs show excellent character-
istics because it means more profit for ]him. Frequently he
crosses with another strain to cover up deficiencies in his own.
He may eliminate certain pigs of a litter by sending them to
the butcher because they show some characteristic which makes
them less valuable as breeding stock. The remainder of the
litter and possibly the parents themselves, however, may be
sold as pure breeders. Thus the hidden defects may be widely
disseminated. The geneticist is interested in having the vari-
ous characteristics brought to light and fixed so that he may
experiment with them and establish a method of their elimina-
tion from or retention in the herds where they appear. If a
large percentage of detectives appear during such an experi-
ument as the present one, it is not a matter of great conse-
quence from the production standpoint because the geneticist
is not a hog producer except in the sense that he hopes by
means of the knowledge gained in his work to aid the breeder


by advising how this or that condition can be corrected. At
the present time the field of genetics, as applied to swine, has
hardly been scratched and there is an opportunity for the ex-
perimentalist to render valuable service by cultivating a closer
acquaintance with the multiplicity of material involved and
trying to find out the hereditary mechanism for many char-
acters which breeders have for years been dealing with on a
chance basis. It is particularly important that information
be obtained concerning the role of inheritance in the develop-
ment of characteristics which are important from the produc-
tion standpoint.
Summary of Work
1. In the swine breeding work at the U. S. Animal Hus-
bandry Experiment Farm. Beltsville, Md., an attempt to estab-
lish an inbred strain of Poland-China swine by brother sister
mating failed in the second generation, due to a decrease in
fertility and high mortality.
2. In the first generation of inbreeding litter size did not
significally decrease but average birth weight and percent of
pigs raised to 70 days of age were less than in the control
3. In the second generation litter size became very much
reduced and the vigor of the pigs greatly decreased. Very few
second-generation inbreds were raised.
4. There was a slightly higher percentage of stillborn pigs
among the inbreds than among the controls.
5. The percentage of males was greater among the inbreds
than among the controls. Differential prenatal mortality is
suggested as an explanation of this condition.
6. The segregation of several recessive genes is indicated by
the results. One of these brings about a dilution of the black
to a sepia and is apparently linked with white spotting. A
peculiar kind of banding of the bristles is associated with the
dilution factor but its genetic nature could not be determined.
Other characters which are known to be inherited but the exact
details of which are lacking, appeared among the inbreds.
These include cleft palate, scrotal hernia, and the ridgeling
7. There is no basis for assuming that the results of this
experiment are typical of the Poland-China breed. Other
strains of breeding might show a very different result with the
same amount of inbreeding.

Inbreeding is the process of breeding or mating of related
animals. The terms "Line-breeding," "Close-breeding," and


"Incestuous-breeding" have been used to define varying degrees
of intensity of inbreeding. Inbreeding should be practiced only
by the most skillful breeders, and only when such breeder has
a definite knowledge of the ancestry.

Cross-breeding is the mating of different breeds of animals
of the same species. Except to produce market animals, cross-
breeding should be used only by the highly skilled breeder and
is not then considered practicable except to place the progeny
on the market as meat animals or to use the femals for breed-
ing purposes. Cross-bred boars should not be used; use pure
bred boars instead.
The art of breeding reaches its zenith ii the breeding of
pure-breds-the most fascinating, inspiring branch of animal
breeding when successfully followed, but the most difficult and
disappointing when not successful. This type of breeder is far
more than a business man or a farmer; he is an artist and the
artistic appeal is first in importance to him. This process con-
sists in the mating of pure-bred animals of the same breed.
The breeders ability as a judge must be based on an instinctive
gift to recognize animal types and carry them clearly in mind.
The breeder's success largely depends upon his ability to judge
animals, his knowledge of pedigrees and his acquaintance with
the characteristics of the ancestors of those animals. Only an
experienced breeder, who is a good judge of hogs, should raise
pure-breds, to be sold as such.



AT 70

190 DAYS op AGE

U. S. Department of Agriculture.


-. 3*. 4 4L.,, t5 S 6 S
-',, 1 ' 131 184 90 c 7 50 i4 34 24 11
l,' ;4A-' :' ~,.I T71 B 8.41 77;? W 41 70 63 611
*" : 8il . 954 93 V? 9 44 P i 137 I71

*-. 657 645 604 43 9 ,~ 406 37
45 3: i9 77 S *; IE 473 : 'ib 1 6
; _- 3 A 37 398 35 8 ."1i ?49 176 416 397

189 -1;2 2; 0_ 2,. 20 7 Y0 197 171 16 III



- I, -

.* AT WCfIMGu.


U. S. Department of Agriculture.


Castration of Hogs*
Male pigs which are not to be used for breeding boars
should be castrated when quite young. It is very desirable that
the operation be so timed that the operative wounds are en-
tirely healed before weaning. At such age pigs are easily
handled, the operation is conveniently and successfully per-
formed, and perfect healing of the wounds is facilitated through
their being nourished and protected by the sow. Complications,
with attendant stunting of growth, which sometimes happen at
later ages, are not so liable to occur at this age. When the
operation is allowed to go beyond weaning age breeding fre-
quently results among the young animals of the herd. The
practice of castration before weaning time. then, is a good
one for the hog grower to establish.

Position tor castration

Time for Operation
Castration may be performed successfully at any season of
the year. The usual seasons when sows farrow-spring and
*U. S. Dept. of Agr.. F. B. No. 1357.



fall-establish the preferable periods when castration should
be performed, namely, early summer and late fall. When pos-
sible, clear, cool days should be selected for the operation, and
cold, damp weather avoided.

Preparation of Pigs for the Operation
The preparation of pigs for castration is the same as that
indicated for any other surgical treatment. A light diet for
24- hours is necessary. This requires that suckling pigs be
denied any land-fed feeds, or access to self feeders containing
feeds for supplementing the mother's milk. The digestive tract
should never be distended with feei at the time of operating.
A thorougil washing of the scrolunm with a an antiseptic solu-
tion, such as a 2 per cent solution (f liquor cresolis composites,
or cleansing with soOa and water is a part of the operation
which should not he neglected. Extremely irritating disin-
fectant solutions should he avoided since complete sterilization
of the parts can not be had. Irritating solutions are painful to
the cut surfaces and serve no useful purpose. They may cause
rubbing of tlie wounds and so result in greater injury to tlhe

Cleansing before operation
Operative Procedure
An assistant should hold the pig by grasping the front and
hind legs of either side, with its back resting on the ground


and giving it support with his knees or as shown in the illus-
trations. These positions make it convenient for thorough wash-
ing of the scrotum and surrounding parts. Mild antiseptic solu-
tions may be used for final cleansing of the operative area, the
hands of the operator, and the necessary instruments, in order
that no infection may be transmitted to the wounded surfaces.
The testicle on the side farthest from the operator is held
firmly between the thumb and fingers of the left hand, while
an incision is made by a single stroke of a sharp knife parallel

Making the incision
to the middle line of the body and about one-half inch front it.
This incision should pass through the skin near the top of the
testicle as it is being held and through the testicular coverings
into the body of the testicle itself. The mistake is commonly
made of cutting too low on the scrotum as the pig is held for
the operation. Unless properly cut it is impossible for proper
drainage to result when the pig is restored to its natural posi-
tion. Following the incision the testicle quickly slips out
from its membranes and is easily held during its complete
removal. By a slow scraping and twisting process the attach-
ments are separated with but little bleeding. After the removal
of this testicle, which requires but a short time, the one next
the operator is removed in a similar manner.
When castrating larger hogs or boars which are no longer
required for breeding purposes, it is necessary to have them


held securely upon their backs. It will require several men to
hold a large boar for the operation, and if these are not avail-
able, or with very heavy boars, it will be necessary to tie the
front and hind legs of each side securely with strong rope. The
important point in controlling the hog is to keep the feet off
the ground, holding the animal squarely on its back. They
may be put into a trough on their backs which will make them
easy to hold.
The operation is performed in the same manner as with
small pigs, the only precaution to be observed being the pre-
vention of excessive bleeding. In some instances the blood ves-
sels of old boars become somewhat hardened and the inner
coats do not wrinkle in such way as to facilitate the forming
of blood clots which plug the vessels and prevent hemorrhage.
Such cases would bleed freely and possibly be followed by seri-
ous results. It is advisable therefore to tie a ligature tightly
around the cord before scraping through to sever the vessels.
The healing process usually proceeds satisfactorily.
It is unnecessary to apply a dressing of any kind to the
wounds for purposes of disinfection. It is objectionable from
the fact that it interferes with the quick healing process which


Cord of testicle exposed
usually results. The lymph and blood serum which escape at
the edges of the wound contain sufficient germicidal prop-
erties to take care of ordinary exposure to organisms. Blood


and serum are known to possess properties which retard de-
composition changes for long periods, and any interference
with the normal blood action through the use of disinfectants
is highly objectionable.
In some instances it may be necessary to use applications
of pine tar as a protection against flies. In a skillfully per-
formed operation of castration on a normal animal whose scro-
tum has been carefully washed and in which a clean knife has
been used, little swelling or discharge will follow. When, on
the other hand, the wounds become infected, it is necessary

Scraping the cord
that they be treated like other infected wounds, using such dis
infectants and dressings as may be indicated.

Operation on Ruptured Pigs
Rupture (inguinal hernia) is a condition in which a portion
of the intestines passes through the ring and canal represent-
ing the passageway which the testicle followed in its descent
from the abdomen to the scrotum. When ruptured or "busted"
pigs are castrated there is danger of the intestines slipping
through this canal and out at the opening in the scrotum made
by the operation. It is necessary, therefore, that especial care
be taken in the castration of ruptured pigs. They should be
kept without feed for 24 hours or should have limited rations


for several days. The loop of intestines present in the scro-
tum at the time of operation must be carefully replaced by
manipulation. This is done by holding the hind end of the pig
upward and carefully working the intestines down into the
abdomen with the fingers. The testicle is then carefully
removed, but before the thin membrane (the peritoneum) is
allowed to recede it must be carefully sewed or sutured with
silk thread in order to close the cavity completely and prevent
the escape of intestines.

Cleansed wound, completing the operation

Another method which gives good results consists in 'fasten-
ing a ligature securely around the entire cord above the testicle
before the peritoneal membrane has been cut through. This
effectually protects against the escape of intestines after the
operation and prevents internal bleeding. It is desirable also
to unite the two sides of the inguinal canal with several
stitches in order to protect the canal further against any pos-
sibility -of rupture before healing occurs. Irritate the edges
of the peritineal membrane before sewing to aid healing to-
gether of the peritineum edges. This will allow the two edges
to grow together. When the external wound heals after an
operation of this kind it is a rare thing for any subsequent
Trouble with ruptured pigs.


The Operation for Riggling
The most convenient method for operating upon ridgelings
is to place the pig on a table with that side uppermost on which
the testicle is present. The hair is completely clipped from
above the flank of the pig and the whole region thoroughly
washed. An incision 3 to 4 inches in length is made through
the skin and superficial and deep layers of abdominal muscles,
in the flank, which exposes the surface of the thin membrane
(peritoneum) covering the intestines. This membrane is then
carefully opened and with the fingers passing through the open-
ing the testicle is located. The testicle is withdrawn through
the opening and its cord carefully severed by tearing or scrap-
ing its attachments. The thin membrane is then securely
sutured with silk thread to prevent any subsequent rupture. A
few stitches should be taken also in the deeper layer of muscles
in order to draw their cut edges together so that they will
firmly unite. The external muscles and skin are next sutured
and may be united with the same stitches. These are placed at
close intervals in order to close the wound completely and act

Superficial muscles of pig. The external oblique muscles and the broad fibrous
bands continuing them at the flank show the structures immediately under the skin
which must be divided in an operation on ridgelings. (A) Approximate site for the
incision upon ridgelings and for spaying sows.

as supports for pressure from the intestines, until union of the
tissues is complete.
The various steps in the operation are shown in the illus-
trations and may be easily followed in actual practice on a
pig. The operation is not difficult and should be performed
rather than having to discard the animal as food, since the car-
cass of a ridgeling possesses odors and flavors identical with
those of the unaltered boar. It is desirable to perform this


operation early rather than wait until increased size of the pig
makes it more difficult and at the same time more dangerous.

Restraining Big Boars
Avoid getting the hog hot or excited. With a little corn,
edge the animal to be operated on into a small pen. The pen
should be made of size about 9 feet square with good strong
4x4 posts at each corner of the pen. When the boar has entered
the pen, close the door securely. Take a 7 foot length of heavy
wire similar to a telegraph wire, soft wire being better than
stiff, steel wire. Make an easy running noose in the wire and
slip it over the hog's snout and back of the tusks. Draw the
wire tight, move the hog around until his head is near one of
the corner posts, and then make several wraps of the wire
around the post about 3 feet from the ground, with the hog's
head about S1 inches from the post.
As the wire tightens the hog will close his eyes and groan
and pull back steadily with all his strength, and nothing will
induce him to move forward even the fraction of an inch. He
just lies back and groans and keeps the wire rigidly taunt.
You approach him from behind and proceed with the castra-
lion operation. Even this operation will not induce him to
move forward and the writer has never known of a hog to sit
down during an operation.
If the producer desires to remove tusks or heavy teeth, this
may be done while the hog is still secure by placing the sharp
edge of an axe along side of the jaw next to the tusk and under
the tooth. Hit the tusk a sharp blow from above with a light
hammer and it will snap off even with the flesh of the jaw.
All the while Mr. Hog just lies back and groans and if you
desire you can go ahead and place the rings in his nose. He
may shake and jerk his head some, but the writer has never
known an instance where the hog came forward or showed any
fight while these operations were being made.
These jobs being done, release the wire and shake it loose
from his nose. The wire should be of abundant strength and
the noose secure his snout and the whole process handled in
an expeditious and precise manner. Handled in this way, ani-
mals bleed very little from the operation. While one man can
handle a very large animal in this way, it is best for two to
aid in the work. The wire used should be stout, flexible cable
made of many small wires twisted together. Occasionally a
hog may sit down in spite of everything. If he does, other
methods must be used.


Technical Bulletin 413, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture
Efficiency in the feeding of domestic animals involves not
only the proper selection and combination of feeds and method
of feeding, but also the proper daily allowance.
In the case of hogs, the effect of variations in the level of
feed intake on: the efficiency of conversion of feed into body
tissue and on the composition of the body has received little
attention in comparison with that given to the many other
feeding experiments, conducted during recent years, on the in-
fluence of the diet on rate of growth. Perhaps the main cause
for this lack of attention has been the general assumption that
a maximum rate of gain was of greatest importance. Economic
reasons-for example, the desire to reduce the labor cost or to
produce hogs for the early and top-price market-have gov-
erned feeding practices, in which rapidity of gains has been
uppermost. In the study of the correction of nutritional defici-
encies in hog rations, the increase in the growth rate along
with greater feed utilization has been highly significant. It
has been only natural to consider that there is a direct rela-
tionship between increase in growth and efficiency of feed
utilization. Improvements in the nutritive values of feed com-
binations usually have been accompanied by increase in palata-
bility and hence increased consumption.
The building of adipose tissue is a relatively more expensive
process in terms of feed requirements than the building of pro-
tein tissues. In addition, the changing market demands for
meat have tended towards less fat in the pork cuts. Changes
in hog types and the use of efficient protein, vitamin, and min-
eral supplements with corn in the hog ration have been an aid
in meeting the demand for leaner meat.
The adoption of the self-feeder in place of hand feeding in
swine husbandry practice was due in great measure to the sav-
ing in labor and feed. The advantages of the self-feeder have
been described by Henry and Morrison. Their summary of
results of self-feeding in comparison with hand feeding pigs in
dry lots shows a higher daily feed consumption for the self-fed
pigs. Further, they state that this "is due to the fact that self-
fed pigs help themselves many times a day and even during the
night, thus being full fed at all times." At another point the
same authors have expressed the prevailing opinion relative to
full feeding in these words:
"When pigs are fed all they will eat either by means of a


self feeder or by hand feeding, they will consume less feed for
each 100 pounds' gain up to market weights and therefore the
gains will be cheaper than if they had been fed less grain."
Restriction of the feed allowance of growing pigs to approx-
imately three fourths and one-half of a full feed generally de-
creased the quantity of feed required to produce a unit of gain.
On peanut rations the best gains were produced on a three-
fourths allowance. Although the feed requirements for a unit
of gain were the lowest on this level, the differences between
these requirements and those on the low level were not sig-
Hogs fed a ration of corn with supplements, at levels of 4, 3,
and 2 pounds of feed per 100 pounds of live weight, gained from
an initial weight of approximately 65 pounds to 200 pounds at
rates of 1.14, 1.03, and 0.77 pounds per day, respectively. How-
ever, the feed consumption per unit gain showed a significant
decrease with the decrease in feed level, and the group on the
high-feed level required 34 per cent more feed than the group
on the low-feed level.
Results with a wheat ration fed under conditions compar-
able to those for the above-mentioned corn ration showed aver-
age daily gains of 1.26, 0.95, and 0.62 pounds with decrease in
feed level. The feed consumption per unit gain was not de-
creased to the extent of that of the corn ration.
The carcasses of hogs on the most restricted feeding level
of corn and of wheat contained a significantly greater propor-
tion of lean meat and yielded a higher percentage of lean cuts.
The fat content of the entire body was decreased as a result of
the restriction of feed. No marked effect on the fatness of the
body resulted from the restriction of the peanut rations to 50
per cent of a full feed in the case of pigs fed for gains of from
50 to 60 pounds. Although the restricted feeding apparently
resulted in a slight decrease in the firmness of the carcasses in
the corn-fed lots, no significant differences in the palatability
factors of the cooked meat were found in comparisons of the
high and low feeding levels on both the corn and the wheat
These results also indicate the influence of controlled feed-
ing levels in comparative feeding experiments with hogs with
respect to the effect of differences in intake of hogs on the
efficiency of utilization of the ration.

Growing animals make best use of feed. Keep them grow-
ing. Weaning time is a critical period. Start feeding before
weaning. Balanced ration supplies animal needs with the least
feed. Water, salt and minerals should always be accessible.


Legumes, pastures and succulent feeds aid production and
profit. Feed liberally for large production; nmere maintenance
yields no profit.
Breeding animals should be kept thrifty-not overfat.
Good feeding equipment prevents waste of feed and labor.
Parasites, exposure and overcrowding retard growth and
waste feed.
Feed costs are important, not all balanced rations yield
equal profit.
"Feeds group themselves into two major classes: (1)
roughages, and (2) concentrates. Roughages serve chiefly as
sources of bulk and heat. To a much less extent they may
serve as sources of energy and fat. Legume hays also furnish
appreciable amounts of protein. Concentrates, on the other
hand, serve as sources of two distinct groups of feed essen-
tials: (1) heat, energy and fat, and (2) protein. Evaluating
concentrates is more complicated than the problem of evalu-
ating roughages.
"The first step in evaluating either concentrates or rough-
ages is to acquire a knowledge of the functions of their basic
constituents water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals,
and vitamins.
"1. Water. It is present in all feeds, varying from six to
ten percent in some hays to ninety percent or more in turnips,
wet beet pull), etc. The water content of feeds is not impor-
tant from a nutritive standpoint, but its replacement of other
constituents is a matter that must be given consideration.
"2. Protein. This is a very important constituent. It is
absolutely essential in an animal's ration. Some other con-
stituent cannot be substituted for protein, and the animal
body cannot make protein out of other constituents. It is
also the most expensive constituent in livestock rations. It
is used in building and repairing many body tissues, including
nerves, glands and muscles. It stimulates both appetite and
digestion. Its great, ultimate, practical value lies in the fact
that it increases gains and at the same time decreases the
cost of gains.
"3. Carbohydrates. They make up the greater portion of
most feeds, are the cheapest of all constituents and produce
heat, energy, and fat. It is highly important to remember that
carbohydrates are made up of two components: (a) fiber,
and (b) nitrogen-free extract. The term carbohydrate is of
little value in attempting to evaluate feeds because of the fact
*By Dr. C. W. McCampbell, Head Animal Husbandry Dept., Kansas State College.


that two feeds may have almost identical carbohydrate con-
tents, yet one will be a valuable fattening feed because its
carbohydrates are made up of a high percentage of nitrogen-
free extract and a low percentage of fiber, while the other will
have considerably less value because its carbohydrates are
made up of a high percentage of fiber and a low percentage of
nitrogen-free extract. Since the fattening value of a feed de-
pends to such a large extent upon its nitrogen-free extract
content, it should be emphasized that the higher the nitrogen-
free extract and the lower the fiber content of a feed the bet-
ter fattening feed it is. It might be well to replace the term
carbohydrate with the terms fiber and nitrogen-free extract.
"4. Fat. It produces heat, energy and fat and also helps
to maintain the normal function of the digestive tract. Com-
paratively small amounts are needed and most rations con-
tain an abundance of fat.
"5. Minerals. This group of constituents is important in
building up several different tissues of the body and in main-
taining the normal function of the nerves, blood, etc. The
mineral problem vari e s with different ages and different
classes of animals. It is more acute in young than in older
animals, and in hogs than in cattle. Some feeds are rich in
certain minerals and deficient in others. The same is true in
the case of rations. Perhaps the most important mineral prob-
lem where no legume hays are fed is a proper supply of cal-
cium or lime. Lime deficiencies can be made up by the use
of calcium carbonate in the form of ground limestone or bone
meal at comparatively little cost.
"6. Vitamins. These substances are necessary for normal
health, growth and reproduction. The vitamin requirements
of different ages and classes of animals vary considerably.
Green feed and sunlight furnish an abundant supply of the
vitamins needed by farm animals. The vitamin problem is
not a difficult one during the summer months, and green-
colored hay or green feeds such as rye or wheat pasture plus
sunshine usually take care of the vitamin problem during the
winter months.
"C(hemiical analyses give us definite information as to the
nutrients present in feeds.
"1. The Availability of the Nutrients. The importance of
this factor can be emphasized by comparing corn and bran.
Chemical analyses of these two feeds show that 100 pounds
of corn contains 88 pounds of nutrients, whereas 100 pounds
of bran contains 83.6 pounds. Digestion trials reveal the fact
that 100 pounds of corn contains 85.7 pounds of digestible


or available nutrients compared to 60.9 pounds of digestible or
available nutrients in 100 pounds of bran. In other words,
97.5 percent of the total nutrients in corn are digestible or
available while only 67.5 percent of the nutrients are avail-
able in the case of bran.
"2. The Quality of the Nutrients. This must be considered
carefully and especially with commercial feeds. A large
amount of a certain commercial feed was sold because it con-
tained almost as much carbohydrate as corn and cost 10 per-
cent less. Corn contains approximately 72 percent carbohy-
drate-2 percent fiber and 70 percent nitrogen-free extract.
The commercial feed contained 71 percent carbohydrate 28
percent fiber and 43 percent nitrogen-free extract. Forget-
ting the disadvantage of its greater bulk, this commercial
feed was worth around 40 percent less than corn. The quality
of the nutrients is particularly important in the case of pro-
tein supplemental feeds. Experience as well as experimenta-
tion has demonstrated that one pound of linseed oil meal is
worth more than a pound of choice cottonseed meal as a pro-
tein supplemental feed. Yet, one pound of choice cottonseed
meal contains approximately 25 percent more digestible pro-
tein than one pound of linseed oil meal. The explanation of
this apparent inconsistency lies in the difference in quality
of the proteins of these two feeds.
"3. Palatability. This is an important factor for the rea-
son that it makes little difference how nutritious a feed may
be if it lacks palatability. Its value is lessened to the extent
to which animals refuse to eat it. Wheat is a good illustra-
tion of the effect of palatability upon the value of a feed. Its
chemical analysis shows it to be just as good. pound for pound,
as corn from a nutritive standpoint, and since it is quite pal-
atable to hogs. a pound of wheat is worth just as much as a
pound of corn in the production of pork. Since it is not so
palatable to cattle, it is worth less, pound for pound, in the
production of beef, not because the nutrients are not present
and available, but because cattle will not eat as much wheat
as they will corn.
"4. The Quality or Grade of the Feed Itself. There is con-
siderable difference in the feeding value of corn of different
grades. The same is true of other feeds. It is highly impor-
tant that the quality or grade of feeds compared be known.
Otherwise comparisons or evaluations may be misleading. This
has often been the case in comparing corn with barley.
Usually corn grades fairly high, whereas barley grades low.
"5. Bulk. The less bulk a given feed has the more satis-
factory it is as a fattening feed. We recognize the value of
a small amount of shorts in a hog ration, but we also know



that shorts is not so satisfactory as corn as the entire concen-
trate in hog-fattening rations. This is partly due to less diges-
tible nutrients per pound of feed in shorts, but more par-
ticularly to the difference in the bulk of corn and shorts.
While one pound of shorts contains 80 percent as much
digestible nutrients as one pound of shelled corn, yet one quart
of shorts contains only 38 percent as much digestible nutrients
as one quart of shelled corn-less than half. The excessive
bulk of shorts compared to corn makes it impossible for a hog
to consume as much nutrients in the form of shorts as in the
form of corn, and naturally a hog will not fatten as fast on
shorts as it will on corn.
"6. Form in Which Feed is Fed. The value of a given feed
may vary greatly for different classes of livestock, depending
upon the form in which it is fed. Ground shelled corn may
be worth as much as 25 percent more than unground shelled
corn for three year-old steers. In the case of cattle the value
of some feeds vary considerably, depending upon the age of
the animal. For instance, unground shelled corn is worth
approximately as much pound for pound as ground shelled
corn for calves, but not for older cattle. The stage of the
feeding period is also an important factor in determining the
form in which a feed should be fed. This is particularly true
in the case of cattle. The form in which any feed is fed must
be given thoughtful consideration in evaluating feeds.
"7. Differences in Value According to How Feed is Fed.
There may be as much as 50 percent or more different be-
tween the values of a feed, fed in a well-balanced ration, and
in a ration that is not well balanced."
Different feeds have different physical as well as chemi-
cal characteristics that may affect digestion under some con-
ditions. The feeder must know how to feed a given feed in
order that these characteristics may not do any harm.
With so much information printed in books, bulletins, cir-
culars and the agricultural press, the livestock feeder can
learn a great deal about food values if he will study carefully
the material available.

Some Feeding Terms Explained
Concentrates-Feeds, such as grains, cotton seed meal and tankage, which
are rich and concentrated and supply a large amount of feed per unit
Roughages-Feeds, such as hay, straw, roots and silage, which are coarse and
bulky in nature.
Legumes-Plants, such as clover, cowpeas, soy-beans, etc., which have nodules
on their roots containing bacteria, and take nitrogen from the air.
Legumes are generally richer in protein and minerals than other rough-
ages from grasses.
Nutrients-Substances in feeds which nourish animals.


acre of good rape pasture replaces from 26.8 to 45 bushels of
corn when the two feeds are fed to hogs. The cost per hundred
pounds gain of corn in combination with rape pastures ranges
from $3.52 to ,5.03.
Rape may be seeded from August to February, and by mak-
ing successive plantings it will furnish pasturage from Octo-
ber until the first of .uIne. Three or four plantings should be
made if it is desired to provide for this whole period. From
January until May or the first of June this crop is especially
valuable as a source of feed. To produce a satisfactory yield.
rape requires a fertile soil or a heavy application of fertilizer,
but given good conditions few crops will produce as much
grazing from the same acreage. Dwarf Essex is the variety
Bermuda Grass
A permanent stand of Bermuda grass provides good pas-
turage. This grass will provide good grazing from about the
middle of April until about the middle of November. To over-
come the tendency to become "root bound." the pasture should
be plowed in the fall at least every two or three years and
seeded to oats or rye. Some growers plow it every year and
apply fertilizer when the oats are seeded. The plowing should
not be done during a dry. hot period, or most of the grass roots
may be killed.
On very light soils the use of fertilizers is often necessary.
Many of the farms include more or less limited areas of rather
low land, either as "sinks" or stream "bottoms," which, be-
cause they overflow or are poorly drained, are not well suited
to cropping. These areas, because of the heavier and more
fertile soil and more abundant moisture, will in many cases
furnish the best permanent pasture on the farm. Where prac-
ticable, they should be utilized for that purpose.
Cat-Tail Millet
Cat-tail millet, often known as pearl millet, Pencillaria, or
Egyptian millet, is grown as a hog pasture. The great value of
this crop lies in its ability to furnish pasture early in the
spring, the period during which it is hardest to provide cheap
feed. No other spring-planted crop in the region will do this
quite so well as cat-tail millet. Planted early in March, pref-
erably in 3-foot drills, it is ready to be grazed in from four to
six weeks, or by the middle of April. It is important that the
hogs be turned on early, when the plants are not more than 6
inches high, since this induces stooling and greatly increases
the carrying capacity of the crop. This crop is a very rapid
and rank grower, and if kept properly pastured down will
carry a large number of hogs on a small acreage. When small,


Protein-The only nutrient which can produce growth and make repairs in
the animal's body. Lean meat, skim milk, wheat bran, cotton seed
meal, and tankage are some of the feeds which contain relatively large
amounts of protein.
Carbohydrates and Fat-Nutrients which produce fat, heat and power to do
work in the animal's body. Fat is about two and one-fourth times as
valuable for these than carbohydrates. Feeds containing large
amounts of starch and sugar are rich in carbohydrates, while large
amounts of fat are contained in oily feeds. Corn is rich in both carbo-
hydrates and fat.
Mineral Matter-Nutrients used principally to build the skeleton, hair, hoof,
horn, etc. Legume hays, bran, linseed meal, and skim milk have rela-
tively large amounts of mineral matter.
Vitamins-Substances found in feeds in very small quantities, which are
necessary for growth, reproduction, and protection against diseases,
such as scurvy, etc.
Crude Fiber-The coarse, woody part of plants, and one of the carbohydrates
much less digestible than the others.
Ration-The quantity of feed given an animal during one day.
Balanced Ration-A ration which contains the proper proportion of nutri-
ents to nourish properly the animal to which it is fed.

Grazing Crops, Florida-Average Corditions

Crop Grazing Period

O ats .......................
R ye .......................
Bur-Clover .................
R ape......................
Sorghum ...................
Early Dent Corn ............
Sweet Potatoes .............
Chufas ....................
Soy-Beans ................
Field Peas and Oats.........
Oats and Vetch.............
White Clover ...............

Dec. to June
Dec. to May
Apr. to Oct.
Jan. to March
Nov. to May
May to Sept.
June to Oct.
June to Oct.
July to Aug.
Oct. to Dec.
Aug. to Nov.
June to Oct.
July to Oct.
Apr. to July
Dec. to May
Dec. to May

No. Days No. Pigs
Available Per Acre

200 12
180 10
200 16
150 8
30-60 12
15-80 10
30 14
40-60 20
40-60 20
80-40 20
80-40 80
90-120 4
30-40 15
20-40 15
150 5
150 7


this millet is tender and much relished by hogs, but if allowed
to grow to any considerable height it becomes woody and un-
palatable. If kept fully pastured this crop will provide graz-
ing until the middle of July. When two or three different
plantings are made during March, April and May, the graz-
ing period may be extended through September.
Two varieties of sorghum are commonly grown for hog feed,
the Early Amber and Orange. The former is planted for early
feed, but the latter will produce a heavier yield, extending
over a longer period. As a hog pasture, sorghum is sometimes
sown broadcast, but is more commonly planted in drills, some-
times in rows alternating with cat-tail millet. Sorghum will
not withstand the close grazing that gives the best results with
millet. But the young millet being the more tender and rel-
ished by hogs, is eaten first, when the two crops are grown in
the same field, thus allowing the sorghum to attain sufficient
size to return a good yield of forage. These two crops supple-
ment each other, giving variety to the feed, when planted
either in alternate rows or in different parts of the same field.
Sorghum is cut and fed as a soiling crop to an even greater
extent than it is used for grazing.
Sorghum as pasture fed in combination with corn and a
protein supplement proves to be profitable.
Sorghum as a grazing crop displaces from one to four
bushels of corn when fed in combination with corn or with
corn and some protein supplement.
If sorghum is used in combination with soy-beans and corn,
or peas and corn, or corn, tankage, fish meal, or a combination
of tankage, fish meal and cottonseed meal, or a combination
of corn, tankage and cottonseed meal, as a grazing crop it is
Crab Grass
Crab grass volunteers abundantly on land from which a
crop of oats, rye, or watermelons have been harvested and in
fields allowed to lie idle for a part of the growing season. It
produces a fair amount of cheap and palatable pasturage that
may profitably be utilized. Oat stubble may be grazed for two
or three weeks and still be seeded to cowpeas or some other
crop the same season, thus helping materially at a time that
feed is usually relatively scarce and expensive. Frequently
hogs are allowed to graze stubble fields from the time the
grain crop is removed until frost. Occasionally a field is
plowed in the spring, and sometimes fertilized, then allowed
to produce a volunteer growth of grasses, largely crab grass,
for grazing through the entire season.


Demonstration hog feeding work conducted in South Caro-
lina developed the fact that when green feed was given with
full feed of corn there was a saving of from 20%/ to 40% of
the corn by forage crops. It was also found that when green
feed was given in combination with fish meal and corn on full
feed, there was a saving in fish meal of from 25% to 40%.
The Missouri Experiment Station has shown that from
20% to 50% of corn may be saved by forage crops. They state
that starting newly weaned pigs on a good pasture of blue
grass produces 324.6 pounds of pork per acre.
Clover produces 567.7 lbs. of pork per acre in combination
with even a small amount of corn.
Oats and rape produce 354.1 pounds of pork per acre.
Oats, rape and clover produce 414.6 pounds of pork per
Sorghum produces 275 pounds of pork per acre.
Cowpeas produce 212.7 pounds of pork per acre.
Soy-beans produce 117.6 pounds of pork per acre.
Rye produces 211.7 pounds of pork per acre.
The South Carolina Experiment Station learned that when
they hogged off soy-beans with a limited amount of corn and
tankage, the soy-beans were worth, as a feed for hogs, $27.47
per acre. In 1928 soy-beans were worth .$43.69 per acre when
the hogs were full-fed corn and tankage free choice. These
facts are on the basis of hogs at .$11.25 to $11.75 per hundred
weight and with the tankage at market prices. Mineral was
kept before the hogs at all times. They used with this test
10 pounds of ground limestone, 10 pounds of acid phosphate,
2 pounds of salt.
Oats for Hogs
Oats can be used extensively in place of corn in the rations
of pregnant soiws. They may also be used in sow rations dur-
ing the suckling period, but to a less extent than during preg-
For growing-fattenbig pigs, one-third of the ration may
consist of oats.
Hulled oats fed to growing pigs is less profitable than feed-
ing ground oats.
If oats cost more per pound than corn it is more economical
to feed corn with a protein supplement.
Ground oats make good feed for brood sows. Whole oats
are equal to about 80 to 90 per cent of corn. Grinding oats im-
proves it as a feed for pigs. When feeding pigs ground oats
they should not exceed one third of the grain ration for hog


Florida Beggarweed
Florida beggarweed volunteers along with crab grass. If
grazed before it attains too large a growth, the beggarweed
furnishes an excellent quality of pasturage. As a cultivated
crop beggarweed gives a rather light yield, but as a volunteer
crop it is a valuable addition to the grazing system, and, being
a legume, is of value for soil improvement.

If watermelons are grown a considerable amount of graz-
ing is furnished by the cull melons, together with the follow-
ing growth of crab grass, often supplemented by cowpeas
planted between the melon rows. Most of the feeding value
of the melons is in the seeds.

Green Feed
The South ill come into its own wuhen its fields are green
in winter mad when its livestock have ample green feed twelve
months in the year. This is not beyond having. Upon methods
of feeding depend a very large extent the profits in pork
production. Nothing reduces the cost of production like ample
palatable green feed.
Producers should ever be mindful of the dangers of per-
manent pastures for hogs. Pigs particularly should be placed
in new pastures with plenty of good green feed and on ground
that is free of parasites (worms and worm eggs). If per-
manent pastures are used for hogs, the breeding herd should
use them and not young growing pigs. It is best to practice
sanitary methods with all hogs as related to pastures.

Rations for Pasture Feeding
Suckling Pigs. Pigs of weights 5 to 40 lbs. may be creep-
fed while on pasture. (a) Corn self-fed, middlings self-fed,
tankage self-fed, and a small amount of salt. It is expected
that salt will be used in combination with all of the following
feeds. (b) Corn and tankage self-fed. It pays to give the
suckling pigs a good start. If pigs have access to white clover
pastures, they will eat but little tankage or other protein sup-
plements. Green feed is very necessary. It should consist of
a pasture which has grasses as well as legumes suitable for
pigs. In the winter it may be oats and white clover, or rape
and white clover in the same pasture. In the summer it might
be millet and lespedeza at different places in the same pasture,
or it might be a mixture of velvet beans, peas, sorghum and
millet planted together and hogged off as green feed, or other
combinations of green feed pastures.


Weanling Pigs. 30 to 100 lbs. In addition to green pas-
tures, as outlined above, these pigs may receive any one of the
following rations: (a) Corn 90 to 95 lbs., tankage 5 to 10 lbs.
(b) Corn, tankage and middlings self-fed separately. When
such pigs are self fed on luscious green feeds, they will eat the
proportion of about 95 lbs. of corn and 5 lbs. of tankage from
weanling age to 100 lbs. weight.
Shoats. 100 to 175 lbs. (a) These hogs may be self- or
hand-fed corn. (b) Corn self-fed, tankage self-fed. On good
high protein pastures such pigs will eat the proportion of
about 96 to 98 lbs. of corn and from 2 to 4 lbs. of tankage.
(c) Corn self-fed, middlings (only when relatively low in
price) self-fed, tankage self-fed.
Hogs. 175 lbs. and up. Corn, hand- or self-fed, these hogs
being finished on corn without protein supplement after reach-
ing these weights. They, of course, should be on pasture.
Fillhit ni Sows and Stags for Market. With ample bal-
anced pastures, these animals may be finished on the follow-
ing rations: (a) Corn hand- or self-fed. If in poor condition
and not doing well, feed some tankage or tankage in combina-
tion with cotton seed meal, half and half; buttermilk or skim
milk until they get started; the gilts will need somewhat more
protein supplements than older sows. During breeding time
and gestation time, one may feed any one of the following
rations: (a) Corn with an addition of 5% to 10% of a mixture
of tankage and cotton seed meal until the sows are bred. Then
put the sows on corn until about a month before farrowing
time comes, when a limited amount of tankage, or tankage in
combination with cotton seed meal, or separated milk may be
fed to them so as to encourage milk secretion. This method
of feeding will also insure that there will be good, strong,
husky, active new-born pigs. If such sows are to be fed out
for market, practice methods as described above for finishing
Suammering Sows-To Be Bred in the Fall. Fall Gilts or
Yearling Sows. These females should also have green feed
and may be fed the following rations: (a) Limited corn ration,
regulated according to grains and conditions of flesh desired.
Change the ration to corn and tankage or similar protein sup-
plements about 10 days before breeding. Feed the sows lib-
erally in order to increase the number in the litter at farrow-
ing time. All of the above rations are given on the basis of
pounds (or parts by weight) in a hundred total. The salt
may be allowed preferable at free will as well as other mineral
mixtures suitable for hogs.
In the above rations, sorghum grains may be substituted
for corn. Any hog grower should be able to find a ration that


will suit his particular needs as well as the conditions pre-
vailing on his farm. It is not to be assumed that all feeds
must be weighed and fed in the exact proportions mentioned
above, but rather that the previous combinations suggested
should serve as a basis for others that it may be desirable to
compound under certain conditions. The important thing
to avoid (and that is the reason for publishing so many dif-
ferent combinations) is not to feed any hogs whether they are
growing or have reached maturity, a one-sided ration that can-
not possibly properly nourish the animals. A ration that is de-
ficient in proteins is bound to prove unprofitable alike for
growing pigs and fattening hogs. The use of the self-feeder
is recommended on any farm where the producer is interested
in producing good quality hogs to be marketed throughout the
year. The self-feeder for grains and other concentrates is not
only a great labor saver, but the only sure way of getting
rapid and economical development of young pigs. These self-
feeders can be made with very little expense.
Chufas are easily and cheaply grown and produce a heavy
yield of feed of which hogs are fond and which adds variety to
the ration. They require a long growing season, but will re-
main in the ground for several months after maturing, fur-
nishing grazing over a long period. Like rape, sorghum, and
millet, this crop, unless liberally fertilized, draws heavily upon
-' *

Shotes ready for the corn and peanut field

the soil fertility. It has the added disadvantage of producing
soft pork, but a good acre will produce 300 to 600 pounds of
Chufas, like rape, is also used for winter grazing. It is not
a soil builder. It is a splendid grazing crop when grown in the
same field with peanuts. Plant every other row or every
third row with peanuts or to each six acres in peanuts plant
one to two acres in chufas nearby or within the same field.
If chufas are fed alone, add protein supplements on basis


Date Should Be No. of 40 to 60-lb. Hogs
Crops to Plant Date to Plant How to Plant Seed per Acre Stage to Be Ready Ready Feed per Acre & Days

Rape............Sept.-Oct........ 21/%-ft. rows......6 lbs............... 6 to 8 in. high......Jan. to April...... 10 hogs, 80 to 40 days a
/1% bu. oats
Oats and Rye... Oct.-Nov.........Broadcast......./ bu. rye.........6 in. high..........Jan. to April...... 10 hogs, 30 to 40 days
Oats.............Oct.-Nov.........Broadcast....... 2-21/ bu............6 in. high.......... Jan. to April...... 10 hogs, 20 to 30 days
Rape............January........ .21/-ft. rows......6 lbs.............. 6 in. high..........Mar. 15........... 10 hogs, 25 to 30 days
Corn and Spanish Alternately 1 gal. corn
Peanuts....... March...........3-ft. rows........1 gal. peanuts......Ripe ............. July 15........... 15 hogs, 20 to 80 days O
Corn and N. C. Alternately 1 gal. corn
Peanuts....... March-April.... .3-ft. rows........1 gal. peanuts......Ripe..............Oct.. Nov., Dec..... 15 hogs, 25 to 80 days

Sorghum........ April-May...... .3-ft. rows........1 peck........... 3-ft. high.........July to Sept....... 25 hogs, 30 to 40 days
Chufas.......... May-June....... 2y1-ft. rows......2 pecks............Ripe...............Oct., Nov., Dec..... 15 hogs, 80 to 40 days
Spanish Peanuts. April-May.......3-ft. rows........2 bu...............Ripe............. Aug., Sept., Oct.... 30 hogs, 20 to 80 days
N. C. Peanuts.... April........... 3-ft. rows........8 qts. shelled...... Ripe..............Oct., Nov., Dec..... 30 hogs, 20 to 30 days d
Sweet Potatoes.. June-July....... 8-8%1-ft. rows .. 7000 slips......... Ripe............. Oct., Nov., Dec..... 80 hogs, 80 to 45 days
Cowpeas..........May-June....... 21/-ft. rows......2 pecks........... First bloom....... Aug., Sept......... 15 hogs, 20 to 30 days

Always use enough seed to furnish a stand.


The money value of ground oats is found in the following
table, with unground oats being worth approximately three-
fourths as much per bushel as ground oats.
Ipats fed to hogs should be either hulled or ground. They
should always be combined with corn.
Feed oats in small quanttities and in combination with
other feeds.
When Used to Replace One-fourth to One-third of the Corn in a
Corn-and-Supplement Ration for Growing-Fattening Pigs.

And 100 Pounds of SUPPLEMENT Is Worth-
Is $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50 $4.00
Worth-I I I
A Bushel of GROUND OATS Is Worth-

20c a bushel....... $0.13 $0.14 $0.16 $0.17 $0.18 $0.19
25c a bushel....... .15 .17 .18 .19 .21 .22
80c a bushel....... .18 .18 .20 .22 .23 .24
85c a bushel....... .20 .21 .28 .2 .25 .26
40c a bushel....... .22 .24 .25 .26 .27 .29
45c a bushel....... .25 .26 .27 .29 .30 .31
50e a bushel....... .27 .28 .30 .81 .32 .33
55c a bushel....... .29 .81 .32 .33 .84 .36
60c a bushel....... .32 .88 .34 .35 .37 .38
65c a bushel...... .84 .85 .36 .38 .39 .40
70c a bushel....... .86 .38 .39 .40 .41 .48
75c a bushel....... .39 .40 .41 .42 .44 .45
80c a bushel...... .41 .42 .48 .45 .46 .47
85c a bushel.......I .48 .44 .46 .47 .48 .50
90c a bushel....... .46 .47 .48 .49 .51 .52
95c a bushel....... .48 .49 .50 .52 .53 .54
$1.00 a bushel..... .50 .51 .58 .54 .55 .57

Brood sows use whole oats to best advantage of any class
of hogs. As hogs near their mature development, a smaller
amount of feed per pound of hog weight is needed than for
younger hogs. A mixture of oats one-half and corn one-half
makes a good grain combination for sows carrying pigs. Sows
with suckling pigs three weeks of age or over should not be
fed oats in large quantity, as they are too bulky. This is due
to the excessive amount of fibre contained in the oats.

Rape should have a place in almost every grazing system
for hogs in this area; it may be planted either broadcast or in
drills, or seeded in a mixture with oats and rye. When planted
alone it will usually yield better and be injured less by tramp-
ling if it is seeded in drills so that it may be cultivated. An


of live weight of hogs as follows: Pigs under 50 lbs., use 1/4
to 1/3 lb. of protein supplement per head daily. (This sup-
plement may be made of a mixture of 1/ tankage and 1/ cot-
ton seed meal, or 1/ tankage and 1/ peanut meal, etc.) ; pigs
50 to 75 lbs., use about 1/3 lb. of protein supplement per head
daily; pigs 100 lbs. and over may be given up to 1/2 lb. per
head daily of a protein supplement in addition to chufas being
hogged off. It is best to hand-feed and limit the protein sup-
plement on the basis outlined above as hogs would eat in
excess of the protein supplement if given to them free-choice
in fields of chufas being hogged off, as hogs prefer the protein
supplement to chufas. Chufas are not as palatable as corn.

Chufas Withstand Disease and Are Easy to Grow, Therefore
Plant More of Them
Bulletin No. 54, issued by the Arkansas Station, states:
"A half ration of corn with chufas and peanuts in alternate
rows made the value of an acre of chufas equal to 50 bushels
of corn."
Alabama says in their Bulletin No. 143:
"When hogs are fed a half ration of corn and kept on chu fas
pasture, one acre of chufas replaced 43.6 bushels of corn. The
cost per hundred pounds of gain of corn combination with
chufas was estimated from .$2.53 to .$5.06."
Chufas was figured at $8.00 per acre to raise, and the cost
of corn was placed at 70c per bushel.

Soy-beans as a Pasture for Fattening Hogs
Alabama Bulletin No. 143, relates that: "With one-half
ration of corn given fattening hogs together with soy-beans as
green feed an acre of soy-beans displaced from 19 to 48 bushels
of corn. The cost of grain for 100 pounds ranged from $1.39
to $.5.46 a hundred." It costs about $8.00 an acre to raise soy-
Soy-beans as a green feed for hogs has been seriously over-
looked, especially in some of our western Florida counties. The
South Carolina Experiment Station found that when corn and
soy-beans (as a green feed) were fed that the hogs, when killed,
were dominatingly firm to hard.

Field Peas (Cow Peas)
Several experimental stations have made tests in feeding
peas to hogs. When fed alone peas do not make economical
gains. It takes about 900 pounds of peas to make 100 pounds
gain (according to Colorado Experimental Station Bulletin
381). Peas should be supplemented with grain for best results.


A combination of corn and cow peas makes a good ration for
hogs. When skim milk, costing not more than 35c per hun-
dred, is given with corn and field peas, gains were satisfactory
and gave good results. Cull sweet potatoes improve the ration
when field peas are fed.

4-Way Grazing Plants for Hogs
Sorghum, millet, velvet beans and peas as a combination
pasture, when the seeds of these are planted as soon as the
danger of frost is over, will do much to overcome the starvation
period during the months of late March, April, May and June.
A succession of plantings of this combination should be made
at intervals of about 10 days apart until four pllantings are
made. This will help to overcome the starvation period of
An acre of good land put into a full stand of sorghum, mil-
let, peas and velvet beans will produce gains when used in con-
nection with corn at a very cheap rate. There are many in-
stances in which an acre of the above combination carried four
sows a(nd their litters of seven pigs each for a period of 20
to 35 days. (The sows were fed 2 ears of corn each per day).
If the peas and beans are sown broadcast, and plowed in first,
then the sorghum and millet may be harrowed in broadcast.
This combination will help to carry hogs or pigs during the
time when it is difficult to have grazing crops. Any pasture is
better with a combination of grasses as well as le-guminious
Velvet Beans
Velvet beans are almost invariably planted with corn, often
in alternate rows, sometimes with two rows of corn alternat-
ing with each row of beas., and frequently in conjunction with
corn and peanuts, the corn and peanuts in alternate rows and
the velvet beans planted later in the same row with the corn
or tle peanuts. This combination is an excellent one and un-
doubtedly results in a larger and more economical yield of
feed from an acre than is produced by any one or two of these
crops grown separately.
Corn, peanuts, and velvet beans are thus planted in colm-
bination only when tile peanuts and a part of thle beans are
to be grazed off. The corn, and often a part of the mature
beans, are harvested early and the hoos are then turned ill to
gather the peanuts. The hogs will not eat many beans while
the former are available.
It is often difficult to get hogs to commence eating velvet
beans, especially early in the season, when they are too hard
to be palatable. This means that the beans will not be readily


grazed until the beans have been more or less trampled and
thus softened by the moisture from the soil. If the weather is
dry this may be very late in the season. Frequently, it is de-
sirable to have the beans grazed earlier. This may be hastened
by plowing under the crop. There are many crops which can
be grown that are far superior to velvet beans for hogs. This
is particularly true if beans are allowed to mature. Velvet
beans may be used well as a green feed in combination with
other pasture crops.
Sweet Potatoes
Sweet potatoes are utilized for grazing purposes. Hog
growers are finding it highly profitable to plant one or more
acres exclusively for "hogging" off. Sweet potatoes make too
bulky a feed for finishing hogs, but as a supplement to other
more fattening feeds they add variety to the ration. They have
a decided tendency to "harden" the soft pork produced by pea-
nuts, especially when fed in conjunction with such crops as
velvet beans or corn, or both.
Generally the feeding of sweet potatoes or cowpeas alone to
hogs is not considered profitable, but when either or both are
fed in combination with corn or peanuts or corn and green
feed they become profitable feed for hogs.


Hogs ready for the corn and peanut fields


Hogs weighing from 100 to 125 pounds are the right size
for hogging off corn.
When yields of corn exceed 25 bushels per acre and protein
feed is given to balance the corn, together with green feed in
the field, it is doubtful if any other combination will make
more pork per acre than corn.
Farmers producing corn in excess of 25 bushels per acre
should feed protein supplements and green pasture.
More farmers should practice finishing some hogs on corn
in self-feeders, to go on the market during the spring, summer
and early fall months. Such hogs can be finished out hard for
which the packers are willing to pay a premium.
The Ohio Experiment Station reports that "8 or 9 hogs,
weighing 125 pounds each, will harvest an acre of corn in as
many days as there are bushels of corn to the acre."
The Minnesota Experiment Station figures that the acreage
of corn needed to fatten hogs by hogging off is as follows:
Twenty hogs weighing 125 Sixty hogs weighing 125
pounds each will clean up an pounds each will clean up an
acre of corn yielding acre of corn yielding
40 bushels in 15 days 40 bushels in 5 days
50 bushels in 19 days 50 bushels in 6 days
60 bushels in 23 days 60 bushels in S days
70 bushels in 26 days 70 bushels in 9 days
Corn is ready to be hogged gff when the kernels begin to
get hard or become dented.
A field of sweet or early corn is an excellent money making
plan, to hog off'before the regular corn crop is ready and steps
up profits in hogs. Generally the early corn gets the hogs
ready to go to market when prices are best, namely, August
and September.
It is not good practice to turn fattening hogs into a large
field of corn, as they will trample down a lot of feed. It is
much better to section off a portion of the field with temporary
fence and let the hogs clean that up before turning them into
another. These fences may be made out of a string of 36-inch
wire stretched along rows. It is necessary to have each end
of the fence fastened securely, with the center portions of the
fence held up by temporary posts.
When hogging off crops, don't keep hogs on one plot until
the feed gets scarce. Hogs must get all they can eat of a bal-


anced ration to make the fastest and cheapest gains. The brood
sow and her litter may clean up behind the fattening hogs.
Early pop-corn supplemented with fish meal makes a good
food combination.

In the table below corn represents 100 per cent feed value
in comparison with the substitutes and supplements to corn
given in the table.


Shelled corn
Ground rye
Ground oats

.... . 35.7
... .. 35.7
.. 162.5

Hominy feed .....
Wheat middlings ..

Approximate value when a bushel of
a corn is worth-

a $0.20 .$ 0.40 ,$ 0.60 $ 0.80 $ 1.00 $ 1.20

|per cent} bu. bu. bu. u. bu. u. bu.
100 $0.20 $ 0.40 $ 0.60 $ 0.80 $ 1.00 J$ 1.20
90 .18 .36 .54 .72 .901 1.08
| 60-80 .08 .16 .24 .32 .40 .48
1 tons tons tons tons tons I tons
S100 1$7.14 $14.28 1$21.42 $28.56 1$35.70 1$42.84
| 75-85 5.71 11.42 17.14 22.85 1 28.56 | 34.27

Purdue University, Dept. of Agr. Ext. Leaflet No. 156.

The table below gives the comparative value of protein sup-
plements, fed with corn, to fatten hogs in dry lot.

do Approximate value
oI ZOO when 100 lbs. of 60%
a .a protein tankage
FEED i is worth-

5- $2.50 $3.00 $3.501$4.00

| 100 100 100 100
S lb. lb. lb. lb.

Skim m ilk ......................... )
Buttermilk .......................) 1 1*1,000 $0.25 $0.30 $0.35$0.40
Fish meal ......................... 2 85 2.95 3.55 4.101 4.70
Tankage .................. .. 100 2.50 8.00 8.501 4.00
Soybeans, if fed with mineral....... .) 4 150 1.651 2.00[ 2.351 2.65
Soybean oilmeal, if fed with mineral.
Linseed oilmeal .................... 5 175 1.40 1.70 2.001 2.80

*Skim milk and buttermilk contain 90 per cent water. U. S. D. A.


Austrian Winter Peas, a good late winter and early spring grazing crop for hogs

Hairy vetch, a good grazing crop for hogs from February to April



Professors Henry and Morrison, in their "Feeds and Feed-
ing," state:
"Corn is the great energizing, heat-giving, fat-furnishing
food for the animals of the farm. No other cereal yields, on a
given space and with a given expenditure of labor, so much
animal food in both grain and forage. On millions of farms
successful animal husbandry rests upon this imperial grain
and forage plant. A possible explanation of the great fond-
ness of farm animals for corn lies in the considerable amount
of oil it carries. Again on mastication the kernels break into
nutty particles which are more palatable, for example, than
meal from the wheat grain, which on crushing and mingling
with the saliva turns to a sticky dough in the mouth."

Early corn, particularly some of the dent varieties, is very
useful in providing a fattening feed early in the season.
Planted in the spring, it is ready for either soiling or grazing
by the middle of July. Some hog growers plant early corn by
itself, but more commonly in alternate rows with Spanish pea-
nuts. Many plant Spanish peanuts "solid" and add early corn
to every alternate row of the peanuts. The corn is then gath-
ered and fed, the hogs being turned into the field later to eat
the peanuts. This plan has the important advantage of fur-
nishing earlier feed from the corn than when the two crops
are grazed together, since the very early varieties of corn ma-
ture about two weeks sooner than the Spanish peanuts. When
the two crops are to be grazed together, a medium early corn
should be planted.
Usually it is important to secure feed as early as practic-
able, and for this purpose the earlier varieties of corn planted
with an early variety of cowpeas, broadcasted between the
corn rows, fills an important place, except on some of the
lighter soils, to which the cowpeas are not well suited. The
"two crop" clay variety is commonly used for this early plant-
ing. As its name implies, this crop. or the mixture with early
corn, if planted early, may be matured and grazed off in time
to allow the land to be replanted the same season to the same
crops or to Spanish peanuts.

Corn Chop, Ground Corn or Cracked Corn is the entire
product made by grinding, cutting or chopping the grain of
sound Indian corn and may be fine, medium or coarse.
Screened Corn Chop, Screened Ground Corn, or Screened
Cracked Corn is the coarse portion of corn chops, ground corn


or cracked corn, from which most of the fine particles have
been removed.
Ear Corn Chops is corn and cob, without the husk, ground
or chopped with not a greater proportion of cob than occurs
in the ear corn in its natural state.
Corn Meal (feeding) finely ground unbolted corn.
Corn Bran is the outer coating of the corn kernel, with
little or no starchy part or germ.
Corn Feed Meal is the fine siftings obtained in the manu-
facture of screened corn chop, screened ground corn or screened
cracked corn, with or without its aspiration products added.
Corn Grits or Hominy Grits are the fine or medium-sized
hard, flinty portions of Indian corn containing little or no
bran or germ.
Corn Screenings are the small, light grains of corn, parts
of grains of corn and/or other cereals, and other materials
having feeding value, obtained by screening shelled corn, ex-
cluding sand, dirt, and other similar inert materials.
Corn GlutenL Meal is that part of commercial shelled corn
that remains after the separation of the larger part of the
starch, the germ and the bran, by the processes employed in
the manufacture of cornstarch and glucose.
Corn Gluten Feed is that portion of commercial shelled
corn that remains after the separation of the larger part of the
starch and the germs )by the processes employed in the mann-
facture of cornstarch and glucose.
Maltose Process Corn Gluten Feed is the dried residue
from degermed corn, after removal of starch in the manufac-
ture of malt syrup.
Hominy Feed, Hominy Meal or Hominy Chop is the kiln-
dried mixture of the mill-run bran coating, the mill-run germ.
with or without a partial extraction of the oil, and a part of
the starchy portion of the white corn kernel obtained in the
manufacture of hominy, hominy grits, and corn meal by the
degerming process.
Yellow Hominy Feed, Yellow Hominy Meal or Yellow Hom-
iny Chop is a kiln-dried mixture of the mill-run bran coating.
the mill-run germ, with or without a partial extraction of the
oil, and a part of the starchy portion of the yellow corn kernel
obtained in the manufacture of yellow hominy grits and yel-
low corn meal by the degerming process.
Corn Oil Cake consists of the corn germ from which part
of the oil has been pressed and is the product obtained in the

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