MARY A. STENNIS
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Bulletin No. 46
IN RESPONSE to many requests from within and
from without the state, this bulletin has been
prepared to acquaint Florida people, and people
everywhere, with Florida fruits and vegetables and
their nutritive value and uses in the menu.
The great variety of food from which to choose,
and the possibilities of food production in the
state, are apparent. An increased utilization of
Florida's products will come from a better knowl-
edge of their value as a year 'round diet.
Commissioner of Agriculture.
Table of Contents
I. Florida's Contribution to the Food Needs of the
Nation .........-- ... ..........----------- ------------------ 5
II. Florida Vegetables .-- ------------...........~. ------ ... 11
III. Florida Fruits .....-... ------...........----..------- 22
IV. Uses of Florida Fruits and Vegetables.......................... 41
1. Cocktails, Drinks, Sherbets .............................----- 41
2. Hors d'CEuvres ...................-----------------. 44
3. Salads ............... -----.........--------............. 44
a. Preparation of Fruits and Vegetables
for Salads ................. ............-....... 44
b. Salad Dressings .....----.............-----------.................----- 45
c. Salad Combinations ..............--------------------.................. 48
d. Special Salads-Florida ...........-------...--------............... 49
e. The Fruit and Vegetable Salad in the Menu 51
4. Cooked Products .................--------......---------................ 51
a. Preserving the "Preventive and Protective"
Value of Vegetables ......-... ............. ..... 51
b. General Recipes .----.............---------------............. 57
Vegetables .................................-------------------------- 57
Fruits ..----...................---........ ... ... 72
c. Desserts ..........----.......------------------------- 81
d. Crystallized Fruits ...................-- ............... 83
V. The Body Needs and Florida Menus to Meet the Needs 93
1. Calory .............----------..--...--....- .--- 99
2. Vitamin .-----..-.......---.....--- ..---- ....----99
3. Florida Fruits ..--..........................-- .--- .. ......104
Florida Vegetables ....-----.................................--------------104
4. Weight-Height-Age Tables .....................---...........105
I-Florida's Contribution to the Food
Needs of the Nation
F OOD resources tend to concern a-secition of the country.
Transportation and refrigeration have reduced the distribu-
tion problem but, even today, an abundant and varied food
production is of vital interest. Througbscience, by means of
chemical analyses and animal feeding, we know now, that at least
35 simple substances1 make up man's optimum food supply--that
is, the su ly necessary to promote normal growth and to m -
SM'W kKnow, too, that of these substances, mineral content is of
great importance. Of the ten essential,minerals, for instance, cal-
cium and phosphorus must balance each other in proper relation.
Sunshine tl aids not onl the pl utthe animals in he
prove whichty l caium and phosphorus and
build good frame struck Before the s work o
course essn al that the mineral be nt-in the soil, in
the plant and in human body. A deficiency of iodine has caused
Sgoiter, while a lack of phosphorusjin some parts of the world's
soil has caused great loss in livestock, the animals becoming bone
chewers. Recent rpePfroh hac shown that some copper is neces-
sary in order that the iron may be used for thfor the formation of the
* red pigment which helps the red corpuscles to carry oxygen to the
tissues. The need for lime is recognized as fundamental.
At the present time we feel fairly sure that at least six vitamins
- are necessary for health. We know, too, that some of these vita-
mins are water soluble, some are fat soluble, some are in one type
of food and missing in others. We have known for a long time
that not one protein alone but sixteen digestion products of'Iro-
Steins are needed for body building and that a balance of several
foods is required Qsupply t i oo material needed.,
Having gone this ar, we know that no one food can complete
Sthe diet. Varietisessential. Whole wheat bread for instance-is
not vital;cereals for ea ast o a bu a-
ti6'nTl aaance o iou substances s ntia
optim health andivi rts- have been made to prove that
Sthe human eing an ive on milk; can exist on grains; can remain
alive on potatoes. Why try to piove possible existence even for a
short time? Of what use is bare existence? Abundant life, health,
is the goal. Concentrated sugar relieves hunger quickly and so
people have believed that sugar has an enormous "food value." It
is strictly for energy but, alone, it overtaxes the system. It is
habit-forming. It is minus minerals, vitamins, and all structural
1 Eighteen of these substances are digestion products of proteins; ten are mineral ele-
ments (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, iodine, phosphorus, sulphur,
iron, and copper) : six are called vitamins-distinguished as vitamins A. B. C, D, E, and
G, one is sugar glucose derived either from glucose or from cane sugar, or starches, milk
6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
material for growth and repair. In some sections meat has been
published far and wide as the most nearly perfect food and as the
most essential food. Meat ia good protein. Ithas a limited
amount of iron and vitamin G, but it is poor in calcium and as ,
rno viamins other than G.
The normal life history of a human being (or animal) shows
that, if born of normal parents, he will start life with vitality, and
if well cared for and well fed, will develop a sound body. Some r
people live well until 80; some die at 40. Some die at 40 and are
unburied until 80. They have the privilege of a half life of ill
health. Animal feeding has shown that right feeding prolongs life
and efficiency and that it affects the rate of growth in the young,
the ultimate size, the time for old age to begin to show, the fertil-
ity and success of the mothers in raising the young, the reproduc-
tion, and the nervous system. The faulty diet of the animal pro- 4
duces physical defects such as short and stocky form, enlarged
joints, defective teeth, general runtiness, poor quality of hair,
nervousness, abnormal fear-the special symptoms, depending .
upon the nature of the defect. In addition to this, McCollum and
other research authorities tell us that they have seen, repeat-
edly, each of the deficiency diseases appear in animals
deprived of one or another of the required food factors.
Today we still hear, however, that so long as human beings
have variety of diet, they are safe. Investigation shows that this
is not necessarily true. Wheat, oats, barley, corn, rye, peas, beans,
soy-beans, potato, sweet potato, radish, turnip, beets, carrot, par-
snips, do not supply safety. Add lean meat and yet the safety is
not assured. All this list is lacking in the very important item
calcium and may be very poor in protein or deficient in vitamins.
Leafy vegetables are lacking. Milk is lacking. Both are good
sources of calcium. Both are splendid sources of protein. Milk r
supplies abundant protein while vegetables supply protein in
small quantities but of good quality and easily digestible. Fruit
is also missing in this list. Fruit, leafy vegetables, and milk are
all good sources of vitamins. They should largely supplement
even the varied diet above listed.
A cross section of the "Common American Diet of Today" has
been pictured for us by a study made by Dr. Lovell Landstrother
who made rather true records on the diets of 501 patients suffer-
ing from degenerative diseases. Keeping in mind the nation's
habit of "meat, bread, potato, and dessert" diet, with its usual
accessories of butter, cream, sugar, mayonnaise, on the one hand
and the so-called "protective" diet (fruit, green vegetables, milk)
on the other, he found that 88 per cent of the calories in the total
diet was supplied by non-protective foods and 12 per cent by pro-
tective foods. Bread supplied 16 per cent and butter 17 per cent.
All except 31 patients used meat; except 107, potato; except 128,
swe3ls; except 36, used vegetables in some amount. Thus 88 per
cent were getting a concentrated, too refined and acid diet. Vita-
min content was poor, except A which occurred in butter and
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 7
cream. Carbohydrate was high, calcium low. A protective diet,
of 70 per cent vegetables, fruit and milk, was prescribed and sub-
stituted. The result was that all showed remarkable improve-
ment and 73 per cent recovered.
The diet of the 501 patients studied here is said to be indica-
tive of the American habit of eating. The diseases are in some
cases of course, due to heredity, stress of employment, environ-
Sment, infection, wear and tear, but as was shown in the response
cf these cases and in thousands of others, partial protection, at
least, lies in the "protective foods"-fruits, vegetables and milk.
Our total diet, according to records made by the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture of over 400 families, includes about 35 per
cent wheat four and14 per cent sugar. The amount of meat va-
ries and potato comes in for a good share. This "make-up" is poor
Si vtamins A. C D, and E. and in calcium and in other minerals.
How shall we make up the deficit? Keen competition in placing
certain staple foods (as well as "luxuries") on the market has
Produced confusion and complications in planning the daily menu.
Nutritionists whojye done the greatest scientific f oodesearch
have inlepre ed their fin in guarding the essential diet as
follows: 'A quart of milk will supply about 27 per cent of the-
total food intake. Two salads-raw-vegetables or fruit each day
and a generous serving of green leafy vegetables added to the-
Smilk will be a safe plan for health. iThe appetite will take care of
the remainder. A decrease in the milk should mean an increasing
fruits and vegetables ways. The solution of the problem lies
Then in the reduction of sugars and starches, probably meat, and
the increase in the protective foods."
What can Florida contribute to the nation's diet, to the happi-
ness, health and efficiency not only of Florida's people but of the
nation's population? Dces she have a contribution? Does her
choice place in the nation, a chosen strip nearest the sun, a se-
Slected land with a soil endowed richly with warmth, moisture,
calcium, phosphorus and sunshine-a soil receptive to further
soil feeding when necessary-have any effect upon her produc-
tion of "protective" food? Does the fact that Florida receives the
purifying effects of the Atlantic breezes from the east and the
mild Gulf winds from the west and south, giving her perfect air
drainage and a moist atmosphere not of the usual fog and mist of
the sea-level type but of a clearness that is seemingly reflected
Sunlight, mean that the ultra-violet rays of the sun are able to
come through more effectively in this favored land?
Tests, made by the Department of Health, Chicago, found that,
due to smoke, the ultra-violet rays of the sun were only 50 per
cent effective. In tests made in Washington, D. C., with an at-
mosphere practically free from smoke even the winter sunlight
was found effective in successful irradiation. (Anti-rachitic Ef-
Sficiency of Winter Sunlight of Washington, D. C., Military Sur-
geon, LXII (1928), 592.) Colonel Brooke in his discussion of
"Influence of the Tropics in Rickets" in Annals of Internal Medi-
8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
cine, II (1928), 281, says that the ideal conditions of ultra-violet
light are found where the sunlight is most intense and where the
atmosphere is free from smoke and cloudiness. Florida is free
from smokiness and Florida not only has no long rainy season (as
is true in the more tropical locations) but she has very few suc-
cessive cloudy days during the year.1 Colonel Brooke also men-
tions "humidity" as a limiting factor. Does Florida have humid-
ity? She has moisture but very little humidity as the term is com-
monly used to represent mist and fog.2 The shifting of the breezes,
coming as has been said from the Atlantic on one side and from
the Gulf on the other-mild winds of a similarity of temperature
-sweeps Florida atmosphere clean and clear, giving her sun free
air passage directly to the earth. Even through the season of
most rainfall the moisture in the atmosphere precipitates quickly,
the atmosphere clears, and the sun "comes through."
Does being nearer the sun mean anything? Florida with a
latitude of between 240 32" and 310 north, is nearer the sun than
is any other state. Dr. Katherine Blunt, University of Chicago,
who has recently made a most complete summary of what science
knows today of the effect of sunlight on nutrition,3 says that in
the tropics, where the sun's rays are more direct, the intensity of
the ultra-violet light is greater, except for cloudiness. Tropical
and semi-tropical light has greater anti-rachitic power, she says,
and this fact is borne out by the smaller amount of rickets found
in such locations. (American Journal of Diseases of Children,
XXXV (1928), 590, "Influence of Severe Rickets in New Or-
leans and Vicinity.")
One other limiting factor remains-that of the sun's altitude,
the sun's angle, meaning its distance from the southern horizon,
that which makes a difference between summer and winter; be-
tween noon, morning or afternoon. Tisdale and Brown ("Rela-
tion of the Altitude of the Sun to Its Anti-rachitic Effect," Jour-
nal American Medical Association, XCII (March 16, 1929), 860),
making tests of the effectiveness of the ultra-violet rays of the
sun in the prevention of rickets have reached the conclusion that
where the minimal seasonal altitude of the sun is above about
35 degrees the light is protective; and where the sun's altitude
is below 35 degrees rickets exists in severe form. The minimal
seasonal altitude of the sun at 40 degrees north latitude is 26
degrees; at Glasgow Scotland, 11 degrees (and below 35 de-
grees six months) ; at London, England, 16 degrees (and below
35 degrees for five months) ; in Boston, 23 degrees (and below
35 degrees for four months) ; in Baltimore, 27 degrees (below
35 degrees for three months). In Florida the minimum sea-
sonal altitude of the sun is always above 37 degrees, an angle
at, or above, which ultra-violet light is always effective.
1 Average seasonal rainfall in Florida is as follows: winter, 3 inches per month;
autumn, 4.39; summer, 6.94; and spring, 3.12.
2 Fog Periods in Florida: Western and extreme north Florida, 12 to 14 days during
the year, mostly between November and March: west central coast about 10 days during
the year; east coast, less than 10 days; extreme south exceedingly rare, almost never at
any time during the year.
3 "Ultra-Violet Light and Vitamin D in Nutrition" (P. 135), Katherine Blunt.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 9
The three factors limiting the effects of ultra-violet light as
stated by Dr. Blunt (namely: the fog, smoke, and dust of the
Atmosphere, the distance of the sun, and the angle of the sun)
having been disposed of satisfactorily, we may, without modifica-
tion, say that, as far as scientists know, Florida receives more of
the effective ultra-violet light of the sun than does any other loca-
tion in the United States. In simple words we may say Florida
occupies the best place in the sun-her vegetables and fruits ma-
ture and ripen in the most effective sunshine in the United States.
What does all this sunshine mean? Scientists have, by me-
Schanical means, used ultra-violet rays of light in the treatment of
foods and have thereby been able to give certain foods increased
health-giving power or what is known as vitamin D. Irradiated
foods have shown good results in the better bone building, in the
Better use of calcium and phosphorus taken into the body. Dr.
Katherine Blunt says, "with the limited sunshine of Northern
winters, a palatable, readily available food with anti-rachitic
Power, the power to assist the body in the assimilation of calcium
and phosphorus is an important contribution to national health."
She refers to irradiated oil treated artificially with this same
ultra-violet light which Florida's food products receive from her
own natural sunshine, through an almost unobstructed atmos-
phere, in Nature's own dose, more generous and more effective
than that in the northern climate. Is it not at least a more pleas-
ing prospect to take the daily dose, not in oil (artificially treated),
but in appetizing, palatable fresh fruit and vegetables?
Since the sun plays such an important part in the process of
using the calcium and phosphorus in the human body and has
shown some power even in the northern climate to give vitamin D
to a number of foods, including vegetables, cabbage, other greens,
soy beans, hay grown in the open in summer, it seems reasonable
to conclude that where the light is more effective the storage of
vitamins in vegetables and fruits will be greater. Dr. Blunt says
That "the scarcity of vitamin D in northern vegetables may lie
partly in the relatively small amount of ultra-violet light in the
sunshine and partly in its slight penetrating ability." Various
vegetables and orange juice are listed among the foods success-
fully irradiated. Plants contain the same mother substance, ergo-
sterol,1 upon which light acts in human cells to produce vitamin D.
Therefore if the sunlight in the proper intensity and at the proper
Single can reach the plant for a sufficient period, it is reasonable
to believe that the same good work proceeds-the storing of vita-
min D for human use. Florida, having the year 'round advantage
of all other locations in the United States in the quality of her sun-
1 Ergosterol, the parent substance of vitamin D, is a sterol found always wherever
cholesterol occurs. It exists in largest quantities in ergot or in yeast. Phylesterol, too-
the sterol common in rlant--is accompanied by irgosterol. Irradiated ergosterol, even
a one per cent solution in oil, is very potent, two and a half to ten drops being equiva-
lent to one cup of good grade cod liver oil.
2 Viosterol, the new standard product of irradiated ergosterol, is much less concen-
trated than the above-mentioned irradiated ergosterol, a dose of eight to ten drops being
equivalent ro three to five teaspoons of cod liver Ail. "Ultra-Violet Light and Vitamin
D in Nutrition," Katherine Blunt.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
shine, furnishes a field for unlimited research along these lines.
Artificial irradiation has been found to be effective, if prop-
erly used, but harmfully so, if overdone. Irradiated ergosterol2
(Viosterol) has been successfully used but also misused. The
United States Public Health Service says, "Of course we would
not be understood as deprecating the therapeutic use of irradi-
ated ergosterol, but would rather call attention to the possible
harm that might result from too large doses." Foods over-irradi-
ated have been found to be ineffective. Equipment for artificial
irradiation has been found to be not yet dependable. There is
much that is uncertain. There is a broad field of research open
for future scientists. But, in the light of what has been done,
there is the satisfaction that in Florida sunlight at least, if we
make full use of the sun food products-fruits and vegetables
-there is reason to believe protective power does exist.
Sunlight, however, is not the whole story. Fruits and vege-
tables come from the soil. Plant food must come from the soil.
Again calcium and phosphorus are essential. Florida soil, in many
sections, abounds in lime. Calcium and phosphorus exist in vast
stores. In fact, Florida produces more phosphate than any other
state in the Union. These two minerals, among others, are avail-
able within the State. Florida's soils by experiment have shown
that they are easily receptive to such additional mineral food as is
needed. By soil selection and by proper supplementary feeding all
the vegetables and fruits of the warm climate type and many of
the temperate climate type may be produced economically and
successfully, and well stored with the calcium, phosphorus and
other minerals necessary in animal and human nutrition.
From January to January throughout the entire breadth and
length of the State from Pensacola to Key West, fruits and vege-
tables of some type or of many types are "in season" and not only
in season but in sunshine. Not only are they in sunshine but out-
of-doors in sunshine, fully exposed and natural in their develop-
ment, and in a soil so varied and adaptable that suitable plant
feeding locations are easily available for a big variety of the
known fruits and vegetables and for many varieties not known
elsewhere. With an abundant and effective sunshine all year, a
generous moisture, a soil containing varied mineral food1 and
receptive to added mineral foods, Florida, an all-'round, all-year
agricultural possibility, has a wealth of health not only for herself
but for the country at large to whom she sends her luscious fruits
and fresh nutritious vegetables. The minerals, vitamins and
roughage she sends abroad are adding to the nation's wealth,
health and efficiency. From the modest little red-haw or blueberry
of northwest Florida, over the wide range of hundreds of fruits
to the gorgeous mango of the far south; from the "first families"
of the "greens" of north Florida to the newly-rich romaine of
the south there is reason to believe that these food plants have
gleaned, in the growing, the best Nature has to offer.
1 "Soils of Florida," O. C. Bryan, puLlished by the Florida State Department of
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 11
WHY MORE VEGETABLES? GREEN, FRESH,
VEGETABLES, next o milk-particularly the green, leafy
vegetables-supply the body with more mineral fcod than
does any other class of foods. "An edible leaf," McCollum
tells us, "is essentially a complete and nearly or quite balanced
food." Animals have subsisted for generations on the leaves of
plants. Animals do not succeed on grain, tuber, or root diet.
Hogs fed largely on peanuts and sweet potatoes have a soft oily
fat and fragile bones. As hay and forage go into the diet of the
animals, the leafy greens should enter the human diet.
Vegetables are rich in calcium. All other foods except milk
are poor in calcium. Calcium is absolutely essential for body
building. It must come from the soil to the plant to the human
body for proper nutrition. Leaf vegetables are also rich in other
necessary minerals as are also root vegetables. They supplement
each other. But the leafy fresh vegetable goes further than
other foods-grains, tubers, roots, meat or even fruit-in fur-
nishing the minerals and thus keeps the body in the proper
neutral or very slightly alkaline condition.
Vegetables have a vitamin content which supplements that of
cereals, roots, and tubers and even fruits. Here again the green
leafy vegetables and the yellow types excel.
Vegetables have a contribution to make in protein-small but
very valuable in that it again supplements cereals. In fact the
protein of the green leaf helps the body to utilize the protein of
In addition to the regulation effected by the minerals con-
tained in vegetables there is a very definite aid rendered to the
mechanical process of digestion. Vegetables possess an amount
of nondigestible matter of water holding capacity and are thus
able to maintain a favorable consistency for elimination. The
so-called "roughage" of vegetables is non-irritating to the deli-
cate linings of the alimentary tract. The starchy roots also make
a contribution in "nondigestibles" capable of swelling in water.
12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FLORIDA VEGETABLES AVAILABLE FOR HOME USE
Jerusalem artichoke is an underground tuber of the sunflower family.-
It is not an artichoke and it is not-froim Jerusalem. It is native to the
United States and was used among the early Indians.
The tubers are elongated to round in shape. They are red and yellow
to wite in color, the flesh being white. -The skin is rough, with many
eyes, tfe general appearance being that of a potato.
The composition of this tuber is different from that of the potato,
being about 14.7 per cent sugar and 0 per cent starch. It is an agreeable
Change from potato and it may be cooked in a similar manner.
Asparagus is 94 per cent water, but the edible portion contains more
protein than most succulent vegetables. Its delicate flavor, its quick
growth and tender quality, its ready digestibility, make it popular in
Florida where it appears in what is still winter elsewhere.
The tender, young, white or greenish-white stems of asparagus are used
as food. Preparatory to cooking, cut off the woody base or snap off the
stems with a sharp knife. Tie the stems in neat bundles and place them in
boiling salted water for 20 minutes with the cut ends resting on the bottom
of the vessel; then drop on sides so that the heads will be submerged, and
cook until tender. Serve with warm butter, or on well-toasted bread, and
season with pepper and salt.
Limas are kidney shaped flat beans. They grow well even in the hot
summer. They should be used the day they are picked if desired fresh.
Use soft water for cooking or else the lime of the hard water forms an
insoluble compound with the protein of the bean. Combined with sweet
green corn they make a favorite well-known Indian dish known as succo-
tash, usually made by cooking the green beans from twenty to thirty min-
utes and combing them with canned corn. The mixture is then tossed into a
pan containing finely chopped fried hot bacon or is seasoned with butter.
GREEN STRING BEANS
Green beans have shown at least as much vitamin A as head lettuce and
much more than the inner leaves of fresh cabbage. They are particularly
rich in vitamin C when fresh. String beans grown in Florida have a texture
more tender and a flavor more delicate than beans in climates of slower
growth. They are similar to "greens" in food value when young and tender.
To prepare for cooking break off and discard the ends of the pods; break
into pieces, wash well and drop into boiling water and cook rapidly for
fifteen minutes. Allow water to evaporate. Season well with salt and but-
ter or with bacon. Place over a slow heat and cook 30 minuter longer. Do
not "soak" beans before cooking. This process loses flavor and food value.
Sometimes a distinction is made between string beans and snap beans, the
latter being smaller but similar in food value and method of preparation.
(Bulletin 23, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Greens-Beet greens contain vitamin A and are rich in calcium. They
are somewhat like chard. When young the entire plant, including the root,
may be used as "greens." Wash thoroughly and cook from 20 to 30
minutes in boiling salted water. Chop in fine pieces. Season with butter
and cream. Serve hot.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 13
Roots-The roots of beets supply some iron and phosphorus and have a
small vitamin C content. Beets contain a certain amount of sugar and
starch but very little protein. They add attractiveness of color. Beets lose
much of their nutritive material and color in cooking and should be cooked
in the skins and with at least two inches of the top. Boil for one hour in
a large volume of water. Leave the lid on. For a quick method peel and
slice or chop finely. Add a very small amount of water and cook for 15
minutes. Add lemon juice and butter. Serve hot. Beets adapt themselves
nicely to waterless cookers. Put unpeeled beets in a saucepan with three
tablespoons water. Cook until tender. Peel and dress with butter, pepper,
and salt. They are sweeter and of better flavor cooked by this method. A
sauce of one tablespoon vinegar, 2 tablespoons butter, /2 teaspoon scraped
onion, one tablespoon sugar and % teaspoon of salt may be made to give
small beets a piquant flavor. Pour over peeled beets and let stand in a
covered hot pan a few minutes.
Broccoli is a winter vegetable in Florida. It looks a little like the cauli-
flower but is more hardy. It contains probably more vitamin A than cauli-
flower but otherwise is similar in composition. Select when young and tender.
Brussels sprouts is a variety of cabbage, having blistered leaves and
the stem of the plant covered with small heads of cabbage which form the
edible portion of the plant, and which are more delicate in flavor than the
cauliflower or cabbage. It is used as cabbage in the menu. It contains
more vitamin A than the white leaves of cabbage.
The breadfruit tree (40 feet high) resembles a big chestnut tree. Bread-
fruit is oval shaped something like a melon. It is covered with short, hard
projections. The skin is green and is marked in small hexagons. The stem
should be cut and covered with salt and the fruit kept until it turns brown.
The fruit has a considerable amount of starch and a higher caloric value
than the banana. The ash fiber and protein are high. It is a good source
of vitamin A but has no B or C.
To prepare, put in the oven and bake. When cooked, open and season
with butter, pepper and salt. Fresh breadfruit may be cut in slices and
dried in the sun. A paste called "Mahe" is sometimes made. This ferments
and has a disagreeable odor but when cooked the paste is a good nutritious
food. The sago-like farinaceous pellets inside are often made into puddings.
The jackfruit is the largest of tropical fruits, being sometimes two feet
long and weighing forty pounds. It grows from the trunk of the tree. It
has a hard rind which has to be cut with an axe. It is green, then greenish
yellow and finally brown as it ripens. Inside are numerous small cavities
each with a seed surrounded by a soft brownish pulp, somewhat suggestive
of banana. It is eaten fresh or preserved. When the flesh is boiled in fresh
milk and strained off, the milk, when cold, becomes a gelatinous consis-
tency of blanc-mange of orange color and melon flavor. The seeds boiled
or roasted are good to eat.
This plant probably ascended from the "colwart" or collard. It stands
high as a "protective" food due to its high vitamin content of A, B and C,
and to its generous supply of calcium. It loses some vitamin C in cooking.
The flavor and digestibility of the raw material seem to rate higher than
that of the cooked product. Cabbage and other members of the cabbage
family have some sulphur compounds which when boiled in water produce
a disagreeable odor and the volatile substance given off in the steam is dis-
agreeable. The container should be left open for a few minutes at least.
14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Young tender cabbage may be steamed. It is delicious when cooked in the
water where a ham bone has been boiled. Raw cabbage lends itself to many
varieties of dishes and combinations. (See Salads.) (Bulletin 23, Florida
State Department of Agriculture.)
1. Chinese Cabbage (Pe-tsai)-This cabbage is made of white, close-
growing stems with green leaves. The centers are very tender and may be
used for raw salads. To cook, cut and place in boiling salted water for 30
minutes or less. Season with butter and lemon juice.
2. Cauliflower-Cauliflower and broccoli are about the only flowers
used as vegetables. Cauliflower is considered as a cabbage, but it is milder
in flavor and possibly more easily digested. It has a high water holding
capacity. It is a good source of calcium, having nearly twice as much as
any other vegetable. It is expensive.
The principle of cooking is the same as for cabbage. Soak it upside
down in salt (mild) water to kill insects hiding there. (Bulletin 23, Flor-
ida State Department of Agriculture.)
3. Rape-Rape, sometimes called Portuguese Cabbage, is used in the
very young tender stage for greens. It is cooked in boiling water about 30
minutes. Grated cocoanut or tomato catsup make a good seasoning.
4. Kohl-Rabi-Kohl-Rabi has from one to three times as much phos-
phorus, calcium, and protein as have beets and carrots-it also has as much
Kohl-Rabi or turnip cabbage has the stem or bulb, the edible portion of
the plant, largely above the ground. The smaller bulbs are less tough and
fibrous than the larger ones. To prepare, cut the leaves and bulbs in small
pieces. Boil the bulb in salted water 15 minutes. Then add the leaves and
cook another 30 minutes. Slice the bulbs. Arrange the greens around the
edge of the plate and the bulb slices in the center. Use melted butter.
The carrot, rich in an essential oil that gives it a strong odor or flavor,
sometimes objectionable, has, on the other hand, a yellow pigment (taste-
less and odorless) that gives it a beautiful color always desirable in plan-
ning a menu.
Carrots are about 12 percent solid matter, about half of which is sugar.
The outer layer contains pectin. Young carrots possess greater caloric
value than old carrots, the latter having a tendency to become woody.
Calcium and vitamins A, B and C are well stored in carrots. The in-
digestible carbohydrates, pectin, etc., are a mechanical aid in digestion and
elimination. Recent experiments show the peel contains more vitamin B
than the flesh. Grated, young, raw carrots easily include the peel and are
more attractive in flavor than the cooked product. Because of the rich
coloring and the pectin content, carrots are combined with pineapple and
some other fruits, lacking in pectin, in the making of marmalades. (Bul-
letin 23, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Cassava is a starchy root or underground stem. There are two kinds,
bitter and sweet. The plant is 4 to 6 feet high. The roots containing the
starch sometimes grow to be 4 feet long and about 2 inches in diameter.
These roots are of pure white solid tissue harder and drier than potato.
They have a reddish bark easily removed. The sweet varieties the natives
in the tropics peel and cook. They make a thin cake from the meal. It is
"Cassava bread." McCollum tells us that cassava and other tropical roots
contain ergosterol which, after it has been taken into the body, becomes
activated by the ultra-violet light of the nearby sun. Thus vitamin D is
produced. (Bulletin 31, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 15
Celery is a winter crop in Florida where, on fewer acres, more celery
il produced than in any other state. The enlarged succulent stalk of the
basal leaves is the edible portion. Celery salt is ground celery seed and is
highly prized for flavoring soups and salads. Celery leaves (green) have
vitamin A, the stalks have some A and are good in vitamin B. A very
small quantity of essential oil gives celery its taste. Celery may nearly al-
ways be obtained even when other fresh vegetables are scarce. It often
gives variety to an otherwise "soft" and concentrated menu. Since this is
true it should really not be cooked except as a flavor and then only slightly
cooked so that it will afford a good "crunchy feel" and something to chew,
something with which to give the teeth proper exercise. The outside leaves
and tougher portions may be used in soups, sauces, stews, omelets or
cooked dressings. (Volume 36, Number 2, Florida State Department of
Agriculture, "Celery Growing in Florida.")
Swiss chard, a variety of beet which, instead of a root, has thick broad
leaves growing on a large succulent stem. The outside leaves may be
removed and used and the plant left to grow. Chard is a good source of
vitamin A and calcium. It should be cooked in a small amount of water.
Stir until the leaves settle in the water.
Corn is a cereal, but in its fresh green state deserves mention in this
list. To prepare, place in boiling salted water for 10-12 minutes. Serve
hot with butter. Be careful not to overcook. Yellow corn probably is a
richer source of vitamin A than is white corn.
Collards belong to the non-heading thick-leaf vegetables growing on
one stalk. Both cooked and raw they are excellent in vitamin A. They are
also a source of vitamins B and C. They are a good winter vegetable and
are improved with cool mornings and light frosts. In colder climates the
leaves form loose heads but in Florida they do not head. Leaves may be
broken from the stems and the plant left to continue to grow through the
The cucumber is about 96 percent water. It lends freshness and crisp-
ness to the meal. It grows very rapidly in Florida, is tender and appetizing
even when large in size. Fresh in salads is the best form of preparation.
SIt may be brined, then treated with boiling vinegar with or without sugar
or spices. "Dill pickles" are usually large cucumbers flavored with dill
seeds. As an appetizer to vary a diet, cucumbers supply a cool, palatable
relish. To cook, peel, slice in quarters lengthwise and put into boiling
water and boil five minutes, or steam. Season with butter, pepper, and
salt. Turn heat low, cover closely. Cook 30 minutes. A prickly variety,
small in size, is the Gherkin, particularly good for pickling. (Bulletin 23,
Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
This plant has a greenish-white stem with a rosette of curly light-green
leaves which make an attractive garnish for salads or cooked dish the
curly type for salads, and the broad-leaf type for cooking. It has a bitter
flavor which some call a "tonic." The bleached leaves are more crisp and
tender. It is best served with a French dressing of oil and lemon juice.
Sometimes a bit of hot bacon grease, instead of oil, is added to the lemon
juice for seasoning.
Egg plant has a low food value. It may be fried, baked or steamed.
It adds bulk, variety and interest to the diet. It forms a good basis for
16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Garlic resembles onion sets in appearance but has a white papery outer
shell. Remove the outer covering and slice through. It is very strong if
flavor. Use very sparingly.
Lettuce is particularly known for its vitamin, the green raw leaves
being excellent in A and C and good in B and E. Its mineral salts are
abundant. Some people have thought that lettuce has a medicinal virtue
due to a small quantity of sleep inducing substance called lactucarium.
This is found more in the stem, however. Others have thought that the
iron is particularly valuable in that it is in original form, chemically con-
fined in the chlorophyl. Lettuce does not have as much iron as spinach and
turnip grens. It lends itself most agreeably to the making of salads. It is
usually eaten raw and is therefore not depleted in food value.
Escarole is a large non-heading curly lettuce growing on one stalk. It
is listed as excellent in vitamin A and is of a rich green color. The outer as
well as the inner leaves should be eaten. To prepare for salad chill thor-
oughly. Another way of serving is to tie the outer leaves together and drop
them into hot soup for 5 minutes. Remove the lettuce, taking care to retain
its shape, and squeeze dry. Cut in inch lengths and serve hot, capped
with grated cheese, or chop fine and serve with melted butter and a little
cream. Non-heading lettuce is delicious served wilted with bacon, or
cooked as "greens."
Water cress consists of long tender stems having small lobed leaves. It
is used in salads or cooked like "greens." It is an excellent source of
vitamins A and C. It should be grown in good water-water that is fit to
drink. Para cress grows in extreme south Florida and is known as tooth-
ache plant. It presumably has some narcotic quality. It is used in salads.
Recent research made by Mendel and Vickery Laboratory Physiological
Chemistry, finds water cress leaves notably "rich in vitamin A; comparable
with other .vegetables in dietary factors formerly called vitamin B; more
potent than lettuce in vitamin E." (Jour. Home Economics, July, 1930.)
Mint consists of small green leaves with an aromatic flavor. It may
be chopped fine or used whole to flavor fruit cocktails, salads or jelly. It is
convenient to make a mint sauce by mixing it with sugar and vinegar or
with sugar and lemon juice. It sometimes is used with peas and new
potatoes and to flavor chutney and preserves.
Mustard has green crumpled leaves which should be crisp and a vivid
green. To prepare, cut crosswise finely and boil in a little water for five
minutes. Season with butter, salt and pepper. Cover and cook slowly 30
The Chinese mustard is a hot weather green whereas the common
mustard is of agreeable flavor only in cool weather. The Chinese variety
has a half pungent flavor very agreeable.
This is a quick growing thick leaf green plant, rich in vitamin A.
The thick-leaved, large-leaved variety will grow in Florida but has not
been used to any great extent. It is used in salads and in cooking.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
The okra plant is similar to the cotton plant. It is a dry weather fruit-
ing plant and thrives through the hot, dry season when other vegetables
are scarce. It grows easily nearly all over the state and bears well over a
period of several weeks.
The fruit is a small green pod and is best selected when young and
tender. It has a vitamin B content. The flavor is most pleasing in soups.
The mucilaginous consistency is a means of thickening soup. The texture
of full grown okra is to some palates not agreeable but if the pods are
selected early and lightly boiled or steamed so as not to break the skins
the effect is good and usually successful. Okra with tomatoes (gumbo) is
a delightful dish, the tomato lending the acid flavor and the okra thicken-
ing the tomato to a pleasing consistency. (Bulletin 23, Florida State De-
partment of Agriculture.)
Onions, raw, are good sources of vitamin C. Onions have been ranked
with oranges, lemons, tomatoes and raw cabbage in richness in vitamin C.
SOsborne and Mendel rank onions with about the same vegetables and fruits
as sources of vitamin B. Onions contain from 10 to 15 per cent nutrients.
Bermudas, shallots and leeks and other green onions grow abundantly in
Florida. The mineral value and the "nerve tonic" idea have probably been
over-rated but there seems to be no doubt about the laxative effect of
onions. They are classed as thick-leaf vegetables.
Green or immature onions are long, slender, white stalks having tub-
ular green leaves. To prepare for the table, remove the green tops, and
serve raw as a relish in salad, or chop and use in stews or "combination"
The Spanish or Bermuda onion is a spherical-shaped or flattened bulb
having a dead, shriveled stem and a dry, tan-colored, papery outer husk.
To prepare for the table, peel from the root up, place in rapidly boiling
water and cook for 5 minutes. Let the water evaporate, and season the
vegetable with butter, salt and pepper. Cover closely and steam for 30
minutes. To bake, place for 5 minutes in rapidly boiling salted water, then
remove, and put under meat to be roasted. (Selected.) (Extension Bulletin
S 9, Hawaii Experiment Station.)
Pickling or Portuguese onions are small, round, partly mature bulbs
which are sold in bunches. Owing to their flavor, they are especially fine
for pickling whole in vinegar, or for use in stews and salads. To pickle,
select very fresh onions and peel them from the root up, taking care to
keep the bulb whole and round. While peeling, drop into a salt solution
made by dissolving 2 tablespoons of salt in 2 cups of cold water to prevent
S discoloration and softening. When ready to pickle (this may be done
immediately if desired), dry on a cheese cloth and drop into a hot ster-
ilized bottle, adding boiling hot vinegar to cover. To prepare the vinegar
for 4 pounds of small onions, boil 2 cups of malt vinegar with 1 tablespoon
of salt, 1 dozen peppercorns, 6 allspices, 3 bay leaves, and 6 small red
peppers. Seal the bottled onions and keep them in a dark place. (Selected.)
(Extension Bulletin 9, Hawaii Experiment Station.)
Chives are milder and more tender than onions. They are grown for
the leaves and are useful in salads, soups, and stews.
Shallots are small clustered bulbs which resemble partly mature pick-
ling onions, but have fine, slender leaves. To cook, remove the tops and
steam the bulbs. Serve with butter. The delicate nutty flavor of shallots is
18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Parsley consists of sprays of bright green, finely curled dissected
leaves. It is used for soups, stews, sauces and to garnish salads, or cooked
vegetables. It gives attractive color.
The parsnip is a winter vegetable. It has more starch, more sugar
than the carrot and turnip. It also has a generous amount of pectin and
cellulose. To prepare, peel thickly, cook one hour in water to cover. Mash
and season with milk, pepper and salt, or mash with finely chopped
Peas and beans are used as food both in the green and in the dry stage.
They have a high protein content. In the dry stage they contain a high
percentage of protein but do not take the place of meat due to the fact
that the proteins of legumes are not the only proteins needed in body build-
ing and repair. These vegetables also furnish a fair amount of iron and
phosphorus and some calcium. They, although high in protein, are alkaline
in reaction. Fresh green peas or fresh cowpeas have good supply of vita-
mins A, B and C. Dried leaves and peas may be counted upon for vitamin
B. Green peas (English peas) are a winter crop in Florida while the cow-
peas, lady-peas and black-eyed peas flourish during the summer season.
The field pea is a Southern dish. Experiments made by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture (Farmer's Bulletin 318) as to the nutritional
value of the field pea shows that it compares favorably with other legumes.
Long and general use on Southern tables proves its satisfactory food value.
The lady-pea was found more digestible than the kidney bean, 83 per cent
of the protein and 95 per cent of the carbohydrates being digested. The
sugar crowder and lady are popular. The bush conch is a popular Florida
table pea. (Bulletin 23, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
PIGEON PEA (S.)
This pea grows on a tall, woody, half-hardy shrub that yields heavily.
The unripe pea is used for the English pea and has been pronounced a
good starting point for a tropical green pea.
Red peppers or long "hot" peppers are tapering pods which are first
green, then red when matured. They are used in pickles, chutney, sauces,
for seasonings. The juice is very strong and should be used sparingly.
These peppers are easily cured or dried in the sun.
Sweet peppers in Florida sometimes bear as long as 6 or 8 months in
the year. Pimentoes are smooth, have a thick, juicy flesh and are sweeter
than the other types. They are better for canning. Tests of canned pimen-
toes made by MacLeod, Nutrition Laboratory, Columbia (Journal Home
Economics, July, 1930), showed a vitamin C content equal to that of grape-
The bell pepper is hardier than the pimento but has a good flavor and
color. "Stuffed peppers" is a favorite Southern dish. Peppers for salads
should be well crisped. Peppers for canning should be placed in a hot (not
warm) oven for loosening the peel. (Bulletin 23, page 29, Florida State
Department of Agriculture.)
The potato is a modified stem, an enlargement for storing starch. It
shows in an analysis, some potash, a small amount of iron, calcium, and
phosphorus. Both white and sweet potatoes show vitamin C content and the
sweet potato (the yellow variety) shows a greater vitamin A content. Both
potatoes contain very little cellulose. They yield an alkaline ash and are
cheap sources of vitamin C which occurs more often in the "luxuries."
They help to balance the acid residue of meat.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 19
Very young potatoes and old potatoes (ready to sprout) have less
starch and more sugar than well grown but still fresh potatoes. The aver-
age potato (mature) has 75 per cent water, 20 per cent starch, and about
one-eighth that much protein, and a relatively large amount of ash as com-
pared with other vegetables. The more moist potatoes have a greater pro-
portion of protein while the mealy potato has more starch. Experimental
cooking of the potato has shown that in boiling (peeled) 8.2 per cent of
Sthe protein is lost when the potatoes are plunged directly into boiling
water, 25 per cent when they are soaked beforehand, and 15.8 per cent
when they are placed in cold water and brought to a boil. When boiled in
the jackets they lose only one per cent of the protein and only three per
cent of the mineral. Baking potatoes loses almost none of the nutrients.
(Bulletin No. 3, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Many varieties of sweet potato flourish in Florida soils. Usually the
S moist sweeter potato goes on the local market while the dry mealy article
is sent to the Notherner who likes it better. The sweet variety has from
6 to 8 per cent sugar and therefore a higher caloric value than the white
potato. The sugar increases while the starch decreases during storage. The
protein percentage is possibly a little less in the sweet potato. Peanuts are
a splendid supplement and are combined in many interesting ways with
the sweet potato. (See Recipes.)
Canning factories are now taking care of the small potatoes not suit-
able for shipping and are supplying localities not able to purchase the fresh
potato all year. Recently canneries in Florida have begun also to can the
white potato too small to ship. Now a vegetable dinner with potato is
being placed in one can for the market.
The "Porto Rico," rich in color, moist in texture, sweet in flavor, and
the Nancy Hall, with a creamy pink yellow flesh, are two of the more pop-
ular varieties among Southern people. The Triumph and Big Stem Jersey,
dry and mealy in texture, are more popular among Northern people who
are more accustomed to the white potato and who like the drier type. Vari-
ous yam varieties are splendid for home use but are rather tender and
easily bruised in handling. (Bulletin 31, Florida State Department of
This is not a sweet potato. It is a larger tuber than the sweet potato
and not so sweet. When it grows to unusual size it is tougher and coarser
than the sweet potato. It keeps more easily than the potato. In the lower
part of the state it remains in the ground from year to year without re-
planting. Negroes use it for bread. They "dig" it as they need it from day
The dasheen is an underground corm or tuber in which the plant stores
starch. The leaves are similar to "Elephant Ear." It is similar to the white
potato but has less water and more starch and protein. It has a nutty
flavor, when cooked by boiling or baking, that suggests boiled chestnuts. It
is served with drawn butter. It bakes nicely. The dasheen makes a success-
ful fluted "crisp" to be eaten with the fingers like potato chips. Dasheen
leaves are also used as greens. They should be selected when young and
tender. (Bulletin 31, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Plantain has the appearance of a very large coarse banana. It is not
edible raw but is a good source of vitamins A and B in the cooked stage.
It should be cooked slowly. Before it is ripe it may be sliced very thin and
cooked like potato chips. It may also be baked or boiled. It is akin to the
sweet potato in taste and texture when cooked. Lemon juice and butter
add to the flavor.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Radish greens are the tops of the little radish roots and are suitable to <
combine with other varieties of spring or winter "greens." The roots are
peppery in flavor, attractive for salads, and are easily and quickly grown
in early spring. Radishes are a source of. vitamins B and C and the
greens carry A.
Salsify or oyster plant consists of long brown roots. It grows wild or
may be cultivated. To prepare, scrape and cut into one-inch pieces. Drop
into boiling water and let boil 5 minutes; then place in a creamy white
sauce and boil 30 minutes. To fry cut in 2- or 3-inch lengths, dip in flavor,
then in egg and crumbs and fry in deep fat. The food has a delicate flavor
which suggests oysters. Select young.
Spinach has slender, succulent stems having small leaves. It has a
highly alkaline residue in the process of digestion. It is rich in iron and in
vitamins A, B and C. According to Sherman it has as much vitamin A as
an equal weight of egg yolk or butter. It needs only a few minutes high
temperature in cooking and therefore maintains its rich vitamin content.
It is better steamed than boiled. Lemon juice helps the flavor. Add butter.
NEW ZEALAND SPINACH
This vegetable is not related to the ordinary spinach. It is a hot
weather grower and forms a good substitute for spinach during the season
when spinach does not thrive. It is cooked as "greens" and is popular often
among people who do not like spinach.
1. Winter Squash-Winter squash may be seeded and peeled thinly
and steamed, mashed and served with butter, salt and pepper. Or it may
be steamed in slices for serving. By placing a towel on the steamer rack,
the squash on the towel, and another cloth over the food, the extra mois-
ture is absorbed and the squash is a nice, tender consistency, yet firm and
2. Chinese Squash-Chinese squash or melon is a light green color. It
has a whitish, fuzzy appearance when young. It is round or slightly elon-
gated. The rind is like a watermelon. The meat, about 2 inches thick, is
white, as are also the seed. The flavor is mild. It forms a good casserole
lining for squab or chicken.
3. Hubbard Squash-Hubbard squash or pumpkin is oval shaped, green-
ish-yellow and has a good amount of vitamin A. Without removing the
peel place in the oven and bake slowly 45 minutes. Cut into neat pieces.
Serve in the skin.
4. Summer Squash-Summer squash is a light green, oval shape. Serve
like Chinese squash. Yellow squash is said to have more vitamin A than
the white variety. (Bulletin 23, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
5. Chayote-The chayote grows on a climbing vine. The fruit is pear-
shaped more or less and varies in size and color as well as shape. It has
one big seed. Like squash, and is better cut into slices for serving and
steamed only until tender. Chayote in the raw state has only a fair amount
of vitamin A and seemingly no vitamin B or C.
To prepare for cooking, peel, slice or dice. This squash may be
creamed, fried in butter, made into fritters, salad or pickles. A sauce may
be made by boiling or steaming and mashing the fruit and adding the
juice of the flowers of the roselle (a beautiful red). When sugar is added
a good dessert is the result.
The chayote will thrive when other vegetables are usually scarce. When
once established it continues to grow year after year.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
The tomato is in season in some localities almost the year 'round in
Florida. It is one of the most common, yet most valuable, of Florida vege-
tables. It is the vegetable richest in vitamins, particularly vitamin C, the
one most lacking in the American diet. Tomato juice should be a part of
the diet of everybody, beginning with the babies only a few weeks of age.
Orange juice and tomato juice, easily taken, are splendid supplements of
deficient diets. They are "fool proof" in nutritional value. Fresh or canned
tomatoes add variety, color, food value (both mineral and vitamin), flavor,
and pleasure to any menu. (Bulletin 23, State Department of Agriculture.)
The plum tomato is a small oval-shaped tomato varying from yellow to
red. It is good for cooking purposes, particularly for preserves.
Turnip greens are the tops of the common turnip. They are usually
rich in iron and calcium. They are a valuable source of vitamins A, B and
C. They should be selected young and tender and cooked quickly. The
liquor in which they are cooked should be used for soups. Bacon adds a
splendid flavor to turnip greens. These greens are not easily hurt by frost
and light freezes. They are hardy and should be grown all winter.
Rodt turnips are good in vitamins B and C and the yellow turnips prob-
ably contain vitamin A. They have a spicy, pungent taste (due to an essen-
tial oil) and, when combined with the turnip greens and slices of cured
bacon and hot corn muffins, they form a favorite fall meal in the South.
It is said that the juices of tomatoes and turnip greens have had a big
place in the list of protective foods in the southern climate. (Bulletin 31,
Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Swedish Turnip-(Rutabaga)-The rutabaga has a denser yellow flesh
and takes longer time to mature than the white turnip. The roots can stand
longer summer heat without becoming woody or acrid. The yellow turnip
surpasses the white in its vitamin A content and it also contains more sugar.
22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
III- Florida Fruits
WHY MORE FRUITS? FRESH FRUITS?
FRUITS have a very decided nutritive value. Although people,
in some climates, consider fruit a mere luxury, it is well
known that in tropical climates many natives practically live
on fruits. Many people, on the other hand, use fruit as a medi-
,cine due largely to its hygienic value rather than to its food
value. According to Farmers Bulletin No. 293, U. S. Department
of Agriculture, a suy of the diets of 400 families in the United
States showed that 4.4 per cent of the total food material and
3jL.per cent of the total carbohydrates used are from.fruit. As to
digestibility, it is estimated that 80 per cent of the protein, 97
per cent of the fat, and 95 per cent of the carbohydrates in fruits
are digested. It is not the purpose of this bulletin to compare a
vegetable diet with a meat diet but in the light of various experi-
ment station records it seems safe to say that a fruit and nut
diet, plus a liberal amount of cereal and vegetables and eggs
with a limited amount of meat, makes a more attractive vari-
ety of adequate food of less bulk and of less cost than does the
usual meat, potato and sugar diet.
A wise use of fruit is certainly beneficial if the particular
needs of the system are considered. The organic acids of the
fruit, which increase the flow of saliva and indirectly of gastric
juice, aid digestion. These acids increase the secretions of the
liver, pancreas, and of the mucous linings of the intestines. They
serve, also, to keep the upper intestinal contents free from harm-
ful bacteria. Fruits help to keep the fluids and tissues of the
body in neutral or slightly alkaline condition by supplying min-
erals, especially calcium, phosphorus and iron and in this way
they help to overcome the acid reaction of the meat, egg and
starch foods. Vitamins, particularly vitamin C (usually absent
in foods other than fresh fruits such as citrus, tomatoes and
fresh uncooked leaves and very important in the building and
preservation of teeth) are generously supplied. An appetite is
stimulated both by the vitamins in fresh fruit and by the attract-
ive flavor and appearance.
Ripe fruit, poor in protein, furnishes a small proportion of
building and energy foods. A very large and expensive amount
of fruit would be necessary to furnish as much protein as a small
package of peas, beans or cereals. Nevertheless, fruits are nec-
essary andshould be used regularly.
From the standpoint of calories (energy value), ripe fruits
supply mainly sugar. In nearly all fruits the ripening process
changes starch to sugar, partially at least. Sugar, supplied in
nature's own form as in fruits, grains and milk is much more
easily and naturally used than-concenitrated sugar.
Berries have been found, in so far as they have been studied,
similar in their dietary qualities to other fruits. Strawberries
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
have shown a certain protective effect from scurvy in guinea pigs
and are therefore rated as as good supply of vitamin C. Melons
are classed with fruits in their dietary properties and have the
same organic acids. They are not so rich in minerals and vita-
mins but they reveal many of the general fruit qualifications.
Nuts have, in some way, possibly because of their attractive fla-
vor, been compared with fruits as to dietary properties. They are,
however, in this respect more similar to proteins and fats and
among the richest of foods. Because of their concentration, they
should be taken in small quantities as compared with fruits.
Not purely from a standpoint of nutritive value but because
of their aid in the mechanical process of elimination and in the
promotion of a hygienic intestinal condition, fruits are essential.
Almost all other foods have been refined, or softened until only
fruits and vegetables remain as our dependable supply of rough-
age so necessary in the digestive machinery. Other foods, for
the most part, have been cooked, while fruit, because of its pleas-
ing flavor and texture, survives as our fresh raw food, natural in
its hygienic effects.
Therefore, in the promotion of greater consumption of fruit
lies at least the partial solution of the problem of an adequate
supply of minerals, organic acids, vitamins, and roughage essen-
tial to the well-being of animals, particularly of human beings.
Now in progress is an experiment that is showing striking
results of what citrus fruit will do for teeth when taken in suffi-
cient quantity. M. T. Hancke, Dental Research Association,
Chicago, and of the 0. S. A. Sprague Institute, University of
Chicago, made careful records of 191 dental patients, only 17
of whom were free from trench mouth and pyorrhea, and
found that of the 17, 16 had diets containing sufficient vitamin
C. Of the 174 affected, not one was getting enough vitamin C
(the scurvy-preventive). Of the 174 patients, 94 were lacking
in vitamin C, only; all other vitamins were being supplied.
Accurate records were made of 104 of the patients and the
following diet recommended: a pint to a quart of milk daily,
plenty of meat, fresh vegetables and fruit, one or two eggs, a
part of a head of lettuce and THE JUICE OF HALF A LEMON
AND A PINT OF ORANGE JUICE DAILY.
Fifteen of the people failed to carry out directions and ad-
mitted the fact. Not one of the fifteen showed improvement.
Eighty-five gave perfect cooperation and 85 made very evident
improvement and many became cured in the period of less than
eight months. Of 60 who had active progressive decay, all re-
mained free from it for the period of the eight months' experi-
ment. Unfilled cavities did not increase.
The diet prescribed other than citrus fruit juice is the usual
diet required for normal nutrition. Other people have prescribed
citrus fruit for the health of the teeth but this test is different in
that it calls for greater quantity and the results reveal with what
effects. The experiment is being continued for further truth.
24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FRUIT ZONES IN FLORIDA
Zone Ill-North Florida and Gulf Coast. This zone extends as far
south as St. Augustine, Palatka, Gainesville.
Mulberry, pears, persimmons, plums, peaches, satsuma, orange, loquats,
limequats, kumquats, colamondip, figs, quince, huckleberry, pomegranate,
bunch grapes, muscadine, blackberries, dewberries, strawberries, blueber-
ries, melons, haws.
Zone IV-Central Florida. This zone lies below Zone III and reaches,
roughly speaking, from Vero southwest to Moore Haven, north to Daven-
port and Lakeland, and southwest to Bradenton. Some locations south of
this are also included.
Avocado, mulberry, citrus, pears, peaches, persimmons, loquats, guavas,
surinam cherry, fig, pomegranate, dewberries blackberries bunch grapes
Zone V-South Florida.
Avocado, mulberry, mango, grapefruit, citrus, loquat, sapodillas, tama-
rind, rose apple, surinam cherry, guava, papaya, granadilla, carissa, pine-
NOTE: The above information as to fruit zones is according to Hume
in "Gardening in the Lower South." Other fruits marked (S.) are grown
only in the southern end of the State. A few others are marked (N.),
indicating north Florida.
FLORIDA FRUITS AVAILABLE FOR HOME USE
The avocado grows on a scragglyevergreenltree which blooms in March
and April and fruits from July to January, depending on variety. Size,
shape, color, and quality greatly vary. The size varies from 16 to 29 ounces.
The skin is about one-sixteenth of an inch thick, very firm ard tough. The
firm, greenish-yellow flesh of buttery texture and nutty flavor makes one-
half of the weight. One large seed in the center slips out easily, leaving
just space for a salad filling or dressing of lime juice and a little salt.
Thereare _three races-Mexican, Guatemalan, -and_.est Indian. The
Micar-ary3ng from 3 to 1 ounces, is hardiest and ripeInsle June to
October. The color ranges from green to purple. The crushed leaves have
an anise scent. The oil content is very high. The Mexican is-thin-kinned
and rather suited to local use. The Guatemialan is-fairlylardy; the skin is
tick hard, and granular; the fruit, green to dark purple in color, is of
splendid quality; the period of maturity is October to June. The West
Indian avocado, grown only below Palm Beach and Fort Myers, is the com-
mercial avocado of south Florida. It will stand but little frost. It is large,
smooth and IeatheL skinned, oi high -quality, and ripensAi. latesummer.
TheikFn measures from one-sixteenth to one-sixty-fourfh of an inch.
The avocado shows high percentage of solids, especially soluble solids
due, in part, to oil which passes through linen filter. The caloric value is
more than twice that of any other fresh fruit. Protein and ash rate high
for fruit. There is a small amount of water and a high fat content. The
acid is very low. The avocado is a good source of vitamins A and B.
Protein and fat percentages in the avocado rank higher than that of any
other known fruits.
Analysis of the West Indian avocado (seedlings) made by Jennie Tilt
and May Winfield, Florida State College, Nutrition Research Laboratory,
showed an average of 1.14 per cent for protein, 6.82 per cent for carbo-
hydrate, 1.17 per cent for crude fiber, 1.02 per cent for ash.1 The results
obtained showed the West Indian avocado somewhat higher in moisture and
lower in fat and protein than the Mexican and Guatemalan races.
The avocado is most palatable uncooked. It is often served on the half-
shell, the flesh being scooped out with a spoon. It makes a nice buttery
spread for toast or crackers.
1 The average moisture content found in mature fruit was 83.02 per cent and average
fat content of West Indian (seedlings) was 8.09 per cent.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 25
It is commonly served as a salad with salt and lime juice or salt and
lemon juice. Some prefer orange or pineapple juice. Because of the buttery
S consistency of the fruit an oil dressing is too rich for avocado. Catsup,
celery, nuts, onions are not good combinations for avocado. They destroy
or conceal the delicate flavor. In its native land the avocado is much eaten
by the Indians. They break it open, sprinkle on a little salt and scoop out
the pulp with corn cake called tortillas. Cooking or canning lessens the
attractiveness as well as the flavor of the fruit. (Bulletin 24, Florida State
Department of Agriculture.)
The banana plant grows well onlyin SouthjFlorid. The Cavendish,
brownish in color whenffTly ripe, is a dwarf variety bearing dense bunches
of small fruit of very high quality. The Hart variety, taller, is also a good
home use banana of fine flavor and texture.
This fruit, formerly considered "indigestible," has come into its own.
The ripe banana is high in protein and also high in. sugar content (about
S 2Crper cent), being highest in the baking variety. Themineral content is
not-quite so high as the average avocado but is quite above the average for
S fruits. The indigestible factor in the banana, recent research shows, disap-
pears with the complete ripening of the fruit, the stage at which it shows
numerous brown spots. Whether it be due to the fact that the tannin be-
comes imprisoned in the ripened stage and therefore harmless, or to the
fact that the raw starch nearly all turns to sugar in the ripening process,
or to the effect on pectose, the fact remains true that cooking or ripening
renders the banana easily digestible and suitable for adults, children and
even babies. L. Von Meysenburg, M. D., Tulane University, says:
"In the feeding of the normal baby, banana is of value in supplement-
ing the diet, aiding constipation and often stimulating the appetite. It may
be given as early as the fourth month but must be thoroughly ripe and
"The banana is a good source of the pellagra-preventive factor. Through
many experiments it has been found that, in scurvy or in symptoms lead-
ing to scurvy, the banana is curative. It is palatable and economical."
Banana supplements milk by supplying more vitamin C and carbo-
hydraites needed by the child. It combines nicely in salads with citrus juices
which give it an added acid flavor. About half an inch from each end
Ss-ould be removed as should also the "strings." Florida bananas have a
finer texture and flavor than imported bananas. (Vol. 35, Bulletin No. 4,
Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Wild berries in north Florida include May-haw (red) and a Red-haw
(red), ripening in the late summer; the huckleberry, blueberry, dewber-
ries, blackberries, mulberries and youngberries.
The haws are small seedy berries growing wild on a shrub. They are--
best known for their use in making jelly of a wonderfully distinctive flavor /
and rich coloring. Some people have called the red-haw north Florida's
Huckleberries are different from Florida blueberries in that they con-
tain the large seeds whereas the blueberry has many inconspicuous small
seeds. The huckleberry shrub is smaller and scrubby. The huckleberry is
good for pies, jellies, and drinks.
The tall growing "Rabbit-eye" blueberry, of the huckleberry family, is
the variety which has become famous commercially as the native blueberry
of Florida plantings. The black, or blue-black fruit, borne in clusters, is
1/4 to 11/16 of an inch in diameter. It ripens in late May or early June
and lasts 10 or 12 weeks. The cluster does not all ripen at one time. This
26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
prolongs the "season" and requires weekly pickings. The acidity varies but
is low. Sugar is about 7.5 per cent, mostly reducing sugar. It is not defi-
nitely determined but possible that the acid is citric. Blueberries combine
nicely with orange juice in filling for pies. They are used alone in the fresh
natural form or with sugar and cream.
DownyMy rtle (Berry)
This berry grows on a shrub. It Uesembles the huckleberry but has a
thicker, richer juice. It makes a splendid jelly when 50 per cent acid guava
The dewberry, growing on a low trailing vine and ripening earlier than
the blackberry, is available for the family table early in the spring-the
last of April or first of May. In the native growth they are more highly
acid than the blackberry. For "deep pies" in early spring they have a
popular place in north Florida menus. The jelly is welcomed as one of the
first "spring jellies" in north Florida. In south Florida the Manatee dew-
berry has been cultivated with splendid results.
Blackberries grow wild throughout north Florida where the wild variety
is much more popular in flavor for cooking purposes than the cultivated
types,.In southern Florida the blackberry has been-cultivated. The Florida
Marvel, found originally on the east coast, is a large, fir, uigood quality
berry but lower in sugar than some other varieties. It is a splendid break-
fast fruit served with sugar and cream. Juices, bottled in the natural form
(or slightly sweetened) and processed at a simmering temperature, con-
tain practically all the original food value of these various berries and to
a large extent the natural flavor. In many sections all of these berries in
the wild varieties "may be had for the picking" and the juices should be
stored for the season when other fruits are "scarce." (See Fruit Juices.)
(Vol. 37, No. 2, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Florida mulberries of some varieties bear through a period of several
months. They are used by various methods as are other berries. There are
the white, red, and black varieties. The trees grow wild or cultivated. The
fruit is very sweet, not having enough acid in the ripened stage for jelly.
The seeds are too small to be noticeable.
A loganberry of rare quality is now being grown for local use and for
market in west Florida, near Panama City. Its cultivation will no doubt
become extensive in that section of the state.
The strawberry is-Florida's most valuable berry. Needing a remarkably
shert-piiod for growth and maturity, it can be grown very early in the
warm climate and shipped advantageously.
This berry, being about 90 per cent water, appears to have a small per
cent nutrients. Experiments have shown, however, that the strawberry,
even -whenanned is listed among those fruits having a very excellent vita-
mbrcont n An acid flavor and sufficient pectin in the slightly unripened
Truit produces a good jelly but better known are the jam and preserves.
The elderberry grows on a shrub or bush 15 or 20 feet high. The
berries grow in clusters. They have an acid flavor and make a refreshing
drink and a good pie. They are often used as a cordial and as a coloring
for other drinks.
North Florida Gooseberry
The north Florida gooseberry grows on a low plant. It is acid and suit-
able for pies.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 27
Otaheite Gooseberry (S.)
This fruit grows on a tree in bunches like grapes not at the ends of the
limbs but along the sides. The fruit is a yellowish color, acid, and makes
a good jelly. South Florida has also a vine gooseberry.
The Pitanga or Florida cherry, another name for the Surinam cherry,
is a large, compact, bushy shrub with a green, glossy foliage which is wine
color when new. The deep crimson ripe fruit about one inch in diameter is
quite ornamental. It matures in southern Florida two or three times a
year. It flowers first in February and fruits in from five to six weeks, the
crop lasting about two weeks.
The soft, juicy, red flesh is of aromatic sub-acid flavor, pleasant in its
natural form. Before ripening there is a resinous, pungent flavor. As the
fruit ripens it turns from green to yellow, then orange and in the end a
deep scarlet. The Florida type cherry is darker and has a more distinctive
flavor not found elsewhere. Jellies, jams, and sauces made from this fruit
t have a unique flavor widely popular.
Citrus fruits contain the two essentials of every diet, namely: "What
we should eat" and "What we like to eat." Minerals, vitamins, carbohy-
drates are there. The joy of the most pleasing flavor of all foods is there.
Osborne and Mendel found that oranges, lemons and grapefruit contain as
much vitamin B as milk and more than grapejuice, fresh apples and pears;
that oranges and pineapples are good sources of vitamin A; that orange,
lemon and tomato are highest of all foods in vitamin C. Experiments have
shown in recent years that oranges play a big role in the building of teeth
and in preventing decay.
Lr. Percy Howe, Forsythe Dental Clinic, Boston, Mass., through a series
of experiments with monkeys, and Dr. M. T. Hancke of the Dental Research
Association, Chicago, through recent tests with human patients, have found
oranges most valuable in the building of teeth and in the maintenance of
the health of teeth and gums. Chaney and Blunt, University of Chicago,
have shown that increased orange juice in the diet has aided in the reten-
tion of calcium and phosphorus. They explain this efficiency on the part of
the orange as being due to the fact that the orange maintains an acidity in
the digestive tract and that it is alkaline in its residue, both conditions
being conducive to the retention of calcium and phosphorus.
Orange juice as a mid-morning lunch for school children who were
already getting a generous amount of milk in the home has been found to
give Florida children a gain in weight and growth greater than that given
by the same amount of milk to a similar group of children. The orange
juice seems to help the child make better use of the milk he drinks and to
give him a normal appetite. Orange juice concentrated, dried, fresh, or
cold storage shows excellent supply of vitamin C. Orange juice is a good
source of vitamin A and B.
Refreshing, appetizing, nourishing are the citrus fruits. They sup-
plement milk. They give an alkaline balance. They are a mild laxative.
Oranges are best fresh and undiluted; grapefruit is best in its natural
state but it is also a success as a canned product. Lemons and limes are
necessarily diluted as a drink. Iumquats and other small citrus products
are used fresh or preserved. All citrus fruits may be used as preserves or
The kumquat, growing in bright, golden yellow clusters, is the smallest
of citrus fruits, being only one to two inches in diameter. The thin rind is
sweet and aromatic; the pulp is decidedly acid in certain varieties like the
oval fruit of the Nagami or the round Marumi but the pulp of the round
Meiwa is sweet. The fruit is eaten fresh; it is also preserved or candied
whole. It is splendid for jelly or marmalade.
28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
This citrus fruit grows on a tree similar to the lemon. Fruit is oblong,
protuberant at the tip, 5 to 6 inches long, greenish-yellow in color and very
fragrant. The pulp is acid and has a juice that may be expressed and used
like lime. The rind, thick and spongy, may be candied and preserved. There
is another fruit (a melon) by the same name used in somewhat a similar
The shaddock is the largest and coarsest of all citrus fruits. It has a
thick rind and thick leathery septa between sections. It is suitable only for
preserving and crystallization. It is sometimes pink inside. The juice is
acid, bitter and scant.
Sour orange has a thicker peel than the common orange. It is used for
marmalades. The juice combines nicely in drinks with the sweet oranges.
The bitter-sweet has a thicker peel than the sour orange and has a
loose peel. It is used only for marmalades.
The lime is not a lemon but it is closely related to the lemon, orange,
mandarin, pomelo and shaddock. Limes are more sensitive to cold and are
therefore grown further south. Most of the limes in Florida are on the
keys south of the mainland. They are grown from seeds and therefore vary
greatly in size, shape, flavor and juice percentage. They range in size from
a medium-sized plum to a large-sized lemon. Lime juice is a good source
of vitamin C. The Tahiti, a sprout of the Persian variety, a budded variety,
has been grown on the mainland and found adaptable. It grows much
larger. The rind is smooth, thin and green to yellow. The juice is almost
colorless, good flavor, and strong acid.
West Indian lime grows on a thorny bush with rather small, light
green foliage. Fruit is fine grain, juice plentiful, pulp soft, acid strong,
flavor distinctly lime. The Palmetto Lime, a cross between West Indian
and the lemon and the Everglade Lime, a cross of West Indian with the
Pomelo, are both good limes.
Rangpur Lime is hardier than the true lime. It is said to belong to
Suntara orange group. Tree is small, thorny; foliage sparse. The fruit is
medium size, rind rough, medium in thickness, easily separated from pulp
and of irregular color; segments are easily separated; flesh is orange
colored; juice is plentiful, flavor agreeable.
The calamondin, a small round fruit growing on an ornamental hardy
shrub, is sometimes erroneously called an orange but it is very closely
associated with the lime. It combines nicely with the sweet orange in the
preparation of a citrus drink. Lime juice is even more acid than lemon. It
is 7 per cent citric acid. It also has an essential oil. Lime juice is used in
medicine. It prevents scurvy and symptoms which precede the disease. It
is used to supplement a diet necessarily short of fresh fruits and vege-
tables. Lime juice makes an excellent flavoring for many of the tropical
fruits, for vegetables as well as for fish, meats, candies and desserts. It is
also used to add flavor to various jams, fruits and jellies. Lime oil ex-
tracted from the rind is used in flavoring extracts and perfumery.
The limequat is a cross between the lime and kumquat. It has a sweet
rind and acid lime-like pulp. It is a hardy type, growing well in south
Golden Lime or Panama Orange is a small, round, thin-skinned, very
juicy fruit. It is very sour but good flavor and makes a pleasing limeade.
It is popular for marmalades, jellies and glac6 fruits.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 29
Lime berry grows on a small bush. The fruit is edible and is like a
small, dark red cherry. It makes a jelly of good acid flavor.
Lemons in the original wild variety first found in Florida by early
settlers is good only for root stock in high, dry land. The Ponderosa is too
large to be of general commercial use, often reaching one to two pounds.
The quality and flavor, however, are good. They are quite juicy and not a
very thick skin. The regular commercial type of lemons is grown but the
tendency is to grow too large. From the rind is produced lemon oil; the
pulp, citrate of lime, citric acids and lemon flavoring. Lemon juice is one
of the best sources of vitamin C. Even on cold storage, lemons show an
excellent supply. Vitamins A and B are found in the peel and in fresh
juice. Vitamin B is also found in the dried juice.
The grapefruit is an excellent appelizer and probably contains "tonic"
properties. Some have thought the grapefruit has an alkaloid all its own
b-ut chemists have not found it. Grapefruit juice both fresh and dried is a
good source of vitamin B and an excellent source of vitamin C, equal to
that f&orange juice, lemon juice or tomato. The partitions in the fruit
have a bitter taste. Improved fruits have eliminated the objectionable
bitter and have left only the taste which lends individuality to the pomelo
-that blending of sweet-bitter-sour that makes the fruit a pomelo. Those
who know the flavor best call it the "pleasing personality" of the pomelo.
The early varieties of grapefruit are Duncan; mid-season, Florida Com-
mon and Walters; and late, Marsh Seedless. Foster and Thompson are
the pink-fleshed varieties.
Oranges are divided into two main classes, the common round orange
of commerce known as "Mediterranean" and the Chinese or Mandarin
or Kid Glove variety.
King Orange-King Orange (from Burma) is a large, rough, thick
loose-skinned fruit with a reddish, very juicy pulp of best flavor.
Tangerine-Tangerines (an excellent source of vitamin C) are of two
main varieties, the flat red kind (Dancy) and a larger one, yellow in color
(Oneco), a late variety.
Tangelo-Tangelos are hybrids-crosses between tangerine and pome-
lo. The tangelo has the qualities of both but is distinct from either. It is
very juicy, of a rich, tart flavor. It has almost no fiber nor rag. The Thorn-
ton is one of the best varieties.
Satsuma-Satsumas are a hardy variety of the mandarin group, having
been grafted on the trifoliata stock and are truly north Florida's orange.
Among the varieties of Mediterranean oranges best adapted to Florida
are the early oranges such as Parson Brown and Hamlin; mid-season vari-
eties are seedlings, Pineapples, Enterprise Seedless and Jaffa; the late
varieties are Valencia and Lou Gim Gong.
The cherimoya is of the annonaceous family of fruits, the annonas
being tropical fruits composed of more or less coherent fleshy carpels or
parts. The tree is of the small spreading type. The fruit, larger than an
orange, is irregular in form and covered with small conical "bumps" or
protuberances. The skin is thin and light green in color, changing to yel-
low; the flesh is white and of the melting texture. It has been called the
"Masterpiece of Nature." Many brown bean-like seeds are imbedded in
the flesh. The flavor is sub-acid, delicate and suggestive of the pineapple
and banana. The fruit is purely a dessert fruit. The sugar content is very
high being about 181/ per cent. The protein and fiber are high and the
acid content low.
30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
This fruit, heart-shaped, is smooth and of a reddish brown when ripe.
It is somewhat similar to the cherimoya and sugar apple but inferior in
SUGAR APPLE (S.)
Sugar apple grows south of Palm Beach and Punta Gorda. The bush
is similar to that of the sapodilla. The skin of the fruit is yellowish green,
thick and rough. The fruit is pear shaped and the size of a man's fist. It
is really a seed pod with numerous black seeds inside. The outside or sur-
face is covered with "bumps." When the fruit is separated into carpels, of
which it is composed, each rough section has a pure white or yellow meaty
sweet and slightly aciduous pulp with the little black seed adhering. It is
a custard-like dessert fruit. It is sometimes called the sweet-sop. It is
similar to the cherimoya in composition, having a high sugar content, about
181/2 per cent, but it is less piquant in flavor. It ripens in summer and is
"in season" six months.
This fruit is closely related to the sugar apple. The tree is rarely more
than 20 feet high and grows only in the tropical section of the state. The
fruit is the largest of the annonas (4 pounds). It is 6 to 8 inches long,
rather an oval shape; a dark green color; a spiny surface. The flesh is
white, juicy and aromatic. The texture is rather cottony. The flavor is a
combination of mango and pineapple. It ripens in late spring.
The sour-sop is used for preserves, for preparation of sherbets and
other refreshing drinks. The sour-sop sherbet is considered one of the
finest in the world.
The hardy Celeste is popular throughout Florida. It is a small, brown-
ish-yellow, sweet fig. (July 1.) The Brown Turkey (July 15), white to pink
inside, is a solid fig and hardy. The Brunswick (August and September)
is a large violet-colored fig with thick, soft pulp.
Figs thrive best in sub-tropical localities but do well farther north if
protected. They are grown largely in the vicinity of the "yard." The fruit
contains a high per cent of sugar. Other nutrients are not abundant. The
texture and flavor are pleasing. The fruit is best freshly picked from the
trees. It needs no flavoring. The fig has a slight laxative effect. It is some-
times used with sugar and cream as a breakfast fruit. It lends itself to
drying and preserving and canning. It is used in cookies, cakes and pastes,
pudding, ice cream and other desserts.
Two types of grapes have done well on their roots in Florida-the mus-
cadine and the summer grape. The former includes scuppernong, Thomas
and James. The other type has developed into what is known as "bunch"
grapes in Florida. The muscadines do not bunch and are, therefore, tedious
to gather for shipping. The scuppernong grape has a flavor when fully ripe
that is unexcelled. It is a russet color when ripe. The wild "variety is a
black grape of thicker skin and more meat but less juice. Both are splendid
flavor in the fresh form and lend themselves to numerous ways of prepara-
tion. The Thomas is a reddish purple when ripe, while the James is purp-
lish black. The "summer" grape (wild) grows in many of the Florida
woods. It is quite acid and has enough pectin for jelly when not quite ripe.
The flavor of wild grape jelly is a decided flavor, highly pleasing to both
the Northern and Southern palate. The color adds to the palatability. Culti-
vated bunch grapes, such as Carmen, Ellen, Scott, Armalagar, are being
successfully grown in Florida.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
The many varieties, plus Florida's long season, make it possible to have
on Florida menus good table grapes from June to September.
Grapes are high in sugar, varying from 15 to 35 per cent. The organic
acids abundant in grapes act as a mild laxative and diuretic. Grape juice
can now be sterilized at about 1760 F, a temperature not high enough to
injure the flavor or vitamin content. Fresh grapes, also grape juice, have
a fair amount of vitamins A and C as well as a very good showing in
vitamin B. (Volume 37, No. 4, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Guavas, as grown in Florida, are of two groups-the Cattley guava, red
and yellow, and the so-called Mexican guava. The red Cattley usually
thrives wherever oranges grow well. The tree is an ornamental shrub of
glossy leaves and reaches a height of 25 feet. The fruit, one to two inches
in diameter, grows in large clusters. The purplish red skin is thin; the
4 sub-acid juicy flesh is white toward the center; the seeds are numerous.
The Cattley guava has an aromatic flavor. It has not the mushiness of some
other varieties. There is also a yellow Cattley guava of sulphur color and
more delicate flavor, larger than the red Cattley. Mexican guavas are
larger, being about the size of a hen egg and sometimes 3 or 4 inches long.
Of the larger guavas, there are the red, white and yellow varieties and of
each of the three there are the sweet, sub-acid and acid types. All are very
There are as many varieties of guavas as of apples. The fruit ripens in
late summer and fall and is "in season" several months. The analysis of
the common guava has shown ash and protein to rate well in comparison
with fruits in general. The sugar content is not high.
The guava, formerly known as a "jelly fruit," is now popular in the
fresh, slightly cooked, and preserved form.
GRANADILLA OR PASSION FRUIT (S.)
The granadilla is an ornamental vine fruit, oval in shape, 2 to 3 inches
long and 1 % to 2 inches thick, and deep purple in color when fully ripe.
Inside the hard shell rind is a yellow, spicy, juicy, acid pulp within which
are numerous small seeds, edible. The pulp is used in making drinks and
for flavoring sherbets and ices. It needs sugar when taken in the natural
form. The fresh fruit is served at the table and the juice is squeezed on the
The yellow fruited passion fruit is similar to the purple but is larger
and equally fine in flavor. Both fruits are used in cooking as well as in
The litchi grows on an ornamental tree. It has succeeded in the Miami
section and, with a little protection, as far north as Bradenton. The fruit
grows in clusters of 2 or 3 to 20 or more. They look a little like straw-
berries, being a deep rose when fully ripened and of the shape of the
berry. The outer covering is scaly, hard and brittle. The seed is small. The
flesh is white, translucent, firm and juicy and of sub-acid flavor similar to
the muscat grape.
Anaylsis of the fruit has shown total sugar, 15.3 per cent; acid, 1.16 per
cent; protein, 1.15 per cent; ash, .54 per cent; total solids, 20.92 per cent.
The fruit is picked in clusters with stems. They soon lose their pretty
red color but they keep their flavor two or three weeks. Refrigeration
takes care of them temporarily. The fresh fruit is very popular. It is both
dried and preserved for future use.
32 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
The mamey is a dooryard tree of deep rich green foliage growing as far
north as Palm Beach. The fruit is oblong or round and is 4 to 6 inches in
diameter. It has a russet surface, leathery skin, a bright yellow, juicy, but
firm, flesh of a sub-acid but pleasant flavor and a firm, close texture. It is
sometimes stewed and sometimes sliced and served fresh with sugar and
cream. Mamey preserve is popular and is similar to that made from apricot.
MAMMONCILLA OR SPANISH LIME OR HONEY BERRY (S.)
The mammoncilla grows on an erect tree 30 to 40 feet high and in
clusters like grapes. This lime looks a little like a plum. The outer cover-
ing is thick, leathery and green. It has one large seed, the space between
skin and seed being filled by a pleasant, edible, thick juice. It is not citrus.
The pulp is a soft yellow. The flavor, in some varieties, is said to be sweet
but it is often very acid.
The mango tree is evergreen. Seedlings grow quite large but budded
trees are smaller. Leaves are sometimes 10 to 12 inchs long. The fruit
grows on a long pendulous stem. It varies greatly in size from a small plum
to 4 or 5 pounds in weight. It varies in shape from long, slender, to oval to
round. The skin is smooth and from yellow to a deep yellow or apricot to
a crimson. Some are only green. The aroma is spicy as is the flavor. The
flesh, yellow to orange, is juicy and in the best sorts entirely free from
fiber. It "melts in the mouth." The flavor is its own. It suggests an apricot
and a pineapple but it is neither. It is mango-rich, luscious, acid, spicy.
It is there, then it's gone-all gone-too soon. The seed is large, oval,
flattened and contains a white kernel.
An analysis shows no starch apparent. The sugar content is high, vary-
ing from 11 to 20 per cent. Protein is higher than is usual in fruits. The
acidity varies. The unripe fruit has very decided acidity. The ripe fruit is
considered a laxative; the unripe, an astringent. The mango is a good
source of vitamin C.
Both green and ripe products are used. The ripe fruit is eaten fresh as
salad or dessert. Both kinds make splendid pies and are used in curries and
sauces. The green or partly ripened pulp has considerable pectin and is
good for preserves and jellies. It is sometimes boiled, strained, mixed with
milk and sugar as a custard. The spicy sauces known as chutney are made
of mangoes. The mango is used like the peach in canning. The budded type
is the best texture for this purpose. The Haden and Mulgoba are popular
types for eating fresh while the Sandersha is a type that lends itself to
cooking. (Bulletin No. 20, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
The papaya, interestingly known as the tree-melon, in its best varieties,
easily takes its place with the best of melons as to flavor and attractive-
ness. The tree has a straight, slender, spongy, leafless trunk which spreads
into an umbrella-like tuft. The seedling quickly comes to the fruiting stage
during the first year. Just below the "spread" the tree-melons cluster-
sometimes as many as 20 or 30 of a size of 8 to 10 inches in length and
sometimes weighing as much as 15 pounds. The fruit is smooth, slightly
ribbed and cylindrical in shape. As it ripens the skin turns from green to
an orange yellow, while the sweet juicy pulp one to two inches in thickness
becomes a deep yellow. Inside is a cavity filled with small, rough, dark
peppercorn-like seeds which are enclosed in a thin mesh and slip out easily.
So rapidly does the plant fruit that oftentimes green fruit, ripe fruit, buds
and flowers are on the tree at the same time. The fruit begins to ripen in
nine months. The crop is continuous through the bearing life of the tree
when the weather is favorable. The papaya thrives in southern Florida
where it has been grown for home and commercial purposes.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 33
S The papaya is a valuable source of vitamins A and C. Even in the green
stage it shows almost no trace of starch and no tannin. The ash and protein
are low as compared with the banana but they are quite constant. Sugar
increases as the fruit ripens. The papaya contains a milky juice in which
an active principle known as papain is present. It resembles animal pepsin
in its digestive action.
SAs a breakfast fruit this tree-melon rivals even the honey-dew. The
juicy pulp has a texture and a flavor its own, that starts the day "ri'ht" as
well as "different." In south Florida where papayas grow and rinen in
months of continual sunshine they make a valuable contribution to the diet
of mankind. In a half ripened or green stage they may be cooked like
Squash, or, sweetened, they may be made into pies. The ripened pulp likes
a dash of lime juice growing nearby but as "a first" for breakfast or as
"a last" number for a dinner it stands alone easily and successfully. In
fact, whether they be down in the hammocks, along the canals or in a
"set" grove they look just like the pictures and tickle the human palate for
a taste. And later when after a night in the refrigerator they appear at
breakfast in gorgeous orange yellow slices, or at lunch on a bed of green,
garnished with a slice of lemon or lime, the "picture" becomes a most
effective appetizer. Truly the lowly melon has been lifted up and glorified!
The fruit has been successfully shipped to New York and California. (Bul-
letin No. 32, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
The Spanish or Honey type is used in north Florida and the Chinese or
"Peento" group of peaches has been grown successfully in south Florida.
The peach, depending upon the variety, has a fairly high sugar content
although it is about 85 to 90 per cent water. There is no appreciable
Amount of starch at any time but an increase in sugar upon ripening. Fresh
peaches show a good content of vitamins A and C. By soil selection and
adaptation of variety, Florida has learned to supply herself to some extent
The Pineapple and Hood pears are the most desirable Florida pears as
to color, texture and uniformity. The Kieffer is adapted to north Florida.
Pears are low in acid and need little sugar. Lemon or lime combine nicely
with pear products. In the fresh form a fully ripened pear needs no addi-
tions. Raw fresh pears show some vitamins B and C. For canning or for
cooking, gather pears when fully grown but not entirely ripened. Keep in a
dark, cool room for a few days for ripening. This process gives a finer grain
texture and possibly a better flavor than the tree ripening process. When
peeled, pears turn brown quickly, due to the action of an enzyme. A dilute
saline solution (2 tablespoons salt to a gallon of water) prevents the
The native persimmon, one to one and a half inches in diameter, grows
almost all over the upper half of th' state. It is highly stocked with
tannin before the fully ripened stage but, when ripe, it is a very popular
fruit, having a sugar content of about 15 per cent.
This fruit is the cultivated persimmon used in Florida. It is much larger
than the native fruit, ranging in size from two to four inches in diameter.
The color varies from a light yellow to a deep reddish orange. The shape is,
NOTE-The papaya (fresh leaves and stem) contains an enzyme (papain) which aids
in the digestion of proteins. The natives of tropical islands use its juice to make meat
tender in the cooking process. They wrap their fowls in its leaves or hang them over-
night in the trees. Mothers, it is said, eat the papayas during lactation period to in-
crease the milk supply for their babies.
34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
in some varieties, that of an apple flattened at the ends, and in others I
more of a pear shape with a pointed apex. The flesh is light yellow to dark
according to variety.
The light flesh variety is good to eat only when fully ripe due to the
.fact that the pulp contains tannin. As the fruit fully ripens the tannin
crystallizes and does not dissolve in the mouth. The dark flesh type has a
pulp that is crisp, meaty like an apple and is edible before maturity. The
sugar content in the ripe fruit is the highest of all common fruits-14 to
20 per cent-and is in the form of dextrose.
According to recent research by Jennie Tilt and Rebecca B. Hubbell,
Nutrition Research Laboratory, Florida State College, seven varieties of
Japanese persimmons show a range in average moisture content from 76.27
(Zengi) to 81.71 per cent (Tamopan); reducing sugar 11.55 per cent
(Tsuru) to 17.39 (Zengi); protein .43 per cent (Tane Nashi) to .87 per
cent (Okami); ash from .3 per cent (Tamopan) to .58 per cent (Tsuru);
fiber from .11 per cent (Fuyugaki) to .49 per cent (Triumph). Tests were
also made for vitamin B complex and the Tane Nashi, the fruit used, was
found to be a very poor source of vitamin B complex.
The varieties most used are the Tane Nashi and the Fuyugaki. The
former is round in shape with a pointed apex. It is from 3 to 3 % inches
long and nearly as broad. The skin is light yellow, shading to a bright,
deep, yellowish-red as it ripens. The yellow flesh is astringent until the
ripening period in August and September. The Fuyugaki, slightly flattened,
deep red in color, is not astringent and can be peeled and eaten before it
is fully ripe.
Persimmons are best used in the fresh form and are sweet enough for
desserts. The pulp has been successfully used, however, in pies, sauces,
and puddings as well as in ice creams. For pies, the non-astringent type is
used when not fully ripe.
Pineapple grows on a low, ragged plant with sword-like leaves. It
perpetuates itself by lijos (scions) which grow out of the base of the
plant near the ground and are called coronas. Pineapples from Fort Pierce
south in Florida grow well in the open; in the other parts of south Florida
they grow under slats. This is one of the most valuable of foods from a
physiological standpoint. It contains a protelytic enzyme called bromelin
which is closely related to trypsin. This ferment changes albuminous matter
into peptones and proteoses and acts in acid, alkaline or neutral media.
The flavor and odor of pineapples is due to the essential oils and ethers
present in very small quantities. Pineapples should be allowed to stand on
the plants until practically ripe. They lose little of their delicious flavor or
of their food value in canning. They are rich both in fresh and canned
form in vitamins A, B and C. (Vol. 37, No. 3, "Pineapple Culture," Florida
State Department of Agriculture.)
Florida has a number of varieties of wild plums that still flourish,
especially in north Florida. They are quite acid before ripening and make
an excellent jelly, jam or butter at the half-ripened stage. Wild plum
products have rare flavor and color that makes them most suitable to serve
with meats or chicken.
Excelsior-Japanese plums crossed with some of Florida's native plums
have given a few hybrids that are of splendid variety such as the "Excel-
sior" a wine-colored fruit with a firm yellow-red pulp of excellent quality
and sub-acid flavor. The skin is thin and tough and neither bitter nor
McRae (Hybrid)-The fruit is a reddish yellow, has a juicy, yellow,
sub-acid, firm flesh with an aromatic flavor.
Terrell (Hybrid)-This large plum, 2 inches in diameter, is wine-
colored when fully ripe and has a greenish-yellow, meaty, slightly sub-acid
flesh of excellent flavor and texture.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 35
The loquat grows on a small ornamental tree that branches two or
three feet from the ground to form a dense crown. The white flowers are
fragrant and ornamental. The fruit in loose clusters, are round or oval, one
to three inches long, pale yellow to a beautiful orange in color, and downy
on the surface. The skin is like that of a peach only a little tougher; the
flesh is firm and meaty in some and "melting in the mouth" of other varie-
ties and is a white to deep orange color, juicy and of a "sprightly" sub-
acid flavor. It is most commonly used as a fresh fruit but it may be
stewed or jellied. Loquat pie made from partly ripened fruit flavors of
cherry pie. The seeds are removed before cooking. Unripe, the fruit is
decidedly acid. The ripe fruit is sweet.
This fruit is a plum something like the loquat. It is yellow, egg-shaped,
About one to one and a half inches in length and better than the loquat.
CARISSA OR NATAL PLUM (S.)
The carissa grows on an ornamental thorny shrub. The scarlet fruit,
one to two inches long and ovoid or egg shape, ripens mostly in summer
but continues to appear through other seasons. As the fruit ripens it be-
comes a rich, dark red outside and inside. It exudes, when cut, a milky sub-
stance. This little plum is good for jellies and marmalades. Carissa sauce
The pomegranate grows on a bush 15 to 20 feet high. The fruit is
globular, the size of an orange or larger. It has a smooth, leathery skin
which ranges from a yellow to a beautiful red in color. It is made up inside
into several cells, each filled with many sided grains each of which is a
transparent vesicle containing red juicy pulp and a seed. The flavor is sub-
acid. Another variety (Purple-seeded) has an acid pulp. The fruit is very
refreshing. It is used to prepare a cooling drink and to make jellies and
S marmalades. "
The quince tree is a small, stiff, upright, little tree of hard-wood. The
quince is one of the oldest known fruits. It has been less cultivated and is
still hard and sour until cooked. The flavor of the cooked quince, however,
is so agreeable that it is most popular as a jelly, marmalade or flavor for
other fruits. The quince is of a firm texture and is, therefore, used for
preserving. The Chinese quince is a very much improved type.
Rhubarb (according to Hume) is not particularly adapted to Florida's
warm climate, but in recent years in south Florida it has been grown in
early spring for home use and for local markets. "Immigrants" hail it with
delight and pronounce it "good." Then it is good-tender, acid, appetizing
-and makes just as good pies or sauce as if it were grown "north." The
variety and season must of course be considered but the flavor is all there.
Rhubarb has a medicinal value in that it is a laxative.
The roselle plant resembles the okra and the cotton plant. It is often
called the jelly okra. The edible portion is the bright red calyx, low in sugar
(1%) and high in acid (3 % ). The only food value lies in the fine red color
S and the pleasant acid flavor-two rather valuable qualities. The calyces, if
picked as soon as fully grown, make excellent ades, sauces, jelly or jam
which are used in Florida to take the place that cranberries fill in many
A plentiful supply of pectin and a generous acidity, combined with a
cherry red color, give a wonderful jelly product equal to red currant or
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
cranberry. For jelly, only % of a pound of sugar (1% cups) is needed for
a pint of juice, secured by cooking and straining the fruit. Even after the
seeds have rinened in the capsules the fruit may be used for jelly. The fruit
may be dried without losing its jelly-making capacity. The young, tender
shoots have been used successfully in jelly making and for "greens."
(U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin 307.)
The sapodilla is a stately evergreen tree of 50 or more feet in height
and grows well from Palm Beach south and up as far as the Manatee .
river on the west coast. The bark contains a milky latex called chicle,
interesting commercially as a basis for chewing gum.
The fruit, round or oval in shape and from 2 to 3 inches in diameter,
looks like a potato, the thin skin being a rusty brown and slightly scurfy.
The seeds. 10 or 12, slip out easily. Yellow brown, translucent, soft, sweet,
and of delicious flavor is the ripened flesh. Unripened, however, the tannin
and chicle are unpleasant. Some one has called the flavor of the ripe fruit
"Dear with brown sugar." Others have said, "it is maple syrup." It has
about 14 per cent sugar. The odor is fragrant. There is a vitamin content
of A and C.
MAMMEE SAPOTE (S.)
(Or Marmalade Plum)
This fruit Prows on a tree (60 feet in height) of abundant light green
foliage. The fruit is oval, 3 to 6 inches long. The skin is a russet brown,
thick and woody. The flesh is firm and of a finely granular texture. The
color is yellowish brown with a tinge of red, rather a rich saffron. There is
in the center a large, hard, black and shiny seed which comes out as easily
as the avocado seed. The flesh is rich and lacks acidity. It is similar to that
of the sweet potato when cooked. Improperly ripened or inferior sapote has
a squash-like flavor. In Havana it is used in sherbet and as a filler in guava
cheese. In Central America the large seed is roasted and used to mix
with cocoa in making chocolate. The sapote is best in its fresh, natural
form. It has been used as a rich preserve. It has been called a "natural
WHITE SAPOTE (S.)
The white sapote is now grown in Florida and while it belongs to the
soft sweet fruits of the tropics it is liked by many Northerners. The fruit
has a thin membranous skin, yellowish green and a yellow sweet melting
flesh. It shows 20 per cent sugar. It is eaten fresh.
GREEN SAPOTE (S.)
The green sapote has a flavor similar to the sapota but more delicate,
it is also of finer and smoother texture. The skin is thin, the flesh is darker
but melting, sweet and juicy. The fruit is usually eaten fresh. There is
also the sapote of the black variety.
STAR APPLE (S.)
The star apple is a dooryard tree and looks "like an evergreen peach."
The leaves are a glossy green above a satiny brown underneath. Star apple
fruit is round or oblate, something like an apple, and is from 2 to 4 inches
in diameter. It is sometimes purple, sometimes a light green. When cut
crosswise it shows a star-shaped interior. The flesh is in 8 segments in
which the seed are imbedded. It is sweet and pleasantly flavored. Just
under the skin is a layer of soft, somewhat granulous flesh and not very
juicy. Inside this is a whitish flesh. Both are sweet-no acid at all. The
fruit is usually eaten fresh. P. W. Reasoner described a dish called "ma-
trimony." It is prepared by scooping out the inside pulp of the star
apple and adding to it a glass of sour orange juice.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 37
The tree looks like a scraggly, neglected orange. The fruit, on the out-
S side, looks like a green orange and is about 3 inches in diameter. The out-
side is a hard shell. The pulp is rich, custard-like, about the consistency of
a ripe banana, and has an aromatic flavor. The seed contains strychnine.
The tamarind fruit (Indian Date) is a pod of a leguminous tree of
ornamental small leaf foliage. The beans inside the pod are surrounded by
a dark, pasty material, the edible portion of the fruit. This pulp has a
sweetish-sour rather spicy flavor. Analysis shows 15 per cent acid (mostly
tartaric) and over 40 per cent of reducing sugar. In fact it contains more
acid than the sourest fruit and more sugar than the sweetest fruit. The
taste, however, is distinctly sour.
Tamarinds are therefore used to make cooling sub-acid beverages,
especially for invalids. The fruit is official in the pharmacopoeia as a laxa-
tive and refrigerant. Tamarind paste is a mixture of the pulp and about 75
per cent sugar. Mixing an ounce of tamarind pulp with 11/2 pints of warm
milk a nourishing beverage called tamarind whey is made. Young pods are
sometimes cooked with rice and fish. The roasted seeds are said to be supe-
rior in flavor and valuable as a food product. Dried tamarind has a small
amount of vitamin C.
In Key West the people pack tamarind in jars and cover with sugar
sirup to keep on hand during the "off" season. They use the paste for
making drinks when the fresh supply is exhausted.
The leaves contain an acid and furnish a dye stuff, also a quickly
drying oil for paints.
CAROB BEAN (S.)
The Carob Bean or Locust Bean is sometimes used for stock feed. The
ripe seeds are surrounded by a sweet mucilaginous mass used more as a
confection than a food. The dried pod yields more than 50 per cent sugar.
Miscellaneous Sub-Tropical and Tropical Fruits
The abiu resembles the canistel in growth and foliage but it has a light
yellow fruit with white flesh. The skin is thick and tough. In flavor the
pulp resembles the sapodilla but is a different texture.
This fruit is a curious looking little capsule about three inches long and
triangular in shape, and yellow and red in color. It contains three seeds
with a whitish flesh at the base of each which resembles the brain of a
small animal and which is firm, oily, and nutty in flavor. It is cooked with
fish to give it an added flavor. Green or overripe akees should not be
eaten at all. Fresh ripe akees are good food.
The cacao ripens in June and in December and is limited to Monroe
county. It resembles a short, thick cucumber 5 to 6 inches long and 3
inches thick. The pulp is pink to white, sweet, slightly acid. The rind is
smooth, thick, tough, and tasteless. The seeds or beans (20 to 40) are
dried for market. They give an oil that acts as an anodyne.
COCOA PLUM (S.)
Cocoa plum is a small, edible, plum-like fruit, with a large seed, and
has a cocoanut flavor.
38 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
(1) Prickly Pear (S.), Indian Fig 4
The spiny fruit of 1 to 2 inches in length is pear shaped and red in
color. It contains vitamin C. It is about 12 per cent sugar and about 85
per cent water.
(2) Cereus (S.)
Cereus fruit is oval, scarlet, 4 % inches in diameter. It also has vitamin
C and 10 to 12 per cent sugar and 80 to 85 per cent water.
TI-ES OR CANISTEL OR VEGETABLE EGG
The canistel or ti-es (egg fruit) tree, a handsome bright green color, is
a dooryard tree and grows well on the keys and as far north as Palm
Beach. The fruit is round to oval and pointed at the apex. It is 2 to 4 inches
long. The fruit ripens in summer. The membranous skin is yellow while the
soft mealy flesh is a bright orange or egg shade. The flavor is rich and very
sweet and the fruit is best fresh. When mature, it is best to take it from
the tree and allow it to ripen in the house for three or four days.
The carambola, growing on a small handsome tree about 30 feet high,
is a bright yellow to golden brown oval shaped fruit 3 to 5 inches long,
having 3, 4 or 5 longitudinal ribs and showing a star shape when cut
crosswise. The pulp is astringent when green and acid when ripe. It
has a fruity flavor and the odor of a quince. When slightly unripe it is
used in jelly or pickles.
The ilama is said to be the best of the annonaceous fruits. It is
smaller, reaching not more than one and one-half pounds. Pale green
varieties have white flesh; the pink kinds have rose pink. Green varieties
are sweet; the pink are acid. The fruit is used fresh like the sugar-apple.
They ripen in summer. The season is short. The ilama belongs to the low
lands and is more suited to south Florida than is the cherimoya.
POND APPLE (S.)
This fruit is sometimes called custard apple. It is no good as a fruit.
The pitaya is produced by a climbing cactus which bears night-blooming
flowers. The fruit, about 2 or 3 inches in diameter, is crimson in color and
strawberry in flavor. The flesh is white, juicy and seedy. It is used in
making cooling drinks and sherbets or in the natural form.
ROSE APPLE (S.)
The rose apple grows on an ornamental plant. The fruit smells like a
rose, is crisp and juicy. It is the color of apricot. It is round or oval and
one or two inches long. The rose apple may be preserved or crystallized.
SATIN FRUIT (S.)
Satin fruit grows on a small tree whose leaves are glossy green on top
and a burnished brown underneath. The purple fruit is about an inch and
a half long and has a sub-acid flavor.
The umkokolo or kei apple grows on a vigorous, rich green, thorny
shrub that flowers in spring and ripens in August to October. The fruit is
nearly round, one inch in diameter and of a bright golden yellow color.
The yellow, juicy pulp having an aromatic flavor of a high acid test when
unripe, makes a splendid jelly.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 39
WILD FIG (S.)
Wild fig trees, gigantic trees with green wax-like leaves, have small
edible figs the size of a pea or larger.
The bilimbi, similar to the carambola, is cylindrical, five angled, 2 to 4
inches long, greenish yellow in color, soft and juicy in texture. It is more
acid than the carambola. It is used as a pickle or as a relish with meat
HORSERADISH TREE (S.)
The roots of this tree, when ground, have the odor and flavor of the
herb horseradish. The leaves are used in curries.
This fruit resembles grapes and grows on the body of the tree which
grows to a height of 60 feet. The juice makes an excellent drink or jelly.
The jujube is a small spiny tree about 20 feet high and very prolific.
The fruit is about the size of a date. It has a brown thin skin and a sweet
white flesh of mealy texture inclosing a hard two-celled seed. It ranks high
(about 21 per cent) sugar. The fresh fruit (best varieties) is good to eat
in natural form. Dried it resembles the date in form and flavor. It ma,
be boiled with rice, stewed or baked, made into bread as raisins, boiled in
honey and sugar as a glac6 product. It is used commercially as a flavoring
for confections. Chinese varieties, Yu, Mu Shing Hong, and the Lang are
best, according to Popenoe.
(Ceylon Gooseberry, Aberia Gardnerii)
9 This fruit grows on a shrub similar to though more slender and less
vigorous than the umkokolo. It is maroon in color and has a velvety sur-
face. The pulp, sweet and luscious, resembles in flavor the English goose-
berry. It is a better fruit than the umkokolo and makes a fine jelly or
preserve. The season is winter.
MONISTERA DELICIOSA (S.)
Monistera Deliciosa is the fruit of a monster vine-like plant that has a
bloom similar to a lily and an openwork leaf. The vine has many air roots.
S It also sends down tubes deep into the ground to get water. The fruit itself
resembles in shape a very large ear of corn. The big plump kernels, juicy
and sweet, are in a case that is edible. The arrangement is like that of
"corn on the cob." The color is green. The fruit stands straight on the
vine until ripe. It then turns down. The flavor is a combination ripe
banana and fresh strawberry with just a little of the snap of pineapple. It
may be eaten plain or with sugar and cream.
PARA GUAVA (S.)
The Para guava, not strictly a guava but horticulturally classed with
the guava because of its similarity, is a sulphur yellow fruit, oval or
round, and 2 to 3 inches long. The soft whitish pulp, acid but pleasant in
flavor, has a few seeds larger in size than the true guava. It has little of
the musky aroma of the guava.
The cashew grows south of Palm Beach and Punta Gorda. This is a
fruit and a nut combined. It is a small oddly shaped yellow fruit 2 or 3
inches long of pyramidal form and bears at its distal end the nut or seed.
The flesh part of the fruit is called the cashew apple. This arrangement of
the seed outside the pulp is most unusual. The nut or seed, about one and
one-half inches in length, is kidney shaped and is inclosed in a grayish
40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
brown cellular coat that contains an essential oil which, when cooked, has
a burning effect upon the skin. It is roasted before it is eaten. The skin of
the apple, very thin and easily broken, is a bright yellow or flame scarlet.
The flesh is soft, juicy, acid and a light yellow color and has a pungent
aroma. It is used as a preserve or jam of highly pleasing quality and also
as a drink. The nut, when roasted, has a chestnut flavor. The meat is of
fine texture and good quality. A nutritious oil similar to almond oil may
The imbu looks somewhat like a green Gage plum. Oval shaped, it is
one and one-half inches long and greenish yellow in color. It grows wild
and is very productive. The fruit makes a splendid jelly. The skin is
thicker than that of a plum and tough. The flavor of the soft juicy flesh
is akin to a sweet orange when ripe but is acid when not fully ripe.
The ambarella is a straight, tall, stiff tree which in some countries
grows as high as 60 feet and with leaves 12 inches long but not so large in
Florida. The fruit, some two inches long, oval in shape, is a pretty orange
yellow. The skin is something like that of the mango but tougher. The flesh
is firm, juicy and pale yellow, of a sub-acid flavor and sometimes resinous.
The queer looking seed is covered with bristles which hold the flesh tightly.
The clusters (of 2 to 10) hang on long stems. They ripen in winter and are
not quite so good a flavor as the imbu. The sugar content is about 10%
per cent. There is very little fiber. Much depends upon variety. The best
do not compare with the mango but rank very well as a wild fruit.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
IV-Uses of Florida Fruits
1. COCKTAILS, SHERBETS AND DRINKS
Cut papaya in dice and serve in glasses with orange, lemon or lime
juice, and a little sugar and chipped ice.
Mix four cups papaya pulp with two cups sugar and juice of three
lemons and freeze. Add a little sugar if desired.
Fill half a small cantaloupe (chilled) with sliced peaches. In the center
fill with seeded grapes, blueberries or blackberries. Sprinkle freely with
lemon and orange juice combined or with slightly sweetened lemon juice.
To crushed peaches add one can grapefruit hearts (cut in small
pieces). Sweeten to taste and freeze.
ORANGE JUICE COCKTAIL
4 small oranges 1/2 cup strawberries
Few grains salt 1 cup crushed pineapple
1 teaspoonful lemon juice Sugar to taste
Cut a thin slice from the tops of oranges. Remove pulp and juice. Add
strawberries, lemon juice and sugar to pulp and juice of oranges. Fill peel
and set on ice and leave until thoroughly cold. Serve in glasses surrounded
with crushed ice.
Place 4 tablespoonfuls of fresh peaches in cocktail glasses. Add 4 table-
spoonfuls of grape, pineapple or any berry juice. Sprinkle with nut meats.
Fill dish with shaved ice. Serve.
1 cup sugar 1 pint grape juice
V1 cup water 2 cups crushed pineapple
cup lemon juice Lemon or orange slices
1/2 cup orange juice
Cook sugar and water 5 minutes. Cool. Add fruit juices and pineapple.
Serve with plenty of ice and garnish with slices of lemon or orange.
ORANGE FRUIT CUP
S 1/2 cup orange juice %3 cup orange pieces
2 tablespoons lemon juice 34 cup diced pineapple
2 tablespoons pineapple syrup %3 cup of one of the following
Sugar fruits: White grapes, straw-
berries, peaches, pears, can-
Combine fruit juices and sweeten to taste, keeping rather tart. Add
mixed fruits. Place on ice. Serve very cold in cocktail or sherbet glasses.
Garnish each serving with Surinam cherry, strawberry, carissa cut in half,
Sor loquat slices. Use mint if fruits are not in season.
Oranges should have all membrane removed. If grapes are used, seeds
should be removed. If strawberries are used, cut in half. Peaches or pears,
if used, should be diced; cherries should be stoned; cantaloupe or bananas
should be cut in balls or small sections.
42 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (
Soak 4 tablespoonfuls of gelatine in 1 cupful of grape juice for 10
minutes, then heat over hot water until dissolved; cool and add % cupful
of shredded orange and % cupful of shredded pineapple. Beat 1 pint of
cream until stiff and add % cupful of sugar. Beat the whites of 2 eggs
until stiff and dry and add 1/3 cupful of sugar. Combine the two mixtures
and beat into gelatine, pour into cold individual molds and place on ice
until ready to serve. Turn out on a slice of pineapple and garnish with
SHRIMP AND PINEAPPLE COCKTAIL
1 cup cooked shrimp Mayonnaise dressing
(fresh or canned) Lemon juice
2 cups canned pineapple tidbits
If shrimps are large, cut them in halves. Sprinkle with lemon juice and
chill thoroughly. Drain and chill pineapple. Combine shrimps and pine-
apple and mix with well-seasoned mayonnaise dressing. Serve in sherbet
or cocktail glasses.
LIME COCKTAIL SAUCE FOR SHELL-FISH
1 tablespoon prepared horseradish 6 tablespoons lime juice
3 tablespoons tomato catsup 1/ teaspoon tabasco sauce
1 teaspoon salt Oysters or clams
Mix sauce ingredients thoroughly and pour over oysters or clams ar-
ranged in cocktail glasses.
Sauce may be served in baskets made from lemon rinds, the fish being
served on the half shell. Serve very cold.
4 cup lemon juice Few grains salt
% cup grapefruit juice Cracked ice
1/ cup orange juice Mint sprigs
%Y cup of sugar dissolved in water
Combine fruit juices, sugar, salt and water. Pour over cracked ice in
cocktail glasses and serve garnished with mint sprigs.
ICED ORANGE APPETIZER
2 tablespoons gelatine % cup sugar
4 tablespoons cold water 2 tablespoons lemon juice or lime
3 cups orange juice 1 cup orange pulp
Combine gelatine and col'. water. Heat 1 cup of the orange juice over
hot water. Add gelatine and sugar. Stir until dissolved. Cool. Add rest
of fruit juices. Chill several hours. Stir occasionally. Add orange pieces.
Serve ice cold as first course. Garnish with mint sprigs.
GRAPE JUICE LIMEADE
Juice of 5 limes 3 cups of water
1 cup of sugar 2 cups grape juice
Place ice in pitcher. Add sugar and water; stir thoroughly. Add grape
juice and last the lime. Let stand several minutes before serving.
LIME JUICE COCKTAIL
4 tablespoonfuls of lime juice 2/3 cupful of ginger ale
2 tablespoonfuls of orange juice Crushed ice
2 tablespoonfuls of sugar sirup
Place ingredients in cocktail shaker; shake, and pour over crushed ice
in four cocktail glasses. Serve.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 43
3 teaspoonfuls of tea Cloves
S2 cupfuls of boiling water Loaf sugar
1 lime Sprigs of mint
Make the tea in teapot or with tea ball; let stand for several minutes;
then serve placing in each cup a slice of lime pierced with a clove. Add a
cherry and serve sugar separately in such quantities as may be desired.
To keep limes for several weeks: Select clean, sound fruit, picked with
stem buttons on. Place in air tight fruit jars. Lime juice extracted, strained
after it settles, may be filled into jars, corked and kept for several months.
(For cold drinks, ice cream, sauce, etc.)
2 dozen ripe limes %2 cupful of water
1 pound of cube sugar
Wash the limes thoroughly in cold water and dry. Rub the sugar vigor-
ously all over the lime until it loses its color. Squeeze the juice on the
Sugar, add water; then bring almost to a boil and strain. For cold drinks,
place 2 tablespoonfuls of the sirup in a tumbler with crushed ice and fill
with plain water.
LIME WITH FISH
Squeeze juice of two limes over fish when ready to bake. Add more
lime juice while fish are baking, if desired. Garnish with parsley and
slice of lime. Serve fish with sauce.
Ripe tomatoes (red) should be slightly heated and pressed to obtain
pulp with juice. A dilver or sieve may be used for home use with cold
tomatoes. The juice loses its attractiveness without the pulp.
FRUIT PUNCH FOR A CROWD
2 quarts sugar 1 quart grape juice
1 quart water 1 quart of pineapple (grated)
2 quarts tea, weak Ice water
1 quart lemon juice 1 cup strawberry slices
1 quart orange juice 2 cups fancy orange slices
Make sirup of sugar and 1 quart water. Make tea infusion by pouring
2 quarts (8 cups) boiling water over 5 tablespoons tea. Cool. Combine
sirup, tea, fruit juices and water. Add strawberry slices and orange slices,
which may be cut in fancy shapes or simply halved or quartered.
Punch may be strained before adding strawberry and orange slices,
but this will lesson quantity made. Less water may be used and punch
poured over block of ice in punch bowl. When strawberries are out of
season, the strawberry slices may be replaced by another cup of orange
r slices. Recipe may be halved or quartered to serve a smaller group.
1 egg yolk cup thin cream
% cup orange juice Sugar if desired
Beat egg yolk until light, add orange juice and blend thoroughly. Pour
into glass and stir in cream. Sweeten to taste. Serve at once.
FRUIT JUICE PUNCH
Sweeten milk with sugar and add two tablespoonfuls or more of any
of the fruit juices-lime, grape, loganberry, pineapple, grapefruit. Beat
well before serving, and add a beaten egg white and a dash of nutmeg or
cinnamon, or a dab of whipped cream for each glass.
44. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Juice of 1 to 2 lemons
1 pint milk
Beat juice of lemons and milk together with a whirl type beater or
put in a glass jar and shake well. Serve immediately.
This is a substitute for buttermilk and makes a healthful drink toler-
ated by weak digestions. It must be mixed each time served, as curd and
whey of milk will separate if allowed to stand. More or less lemon juice
may be added, depending upon sourness desired for drink.
6 tablespoons milk 2 tablespoons sugar
% cup cold water 2 tablespoons lemon juice
1 egg Grated nutmeg
Combine milk, water, egg and sugar. Beat thoroughly, pour in lemon
juice and mix vigorously. Serve in a large glass topped with a grating of
ORANGE CREAM PUNCH
To two cupfuls of whole milk and two cupfuls of thin cream add two
teaspoonfuls of lemon juice, one cupful of orange juice and sugar to taste.
Fold in the beaten whites of four eggs and serve at once. This is best if
served very cold, provided the children are willing to sip it slowly. Any
fruit juice may be substituted for the orange juice, but the lemon juice is
usually required to bring out the flavor.
2. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE HORS D'OEUVRES
Orange sections rolled in toasted cocoanut.
Orange sections spread apart like a flower and center with fruit, may-
onnaise and nuts.
Berries and small pear halves. Roll in chopped mint.
Pineapple sections. Roll in crushed nuts.
Banana sections. Marinate in lemon or lime or sour orange juice. Roll
Lemon baskets: Fill with salted pecans and candied kumquats.
Papaya marinated with lime juice. Serve in slices.
Curled celery. Radish roses. Small yellow or red tomatoes stuffed with
celery and snappy cheese.
A. Preparation of Fruits and Vegetables for Salads
1. Select tender greens in the early morning. Cut off roots, remove
2. Keep them in a cool place in a closed vessel or closely wrapped in
paper or a paper bag. Sprinkle the lettuce head lightly and place in a
3. Wash leaves thoroughly in two or three waters. Watercress and
lettuce need careful attention. Green insects often infest them. Lift the
leaves out of one water into the other.
4. Crisp the greens in very cold water for 1/ hour or less. Acid (vine-
gar or lemon) added to the water for crisping destroys insects. Salt wilts
5. Drain, spread on a towel or place in a covered dish and set in a
cool place until serving time. Shake dry.
6. Cut out the stem end or core of head lettuce, about one inch, and
let cold water run into the opening. Turn the head right side up to drain.
The leaves will separate readily and be crisp and dry for serving.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND 'VEGETABLES 45
7. To make a nest of lettuce, use leaves of different sizes, beginning
with larger leaves and fitting into them one or two smaller leaves, keeping
the leaves cupped and the stem ends together.
8. To shred leaves roll them into a firm roll. Shred with a silver or
stainless steel knife or with scissors. Shredding should be done just before
9. Shred cabbage fine with a long, thin knife. Crisp in cold water;
10. To keep parsley, sprinkle it with cold water, put it in a tight fruit
jar, and keep it in a cool place.
11. Combine a "green" salad with dressing just before serving.
Oranges or Grapefruit
1. To section oranges or grapefruit, cut a thick layer off the top and
one off the bottom of the fruit and then cut off sections of peel from the
sides, cutting deep enough to remove all white membrane and to leave the
fruit exposed. With a sharp knife cut out each section separately.
2. To peel grapefruit, let it stand in hot water five to ten minutes, and
1. To peel tomatoes:
a. Draw over the surface of each tomato the edge of a knife. Peel.
b. Place tomatoes in a colander. Dip them in boiling water. Cool.
2. In cutting tomatoes, section them into quarters, sixths or eighths,
cutting not quite through, or slice in generous thick slices.
1. Wash with a stiff brush.
2. To curl celery, cut stalks in 3 or 4 inch lengths. Feather the ends
and place in acid water (2 tablespoonfuls vinegar or lemon to 1 cup
water) for 20 minutes.
Grind young carrots with finest cutter of the grinder or grate.
Leaving one inch of stem, peel half way down to stem and leave
radishes in very cold water to crisp. Drain.
Peel under water and from the root upward.
To break or crush, place nuts in a paper bag and roll with rolling
pin. Add nuts last before serving the salad.
To whip cream, use Dover egg beater in deep bowl. Make wrapping
paper cover by slashing and slipping over egg beater handle to fit bowl. Be
sure cream and bowl are well chilled.
To whip evaporated cream, place can in cold water. Bring to a boil and
boil for a few minutes. Cool quickly or place in the refrigerator to get
very cold. Whip in small quantities.
B. Salad Dressings
1. All salads are grouped under four main needs. Others are variations:
(Cream may be added.)
(Cream may be added.)
46 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. Remove spoon or fork from salad dressing. Use an enamel or bright
aluminum pan for cooking.
3. Use all of egg instead of two yolks if desired.
4. Lemon juice may be replaced by the juice of the calamondin, sour
orange or lime, and any one of these juices with a little salt (and possibly
a little sugar) may be used alone as a dressing for Florida salads.
(Makes 214 cups)
1 egg yolk 2 tablespoons sour orange or
teaspoon salt lemon juice
2 cups salad oil
Stir egg yolk, salt and 1 tablespoon lemon juice until well mixed. Beat
in oil, slowly at first until Y4 cup is added, using a whirl type beater. Then
add oil more rapidly. When dressing becomes thick, add remaining lemon
juice and proceed with remainder of oil.
For sharper, thinner dressing, add 2 extra tablespoons lemon juice just
(Makes about 11/3 cups)
To 1 cup mayonnaise add /3 cup whipped cream and % tablespoon
lemon juice. This is an excellent fruit salad dressing.
To 1 cup of mayonnaise add 3 tablespoons finely chopped pickles and
1 tablespoon chopped parsley.
Add (instead of sugar) a small amount of tupelo, palmetto or orange
THOUSAND ISLAND DRESSING
To one cup of mayonnaise add:
% cup of Chili sauce 2 tablespoons chopped pepper or
cup chopped celery pimento
2 tablespoons chopped or scraped
Add whipped cream or beaten .c.g whites (if desired).
Chopped red or green pimento. Avocado rFl tomato catsup or paste, a
little red jelly, a hard cooked egg yolk, ci ueet juice may be added to
Use a tightly closed jar for mixing large amounts. Keep in refrigerator
until ready to use.
(Makes about cup)
3 tablespoons lemon juice '/ teaspoon paprika
6 tablespoons salad oil 1 teaspoon salt
Stir or shake thoroughly before serving.
FRENCH HONEY DRESSING
To French dressing add 2 tablespoons strained honey. Serve on fruit
FRENCH FRUIT DRESSING
(Makes about % cup)
3 tablespoons lemon juice 14 teaspoon salt
3 tablespoons orange juice tablespoon sugar or honey
4 tablespoons oil
Mix all ingredients thoroughly.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 47
To French dressing add gradually 2 tablespoons of some cheese of
piquant flavor as Roquefort or snappy cheese which has been rubbed to a
cream. Blend until smooth.
OTHER VARIATIONS FOR PLAIN FRENCH DRESSING
1. Add /2 tablespoon chopped parsley and 1 teaspoon pimento.
2. Use calamondin juice instead of lemon.
3. Add 1 teaspoon mustard, 1 teaspoon onion juice, 1 tablespoon Wor-
4. Add chopped onion, bell pepper, celery, (Parisian).
5. Add 2 tablespoons Surinam, roselle or carissa jelly.
6. Add 2 tablespoons horseradish (grated).
7. Add 2 tablespoons peanut butter before shaking.
8. Add one grated egg yolk.
1 cup thick cream, sweet or sour 1 teaspoon salt
4 tablespoons lemon juice /a teaspoon paprika
1 to 2 tablespoons sugar
1. Beat the cream with an egg beater until smooth, thick and light.
2. Mix the other ingredients together and gradually add the cream,
beating all the while.
FRENCH SALAD DRESSING, NO. 1
Two whole eggs, juice of 1 1% lemons, % cup honey or thick sirup from
spiced peaches or pears; or 1/ cup fruit juice sweetened or thin sirup from
canned fruit, few grains paprika, few grains salt.
1. Beat the egg slightly, combine with honey and lemon juice, and add
paprika and salt. Cook in a double boiler until thick.
2. Cool and fold in 1 cup whipped cream (sweet or sour) or less thin
FRENCH SALAD DRESSING, NO. 2
2 tablespoons sugar 1 egg or two yolks
2 tablespoons lemon juice Whipped cream
Beat the eggs. Add the sugar and lemon juice.
Cook in a double boiler until the mixture thickens.
Cool. Add the whipped cream.
(Makes 1% cups)
2 eggs 4 teaspoon paprika
4 tablespoons flour 1 % cups cold water or milk
2 tablespoons sugar 1/ cup lemon juice
1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon butter
Beat eggs slightly. Stir in all dry ingredients. Add water. Cook in
saucepan till thickened, stirring constantly. Add butter and lemon juice.
This is a salad dressing without oil and is liked especially by children.
C. Salad Combinations
1. Vegetable Salads
Various combinations may be made of cooked and raw vegetables but
the real vegetable salad serves to add fresh uncooked food in its natural
Radishes, pepper, onion, tomato, cucumber on lettuce or greens.
2. Tomatoes with celery and pepper.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Chopped cabbage with green peppers and peanuts, cream dressing
or a mayonnaise with cream added.
Sliced, firm, crisp pear or apple adds to the flavor.
4. Cabbage, pineapple and pecans.
5. Cabbage, carrot, celery and peanuts. Omit celery and use fig pre-
serves if desired. French dressing; or to the dressing add peanut
6. Tomato-top with sour cream dressing sprinkled with parsley.
Garnish with strips of green pepper.
7. Any salad green, young and tender, combines with a dressing made
of hot bacon fat, lemon juice and grated hard cooked egg.
2. Fruit Salads
1. Grapefruit, celery, red or green sweet pepper, French dressing.
2. Grapefruit, celery, pecans or crushed peanuts, French dressing.
3. Grapefruit sections arranged overlapping in a circle on lettuce. Use
French dressing or Parisian dressing.
4. Grapefruit or pineapple, 1 cup orange cubes, % cup crystallized
citrus fruit, 3 tablespoons pecans, fruit salad dressing.
5. Grapefruit (one), oranges (two), lettuce, avocado (cubes), alter-
nate sections of oranges or grapefruit, in circle on lettuce. Place avocado
cubes in center. French dressing.
6. Orange sections arranged in circle on lettuce. Strawberries heaped
in center. Fruit or cream dressing.
7. Orange cubes heaped into and around a guava cup. Top with
strawberries or Surinam cherries. Fruit dressing.
8. Sliced orange with crystallized or fresh fig, pecan nuts.
9. Orange sections circled around a mold of carissa or Surinam cherry
jelly garnished with a sprig of mint.
10. Orange and pineapple cubes with strawberries. French dressing.
11. Orange sections rolled in cocoanut arranged on green leaves. Gar-
nish with Surinam cherries or with preserved or crystallized carissa.
12. Orange sections cut in pieces. Florida Amalga grapes (seeded),
crushed peanuts or pecans.
13. Grapefruit, orange, tangerine sections with occasional cubes of
pineapple or Florida banana with a sprinkle of lemon juice.
14. Satsuma section with preserved figs, pecans, pomegranate juice.
Avocado and tomato or tomato jelly with nuts.
15. Avocado, celery and grapefruit.
16. Guava cups stuffed with strawberries, or with congealed guava
pulp and pecans. Use cream dressing (sweetened). (Marinate cup with
lemon to prevent darkening.)
17. Guava, celery, cheese, with fruit dressing.
18. Guava, pineapple, pecans, crystallized fig.
19. Mango (non-fibrous type, such as Haden) with juice of lemon,
lime, passion fruit, or sour-sop.
20. Tangerine lobes, ground pecans served with fruit dressing.
21. Banana marinated in lemon or sour orange juice, crushed peanuts,
ripe strawberries, fruit dressing.
22. Halves of peach, pear or guava, center filled with cheese, topped
with carissa or Surinam cherry.
23. Carissa (halves), slices of crystallized kumquat rolled in cocoanut.
24. Pineapple, celery, nuts.
25. Sliced pineapple filled and heaped with strawberries. Cream dressing.
26. Pineapple, seeded grapes, loquats or carissas (halved) with or with-
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 49
SPECIAL GARNISHES FOR FLORIDA SALADS
1. Green or red peppers, strips or small pieces.
2. Surinam cherry, carissa plum, any number of crystallized citrus
fruits (kumquats being especially appropriate).
3. Natural color jellies of carissa, roselle, Surinam cherry, tamarind,
May haw, fall haw, guava, wild grape and many other Florida fruits.
SETTINGS FOR FLORIDA SALADS
Curled celery, endive, Romaine, curly lettuce, spinach, beet greens,
"tender greens," kale, young mustard, water cress, mint, parsley, lemon,
kumquat, fresh tender cucumber strips or rings, mild-flavored onions,
nasturtiums, pineapple shells, orange -or other citrus cups furnish a won-
derful variety of salad "settings." Numerous tropical, sub-tropical, and
hardier fruits furnish acid and sub-acid juices for marinating or for add-
ing the last dash to a salad that makes it "different." Florida colors in
fruits red, yellow, orange, green, with all the intervening shades,
make for a strong appeal to the esthetic sense.
SPECIAL MARINADES FOR FLORIDA SALADS
Orange, lemon, lime, calamondin, sour orange juices make excellent
marinades. Two parts juice to one part oil with salt to taste is the usual
measure. Some fruits call for juice only. Chopped mint, parsley, pimento
strips or paprika add color. Fruit juice as a marinade adds not only a
flavor but food value.
D. Special Salads-Florida
Tomato With Avocado Dressing
Fresh tomato peeled and cored, and stuffed with celery. Use avocado
dressing made by mashing smoothly avocado pulp into lemon or lime
juice and adding a littic salt. Pour over tomato. Serve on lettuce.
Avocado With Tomato Dressing
Half fresh avocado, peeled and seeded. Peel and mash fresh tomato and
S run through potato ricer. Season with a suggestion of tabasco. Fill cavity
Peel and remove the seeds of litchi and stuff with a half of a Florida
pecan. Serve with mayonnaise on lettuce.
Fruit Salad in Orange Cups
Three large oranges, 2 slices pineapple, diced, 12 marshmallows, quar-
t tered, 1/3 cup broken nut meats, 2/3 cup strawberries, halved, lettuce.
Cut oranges in two, remove pulp carefully, leaving shell clean. Mix
pineapple, marshmallows, nuts and strawberries with orange pulp. Fill or-
ange cups, cover with cream mayonnaise and garnish with nuts. Serve on
Combine grapefruit pulp with Florida grapes stuffed with pecans;
squeeze orange juice over the mixture and serve in half grapefruit hull on
Sbed of endive. Top salad with mayonnaise (with cream).
Endive With Bacon Dressing, or Wilted Salad
Endive (or other greens) shredded. Serve with a dressing of hot bacon
or fat, lemon juice and grated egg. Garnish with crisp strips of bacon.
S Shredded green peppers may be added.
Grated fresh cocoanut on hearts of lettuce served with hot French
50 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Shred and chill 1/ small head cabbage and one white onion. Mix with
half that amount of chopped celery. Dust on a little paprika. Dress with a
French dressing, dashed with Worcestershire sauce. Serve in a nest of
endive. Top with cubes or small slices of tomato.
Mammee Sapote Salad
Cut in half, remove seed. Add a lemon, French dressing or lemon
juice, adding a few drops from a sour-sop. Serve on lettuce.
Shred a fresh sweet pineapple. Combine with seeded grapes and place
on a nest of lettuce. Dress with mayonnaise (with cream) and top with
halves of carissas.
Ponce de Leon Salad
Scoop out a little of the top heart of a Florida artichoke. Fill with a
French dressing combined with chopped pimento, parsley, finely minced
celery, and the mashed pulp of artichokes. Serve with a thin cheese sand-
wich or wafer as a course of a luncheon.
Banana and Strawberry
Make a banana boat. Combine pulp with halved strawberries and fill the
boat. Use a slightly sweetened lemon dressing. Serve the banana on straw-
berry leaves. Serve with toasted cheese crackers and Russian tea as a
Split kumquats in half lengthwise. Add seeded carissas in halves. Place
a little lemon jelly in cups. fill nearly full with fruit and cover with jelly
just as it begins to congeal. Set in refrigerator over night. Serve on let-
tuce with a cream mayonnaise mixed with crushed pecans.
Slice loquats and kumquats thin. Add seeded grapes and toasted
grated cocoanut. Serve on lettuce with mayonnaise.
Combine orange cubes, grated fresh cocoanut, cubed pineapple. Serve
with a sweetened fruit dressing.
Marinate guava cups in lemon juice. Fill with grated cocoanut and
orange. Serve with cream mayonnaise in a lettuce nest.
Fill a small half of avocado with a clear tomato jelly. Drop in a few
pieces of green pepper when the tomato begins to jell. Curl lettuce leaf
around each end of pear just before serving.
Cut fruit in half. Sprinkle with lemon or lime juice. Serve on lettuce,
water cress, or other green or garnish with mint.
Florida Banana Salad
Sprinkle the fruit with lemon or lime juice. Roll in crushed peanuts.
Serve on lettuce. Garnish with strawberries (with stems).
Fruit Salad Mold
Cube one grapefruit, two oranges, and one pineapple. Add four sliced
kumquats and % cup seeded Surinam cherries. When the mold begins to
set add fruit and allow to become firm. Serve in slices on lettuce with
mayonnaise (with cream). If cherries are not available use grapes.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 51
Fill halves of satsumas with orange meat, mold with shredded pineapple
and crushed pecans. Serve on lettuce with a small crystallized fig on each
Cut off two inches of fruit to make a cup; mix the pulp with sliced
strawberries and pecans and fill the cups. Use fruit dressing. Top with a
2 slices pineapple French dressing
1 pineapple orange with peel Cream cheese
1 head romaine
Lay half slices pineapple and orange alternately on romaine. Garnish
with ball of cream cheese. Serve with French dressing.
Slice pineapple 3 pecans
Slice orange Crystallized ginger
3 figs (preserved) Cream mayonnaise
Place a slice of orange (with peel) on romaine and on top place a ring
Sof green pimento. Cut figs at blossom end and press out sirup. Stuff with
crystallized ginger, nuts and small pieces of orange. Place figs in pepper
ring. Garnish with mayonnaise, top with pecan half or pepper chip. On
each of four sides place orange slices quartered.
1 envelope gelatine (2 tablespoons) 1 cup pineapple cubes
1/ cup cold water cup sugar
cup mild vinegar 1 pimento, chopped fine
1 cup boiling water 1 teaspoon salt
Juice of 1 lemon 1 cup finely shredded cabbage
1 cup celery (cut in small pieces)
1. Add vinegar, lemon juice, sugar and salt to gelatine soaked in cold
water and dissolve in boiling water and cool.
2. Strain and when the mixture begins to set, add remaining ingredi-
ents. Turn into a mold and chill.
3. Serve on lettuce leaves with salad dressing.
E. The Fruit and Vegetable Salad in the Menu
1. The dressing is related to the salad. Use a combination dressing
with plain salad; use a plain dressing with a combined salad. Use fruit
salad dressing with fruit salads.
2. If the meal is heavy use a simple acid salad.
3. Cheese combines well with fruit or vegetables for a main dish salad.
4. Avoid repeating the main ingredient of a salad in the meal.
6. Get the habit of making the fruit or raw vegetable salad the im-
7. Remember that the salad is to be fresh, raw, chilled or crisp and
attractive. Make it a habit.
4. COOKED PRODUCTS
A. Preserving the "Preventive and Protective" Value
The common American diet has been found to contain the
1. Abundance of starch, sugar and fat.
2. Adequate protein if selected properly.
3. A possible lack of vitamins, minerals and roughage.
52 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Since the factors lacking are easily and surely supplied by
vegetables, fruits and milk, it seems best to concentrate on these
three groups of food in any plan of nutrition. For this reason,
too, it is particularly important that we know how to preserve
the minerals, roughage and vitamins in the fruits, vegetables and
milk while preparing them for the family table. If we ate all of
these sun-grown, soil-fed products in sufficient quantity in the
fresh, natural state and without cooking, there would be no nu-
trition problem. That, however, would not be recommended by
the most enthusiastic nutritionists. The appetite would prob-
ably not call for the quantity needed. Cooking is therefore a
necessary process of preparation.
Since Florida's fruits and vegetables may be produced in
abundance year in and year out in the sunshine and soil of the out-
of-doors, the remaining problem is the conservation of the food
value in the fruits and vegetables. Losses in the various kinds of
storage and transportation are important from a nutritional
viewpoint but the problem to be discussed here is that of the con-
servation in cooking. Food conservation is an ancient subject of
interest but food value conservation belongs to the modern time.
During the past "to cook it done" has been the idea. "Water
or no water," "top on or top off" has not been in the thinking.
The flavor or taste has been added in the "seasoning." Texture
has been simply sacrificed. Then roughage began to count; vita-
mins (water soluble) became prominent; minerals were recog-
nized as important and they too were being stolen away by the
water. Then the cooking of fruits and vegetables became a sci-
entific process and not just a disagreeable task.
Fresh fruit in the cooking is affected largely, as are vegeta-
bles, as to the minerals, vitamins, and roughage. Therefore the
discussion at this point is limited to vegetables.
EFFECT OF HEAT ON VEGETABLES-COLOR
Children and grown-ups eat because they "like it," not because
they should; because "it's good," not because "it's good for you."
Attractiveness in preparation usually creates the demand. With
vegetables, one of the main points of attractiveness is natural
color. What is color? How is it lost? How can we retain it?
There are four color pigments in vegetables which give the
natural vegetable coloring. These substances change with the
action of heat, acid, and alkalis and thus change the color of the
products. It is.interesting to know about them.
Green (Chlorophyll)-Green vegetables, such as spinach,
chard, string beans (green), green cabbage, turnip greens, carry
this coloring matter or pigment which is slightly soluble in water
as is shown in the cooking. Heat turns this pigment brown when
there is acid present. All vegetables contain at least a trace of
acid, but this acid will disappear in steam if the cover is left off
the cooking vessel,'and nearly all of it will go during the first fif-
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
teen minutes. If a steamer is being used the color may be im-
proved by letting the steam escape at the end of fifteen minutes.
An open kettle cooking retains better color. An alkali has the
opposite effect on the "green" from that produced by the acid. A
small pinch of soda has a tendency to destroy part of the vita-
mins and break down the fiber to a state of mush. Avoid soda.
For palatability and attractiveness, then, cook "greens" by the
open kettle quick method. Spinach cooks quickly, and does not
lose its color. Steaming does not therefore detract.
Red (Anthocyanins)-Beets and red cabbage contain red pig-
ment. It is very soluble in water. Alkali turns the red vegetables
brown; acid turns them redder. A teaspoon of vinegar to a pint
of water helps to retain color in cooking beets or red cabbage.
Colorless (Flavone)-Onions, turnips, celery and white cab-
bage have this pigment which is colorless until heated in the
presence of alkali. Then it turns yellow. Overcooking has the
same effect in onions and in cabbage.
Yellow (Carotinoid)-Carrots, squash, pumpkin and ruta-
baga carry this pigment, which is only slightly soluble in water
and is not affected by acid or alkali. Because it is stable we
need not, from the point of color, consider the cooking.
Cooking softens the fiber, breaking down the natural texture.
The problem is to make the product tender yet as natural as pos-
sible in texture. Spinach and okra and many other vegetables
are much disliked when overcooked. Select them tender and cook
them quickly is the best plan. Again avoid the habit of adding
soda to make them tender.
To improve the flavor, to "season," is sometimes given as a
reason for cooking vegetables instead of serving them raw.
Really uncooked vegetables (mildly flavored ones) are more pal-
atable than cooked ones and the problem is to retain the natural
flavor. A few of the "strong juice" vegetables are improved with
cooking, but over-cooking, even of onions and cabbage, ruins the
flavor and (in case of the latter) the digestibility. To preserve
flavor, cook vegetables in the skin, whole, and quickly and serve
at once. Potato (sweet or white), squash, pumpkin, apple, beans
and other products are better when baked.
We study tables of food value of vegetables and plan our
meals. We cook the vegetables one way or another and continue
to figure the food value the same. There is a big difference be-
tween cooked and uncooked vegetables from the viewpoint of
minerals and vitamins. Experiments have shown that possibly
from 40 to 50 per cent of the minerals and as great proportion
of some vitamins dissolve into the water or are lost in cooking.
Some of the minerals, at least, are in the water and should not
be thrown away. Extensive experiments on many kinds of
54 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
vegetables have shown that particularly cabbage, onions, and
celery lose more in minerals than do other vegetables. For this
reason it is a wise plan to eat raw cabbage and celery.
Steamed vegetables lose less calcium than do boiled vege-
tables. However, greens and spinach do not lose their minerals
so easily in cooking as do some others.
Phosphorus, in onions, rutabagas, and leafy vegetables, "leaks
out" in cooking. Parsnips, cauliflower, and potatoes are valuable
in phosphorus. Don't lose it. Bake the potatoes in their skins.
Beet greens, turnip greens and cabbage rank high in iron. The
iron leaks easily, the exposed surface being great. Save the water.
Vitamins B and C are soluble in water. By saving the water
we save B, but C seems to be lost in the process. It seems prob-
able that cabbage and tomatoes do not lose their C to any great
extent in quick cooking. At the usual temperature there is prob-
ably only a slight loss of vitamins A and D. Vitamin E seems to
be remarkably stable. Vitamin C abounds in citrus and toma-
toes. They need no cooking.
THE EFFECT OF THE METHOD OF COOKING
I. Baking a vegetable in the skin preserves the food value
in minerals and vitamins A and B.
1. Vegetables with high enough water content and
small exposed surface, bake well. Beets, carrots, onions,
parsnips, potatoes (Irish or sweet), squash, pumpkin,
turnips, are good for baking.
2. Baking requires extra time and fuel.
II. Steaming is the next best method of saving food value.
1. Beets, carrots, parsnips, potato, squash and pump-
kin steam well.
2. Green vegetables may be steamed but are not so
attractive in color as are the open cooked "greens."
3. Steaming is more economical than baking as sev-
eral vegetables may be steamed at once.
III. Steam Pressure comes third in taking care of food value.
1. Vegetables which require long time cooking are
used in this method.
IV. Boiling in the Skin is rated as the fourth in methods.
1. If vegetables must be peeled, boil whole.
2. If vegetables must be cut, cut lengthwise, not
crosswise, to save food value. Boiling in a large amount
of water loses more minerals and vitamins than boiling
in small amount. Vegetables retain flavor, texture, and
food value when put on in boiling water rather than cold.
Again, practically all of the minerals lost may be found
in the cooking water, so do not feed the sink.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 55
"Waterless Cooking" is comparatively new. The cooker is
usually heavy aluminum, a good heat distributor. The bottom is
very thick and prevents burning. The cooker may be set on the
back part of a range or on a gas or oil flame. The cover fits
tightly. Heat should be regulated to prevent steam escape. The
cover is not removed during cooking since the method is to cook
the vegetables in their own juices. Of course, strong vegetables
like cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, turnips and onions
are better when they lose some of their flavor in cooking. Green
vegetables become brown due to certain acids which cannot
escape in a tightly closed vessel. Vegetables like potatoes
(sweet and Irish) and squash and such other vegetables as are
suitable for baking are suitable for waterless cooking.
SELECTION OF VEGETABLES
1. Select usually the medium sized vegetables. Many Florida
products, however, grow very quickly to a size above the average
and retain their fresh tender texture and food value.
2. Select for firmness, crispness, and weight for size.
PREPARATION OF VEGETABLES FOR COOKING
1. Remove insects (if necessary) by placing the vegetable
(upside down if headed) in water to which salt or vinegar has
2. Wash vegetables thoroughly, using a brush. Scrape, peel,
or shell after cleaning if necessary. Remember that vegetables
cut crosswise lose more nutrients in cooking than vegetables cut
3. If it is necessary to prepare mild vegetables some time
before cooking, add water to cover. When ready to cook, remove
vegetables, bring water in which they have been covered to a
boil, and replace vegetables in this same water. Vegetables cut
up and covered keep nicely in a hydrator in the refrigerator.
A pan with a perforated lid serves as a substitute.
Select the method best suited to the vegetables to be cooked,
taking into consideration whether texture, color, flavor summed
up in attractiveness is the main item (and it sometimes is) or
whether minerals and vitamins are in this particular case of
more importance. Sometimes it is best to coax the appetite or
desire for the cooked food and to supply the minerals and vita-
mins in fresh uncooked foods such as milk and fresh fruits and
vegetables or their juices. Use common sense and a knowledge
of the food habits of the family.
1. In boiling, put all vegetables into quickly boiling water
which has been boiling long enough to drive out the air. Bring
the water to a boil again as quickly as possible.
2. Start the cooking with the lid partially or entirely re-
moved. Shove the lid off for the first three minutes of boiling of
56 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
strongly flavored or of green or yellow vegetables. This gives
acids and gases time to escape and leaves better flavor, color and
3. Add one teaspoon of salt to a quart of water. Add salt early
in the cooking to increase color (except in red or white vegetables).
4. Use only enough water to cover mildly flavored vegeta-
bles. Let the water cook down. Do not drain. This process applies
to peas, celery, string beans, lima beans.
5. Vegetables of stronger flavor (onions, cabbage, Brussels
sprouts, cauliflower, turnips) should boil rapidly in larger
amounts of water with open top.
6. Cook vegetables until done-no longer. Overcooking de-
stroys color, flavor, vitamins, digestibility, nutrients. Time de-
pends upon age and tenderness of vegetables. Remove from heat
as soon as tender, serve quickly with butter, with cream, with milk
and butter, with white sauce or with strips of browned bacon.
7. Add no soda in cooking vegetables. It destroys vitamins,
flavor, and texture.
8. To follow the waterless or heavy covered aluminum
sauce-pan method, proceed as follows:
a. Select mild flavored vegetables. Add no water, cover pan
and set it over low heat. If steam escapes, lower heat.
b. For "stronger" vegetables, add a small amount of boiling
water. Leave uncovered a few minutes. Cover. Use low heat.
9. To steam vegetables-
Select vegetables that are white, yellow or red in color (beets,
wax beans, squash, potato). Spinach and some very tender
greens may be steamed. For mild vegetables choose an inset
pan not perforated in bottom and lower sides but so adjusted
that the steam gets to the food.
For strong vegetables use a perforated pan or rack for self-
draining. Allow the steam to escape some in the beginning. Place
water in the bottom of the steamer. If vegetables are steamed
on a perforated rack the water in the bottom will be good for
soups and gravies.
10. To bake vegetables leave them in rather large pieces.
Cut lengthwise in quarters-carrots, parsnips, turnips. Leave
onions whole. Use a baking dish or pan. Salt, cover bottom of
pan with boiling water. Cover dish or pan tightly and place in
oven. In case of strong vegetables, lift the lid during the first
few minutes of cooking. Use heat high enough to let the water
boil-about 350 degrees. As vegetables begin to get tender, re-
move the cover if a fairly dry product is desired. To butter the
products wait until almost all the water has evaporated. Leave
the lid off and turn the heat up slightly and continue the baking
until slightly brown if necessary.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 57
B. General Recipes--Vegetables
COMMON VEGETABLE DISHES
Au Gratin-Au gratin is a French term meaning covered with crumbs.
SPrepare cooked vegetables as for scalloping but cover the top with buttered
crumbs before browning. Sprinkle cheese over the top if desired but cheese
is not essential to an au gratin dish.
Baked-Wash the vegetable and place on a pan or rack in a moderate
oven. Cook until tender. Most vegetables are baked whole but squash is
usually cut in pieces for serving before being baked.
Boiled-Wash the vegetable and cook it in the skin, or pared, whole or
in pieces, in boiling water until just tender. The water should be boiling
when the vegetable is put in and should boil continuously but not very rap-
idly in order not to break the vegetable. Serve with salt, pepper, and but-
Ster, or prepare in other ways such as creamed, au gratin, croquettes, or
Buttered-Heat the boiled or steamed vegetable in butter or pour
melted butter over the hot cooked vegetable.
Creamed-Combine the cooked vegetable whole or in pieces with white
sauce. The usual proportions are one cup of vegetables to one cup of white
sauce. For moist vegetables, such as carrots, turnips or onions, use medium
white sauce. For dry vegetables, like potatoes, use thin white sauce.
Cream Soups-Combine a mashed or strained cooked vegetable with
thin white sauce. The usual proportions are one cup of vegetable to two
cups of sauce.
Croquettes-Combine a mashed or finely diced cooked vegetable with
thick white sauce. Shape into individual servings of the desired form, roll
in crumbs, in beaten egg, and in crumbs again, and fry in deep fat.
Curried-Add curry powder to white sauce and prepare as for creamed
Scalloped (cooked)-Cut cooked vegetables or a combination of vege-
tables in slices or pieces, combine with white sauce as for creamed vege-
table, put into a buttered baking dish, and brown in the oven.
Scalloped (raw)-Put a layer of the sliced raw vegetable in the bottom
of a buttered baking dish, sprinkle with flour, salt, and pepper, and dot
with butter. Repeat the layers until the dish is full and pour over the top
just enough milk to be seen through the top layer. Bake in a moderate
oven until the vegetable is tender.
Wash and pare and cook one quart of artichokes in boiling salt water
until soft. Add cup butter, 2 tablespoons lemon juice, 2 teaspoons salt,
and a few grains cayenne. Cook 3 minutes and serve hot.
58 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Cut off lower parts of stalks as far down as they will snap. The end
of the stalk may be cut in pieces and cooked until tender and served as
creamed or scalloped asparagus or used as a puree in stock or cream soups. 4
To avoid overcooking the tips, after scraping off any tiny leaves, wash
the asparagus, cut it into equal lengths, discard the tough portions, tie it
in bunches with a soft string, and cook it standing upright in a deep
saucepan. The water should come about two-thirds of the way to the tips,
which should be cooked by the steam alone. Cook until tender but not soft.
As with most green vegetables, asparagus is better slightly undercooked
than overcooked. Serve the asparagus in long or short pieces, on buttered
toast with melted butter or a cream sauce.
2 cups milk 2 bunches (about 1 quart) of as-
2 tablespoons butter paragus
2 tablespoons flour 2 eggs, yolks
Salt and pepper 1 cup buttered bread crumbs
Make a thin white sauce and add the cooked asparagus. Add the beaten
yolks and turn the mixture into buttered baking dish. Cover with buttered
crumbs and brown in a moderate oven (350"-400* F.).
Buttered Crumbs-To each cup of ground crumbs, use 3 tablespoons of
butter or other fat. Melt the fat, add the crumbs, remove them from the
heat and mix them thoroughly until each crumb is coated with fat. This
mixture browns easily and gives a delicious flavor to a creamed dish.
1 cup asparagus pure 1 teaspoon salt
2 cups hot mashed potatoes 1% cup fine dry bread crumbs
Mix the asparagus, potato, salt and beaten egg thoroughly. On a well-
greased baking sheet, shape the mixture into small circular forms with a
hollow center. Brush the entire surface with melted butter, sprinkle lightly
with bread crumbs, and set in a hot oven (400-450 F.) until thoroughly
heated and golden brown. With a broad spatula or pancake turner lift the
shells to a hot platter. Fill them with diced cream chicken or mushrooms.
Serve at once.
Banana may be used in any number of dessert combinations with eggs,
milk, sugar and starch. It is best baked simply with the addition of lemon
or orange juice and a little salt. There is enough fat and also of sugar
without the use of more.
Cook young lima beans in BOILING salted water until tender, allow-
ing water to cook quite low. Moisten well with thin cream or butter, salt
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 59
2 cups fresh corn 2 tablespoons butter
1 cup lima beans Salt, pepper
1% cup milk
Boil beans until tender. Add corn and cook 10 minutes. Add milk,
butter, salt and pepper. Cook 3 minutes longer.
Creole Lima Beans
1 1 cups dried lima beans 1 small onion
2 tablespoons butter or other 1 % tablespoons flour
cooking fat 1 cup canned or stewed tomato
2 tablespoons chopped green 1 teaspoon sugar
pepper 1/ teaspoon salt
Soak the beans overnight and cook until tender. Heat the butter and
cook the chopped pepper and onion in it for a few minutes. Add flour and
blend thoroughly. Add the tomato gradually and cook until thickened, stir-
ring constantly. Add seasoning, pour over the beans and cook 15 minutes.
Lima Beans, French Style
1 cup dried lima beans 1% teaspoon salt
11/2 cups milk 2 egg yolks
4 tablespoons butter
Soak beans overnight and cook until almost done, using no more water
than the beans will absorb. Add milk, butter and salt, and finish cooking.
Just before serving stir in the beaten egg yolks and cook until slightly
Select tender beans. String well. Drop into boiling salted water and
cook until tender, being careful to see that the water evaporates as the
beans are done. Brown strips of bacon in a pan. Add bacon and drippings
to beans and allow them to cook a few minutes longer until well seasoned.
Succotash (String Beans)
Cook beans as for boiling and add in proportion of one cup of each
grated corn and stewed tomato and cook until well combined (about ten
Leave on the skin, end of the root, and 2 inches of the stem. Wash the
beets and boil them until they are tender. Take them from the boiling wa-
ter and drop into cold water. Slip off the skin, cut the beets in thin slices
or dice them. Heat them with salt, pepper and butter and serve at once.
VARIATION-To each pint of hot buttered beets add from 1 to 2
tablespoons of vinegar or lemon juice, 1 teaspoon of sugar, and 1 table-
Sspoon of minced green pepper.
Examine the leaves carefully, rejecting all bruised or dark portions.
Do not separate the roots from the leaves. Wash thoroughly in many
waters. Add only enough boiling water to keep the beets from burning,
and boil until tender, from 20 to 30 minutes. Drain off the water, cut off
the ends of the roots and peel the beets. Chop the greens slightly and
season with butter, salt and pepper.
Cook as for buttered beets. Mix % cup sugar and tablespoon corn-
starch. Add 1/ cup vinegar and let boil 5 minutes. Add beets and let stand
on back of range 30 minutes. Just before serving add 2 tablespoons butter.
60 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Cook in boiling salted water about 20 minutes or until tender. Drain.
Add butter or cream.
Brussels Sprouts With Celery
Chop 1 quart sprouts as above. Chop celery, 1 cups, and cook two
minutes in 3 tablespoons butter. Add 2 tablespoons flour and pour on
gradually 1 cups scalded milk. Bring to a boil. Add sprouts, season with
salt and pepper, and, as soon as heated, serve.
To preserve the attractive texture and flower of the Broccoli, arrange
with "heads up" in a vessel. Steam in salted water for a few minutes with
the vessel open to preserve the green color. Cook until tender. Season with
butter or bacon fat or with a combination of butter and bacon.
Chop or shred cabbage and cook in uncovered vessel in boiling salted
water. Cabbage may be overcooked very easily. Remove as soon as tender.
Add butter or cream. Cabbage is of fine flavor when boiled in water in
which ham (especially a ham bone) has been boiled.
Cabbage being among the "strong" vegetables is cooked in a generous
amount of water and with the top open for at least fifteen minutes. Season
with ham or with butter, salt and pepper. Cook only until tender.
2 cups mashed potatoes Salt and pepper
1 medium-sized onion Celery salt
1 green pepper or pimento Cabbage leaves
1 cup cold cooked meat, ground or Boiling water or stock
chopped Sage to taste
Combine the vegetables, meat and seasonings, and shape the mixture
into small rolls. Roll each of these in a wilted cabbage leaf (wilted by
placing in boiling water for 5 minutes) and place them in a greased baking
dish. Add sufficient boiling water or stock to cover them about halfway.
Cover and bake in a moderate oven until the cabbage leaves are tender.
Use raw or cooked. This cabbage requires even less cooking than com-
mon cabbage. The inside leaves are better uncooked. (See Salads.)
Remove the green and imperfect leaves from the cauliflower and place
it top downward in a dish of cold salted water to draw out the dust and
other impurities. Leave whole or break into flowers, boil until tender in a
large amount of water and serve with salt, pepper and butter.
Cauliflower, French Style
1 cauliflower 4 tablespoons flour
2 quarts water % pound sorrel or endive
2 tablespoons salt 2 tablespoons cream
5 tablespoons butter 1 egg yolk
Boil the cauliflower for twenty minutes in the salt water. Cook the
finely chopped sorrel for ten minutes. Make a white sauce of the flour
and part of the butter and the juice of the vegetables.
Put the cauliflower through a sieve-return to the soup-add the white
sauce and, just before serving, add the well-mixed egg yolk and cream.
1 large cauliflower 4 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour 3 tablespoons cream
1 cup milk 8 eggs
Cook the cauliflower until tender in boiling salt water, drain well;
rub through a sieve.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 61
Make a cream sauce with the flour, butter, cream and milk. Mix with
the cauliflower and add the egg yolks and lastly fold in the stiffly beaten
whites. Put in a buttered mold, set in water-cook covered for at least 1
hour. Ten minutes before serving, remove the cover and brown. Turn it
out of the mold and serve with tomato sauce. (French Selected.)
Cauliflower Au Gratin
1 medium-sized cauliflower Salt and paprika
1 cups thin white sauce Buttered crumbs
2/3 cup cheese
When the white sauce is smooth, add the cheese, the salt and the
paprika, and pour the sauce over the cooked cauliflower. Turn the mixture
into a buttered baking dish. Cover with buttered crumbs. Brown in a
moderate oven (3500-400 F.) from 15 to 20 minutes.
Cauliflower With Cheese Sauce
1 medium-sized cauliflower 4 tablespoons grated cheese
1 1 cups thin white sauce Salt and paprika
Add the cheese to the smooth white sauce and pour it over the cooked
'r cauliflower just before serving.
Select small bulbs having crisp new leaves. Cut leaves and bulbs in
small pieces. Boil the bulb in salted water for 15 minutes, then add leaves
and cook an additional 30 minutes. Slice the bulb, arrange the greens
around the edge of the dish and place the slices in the center. Season with
Cook rape according to other tender greens by the open kettle boiling
method. Cook quickly.
Wash and scrape young carrots. Boil or steam until tender. Add but-
ter, pepper, salt to taste. Add cream sauce if desired or use only butter.
Carrots may be boiled with meat. They may be used whole for garnish,
around the meat platter.
1 pint milk 1 tablespoon onion juice
1 cup cooked carrot, pressed 1 tablespoon minced parsley,
through a strainer celery, or celery salt
2 tablespoons butter
Heat the milk, combine the other ingredients, heat them, and add them
to the heated milk.
4 carrots 1 cup cooked rice
1/3 cup ground boiled ham 1 tablespoon butter
%4 teaspoon celery salt Buttered bread crumbs
Scrub the carrots and cook them until tender. Remove the skins, cut off
the root end, and split the carrots in half lengthwise. Combine the other
ingredients and mix thoroughly. Pile the stuffing on the carrot halves,
sprinkle with the buttered crumbs, and brown in a moderate oven.
1 cup carrots, boiled and mashed 2 eggs
1 tablespoon minced onion Salt and paprika
1 cup medium white sauce
Add the carrot, the onion and the seasoning to the white sauce, then
add the beaten egg yolks. Beat the whites of the eggs until they are stiff.
Fold them lightly into the first mixture, and turn this into a buttered bak-
ing dish. Set the dish in a pan of hot water and bake the souffle in a
moderate oven (350-400 F.) for 30 minutes. Serve it at once.
62 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Carrots and Peas
Boil whole. Cut in cubes. Combine with equal quantity of cooked -
green peas. Season with butter or light cream, salt and pepper.
2 cups carrots cut into thin 2 tablespoons butter
strips 1 tablespoon chopped parsley
2 teaspoons chopped onion Salt and pepper
Boil carrots ten minutes and drain. Melt butter, add onion and cook
five minutes. Then add carrots and salt and pepper to season. Stir gently
until well blended. Pile in hot dish and sprinkle with parsley.
Creamed Carrots With Peanut Butter
6 carrots 1 cup white sauce (medium) 1 tablespoon peanut butter
Dice the carrots and cook until soft. Make white sauce, adding to it
the peanut butter. Pour over the carrots and serve hot.
1 quart carrots, ground 1 pint vinegar
1 cup celery, chopped fine 1/2 cup sugar
1 large red or green pepper, 2 teaspoons salt
chopped % teaspoon paprika
1 medium sized onion, chopped
Cook carrot until tender. Chop celery and other ingredients very fine.
Combine ingredients and cook until mixture is clear.
RED PART YELLOW PART
2 pounds of sweet Spanish pimento 1 pint of small carrots, sliced
or No. 1 cans of pimento Cook until tender
1 pound of sugar % pint of gingered watermelon
Juice of 4 lemons rind
2 hot peppers
Red Part-Place sweet peppers in a hot oven, blister and peel. Chop
sweet and hot pepper together, add sugar and lemon juice, and let stand in
an enameled vessel or crock for 5 hours. Drain off the liquor and allow it
to simmer for ten minutes. Pour it over the Peppers again and let stand
for 2 hours. Simmer the liquor again for fifteen minutes, allowing the
peppers to remain in while simmering.
Yellow Part-Use one pint of sliced carrots (cooked) and one-half pint
gingered watermelon rind chopped or cut into small, uniform pieces.
Packing-A ten-ounce jar is an attractive package for this product. In
packing, place the heavier color-red-at the bottom in a one-inch layer;
then place a one-inch layer of yellow. Continue in this manner until the
jar is nearly filled. Combine the liquors and boil five minutes, strain, and
pour over the contents. Paddle to remove air bubbles. Cap, clamp, and
process for ten minutes.
6 carrots (medium size) cup water
2/3 cup brown sugar 2 tablespoons butter
Clean and cook whole carrots in small amount of salt water. Make a
sirup of the brown sugar, water and butter. Place cooked carrots in sirup
in a heavy frying pan. Baste carrots until they have a rich glaze. Serve
with roast meat.
Carrot and Apple Pie
1 cup grated carrots 1 cup grated pineapple
1 cup diced tart apples / cup water
1 cup sugar 1 tablespoon butter
1/3 cup raisins Nutmeg and vanilla
Cook carrot, apple, pineapple together. Make sirup of sugar and water.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 63
Add raisins and cook until tender and plump. Combine all and cook the
mixture, with the exception of the butter and the seasoning, until it is
- thick and clear. Remove from heat. Beat in one egg, add butter and sea-
soning. Turn it into a crust that has been baked, and cover it with merin-
gue. Bake it in a slow oven for 25 minutes.
Orange and Carrot Marmalade
6 carrots, medium size 1 lemon, juice and grated rind
3 oranges Sugar
Dice the carrots and cook them until they are tender, in as little water
as possible. Cut the oranges and the lemon in small pieces. Measure the
carrot and fruit, and add 2/3 as much sugar. Simmer the mixture until it is
clear. Turn it into jelly glasses, and when it is cold, seal it with paraffin.
Grated carrot Cocoanut
Pineapple Whipped cream
2 eggs 1 teaspoon salt
1 cup milk 1 tablespoon melted butter
1 cup fine bread crumbs 1% cups grated raw carrot
Beat eggs slightly and add remaining ingredients. Turn into greased
custard cups, place in steamer basket, set over boiling water, cover and
cook until the custard is firm, about 30 minutes. Unmold and serve as a
vegetable or with cheese or egg sauce as a main course at luncheon or
One level cup grated cassava, cup milk, 1% cups sugar, 1 egg, 1
> teaspoon salt, 4% cups water, 1 tablespoon butter, flavor with nutmeg.
Bake 1 hour.
The coarse outside stalks may be used for cooking, reserving the tender
hearts for salads, sandwiches, and eating raw.
1 cup medium white sauce 2 cups cooked celery, cut in
4 1 tablespoon finely minced onion pieces
Salt and pepper 3 tablespoons grated cheese
Buttered bread crumbs
Put the celery into a greased baking dish. Add the cheese to the white
sauce, flavored with onion, and pour it over the celery. Cover with the but-
tered crumbs and bake in a moderate oven until golden brown.
1 pint celery, cut into 1-inch 2 tablespoons butter
pieces % cup milk
2 tablespoons flour Salt and pepper
Cook the celery until tender. Make a medium white sauce of the celery
water, milk, flour and butter. Add the cooked celery to the white sauce
and season to taste with salt and pepper.
Celery (chopped) may be added to an oyster omelet or scrambled egg
and oyster combination. It should be cooked only partially and should be
crisp. It gives a nice "crunchy feel" to an otherwise soft dish.
The best recipe for celery is as follows: Clean well. Crisp. Serve.
64 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2 quarts celery or six bunches 1 quart onions
3 quarts cabbage or 2 large heads
Chop and cover with salt water for two days. Drain well and put on
1 % quarts vinegar 4 cups brown sugar
14 pound mustard 1 tablespoon flour
1 tablespoon turmeric powder
Boil twenty minutes then add three well-beaten eggs before taking
from heat. Add more salt and sugar if needed.
American Chop Suey *
1 pound round steak ground 1 large bunch celery
1 cup raw rice 1 pint tomatoes
1 green pepper (cut fine) 1 can mushrooms may be
1 large onion added
Brown meat slightly in small quantity of fat, add all other ingredients
which have been cut. Cook until vegetables are tender.
CHILI CON CARNE
One pound hamburger, one-half can pimentos, cut fine; two large on-
ions, cut fiie; one cup diced celery, one teaspoon sugar, one pint tomatoes,
one package spaghetti, cooked in boiling salted water. When spaghetti is
tender, drain off water; add hamburger, celery, tomatoes, pimentos, onions,
sugar. Cook slowly until meat is done. Add salt and pepper to taste.
4 cupfuls finely diced celery 111 teaspoonfuls salt
3 large potatoes diced 1/8 teaspoonful pepper
1 medium sized onion, chopped 1 quart milk
2 tablespoonfuls flour 2 hardcooked eggs
Melt the fat in a kettle. Then add the chopped onion, celery and pota-
toes. Cover with boiling water and simmer gently until the celery and
potatoes are tender. Then add the salt, pepper, and milk. Heat well and
thicken with the flour which has been rubbed smooth in two tablespoonfuls
of water. Just before serving add the hard-cooked eggs chopped. Serve
Cook like spinach in a small amount of water. Stir until it settles in
Select tender leaves after frost (if in frost section). Cook until tender
in a generous amount of water to evaporate as the greens become quite
tender. Season with cured bacon or ham hock. Usually the meat (with
bone) is placed in cold water and allowed to come to a boil and cook for
a while before the greens are added. Add salt to taste after greens have
cooked for a while. Chop fine. Serve with a sour relish or pickle.
(On the cob)
Select sound ears of green corn. Husk and silk. Cook immediately in
boiling salted water 10 to 12 minutes. Serve at once with butter.
(See Lima Beans)
1 pint shelled lima beans 3 tablespoons butter
3 cups green corn Salt and pepper
Cook the beans until tender in just enough water to cover them. Add
the corn and cook for 15 minutes longer. Season with butter, salt, and
pepper, and serve. The succotash may be made from canned corn and beans.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 65
VEGETABLE SOUP MIXTURE
(Canned for out-of-season)
This should be made in the proportion of one-half tomato pulp, one-
fourth corn or tiny lima beans, and one-fourth okra, with seasoning added.
One slice of onion should be added to each No. 2 can. The tomatoes should
P be heated, rubbed through a sieve, and cooked down to about the con-
sistency of ketchup before measuring; then the corn, okra, onion, and
seasoning should be added and cooked until the corn and okra are about
three-fourths done. Then pack into cans and process one hour at boiling
or 25 minutes at 10 pounds steam pressure.
CORN AND TOMATO CHOWDER
2 cups canned corn 1 cup milk
1 cup canned or ripe tomatoes % cup grated cheese
2 cups diced celery '% cup chopped pimentos
1 quart cold water 3 tablespoons flour
2 tablespoons butter 2 teaspoons salt
Place corn, tomatoes, diced celery, and one teaspoonful salt in a kettle
and cover with cold water. Boil /2 hour. Melt fat and add flour gradually.
Then add the cold milk, stirring constantly. Add the vegetable mixture
gradually to the white sauce; add seasonings. Add to the chowder and
grated cheese and pimentos, chopped fine. Stir until cheese is melted.
Serve piping hot. A cream soup may be made, if desired, by straining out
the vegetables before adding the white sauce. Serves six to eight.
To two cups grated or chopped corn add two eggs, slightly beaten, 2
tablespoons melted butter and one pint scalded milk; turn into buttered
baking dish and bake in slow oven.
Build a camp fire and allow to burn to a bed of coals and hot ashes.
Place ears of green corn in husks (all except outermost leaves) in hot
ashes with coals. Cook until tender. Serve immediately with butter and
salt. American Indians packed the ears of corn in clay and roasted them.
Southern corn meal (home ground) contains more of the food value
and natural flavor of the original product than does the finely "bolted"
meal. It is, therefore, a very popular food product. Any corn meal dish re-
quires thorough cooking and a high temperature to bring out the nutty
flavor and to thoroughly cook the starch. Because the corn dishes are used
so extensively with vegetables in the South, the following recipes are given:
Corn Muffins or Breadsticks
2 cups meal 2 cups buttermilk
1 teaspoon salt 2 eggs
1% teaspoon soda 3 tablespoons lard or
1 teaspoon baking powder bacon grease or butter
Mix all ingredients. Add one tablespoon cane sirup if desired. Add
melted lard last. Pour into hot greased muffin rings or iron breadstick
molds. Cook in very hot oven 30 minutes.
Corn Meal Batter Bread
Use same recipe for muffins. Combine. Pour into hot, greased skillet and
cook in hot oven from 30 to 40 minutes, depending upon thickness of loaf.
Corn meal-water-salt. Place iron or aluminum griddle over heat.
Grease well and allow to get piping hot. Pour hot water over corn meal and
66 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
salt and mix thoroughly. Place on hot griddle and pat out to "fit." When
the hoecake is well browned, turn on a plate or on your hand, if ex-
erienced. After turning, cover so as to hold some of the steam. When both
sides are well browned, allow to cook more slowly until well done.
Corn dodger is made like hoecake except a little butter or lard is added.
It is formed into small pones about three inches long and dropped into the
quickly boiling water in the vessels where turnip greens, peas, or collards
are cooking. About twenty minutes or more should be allowed for cooking.
They are served with the vegetable. In this way the cooking water is pre-
served in the menu. A most tasty article of food is the corn dodger.
5 cups milk 1 teaspoon salt
1/3 cup corn meal 1 teaspoon ginger
1/2 cup molasses
Cook milk and meal in a double boiler for twenty minutes; add mo-
lasses, salt and ginger; pour into a buttered pudding dish and bake two
hours in a slow oven: serve with cream.
Corn Meal and Fig Pudding
1 cup corn meal 1 cup finely chopped figs
1 cup molasses 2 eggs
6 cups milk (or 4 of milk 1 teaspoon salt
and 2 of cream)
Cook the corn meal with four cups of milk in a double boiler for twenty
minutes; add the figs and salt. When the mixture is cool, add the eggs well
beaten. Pour into a buttered pudding dish and bake in a moderate oven for
three hours or more. When partly cooked, add the remainder of the milk
without stirring the pudding. Fig preserves may be substituted for the dried
figs. Drain the figs from sirup and slightly dry in the oven before using.
Cucumbers should be served raw. See Relishes and Pickles. They may
be steamed and buttered like squash.
2 small eggplants Salt and pepper
14 cup oil %/ tablespoon flour
11/ tablespoons butte" 1 tablespoon water
1 pounds tomatoes Bouquet powder
Peel the eggplants and cut into %-inch slices, sprinkle lightly with salt,
and let stand covered with a cloth. After 1 hour, drain and dry them
carefully. Brown in the oil and drain.
For the other part prepare a tomato sauce by cooking the tomatoes and
onions, cut into pieces, with the butter, salt, pepper and bouquet; cook
until thick and strain.
Put the eggplant in a pan with alternate layers of tomato sauce. Put
bits of butter on top and bake for twenty minutes.
Slice and pare the eggplant. Place the slices in a buttered baking dish,
add salt and bits of butter and sprinkle generously with grated cheese.
Cover with sliced tomatoes, add salt, peppetf and butter. Bake in a moder-
ate oven until the eggplant is tender, from 30 to 45 minutes.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 67
Peel the eggplant and cut it into one-half inch slices. Sprinkle each
slice with salt. Pile the slices in a bowl and place a plate on top to weight
them down slightly. Let stand for two hours. The salt will draw out any
disagreeable flavor. Wipe each slice dry, dip it in crumbs, in beaten egg,
and in crumbs again, and saut6 slowly in hot fat.
Slice the eggplant, but do not pare it. Saut6 the slices in butter, bacon
fat, or drippings. Arrange the slices in a baking dish in layers with a
sprinkling of cheese between layers. When the dish is about three-fourths
full, cover the eggplant with a medium white sauce. Cover the top with
buttered crumbs and bake in a moderate oven until brown.
Endive is used largely for salads. A wilted salad is made by using hot
bacon grease instead of oil in the dressing. This adds a good flavor. Sliced
or grated hard cooked egg combines nicely as to color and food combina-
tion. Endive should be chopped fine. Boiled salad dressing may be added
to bacon. Escarole, Romaine, water cress, lettuce (green) may be prepared
in the same way or may be used as cooked "greens."
4 heads chicory (curly endive) 31 tablespoons butter
1 tablespoon meat broth or cream 1/3 cup croutons
1 tablespoon butter
Wash the endive thoroughly and cook in boiling salted water without
covering. When it is tender, drain and rinse and chop fine. Put in a pan
with the butter, salt, pepper, stock or cream and heat through. Decorate
the dish in which it is served with croutons of bread browned in butter.
Leeks, spinach, mustard, kale, radish, turnip greens may be used in any
of the recipes for greens. Examine all greens and wash them carefully,
) discarding any wilted or yellow leaves. Leave the roots on for the first
washing as this makes the greens easier to handle: then cut thlim off to
allow a more thorough cleansing. Wash in at least 3 waters, lifting the
greens out of the nan before emptying the water so that the sand and
other impurities will be left in the bottom of the pan.
Greens may be cooked quickly in a large amount of water or for a
slightly longer time in a small amount of water. Cook until iust tender and
no longer. Serve with salt, pepper, and butter, or season with bacon while
cooking. Hard cooked eggs may always be used with any of these "greens."
Okra is used in a number of combination dishes with tomatoes, corn or
lima beans. It is often cooked with field peas by dropping the tender nods
into the vessel with the peas when thev are nearly cooked. The steam from
the peas will cook the okra. The combination with a few slices of fresh
tomato or sweet green peppers makes a splendid vegetable plate. Plain,
steamed, or boiled okra should be whole and unbroken.
The real Creole gumbo is made as follows: Wash one-half gallon of
okra pods. dry on a towel; cut off ends of pods, and slice. Put one-third
cup of lard and two tablespoons of minced onion into a kettle and fry a
young chicken, previously jointed. untill a golden brown Rmo"n- chicken,
add the sliced okra and one small chopped tomato. Fry until no more
"strings" come from the okra. Then put the chicken in and salt and pepper
to taste. Add one quart of boiling water. Cook three-fourths hour. Serve
in soup plates with a portion of boiled rice in each plate. When chicken
cannot be secured, use ham.
68 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Bermuda onions are mild flavored. Place onions under water to peel.
Boil in plenty of water, drain, and again cover with boiling salted water.
Cook until soft but not broken. Drain. Add a little milk or cream. Cook
a few minutes. Season with butter.
After boiling 15 minutes small silverskin onions, drain and dry. Melt
3 tablespoons butter, add 2 tablespoons sugar and onions and cook until
browned. An asbestos mat is needed under the vessel during the last few
LEEKS OR GREEN ONIONS
Leeks Au Gratin
12 leeks 1 cup grated cheese
6 potatoes Buttered bread crumbs
1 cup medium white sauce Salt and pepper
Cook the leeks in boiling water until tender. Boil, pare, and slice the
potatoes. Arrange the vegetables in alternate layers in a buttered baking
dish and pour the white sauce over them. Add the cheese, the buttered
bread crumbs, and the seasoning, and bake for 15 minutes in a moderate
Onions Au Gratin
6 medium-sized onions Salt and pepper
14 cup grated cheese Stock or hot water
% cup toasted bread crumbs 2 tablespoons melted butter
Boil the onions until slightly tender and remove the centers with an
apple corer. Fill the cavities with the cheese and crumbs mixed together.
Place the onions in a baking dish. Add 1/ cup of the stock in which onions
were boiled, salt and pepper, dot with butter, and bake in a moderate oven
Scalloped Onions and Peanuts
Cut the onions in quarters; cook them in salted boiling water until
tender. Add salt just before the cooking is completed. Drain them and
save the broth for soup. Butter a baking dish. Put into it a layer of onions,
and sprinkle over them some ground peanuts; add another layer of onions
and peanuts. Pour over all the cream. Cover the top with buttered crumbs
and brown the dish in the oven. Any vegetable may be scalloped in this
way. Cheese may be used in place of peanuts if desired, or grated cheese
may be combined with the cream.
Cook medium-sized onions in boiling salted water for 15 minutes. Drain,
and remove the centers, leaving a shell about one-half inch thick. Make a
stuffing of equal parts of chopped cold meat and bread crumbs or rice.
Moisten the mixture with stock or tomato juice and season with salt and
pepper. Fill the. onion shells with the mixture and put them in the oven
to brown for 15 minutes.
The simplest method of cooking parsnips is to wash them clean, boil
them, and then scrape off the skin. Slice or chop them coarsely and season
with salt and butter.
Boil rather large parsnips until tender, and scrape off their skins. Cut
the parsnips crosswise in slices about one-third inch thick. Season the slices
with salt and pepper. Dip each slice in beaten egg and then in fine bread
crumbs. Fry in deep fat, drain on soft paper, and serve as a border for
Cook in boiling salted water until tender, allowing water to evaporate.
Add .milk, butter, pepper and salt to season.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 69
Field peas require longer period of cooking.
Scalloped Cow Peas
1 cup dried cow peas 1 tablespoon sugar
1/ cup uncooked rice 1 cup chopped onion
1% cups canned or stewed 1 tablespoon butter
tomatoes Salt, pepper
Soak the peas over night and cook until almost done, using no more
water than the peas will absorb. Add the remaining ingredients and con-
tinue cooking until the peas and rice are tender.
Green Peas (Little Peas), French Style
1 lb. peas 1 head of lettuce
Some young onions A sprig of parsley
6 tablespoons butter 1 egg yolk
Saut6 the peas in a pan with the butter. Add the lettuce, which has
been washed and tied in a bunch, onions, parsley, salt, pepper and little
sugar. Shake the pan until well mixed. Add a cup water; cover and cook
on a slow fire 1%1 hours. A little before serving remove the parsley; add
the rest of the butter and an egg yolk.
Peppers, used largely for raw salads, relishes and decorations, have be-
come popular as stuffed dishes. They add a delightful flavor to the dress-
ing and make new dishes of "left-overs."
6 medium sized green peppers 1 cup canned tomatoes
2 medium slices or 1 % lb. V2 cup cracker crumbs
smoked ham 1 very small onion
2 eggs Few sprigs parsley
% teaspoon salt
Simmer ham in 1 cup boiling water 5 minutes. Drain, reserving the
liquid. Put the ham through a meat chopper; mix with the tomatoes,
cracker crumbs and the eggs well beaten. Chop the onion and parsley
very fine and add to the mixture. Wash the peppers and remove the seeds.
Fill the pepper shells with the mixture and place them in shallow baking
dish surrounded by the water in which the ham was simmered.
Sweet potato develops the best flavor when baked. Wash well, grease
with butter or bacon and bake in covered pan inside oven. The skin when
brown cracks and allows steam to escape. Split through center or break
into halves crosswise and butter. Serve hot. A good sweet potato needs
no extra "trimmings."
Potatoes Baked on Half Shell
Bake potatoes, cut lengthwise, remove contents, mash, season with su-
gar and butter and salt. (Peanuts or pecans may be added.) Place in
potato shells, cover with marshmallows and brown.
Sweet Potato and Peanut Croquettes
1 cup mashed sweet potato /2 teaspoon salt
1 cup finely ground parched Cayenne pepper
peanuts or pecans 1 tablespoon flour
1 egg Bread crumbs
Combine the ingredients, and shape the mixture into croquettes. Roll
them in bread crumbs, beaten egg, and crumbs again. Fry them in deep fat.
70 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
1 quart grated raw sweet 1 cup milk
potatoes cup flour
1 egg 1 teaspoon nutmeg
% cup cane sirup 1 teaspoon cinnamon 4
3 tablespoons butter, melted S teaspoon salt
Sift together the dry ingredients. Combine these with the remaining
ingredients. Put the mixture in a baking dish and bake it in a slow oven
about two and one-half hours, or until done, stirring occasionally during
the first of the cooking. During the last thirty minutes, discontinue the
stirring and allow the pone to brown. Many people prefer to serve the dish
cold with milk or cream. When cold it can be sliced. It is very frequently
served hot, as a vegetable.-Sarah W. Partridge.
Sweet Potato Tournado
Select potatoes about two inches in diameter. Cook them in boiling"
water until tender. Peel and cut in pieces two inches long. Around each
piece wrap a thin slice of bacon and fasten with toothpick. Place on a pan
in a hot oven until the bacon is crisp. Serve with parsley garnish.
Breaded Sweet Potatoes
Peel boiled sweet potatoes and cut them in lengthwise slices. Dip the
slices in beaten egg, then in crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Drain on soft
paper. Serve hot. A
4 medium potatoes 1 teaspoon salt
1 cup water 1% cup sugar
% cup butter 4 cup vinegar or lemon juice
1 teaspoon cinnamon
Cut uncooked sweet potato into slices, then strips about 1/3 inch thick.
Place in a baking dish. Add butter and sprinkle with sugar. Pour on water.
Dash with cinnamon. Add vinegar. Bake until sugar and butter are can-
died and the potatoes are well cooked. Lemon juice may be substituted
This old-fashioned method of cooking sweet potatoes develops their
finest flavor and one unapproached through any other method. Select and
wash smooth, uniform potatoes of medium size. Make a bed of them in
the hot ashes of a burning fire. Cover well with the ashes, over this bank
glowing coals. Roast the potatoes until soft throughout. When soft, remove
from the ashes, peel and serve. They should be eaten hot with butter. This
method is especially adapted to the open fireplace or to camp cookery and A
is frequently used at the time of sirup and sugar making on the farm when
the hot ashes and glowing coals at the entrance of the furnace suggest it.
It may be practiced on a wood stove, utilizing the hot ashes in the ash pan
as a bed for the potatoes and covering them with a layer of glowing coals.
-Sarah W. Partridge.
White potatoes are more generally used as bread. Baked and boiled in
the jackets are the best methods. Butter, milk, cream or cheese add the ,
needed flavor and seasoning. Parsley, a contrasting color, adds attractive-
ness as well as flavor to the potato.
Potato, with a starch content of 18 to 20 per cent, is usually "mealy"
when cooked. Mealy potatoes are best for baking, boiling or deep frying.
Potatoes, containing more protein and less starch are "waxy" and better
for salad, scalloping and creaming because they retain their shape. A
light, sandy soil usually produces a larger starch content than heavy soil.
Both young potatoes and stored potatoes have more cellulose in proportion
to starch than have fresh matured potatoes.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 71
Select potatoes of uniform size; scrub them with vegetable brush; place
them on a grate or in a pan in a hot oven and bake them for 45 minutes,
or until they are tender. If they are overcooked, they will be soggy rather
than mealy. Crack or pierce the skin as soon as the potatoes are done to let
out the steam which otherwise will condense and make the potatoes soggy.
Drop well-washed potatoes into boiling salted water. Cook them, with
the cover of the kettle ajar, just until they are tender, about 20 to 30
minutes. Drain off the water immediately, cover them with a cloth which
will absorb the moisture, and place them where they will keep warm. Over-
4 cooking and standing in water makes a soggy, unpalatable potato.
Prepare the potatoes as for boiling, place them in a steamer, cover them
tight, and steam them for about 30 minutes, or until just tender. Remove
the skins and serve the potato at once.
Cut baked potatoes in half; remove the pulp and mash it; and add
enough hot milk to make it the consistency of mashed potatoes, and season
it with salt. Fill the cases with this mixture; dot the top with butter; brush
Them with milk and bake the stuffed potatoes for 8 to 10 minutes in a hot
oven or long enough to brown them on top. Potatoes may be stuffed in the
morning and heated for the noon or evening meal.
Variations-To the mashed potatoes, before the cases are filled, may
be added any one or a combination of the following:
Beaten white of egg (1 egg to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
Grated cheese (% cup to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
Chopped meat (% cup to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
Chopped parsley (1 tablespoon to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
SALSIFY OR OYSTER PLANT
Creamed Salsify or Oyster Plant
Boil salsify until tender, drain, and combine it with medium white
sauce. Serve with tiny meat balls or little sausages.
Scalloped Salsify or Oyster Plant
Boil the salsify until tender. Cut it in slices one-half inch thick. Put a
layer of buttered crumbs in the bottom of a buttered baking dish, cover
With a layer of the slices of salsify, and add salt and pepper. Continue with
alternate layers of crumbs and salsify until the dish is full, covering the
top with crumbs. Add enough hot milk to moisten. Bake in a moderate
oven until the crumbs are well browned.
Spinach and Bacon
2 pounds spinach Pepper
Salt 6 slices bacon
Prepare and cook spinach (steam in small amount of water or in
waterless cooker). When tender, chou, season and add the bacon which
has been cut in small pieces and cooked until crisp. A small amount of
lemon juice may be added if desired.
Variations-The bacon may be omitted and 1/ cup of butter added
just before serving. For creamed spinach add 14 cup of cream and 1
tablespoon of butter to the drained, chopped spinach and place the mix-
ture on thin slices of crisp toast. Garnish the top with grated, hard-
cooked egg or sliced egg.
72 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COMBINATION VEGETABLE RECIPES
16 eggs 2 pounds green peas
1 pound diced carrots 1 pound baby limas
1 pound diced potatoes Mayonnaise, egg, oil, and
1 pound green beans lemon juice
Boil the vegetables, tied in cheesecloth, in boiling salted water. Cook
the eggs at simmering temperature until they are hard; shell, cut off the
pointed end, remove the yolk and fill with mayonnaise. Run the yolk
through a ricer and garnish the edge of a plate with this. Then nut the
eggs, filled with mayonnaise, inside of this. Fill the center of the dish with
vegetables well marinated with the mayonnaise in the center, keeping
each variety separate.-(French Selected.)
1 rabbit (2 wild rabbits or % cup vinegar-flour
large chicken) 2 shallots or green onions
% pound mushrooms 1 pound tomatoes, bouquet
4 small onions garnish
3 tablespoons butter % cuD bouillon
4 tablespoons oil
Cut the rabbit into pieces, brown with oil. remove the rabbit and brown
the onions and mushrooms and shallot; sprinkle with flour, add bouillon
and vinegar, salt, pepper and rabbit, cover and cook slowly until tender. r
One-quarter of an hour before serving add a sauce made from the
tomatoes, bouquet and butter.
B. General Recipes-Fruits
AVOCADO (SEE SALADS)
Mash the avocado, season with salt and lemon or lime juice and spread
on hot toast and call it "Avocaded Toast."
Butter the soup with avocado. Dice the avocado and add to the soup
just before serving.
NOTE-Mayonnaise, cheese, nuts, butter are not needed when avocado
is used. Use your own taste about other combinations. The avocado al-
ways needs salt and lime or lemon juice. It is a concentrated food, very
rich in oil, nearly 18 per cent, and needs bread or other bulky food.
The fruits in many sections require additional pectin to produce jelly.
Fortunately Florida has an abundant supply of pectin in citrus fruits.
It may be prepared for convenience as follows:
One-fourth pound white part of orange peel, %/2 pint water, 2 table-
spoons lemon juice.
Cut or grate the yellow from orange peel. Pass white peel through a
food chopper. Weigh, add lemon juice, mix, allow to stand 1 hour. Add
1/4 pints water. Let stand 1 hour. Boil gently 10 minutes. Cover, let
cool, place in flannel jelly bag. Press to remove juice. Drain juice through
a clean bag.
The Pectin Test
To give the pectin test, pour 1 tablespoonful of jelly stock into clean
cup. Pour into cup a teaspoon of grain alcohol (or denatured alcohol).
Gently shake. Pour into a spoon. If the pectin shows a solid clot use one 4
measure of sugar to one measure of juice. If it is not so solid use less sugar.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 73
CITRUS FRUIT SPECIALS
Sour Orange Preserves
Grate the yellow from the peel. Cut the oranges in halves. Put four
oranges into five quarts of water and boil 20 minutes. Change to fresh
water and boil 15 minutes. Change and boil 10 minutes. Change again and
boil 8 minutes. Drain and boil in syrup of one part sugar and two parts
\vater until fruit is transparent. When sirup cooks to desired consistency,
pour over fruit packed into sterilized jars and process 10 minutes. Seal.
Sour Orange Marmalade
1 pound peeled sour orange 1 cup of sugar to 1 cup jelly
2 pints water stock or less according to
1/3 of peel pectin test
Preparation of Peel-Wash fruit, remove peel, keeping 1/3 and slicing
.in thin slices. Leave some white on skins. Place in kettle. Add water 4
times weight of peel. Boil 10 minutes. Drain. Repeat 3 times, each time
boiling 5 minutes. Continue until peel is very tender and all bitter taste
Preparation of Jelly Stock-Weigh peeled fruit; cut into small pieces
and, for each pound of orange, add 2 pints of water. Boil until thoroughly
disintegrated. Drain in flannel jelly bag and press.
Making Marmalade-Pour juice into a kettle; add peel and bring to a
boil. Make pectin test and add sugar as needed. Boil until the jellying
point is reached.
1 pound peeled fruit 1 pound sugar (based on
2 pints water pectin test)
One-third of peel
This marmalade follows same directions as for sour oranges.
Combination Marmalade-Orange, Grapefruit, Lemon
2 oranges (pulp and peel) 1 grapefruit (pulp)
1 lemon (pulp)
Wash fruit. Grate yellow from oranges. Use white peel. Peel grape-
tfruit and lemon and discard peel. Run fruit and orange peel through a
chopper. Add 3 times the bulk of water. Boil 15 minutes and let stand
over night. Boil 10 minutes and let stand again. When cold, measure pint
for pint of sugar. Cook rapidly to jelly stage, 222 F. One cup grated
pineapple, previously boiled, may be added.
Orange and Carrot Marmalade
V 3 cups carrots 2 oranges
1/2 teaspoon salt 3 lemons
- 4 cups sugar 1 cup water
Wash and scrape carrots and run through a food chopper. Boil until
tender. Drain. Wash and peel oranges; chop one-half; strip the other. Boil
strips until tender. Pour sugar over hot ground carrots. Let melt. Add
water, lemon juice, orange pulp (cut in small pieces) and orange peel.
Cook until sirup is thick and fruit is clear. Three slices of canned pine-
apple may be used instead of orange.
2 cups grapefruit pulp 2 cups sugar
2 cups orange pulp Pcel from one orange
% cup pecan meats (chopped)
% cup grated pineapple
Preparation-To chopped peel add 1 cup water and boil 10 minutes.
Cover. Let cool. (If fresh pineapple is used be sure to boil as it contains
an enzyme that prevents the action of pectin unless the pineapple has;
reached boiling point.) Mix fruit pulp and orange peel; boil 20 minutes;-
Sadd sugar. When dissolved, add pineapple. Cook to the jelly test. Add
nuts. Pour into sterilized glasses and seal.
74 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
1 pound kumquats % pound sugar 3 cups water
Wash kumquats with soap and water. Sprinkle with soda (1 tablespoon
soda to 1 quart kumquats) and pour on boiling water and let stand 10 min-
utes. Pour off water. Rinse in 3 waters. Slit kumquats % inch in side,
cutting seed cells. Place in kettle with water to cover. Boil 15 minutes.
Repeat boiling process until fruit is tender. Drop kumquats into boiling
sugar solution made by adding 3 pound sugar to 3 cups water. Boil to
2220. Pack in jars. Strain sirup over fruit. Seal while hot. The fruit may
be allowed to "plump" in the vessel covered for 25 minutes.
Cook kumquat skins in water (changing 2 or 3 times if necessary)
until tender. Drain. Chop in meat chopper. Combine juice and peel, adding
% cup of sugar for each cup of fruit. Boil to jellying point.
Remove the membranous skin or rag from the orange peel. Put through
a food chopper. Add twice its weight in water and 2 tablespoons lemon
juice for each cup of water. Let stand one hour and add same amount of
water as first taken. Boil 3 minutes, cover, allow to cool. Press through a
jelly bag. Keep one-half ground peel to add later to boiling juice. Test for
pectin and add as much sugar as the test shows is needed. Use 1 cup juice
to one cup sugar if there is solid clot. Bring to a boil. Add of the
ground peel and cook to 222 F.
Fresh figs are best when first picked.
Serve ripe, peeled or unpeeled figs, with or without cream. No sugar
Select firm, sound, mature but not fully ripe figs.
1 pound figs 1 pound sugar 4 cups water
Sort over and weigh. Wash dust from figs by placing in wire baskets,
or colander, and dipping in and out of boiling water. Add sugar in propor-
tion of 1 pound to 1 pound of figs. Four cups of water. Cook, without
stirring, to 224 degrees. Allow to stand, covered, over night to "-lump." I
Pack figs in sterilized jars. Fill to overflowing with sirup heated to boiling
point. Partially seal and simmer 15 minutes for pints. P
Lemon sliced through th' peel may be added just before processing.
Spices or ginger may be added but the real flavor of the fig is pleasing.
Sweet Spiced Figs
5 pints figs 1 stick cinnamon
1 pint water 1 teaspoon spice
1 cup vinegar 1 teaspoon mace
1 pint sugar
Wash and dip figs as for preserving. Place in boiling water for a few
minutes and add sugar, vinegar and spices. Cook to 222 or 2240, or until
the figs are clear. Let stand over night. Pack and process 30 minutes at
simmering temperature or 15 minutes at boiling point.
To 1 quart of broken figs and the juice and pulp of 2 lemons add 2
cups sugar and cook until right consistency for conserve. Add 2/3 cup pe-
can meats. Remove from heat. Pack and process 15 minutes at simmering.
NOTE-Grated lemon rind adds to the flavor.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 75
This is made from the broken figs or over-ripe stock. Clip off stems,
run through a coarse food grinder. Measure. Place in heavy aluminum
kettle and cook until thickened. Add measure of sugar to one measure
of fig pulp and cook to 2210 F. Pack in hot jars, seal and process by
boiling 5 minutes.
Select and pulp ripe grapes. Heat the pulp with the juice and put them
through a colander to remove the seeds. Add to the pulp and juice half a
pound of sugar for every pound of fresh fruit. Cook the mixture until it
,is a jelly.
3 pounds grapes 1 pound sugar %1 pound finely ground pecans
Use sound, ripe grapes. Weigh and pulp them. Proceed as for spiced
grapes to remove the seeds. Grind the hulls in a meat grinder or chop them
as fine as possible, and then soften. Combine the hulls and pulps and add
for every three pounds of fruit, one pound of sugar. Use the grated peel
of one lemon. Cook until thick and tender. Then add one-half pound of
ground pecan meats. Remove from the fire. Pack in small containers and
process for fifteen minutes.
(From Farmers' Bulletin 859)
After weighing the grapes, separate the skins and pulps. Then place
the hulls in a closed vessel, adding half pint of water for each 6 pounds of
fresh fruit. Cook until the hulls are quite tender. When this point is
reached, the added water will have mostly evaporated, unless the vessel
has been very tightly closed. While softening the hulls, heat the pulps and
juice in another vessel until the pulps break down enough to liberate the
seeds. Put the seedless pulps and softened hulls together when cool. After
combining hulls and pulps, for every five pounds of fresh fruit used, add
2 pounds sugar 1 2 ounces ground cloves
2 ounces ground cinnamon 1/2 pint vinegar
Then boil the mixture over a slow fire until a little thick. If 5 pounds
Sof fruit are used this will require about an hour's boiling.
Since the flavor of the spices predominates, the variety factor is of less
4 importance than in other products. Some people prefer a special product
made as above, but with the vinegar, the cloves, and half the sugar omitted..
Wash, stem and crush grapes. Heat to simmering point, until the fruit
is sufficiently softened, stirring the fruit well as it is heating. Turn into
jelly bag. Drain and squeeze. Add one cup sugar to one gallon juice. Heat
to slightly below the boiling point and seal in fruit jars. Process quarts 30
, minutes at simmering temperature.
1 bunch fresh mint Juice of 5 lemons
1 level cup sugar 1 cup water
2 pints grape juice 1 pint grapefruit juice
Remove mint leaves. Reserve tips for garnish. Place leaves with lemon
juice, sugar and water. Let stand 30 minutes, strain, add grape juice and
grapefruit juice. Pour over a large block of ice and serve in glasses with
reserved mint leaves and slices of lemon.
76 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2 cups grape juice 3 cups cold milk
14 cup lemon juice 2 egg whites
1 cup sugar
Scald the grape juice, add sugar and stir until sugar is dissolved. Cool,
add lemon juice and set aside until cold. Then stir into milk. Add stiffly
beaten whites of eggs. Freeze.
4 pounds grapes 1 tablespoon ground cinnamon
2 pounds sugar 1 tablespoon ground allspice
% pint vinegar 1 tablespoon cloves
/ tablespoon salt tablespoon pepper
Wash and stem the grapes and steam them over water until soft. Put
through a colander, discarding only the skins and seed. Add the spices,
sugar, salt and vinegar, and let simmer for fifteen minutes. Put in ster-
ilized bottles, process ten minutes and seal.
NOTE-Whole spices tied in a cloth while cooking will give a lighter
color, but not so good flavor. The acid varieties of grapes are preferred
Frosted Grape Jelly
Soak half a box of gelatine in half a cup of cold water until soft; set
this in an outer vessel of boiling water until the gelatine is entirely dis- ,
solved. Stir into it one cup sugar, and when all are well blended and
smoothed, add two cupfuls of grape juice. Strain into a bowl upon the
beaten whites of two eggs and turn into a mold. Then whipped whites will
rise to the surface of the jelly and produce a frosted effect. Leave the jelly
on the ice or in a very cold place until firm and serve with whipped cream
Use ripe fruit. Peel, and put into a pan with water enough to half
cover. The pulp may or may not be cut from the seed (the latter makes a'
smoother marmalade). When tender, rub through a granite colander. Add a
cup of sugar to each quart of pulp, and boil thirty minutes. Seal at once.
Select fruit just showing color. Peel and cut in sections. In making the
sirup, allow, for each pound of sliced fruit, 1 pound of granulated sugar
and 4 cups of water. Boil the sugar and water together, add fruit and cook
until clear. Let stand until cold. Boil down to 222" and let stand until cold.
Pack and process for 15 minutes. Seal.
The Mulgoba is one of the mangoes for preserving.
1 lb. peeled mangoes, cut in 3 oz. green ginger sliced (may
small pieces substitute root ginger
1 pt. vinegar or % pt. grape- broken and put in spice
fruit juice and % pt. bag)
vinegar % lb. brown sugar
lb. currants 1 tablespoon salt
% lb. raisins or 1 lb. raisins % tablespoon white mustard
(if currants are omitted) seed
% lb. blanched almonds /2 cup chopped onions
'1 cup chopped sweet peppers
1 oz. chillies or hot peppers
To the vinegar add sugar and bring to a boil. Add the spices, chopped
vegetables, mangoes, nuts, raisins and salt, bring to a boil and boil for 30
minutes. Pack while at boiling point in sterilized jars and seal.
Mangoes just beginning to color are best selected.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 77
Select before the fruit shows color, or at initial stage. Peel, slice in
convenient pieces, immerse in medium sirup for 1 to 2 minutes. Pack in
jars, boil sirup to 2180 F. and strain over fruit. Process 16 to 20 minutes
at boiling. (Medium sirup, 1 cup sugar to 1 cup water.)
Mango Ice Cream
Use plain ice cream custard, made by any favorite recipe, as a basis,
To each quart, add one pint of ripe mango pulp and freeze.
Have the fruit well iced. Cut in halves and remove the seed. Fill tha
cavity with ice cream (plain vanilla is best), and serve at once.
Mango for pies, sauces and butters. Select mature but unripe mangoes
and use in recipes for green apples. Sweeten according to taste.
Select the melon at a mature but unripe stage. Boil or steam and add
a little lime juice. This makes a delicious French sauce. The unripe fruit
may be used like any other melon in pickles or preserves. It combines nice-
ly with other fruits for marmalades and jellies. It is very good for sherbets.
As a breakfast food it needs no additions. As a dessert it is perfect.
Cut mature but unripe papaya in halves lengthwise. Add a little sugar
and orange, lime or lemon juice; or a little cinnamon in place of the juice.
Bake 20 minutes and serve immediately on taking from the oven.
1 cup sugar 1 cup vinegar
2 cups water 3 cups papaya
Make sirup of sugar and vinegar and water. Add a few whole cloves
and peppercorns and half-ripe papaya cut into small pieces. Boil until
tender. Ginger or lemon may be added.
To 1 % cups papaya pulp add juice of 1 lemon, 1/ cup sugar, and beat
into 2 stiffly whipped whites of eggs. Cook. Serve with whipped cream.
Take ripe papaya-peel, seed, cut in small pieces-slightly cover with
water, cook until tender. Put through fruit press. To each cup of pulp add
% cup of sugar, juice from one lemon, cook to 222 F. Pack in jars.
Process 15 minutes.
Lime in Papaya Butter
To every 2 cups ripe mashed papaya add % cup lime juice and 1 cup
Peaches are canned in a thin sirup in halves or whole for desserts and
salads, and in pieces for pies and other cooked dishes.
Sweet Pickled Peaches
6 pounds peaches 4 ounces stick cinnamon
6 cups water 2 pounds whole cloves
2 cups vinegar Ginger root
6 cups sugar
Select firm clingstone peaches. Peel and drop into sirup of sugar, water
and vinegar, boiled together. Cook to 221". Pack. Cover with boiling hot
sirup and process 20 minutes at simmering.
78 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
3 lbs. peAled, sliced, cling- 2 pounds sugar
stone peaches 3 peach kernels
6 cups water
Bring sugar and water to a boil, add peaches. Cook to 2220. Let
"plump" over night. Pack in sterilized containers, seal and process, or
pack while hot.
Wash 4 quarts ripe peaches thoroughly. Cut in pieces and put through
dilver. To each pint of pulp add 1 cup of sugar. Cook until of the desired
consistency. Pour into sterilized jars and process 15 minutes.
I do-en ripe peaches 2 quarts vinegar
1 red pepper 1 cuD sugar
1 hot pepper 1/2 tablespoon ginger
1 green pepper 1/ tablespoon cinnamon
% pound raisins /2 tablespoon spice
3 onions (mild) 1/ tablespoon celery seed
1/ cup acid fruit juice Salt
Combine ingredients and cook until the mixture is quite thick and clear.
Pack hot, seal and process 15 minutes at simmering.
2 do-en peaches, chopped 6 cups sugar
1 pineapple or 1 pint can 2 lemons (juice and rind)
Cook peaches thick before adding other ingredients. Cook entire mixt-
ure until quite thick.
Two cups of pecan mcats may be added while mixture is boiling hot.
Pack, seal, process 5 minutes. A conserve may be made by using ripe
peaches and shredded pineapple. The addition of seedless raisins or of
shredded fig preserves adds to the interest and lessens the amount of sugar
needed. Lemon will give an additional flavor.
Peel from stem to blossom, placing immediately in weak salt solution
(2 tablespoons to a gallon). Cut into halves and remove cores. Cook 5 to
10 minutes in sirup of one part sugar to two parts water. Pack into quart
jars and process 20 minutes, depending upon tenderness of fruit. If lemon
or ginger flavor is desired, add while cooking.
1 pound pears % pound sugar 3 cups water
Cut pears in halves and core; place in sirup of sugar and water and
cook to 224 F. Allow to stand until plump. Pack and process 20 minutes.
Whole cloves, slices of lemon or ginger may be added.
3 pounds firm pears 1 tables-oon ginger
4 cups sugar A few whole cloves
3 cups vinegar 1 tablespoon spices (whole)
5 cups water A stick of cinnamon
Peel pears lengthwise and leave whole. Make sirup of vinegar, water
and sugar; tie the spice in small pieces of cheesecloth, and add to the sirup.
When this mixture begins to simmer, add the pears and lemon rind and
bring to 222. Cool and let stand. The next morning, drain off the sirup
and bring the sirup to boiling point. Pack fruit in jars, garnish with cinna-
mon, cover with the sirup, seal and process quarts for 15 minutes at 1800
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 79
Core firm, medium-sized pears. Place in covered baking dish, sprinkle
with brown sugar. Add stick of cinnamon. Allow enough water to cover
bottom of pan. When tender, remove pears to glass dish, cook down sirup
and pour over pears. Serve hot or cold.
PINEAPPLE (SEE SALADS)
Pineapple, because of its enzymes, combines nicely with meats or
omelets. Broiled ham or small sausages are often served on slices of pine-
apple or with a sauce made of shredded pineapple.
7 eg.s 11/2 tablespoons fat
1 teaspoon salt 11/2 cups crushed canned
3 tablespoons milk or cream pineapple
% cup grated cheese
Separate eggs; beat yolks for one minute; then add salt, milk or cream,
and cheese and continue beating until well mixed. Melt fat in frying or
omelet pan, turning pan so melted fat goes well up on the sides. Beat
whites of eggs until stiff and fold in the yolk and cheese mixture. Pour
into the pan and cook over low heat until nicely browned on the underside.
Then place in a slow oven for about three minutes to dry off ton. Mean-
while put the undrained pineapple into a saucepan and boil until thick,
about ten minutes. When omelet is done, make a cut about one and one-
half inches long on either end of the fold line; then pour pineapple on
one-half of the omelet, fold and slide onto platter.
Pineapple Luncheon Sandwiches
1 cup finely diced cooked ham 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
1 cup crushed canned pineapple, 2 tablespoons pineapple juice
drained 1 beaten egg
2 tablespoons milk or water
Mix first four ingredients together well and spread between slices of
buttered bread. Dip each side of the prepared sandwiches in the beaten
egg which has been combined with milk; saute until golden brown on both
sides. Serve at once.
A Pineapple and Rhubarb Marmalade
NOTE-If fresh pineapple is used in any of these recipes for marma-
lades, remember to bring to a boil before combining with other fruits.
3 lbs. pink rhubarb 4 cups sugar
3 cups pineapple pieces Juice and grated rind 1 lemon
Rhubarb need not be peeled if young and tender. Wash, and cut into
inch pieces. Drain pineapple. Combine rhubarb, pineapple, sugar and
lemon. Cook slowly until thick and clear. Fill jelly glasses and cover with
paraffin. Pineapple Sauce
2 cups crushed canned pineapple, 1/3 cup of sugar
undrained Juice and rind of 1 lemon
Y2 cup pineapple juice or water 1 tablespoon cornstarch
Heat pineapple, pineapple juice, grated lemon rind and lemon juice
until boiling. Combine cornstarch and sugar and add to pineapple sauce,
stirring constantly. Cook until thickened, and serve hot.
1 quart strawberries 1 orange
1 pint spiced grapes Sugar
2 cups pineapple pieces
Wash and hull berries. Drain grapes. Drain pineapple from juice. Slice
orange very thin or put through food chopper. Combine fruit, weigh, and
add an equal weight of sugar. Cook slowly until mixture thickens when a
little is tested on a cold plate. Pour into hot glasses and cover with melted
paraffin. This is a delicious preserve to serve with cream cheese and
80 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Pineapple With Orange Sections
1 slice fresh pineapple Orange sections
Chill pineapple and orange. Peel orange with a sharp knife, cutting
through the white inner skin. Remove sections, keeping in as large pieces
as possible. When ready to serve, lay slices of pineapple on individual
plates, put a small mound of powdered sugar in the center and arrange
orange sections around pineapple slices, making a complete circle. Serve
4 cups shredded pineapple Strawberry jam
12 marshmallows Whipped cream
In each dessert glass put a layer of shredded pineapple, then 2 marsh-
mallows, cut in pieces with scissors dipped in cold water. Next a layer of
jam, another layer of shredded pineapple. Top with whipped cream,
sweetened and flavored. Sprinkle with chopped nuts or coconut.
1 pound berries % pound sugar
Select large, firm fruit. Wash, cap, getting the pithy center if possible.
Place berries in aluminum or porcelain vessel. Add sugar. Handle vessel
over flame so that the juice reaches the sugar and dissolves to form a sirup
or let stand over night. Place vessel over flame and bring to boil and boil
8 minutes. Cover and set aside until fruit is plump and cool. Cook to de-
sired consistency. Pack and seal.
Wash, cap and crush ripe strawberries. To each pound of fruit add %
pound of sugar. Stir constantly and cook to 222 F. or until desired con-
1 pound fruit % pint water % pound sugar
Wash, scald, peel and se-d fruit. Make a sirup of sugar and water.
Add fruit and cook to 226 F. Put in hot sterilized containers. Seal and
process 15 minutes.
1 pound fruit % pound sugar % pint water
Prepare as for preserves. Put through food chonper. Mix sugar and
water. Add fruit and cook to about 225 F. or jellying point. Seal.
Use equal measures of fruit and water and cook until tender, about 10
minutes. Sweeten to taste. Allow to come a.': to boiling point. It is not
necessary to strain the product.
Grapefruit juice, in canning, includes the "hearts." Grapefruit hearts
are now known throughout the country. Prepare as for salads, removing
the hearts whole. Pack tightly into pint jars in which has been placed 2
tablespoons sugar. Process 35 minutes, 180.
Extract juice in such way as to exclude oil of the peel or the bitterness
of the rag. Bring juice to 165' or 170' in open vessel. Fill into bottles
boiling hot. Cap quickly. Process in water at 1800 F. for 30 minutes.
Sweet orange juice keeps its flavor better in canning when combined
with sour citrus juice in proportion of 4 to 1. Lime, lemon, calamondin,
Seville or sour orange may be used. Use sugar in proportion of 2 cups su-
gar to one gallon juice mixture. Bottle and process at 1650 F. for 30
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 81
OTHER FRUIT JUICES
Ripe grapes, plums, berries produce valuable fruit juices. Bring fruit
to simmering temperature. Remove juice, strain through a heavy cloth.
Sweeten slightly, about 1 cup sugar to a gallon of juice. Strain again if a
clear juice is desired. Seal hot and process at about 1800 F. Fruit jars may
be used for keeping juices for home use. If bottles are used, cork tightly,
process and seal with wax afterwards, or use a bottle capper.
Fruits Containing Pectin for Jelly-Citrus fruits, particularly ripened
grapes, blackberries, dewberries, huckleberries, quinces, guavas, crabapple,
May haws, plums, pomegranate, roselle.
Fruits Lacking in Pectin-Strawberries, peaches, pineapple, rhubarb.
Fruits Lacking Acid for Jelly-Pears, quince, sugar apple, sapodilla,
Tropical Fruits for Jelly-Tamarind (red), satin fruit (red), pitanga
(red), mulbeirry (dark), guava, carambola, Persian lime, pomegranate,
Cattley guava, jaboticaba, umkokolo, ketembilla (English gooseberry).
C. A Few Florida Fruit Desserts
Numerous of the sweet, sub-acid and acid fruits lend themselves easily
to desserts. The sapote, the saDodilla, sugar apple, the mango, papaya, in
the natural form, are desserts. The sour-sop, the lime, the pomegranate, the
tamarind, the passion flower lend a delightful flavor to sherbets. The juicy
fruits, berries, citrus, plums and grapes are adaptable in hundreds of meth-
ods. The melons, guavas, peaches, pears, figs, greatly increase the list. The
rich Florida coloring in fruits gives wonderful possibilities in attractiveness.
Since inany vegetables must be cooked, fruits remain the sure means of
getting Nature's fresh natural food with the vitamins, mineral, organic
acids and laxative properties. Therefore, it is important that fruits be used
fresh. They are also used to flavor and make attractive other less interest-
The best known Florida dessert-that is the dessert most nearly a
Florida dessert-is ambrosia.
6 oranges % cup sugar 3 cups fresh grated coconut
Peel and slice pulp of oranges. Grate coconut. Place a layer of orange
pulp in a large bowl. Sprinkle a little sugar and add a layer of coconut,
then another layer of orange, a sprinkle of sugar, and over all pour
coconut juice and free orange juice. Add a final covering of grated coco-
nut. Leave in refrigerator until next day and serve.
2 cups sugar 2 cups orange juice
3 cups water % cup lemon juice
Boil sugar and water 10 minutes. Cool, add fruit juices. Freeze to a
(Makes about 1% quarts)
3 cups sugar % cup lemon juice
1 quart water 2 egg whites
Boil sugar and water together for 6 minutes to make sirup. Add lemon
juice, cool and freeze to a mush. Add stiffly beaten egg whites and finish
82 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
1/4 cup orange juice 1 cup any one of the following
% cup lemon juice fruits: Crushed strawber-
21/2 cups sugar ries, crushed peaches,
1 quart milk mashed bananas, guavas,
Add more sugar, if needed.
Mix and freeze. If mixture curdles it will freeze smooth again.
ORANGE ICE CREAM
3 cups orange juice 1 cup thick cream
1 cup sugar 2 cups thin cream or milk
Mix orange juice and sugar thoroughly. Add cream or cream and milk
and freeze. Or add just thin cream or milk, freeze to a mush; add whipped
cream and continue freezing.
ORANGE CREAM CUSTARD
2 eggs 2 cups milk
4 cup sugar 1% teaspoon vanilla
2 teaspoons flour 5 tablespoons sugar
% teaspoon salt 4 oranges
Beat egg yolks, add 1 cup sugar, flour and salt and mix thoroughly.
Add milk and cook in double boiler until thick enough to coat spoon. Cool,
add vanilla and turn into serving dish containing peeled and sliced oranges.
Beat egg whites with 5 tablespoons sugar. Heap on top of custard and
ORANGE BAVARIAN CREAM
1 tablespoon granulated gelatine 1/ cup sugar
a, cup cold water Sprinkling salt
1 cup orange juice and pulp 1 cup cream
1 tablespoon lime juice
Soak gelatine in cold water for 5 minutes and dissolve by standing cup
containing mixture in hot water. Add to orange juice and pulp. Add lime
juice, sugar and salt. When it begins to jelly fold in whipped cream; turn
into cold mold to become firm.
ORANGE BAVARIAN CREAM PIE
Make orange Bavarian cream as given in recipe, pouring into baked
pastry shell. Chill till firm. Top with additional whipped cream if desired.
LEMON FLUFF PIE
3 eggs 3 tablespoons hot water
1/3 cup lemon juice 14 teaspoon salt
Grated rind 1 lemon 1 cup sugar
Beat yolks of eggs very light. Add lemon juice and grated rind, hot
water, salt and 1/ cup sugar. Cobk in double boiler until thick. Add %
cup sugar to stiflly beaten egg whites and fold into cooked mixture. Fill
baked pie shell and brown in moderate oven.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 83
This recipe is recommended as a simple and inexpensive cake, but a
very good one.
1 lb. seeded raisins 2 teaspoons salt
1 lb. currants 2 teaspoons baking powder
1 lb. sliced citron 2 teaspoons cinnamon
1 lb. sliced orange peel 2 teaspoons mace
(crystallized) 1 teaspoon nutmeg
1 cup chopped crystallized fig 1 teaspoon allspice
1 lb. pecan meats teaspoon cloves
4 cups (1 lb.) flour 1 lb. butter or other fat
4 cups (1% lbs.) brown sugar 1/ cup cider or other fruit juice
1 dozen eggs
Prepare the fruit and nuts according to the general directions. Mix
the flour, salt, baking powder and spices; sift about half of this mixture
over the fruit and mix with the finger tips.
Cream the fat; add the sugar gradually, then the beaten eggs. Stir in
the flour alternately with the fruit juice. Add the floured fruit and nuts.
Bake according to general directions.
Weight of baked cakes: About 12 pounds.
D. Crystallized Fruits
Directions for crystallizing fruit when it is desired to keep the fruit for
a long period of time:
1. Preparation of Fruit-All citrus fruits should be of a bright color,
without blemish and with thick peel. Grapefruit, lemon, oranges and limes
must be grated sufficiently to break the oil cells. The bitter in the peel is
removed by putting the peel on in cold water, letting it come to a boil,
and then by draining off, changing the water and starting over each time
with cold water. The number of changes depends on the individual taste.
The peel should be tender before it goes into the sirup.
Kumquats-Wash, treat with a hot soda bath (one tablespoon of soda
to one pound of fruit). Cover with boiling water. Let stand until cool.
Wash in clear water. Make a small slit in the sides of the kumquats, cut-
ting through the seed cells. Cover with water, then cook until tender before
putting into the sirup.
Pineapples-Peel, cut in one-half inch slices, core and boil until tender.
Fig, Watermelon Rind and Other Fruits-Treat as you would in pre-
paring for preserves.
Quick Method for Immediate Consumption
Make a thin sirup, 2 parts water, 1 part sugar, (sufficient to cover the
fruit after the sirup is cooked down). Put fruit on and cook until clear.
Cook down to 2200 F. first day. Let stand in this sirup for at least 24
hours. Then cook to 226 F. Let stand in this sirup until next day. Then
cook to 228 F.; take out, shape and put in sun to dry. When partially drJ
roll in granulated sugar and put back in sun or in a good place to dry.
Continued Method for Marketing
To make a marketable product when the fruit is cooked to 2260 F. put
in jars and process for 15 minutes. Seal and keep this preserve until you
are ready to crystallize it. To finish product make a 2220 F. sirup and put
the drained fruit into the sirup and cook to 226 F. Drain, shape and place
in sun to dry. When partially dry roll in granulated sugar. This method
will take longer to dry, but the product will keep much longer.
84 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Coloring and flavoring may be used, but it cheapens the product and
causes the fruit to lose its identity if overdone. Eight drops of any stand-
ard vegetable coloring to the pound:of sugar put into the sirup is sufficient
to give a delicate shade to the finished product. If flavorings are used,
add to the product the last five minutes of cooking.
For pineapple, whole limes, etc., preserve in 235 F. sirup and finish in
a 2500 F. sirup. As soon as the desired temperature is reached, remove from
fire and stir until moderately cool. Remove the fruit, which will be coated
in fondant, and dry.
GRAPEFRUIT PEEL STRIPS
1 lb. grapefruit peel 6 tablespoons liquid j 3 fruit juice
1 lb. sugar 13 water
Preparation of Peel-Select bright fruit with a thick peel. Wash care-
fully. Grate lightly on an ordinary grater to break the oil cells. Cut this
peel into strips that are Y% to inch in width; or into small shapes. To
remove the bitter, place in pan of cold water and let come to a boil.
Change water as many times as necessary, starting each time in cold
water. When fruit is tender, drain and weigh.
For each pound of peel add 1 pound of sugar and 6 tablespoons of
liquid; cook until the sirup is absorbed. Remove from the fire and roll in
granulated sugar and lay on platter to dry.
Finishing Point-If cooking is continued for too long a period of time
and evaporation carried too far, the product will be hard and unattractive.
The point at which the product is finished may be determined by rolling a
piece of the fruit, when it has become transparent, in granulated sugar.
If, after a few minutes, the fruit stiffens enough to retain its shape, it is
sufficiently cooked. A strip of the peel is preferred to the small shapes in
making this test.
NOTE-If it is desired to give a variety in appearance to the finished
product, the peel may be cut into small attractive shapes, before being
boiled. Vegetable coloring may be added to the sirup in which the peel is
crystallized. Mint, ginger or other flavoring may be blended with the
grapefruit flavor by adding to the sirup.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 85
The Following Recipes Were Furnished Us by the
FLORIDA ADVERTISING ASSOCIATION
GRAPEFRUIT CREAM SHERBET
1 tablespoon gelatin 2 cups orange juice
% cup cold water 1 cups grapefruit juice
1 1 cup sugar 1 pint cream or
1% cup boiling water evaporated milk
Grated rind of 1 grapefruit /2 cup powdered sugar
2 eggs Few grains salt
Soak gelatin in cold water for five minutes. Dissolve gelatin and 1%
cups sugar in boiling water. Add grapefruit rind, juice and orange juice.
Place in mold next to ice, or in tray of your quick freezer and harden to
mush. Beat cream until stiff, add cup sugar and salt. Separate yolks
from whites. Beat yolks until foaming and whites until stiff. Combine, add
to cream. Fold into the hardened mixture. Return to freezer or top of ice.
Stir this mixture twice during the freezing process.
GRAPEFRUIT CREME DELIGHT
Heat one cup of thin cream with a few grains of salt and add the yolk
of one egg beaten with three tablespoons of sugar. Remove from fire as
soon as the cream has thickened slightly and add while hot, one tablespoon
of finely grated grapefruit rind. Allow it to cool and fold in one cup of
double cream whipped solid, three quarters of a cup of crushed macaroon
crumbs, and the juice of one grapefruit. Freeze slowly.
2 oranges. 2 lemons. Sugar, water.
First slice fruit as thin as possible, saving seeds. After slicing fruit,
measure it carefully, and add exactly as much water as fruit. Pour water
over fruit, and let stand forty eight hours. Then bring to boil and boil for
S an hour. Boil seeds up in water. Strain them out, and add water in which
they cooked, to fruit. The seeds contain the pectin which causes the jell-
ing process. After boiling let it stand over night. Next day boil again, but
add equal amount of sugar as you have fruit and water. Boil until thickens
to your fancy. Stir several times while it is standing, so each piece of
fruit has an equal chance to soften.
CANDIED GRAPEFRUIT PEEL
Rinds of 3 grapefruits 3 cups sugar
Cut rind lengthwise from grapefruit and cut in strips %Y" wide. Cover
in cold water for several hours. Drain. Cover again in cold water and
bring to a boiling point. Drain. Repeat this process once again to remove
any bitterness from the fruit when done. Cover with water, add sugar to
equal the rind, and cook until clear. If syrup becomes too thick before
rind is clear, add hot water to the same amount of original thickness.
When clear, drain, and dip in granulated sugar. Do this for three succes-
sive days. Pack in air tight containers.
BITTER ORANGE MARMALADE
1 grapefruit 2 oranges
1 lemon 1/ cup lemon juice
Slice the unpeeled fruit very thin. Add three times as much water as
fruit. Boil 20 minutes. Measure, bring to boiling point. Add % cup sugar
for each cup of fruit. Boil 25 minutes or until it gives the jelly test. Just
before removing from fire, add 4 cup lemon juice. Pour into sterilized
glasses; cover with paraffin when cold.
86 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Sweeten and drain grapefruit pulp. Cream % cup shortening, add 1
cup sugar. Beat 2 eggs-add to above mixture. Add 1 cup milk. Sift 2
teaspoons baking powder with 3 cups flour and 1 teaspoon salt. Add %a
teaspoon baking soda to 1 cup grapefruit pulp. Add to first mixture. Put
in muffin tins. Bake hour at 350 degrees. Makes about 16.
UPSIDE DOWN CAKE
1/ lb. butter 2 tabsp. baking powder
1% cup sugar 2% cups pastry flour
3 eggs 1 cup grapefruit juice
Grease pan thickly with butter. Place three cups grapefruit pulp in
pan, with one cup brown sugar. Mix batter in the usual way and pour over
the grapefruit in pan. Bake in moderate oven for about fifty minutes. May
be served with whipped cream if desired.
4 egg yolks 1 cup sugar
cup canned grapefruit juice 1 cup flour
1 teaspoon baking powder Few grains salt
Beat the egg yolks until thick. Add the sugar and continue beating. Add
the grapefruit juice, then fold in the beaten egg whites. Sift the flour with
the baking powder and few grains of salt. Fold in carefully with the first
mixture. Bake in an ungreased tube pan in slow oven, 3250, for fifty to
sixty minutes. Turn upside down and let cool and it will pull itself away
from the sides of the pan. Ice with a boiled icing in which grapefruit juice
has been substituted for water, or add confectioner's sugar and a little
melted butter to the juice until the right consistency to spread.
GRAPEFRUIT SNOW PUDDING
Sprinkle one tablespoon of gelatin in one fourth cup cold water. Soak
for five minutes or add immediately according to directions on the pack-
age, to one fourth cup boiling water, one fourth cup orange juice one
tablespoon lemon juice and three fourth cup grapefruit hearts; stir until
dissolved. When the jelly cools and begins to thicken, beat until frothy and
fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites of two eggs. Chill in individual moulds
and at serving time turn out and garnish with a few slices of grapefruit.
1 tablespoon Mayonnaise Grenadine
Strawberries Lemon juice
Arrange a cup of lettuce on each salad plate. Then arrange alternate
sections of grapefruit and pears. Place a strawberry tip up, at the outer
edge of each section. Add a little lemon juice and grenadine to the may-
onnaise to make of consistency to pipe with pastry tube. Pine between
sections of grapefruit and pears with the grenadine mayonnaise.
AVOCADO CITRUS SALAD
Cut a peeled avocado into rather thin slices crosswise, then cut each
slice again once or twice the other way. Arrange on crisp leaves of lettuce
alternately with segments of orange and grapefruit from which all the skin
has been removed. Garnish with strips of pimento and serve with French
dressing made with lemon juice, and only a little oil.
Cut a grapefruit in two, take out all the sections, skin them and cut in
small pieces. Trim the edges of the hollow halves in pointed scallops. Com-
bine the cut fruit with bits of orange, avocado pear, chipped apple or pear
and put the mixture into the trimmed grapefruit skins. Garnish with maras-
chino cherry or preserved ginger, also with a sprig of water cress and a.
little dab of mayonnaise.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 87
FRUIT SALAD ASPIC
Two tablespoons gelatine 1/ cup cold water
2 cups hot water 1 % cups sugar
2 oranges 1 lemon
1 grapefruit, grapes, canned peaches, and pears.
Soften the gelatine in cold water and dissolve in hot water. In place of
1 cup of the water a cup of fruit juice may be used if desired. Add the
sugar and stir until dissolved. Add the juice of oranges and lemon. When
the mixture begins to thicken, add sections of grapefruit, the grapes with
seeds removed, and halves of canned peaches and pears. Turn the mixture
into a mold. If desired, clear aspic may be poured into a ring mold and
the fruit piled in the center of the ring when the jelly is unmolded.
GRAPEFRUIT AND CHEESE SALAD
Peel a grapefruit, separate the sections, skin them and keep them
whole. Slice and peel a small ripe pineapple, cut into little cubes and
arrange these on crisp lettuce leaves.
Surround with grapefruit sections, petal fashion. Place a piece of
roquefort, gruyere, brie or cream cheese on the pineapple. Garnish with
a strip of pimento. Serve with French dressing.
CRABMEAT AND GRAPEFRUIT SALAD
One pound of crab meat (fresh preferred). 1 can grapefruit, drained.
Marinate crabmeat in French dressing. Mix crabmeat and grapefruit to-
gether, adding a small amount of mayonnaise, a few capers, and salt and
peppers to taste. Lay on lettuce hearts and top with mayonnaise sprinkled
GRAPEFRUIT AND CAPER SALAD
1 teaspoon powdered sugar 1 teaspoon salt
% teaspoon paprika / teaspoon mustard
2 tablespoons vinegar 4 cup evaporated milk
1 cup oil 2 tablespoons evaporated milk.
Oil and milk should be cold. Measure sugar, salt, mustard, paprika,
and the one quarter cup evaporated milk into a cold bowl. Beat well, add
one quarter cup oil, a little at a time, then remainder of oil and vinegar
alternately, beating well after each addition. Add the two tablespoons
evaporated milk and beat again thoroughly.
Peel two grapefruit, cutting away the white skin. Remove pulp, keep-
ing each section whole. Arrange five sections of the fruit like the petals of
a daisy on leaves of crisp romaine or lettuce. Place a teaspoon of grated
American cheese around the inner points of the fruit sections to carry out
the idea of the flower. Serve with French dressing.
3 Fresh grapefruits 1 package cream cheese
12 pint cream % can Queene Anne cherries
1 large can unsliced pears 1 small can crushed pineapple.
Cut the marshmallows in fourths with wet scissors and soak them over
night in the cream. In the morning whip them together and crumble in thz
cream cheese, which should have been standing at room temperature for
several hours in order to soften. Beat the mixture again until smooth and
creamy. Just before the meal arrange crisp lettuce on the plates and place
a chilled, drained pear, hollow side up, in the center of each. Around each
pear arrange sections of grapefruit in the form of a flower. Pile the
chilled, drained cherries in the center of the pear and over the salad pour
the dressing. Sprinkle a little drained pineapple over this and offer up
very chilly. This will serve eight.
88 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
APPETIZER SALAD IN GRAPEFRUIT BASKETS
Cut the grapefruit in two and make a four-section handled basket from
each half in following manner. Insert two toothpicks near cut edge oppo-
site each other. From %4 in. on each side of toothpick, cut through skin
around the grapefruit 1 inch from top of cut surface. Remove pulp from
this cut part so that the two strips of peel can be tied together to form
Take large sweet potatoes and bake until pulp is soft. Cut in halves and
scoop out pulp. Mix each half individually. Mix pulp with V4 teaspoon
butter and % teaspoon confectioner's sugar and 1 teaspoon grapefruit
rind grated fine. Put back in sweet potato shell and top with whipped cream
and sprinkle finely grated grapefruit rind on top of whipped cream.
CASSEROLE OF YAMS AND GRAPEFRUIT
1 lb. of yams (red sweet potato) 2 tablespoons cream
1/2 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon nutmeg
2 tablespoons butter grapefruit sections
Wash yams, cut off ends, and boil until tender in salted water 1 tea-
spoon to qt. of water. Peel and mash fine with 1 teaspoon salt, the nut-
meg, cream and butter. Put in buttered pyrex casserole. Over the top ar-
range grapefruit sections (free from seeds and white skin) pinwheel de-
sign, radiating from center. Dot with butter and sprinkle granulated sugar
over all just before heating to serve. This can be prepared in the morning
or even the day before. Just cover and set in your refrigerator until time
to reheat. Leave in the oven just long enough to heat thoroughly and melt
the sugar on top.
GRAPEFRUIT A LA GRILLE
Cut each grapefruit in half, core and remove the seeds. Sprinkle one
tablespoon brown sugar over the top of each half. Place three cherries in
the center and add a little of the juice. Preheat the oven broiler for about
ten minutes. Place the grapefruit under the flame for seven or ten min-
utes. The sugar will melt and spread to give the grapefruit a lovely
browned surface, and a delightful new flavor.
Remove all membrane from sections of chilled grapefruit, arranging
the sections in a wheel on a dessert plate, then pouring hot chocolate sauce
over the fruit just before serving. Maraschine juice used to sweeten grape-
fruit served in the shell imparts a delicate color and flavor. No sugar is
needed in this case. Try crushed maple sugar or honey for sweetening
instead of sugar.
With a carved grapefruit knife, remove the pulp, leaving four of the
white membrane divisions as partitions to form equal sized sections. Place
a different salad or appetizer in each of the four sections. Tuna fish,
celery, cucumber and a tiny bit of green pepper mixed with mayonnaise
could be used for one; radish roses in another; celery curls or olives, green
and ripe, in a third. In fourth section place diced grapefruit pulp and
avocado which has been marinated with French dressing. Serve on salad
plate as the first course of a luncheon or dinner. Garnish top of partitions
and center with mayonnaise forced through pastry bag.
Scoop all meat from bright, clear-skinned grapefruit halves. Scallop the
edges. Dice alligator pear, orange and grapefruit. Pile into grapefruit bas-
kets. Sprinkle top with a little finely chopped canton ginger and green
pepper. Place on pale glass plate, garnish with watercress. Serve with
mayonnaise flavored with a little minced ginger and cognac.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 89
One banana for each person served. Cut in two lengthwise and arrange
both sections on crisp lettuce.
% cup grapefruit pulp /2 cun white grapes
% cup orange pulp Few shredded nut meats
Remainder of banana nulp that has been scooped out to make boats.
Moisten with French dressing and place mixture with banana boats, gar-
nishing with sliced maraschino cherries, and serve with hot crackers.
1h cup diced aorle 1 cun diced celery
2 cuDS grapefruit 1 cup smoked salmon
Desired amount of watercress.
Season well and mix with French dressing or mayonnaise.
Grapefruit Roorefort cheese
French dressing Cress
Green penper, minced or in
Peel grapefruit and slice thinly across; cut in half arain cross wise
rejecting all seeds; allow 2 slices for portion. Arrange on cress-covered
Pour over dressing, in which Roquefort Cheese has been smoothly
mashed. Garnish with minced pepper or pepper strips.
1 Rranefruit 1 Snanish onion
French dressing I lettuce
Buy solid grapefruits. Peel and slice in round slices. Slice onion. Lay
slices of grapefruit on bed of lettuce, and lay slice of onion on grap)e-
fruit and strip of pimento. Pour over it the French dressing.
GRAPEFRUIT SHRIMP SALAD
1 cup grapefruit section 1 cur shrimp out in pieces
cut in pieces % cup celery, diced
1/3 cup cucumber diced Lettuce, pimento
1/3 cup mayonnaise
Add ingredients in order given. Chill in refrigerator and ser-e on
crisp lettuce. Garnish with small pimento strips. This makes six servings.
BRAZIL NUT SALAD
1 can "rapefruit 1 package crea:- cheese
1/ cun Brazil nuts Lettuce
Cream mayonnaise or French dressing.
Make cheese into little balls and roll in coarsely chopped nuts. Drain
juice from can of grapefruit. Arrange grapefruit sections and three cheese
balls to a serving on cup shaped lettuce leaves. In center put a pasteu-
rized date (stuffed with date-cheese mixture). Cover with dressing and
sprinkle with chopped nutmeats. Other nutmeats may be substituted for
Brazil nuts. Six servings.
2/3 cup diced pineapple cup seeded white cherries
% cup grapefruit 1/3 cup red cherries
Mix and chill ingredients. Drain juices and arrange fruit on lettuce
and top with salad dressing.
WASHINGTON GRAPEFRUIT SALAD
Peel and remove the outer skin of the grapefruit. Arrange sections of
the grapefruit on lettuce leaves, and between each section place red
cherries. Top with a generous amount of mayonnaise.
90 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Dissolve 2 packages lemon jelly in 2 cups boiling water and cool. Add
% cup lemon juice and the juice from one No. 2 can grapefruit. Set away
to chill. Chill, then peel 1 large avocado and cut in small cubes and ar-
range in bottom of 1 large or 8 to 10 small moulds. Dust lightly with salt.
Sprinkle over 1 cup blanched, chopped almonds, then pour over the thick-
ened jelly and set away to harden. Unmold on lettuce and garnish with
the grapefruit sections and mayonnaise. Serves 8 to 10.
GRAPEFRUIT PONCE DE LEON
%4 cup grapefruit juice Y4 cup honey
Mix grapefruit and honey. Place in refrigerator over night. Serve.
2 cups grapefruit juice
% cup powdered sugar
14 cup maraschino juice
1 orange sliced thin
Mix and serve over cracked or
2 cups orange juice
1 bottle ginger ale
8 to 10 Maraschino cherries
1 banana sliced thin
cubed ice. Garnish with sliced fruit.
FLORIDA SPECIAL SALAD
2 grapefruits 1 Alligator pear
Romaine salad 2 pimentos
2 oranges French dressing
Peel fruit, separate segments. Slice alligator pear in thin slices. Slice
pimentoes iri narrow strips. Arrange the fruit alternately on romaine
leaves, decorating with strips of pimento. Serve with French dressing.
.1/3 cup grapefruit juice % -1 cup olive oil
1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon sugar
14 teaspoon paprika
Blend seasoning with olive oil, add grapefruit juice. Pour into a bottle,
shake well before using. Will keep indefinitely in refrigerator.
ST. PATRICK'S DAY MINT SALAD
1 package lily white mint gelatine % cup boiling water
1 cup grapefruit juice segments of 1 grapefruit
Maraschino cherries cup canned pineapple
watercress cut in segments
Dissolve gelatine in boiling water, scald grapefruit juice. Chill. Arrange
grapefruit sections in mold. When gelatine is slightly thickened, turn some
into mold taking care not to move the fruit. Chill. Add more fruit and
liquid. Unmold on watercress. Serve with mayonnaise dressing.
1/3 cup grapefruit plup 1 1 cups chopped nutmeats
1/3 cup powdered sugar 3 tablespoons marshmallow creme
2 tablespoons currant jelly 3 Maraschino cherries diced
1 egg white
Combine and beat grapefruit pulp, sugar, jelly marshmallow creme,
nuts and cherries. Whip white until dry and stiff, and fold in first mixture.
Serve immediately in sherbet glasses, garnishing top with whole maraschino
cherry. Lady fingers, sponge cake or vanilla wafers may be served with
it or the whip laid in portions on each cake.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 91
GRAPEFRUIT MINT SALAD
1 tablespoon gelatin 2 tablespoons cold water
1 cups canned grapefruit juice 2 tablespoons sugar
3 tablespoons syrup from cherries 8 green mint cherries
Soak gelatin in cold water. Add grapefruit juice heated to the boiling
point, sugar and syrup from the cherries. Stir until gelatin and sugar are
dissolved. When the mixture begins to thicken add the cherries, finely
minced, and pour into moulds. Serve with mayonnaise. This makes six
GRAPEFRUIT BOX SALAD
1 cup diced grapefruit pulp 1/2 cup nutmeats
2 cup cut seeded white cherries Grapefruit mayonnaise
1/2 cup cut seeded red cherries Square saltines
1/ cup diced marshmallows
* Mix ingredients. Add dressing. Arrange on lettuce-covered plates. Place
4 saltines like a box around salad, and tie in shape with narrow ribbon to
match preferred color scheme.
GRAPEFRUIT SALAD DRESSING
1 cup salad oil % teaspoon salt
dash of pepper 2 teaspoon sugar
1/3 cup grapefruit juice
Mix all ingredients and shake in a covered bottle until thick.
GRAPEFRUIT QUICK SHORTCAKE
Sections grapefruit 4 tablespoons shredded
Sections canned peaches cocoanut
4 tablespoons powdered sugar 1/ cup heavy cream
S Maraschino cherries Loaf sponge cake
Use individual plates and arrange 1 slice of cake on each plate. Allow
2 sections grapefruit and 2 sections peach to each serving. Arrange fruits
alternately in each of the four corners of cake slice. Sprinkle fruits with
sugar and shredded cocoanut. Pile sweetened whipped cream in center
space and top with maraschino garnish. (Canned apricots and pears and
thin sections of canned pineapple can be similarly used with grapefruit
BAKED GRAPEFRUIT SOUFFLE
/2 cup grapefruit pulp 1 cup sugar
V2 cup orange pulp 1 teaspoon flour
2 egg whites 1/8 teaspoon salt
Rub fruit pulp through sieve; add sugar, butter, salt and heat. Fold
stiffly beaten whites into hot fruit pulp. Fill greased baking dish or small
molds three quarters full of mixture and set in a pan of hot water. Bake
in slow oven about 25 minutes until firm. Serve with whipped cream or
with grapefruit sauce.
1 cup milk 4 tablespoons flour
% cup cut up grapefruit sections 4 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons orange juice 1 tablespoon lemon juice
1 cup sugar Grated rind of 1/ orange
1/ tablespoon vanilla
Make a white sauce of the flour, butter and milk. Cool. Add the rest
of the ingredients except the egg whites. Beat these very stiff and fold
in last. Turn into a buttered baking dish and bake in a moderately slow
oven about one hour. A fluffy grapefruit souffle may be offered to the
most sophisticated of diners.
92 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
GRAPEFRUIT MARINGUE PIE
1 cup sugar /4 tablespoon melted butter
Juice % Florida grapefruit 3 to 6 tablespoons sugar
1 cup boiling water for maringue
2 tablespoons flour
Mix flour, sugar and salt, and add boiling water gradually, stirring
constantly. Add butter and cook 15 minutes over hot water. Add grane-
fruit juice and beaten yolks of eggs, stirring the eggs in quickly. Take
from the fire. Cool and turn into a baked crust. Cover with a maringue
made from the stiffly beaten egg whites and sugar. Brown in a slow oven.
CINNAMON TOAST PIE
Take four slices of toast, and butter and sprinkle with cinnamon. Break
into pieces and line a pie plate. Cut grapefruit into small pieces, sprinkle
with sugar and put on top of toast. Dot with butter. Beat whites of two
eggs with 6 tablespoons of sugar and spread on top of grapefruit. Bake in
oven until whites are golden brown.
6 slices bread 1 egg
/4 cup grapefruit juice 1 cup sugar
grated rind of grapefruit 2 slices oranges
Beat egg with lemon and grapefruit juice until well blended, then add
sugar that has been mixed with the grated grapefruit rind and beat well.
Cut circles from the bread slices and dip in the egg mixture. Fry on a
buttered pan until golden brown on both sides. Cover with orange slices,
sift with powdered sugar and serve immediately. (To prepare oranges, peel,
taking with it all the white membrane. With a thin, sharp knife, cut the
orange into thin strips lengthwise.)
HAM AND GRAPEFRUIT
Peel and remove the sections from a large seedless grapefruit. Cut the
sections in halves lengthwise, then place them over the top of the almost-
cooked ham. Sprinkle a thin layer of brown sugar over the fruit and
finish cooking the ham.
GRAPEFRUIT WlTH FISH
Soak the fish in grapefruit juice ten or fifteen minutes before being
cooked. The tart juice will add a tang that counteracts the blandness of
fish and that will give a distinguished flavor.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 93
V--The Body Needs and Menus to
Meet the Needs
The body needs that make proper food selection necessary are
as follows: 1. Energy. 2. Building and repairing of tissues.
3. Regulation of various body processes. 4. Promotion of health
and growth. All materials that help the body to meet these four
needs are now accepted as "foods." In planning a diet for a fam-
A ily it is necessary to understand at least the basic needs.
1. Energy. Walking, standing, hand work, breathing, diges-
tion, heart beats, and all other body processes require energy, all
of which must be supplied by food-the right kind of food. The
activity, size and age of the body as well as the climate decide the
amount of food to be consumed for this purpose.
Starch and Sugar-Cereals, macaroni, spaghetti, bread,
potatoes, corn, beans, rice, sirups, cane sugar and fruit
and a number of root VEGETABLES.
Fats-Butter, cream, vegetable and animal oils, nuts.
Calories Needed-About 2,200 calories (fats, starches and
sugar) daily for the average person.
2. Building and Repair. There must be constant building to
repair waste, to promote growth, and to strengthen bone and
muscle and other body tissues (in case of the young). No one
food nor class of foods supplies all the needed materials.
Protein-Milk, lean meat, eggs, cheese, fish, nuts, whole
cereals, dried peas and beans and other VEGETABLE
Minerals-(Builders and regulators-they enter into the
tissues and fluids, regulate heart action, and assist in
coagulating blood. Lime builds bones, teeth. Iron is
needed for blood. Phosphorus is needed everywhere.)
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES; milk.
Water-(Water forms a part of every living cell.)
Calories Needed-250 to 300 calories daily.
3. Regulation. The human body with its constant heart beat,
its steady circulation, a digestive tract that receives food three
times daily, takes it slowly into the body, eliminates the useless
material and, at the same time, delivers to the body, by way of
blood circulation, that portion of the food needed by the body,
requires smooth, accurate regulation if the processes are going
on well for from 40 to 80 years. If the intricate organs working
out a master-piece of cooperation do not receive the proper foods
then defects and pains result.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Minerals-FRUITS AND VEGETABLES and milk.
Bulk or Fiber-FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, starch
and the bran of grains, and water. 4
Vitamins-FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, milk, fish, oil.
4. Growth and Health-Vitamins. By animal feeding experi-
ments scientists have learned, without a doubt, that natural foods
contain certain constituents which are essential for health and
nutrition but present in such minute traces as to escape detection
by ordinary methods. This group of elusive food constituents is
known as vitamins. Their importance in normal nutrition and in 4
preventive medicine is becoming more and more evident with
each succeeding year. It is not discouraging that mistakes have
been made, old knowledge cast aside for the new, theories
changed. As time goes on we shall know more. The question is
not "Do I believe in vitamins?" but "where can I get vitamins?"
The answer may at least be partially answered as follows:
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.
Growth and Health Foods:
Vitamin A (increases resistance to infection)-Green and
yellow vegetables. All green vegetables are richer in
vitamin A than are white vegetables. Green-leaf lettuce
is richer than white leaves, green asparagus than the
bleached, young, green cabbage than the headed, and
probably green string beans than the wax beans. Green
peas, "greens" (turnip greens), collards, kale, spinach,
beet greens are rich in vitamin A. Broccoli and Brussels
sprouts probably take precedence over cauliflower and
cabbage. Florida's green-leaf lettuce, endive and green
peppers are probably very much richer in vitamin A
than the white lettuce shipped into the state. Yellow
vegetables, such as yellow squash, carrots, rutabagas,
deep yellow sweet potatoes (the Southerner's delight),
and yellow corn, are rich sources of vitamin A, as are
also yellow fruits, such as oranges, tangerines, sat-
sumas, papayas. Other fruits having vitamin A in gen-
erous amount are tomatoes.
Vitamin C-Protects teeth. Tomatoes, oranges, straw-
berries, cabbage, and all CITRUS FRUITS and pine-
apple are good sources.
Vitamin D (found in fats. Anti-rachitic) -There seems to
be a general opinion that vitamin D is not stored to any
great extent in vegetables grown in northern climates.
Vegetables and oranges have been artificially irradiat-
ed. It is more than likely true that vegetables and fruits
grown in Florida's sunshine and allowed to mature
thoroughly in the sun do contain anti-rachitic power,
vitamin D. (Requests have been made for experimental
work along this line and it is hoped that in the near
future there will be definite information on the subject.)
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 95
Vitamin E-Prevents sterility. The best sources are let-
tuce leaves, and other green leaves.
S Vitamin F-Promotes appetite, prevents nervousness.
Legumes are a good source of vitamin F.
Vitamin G-Prevents pellagra. Fresh vegetables, of the
leafy type particularly, and tomatoes and bananas.
"The greatest lack in the American diet is in minerals and in
vitamins," says Dr. Louise Stanley, Director Home Economics
Bureau, U. S. Department of Agriculture. FRESH FRUITS,
SVEGETABLES and MILK are the foods which form the surest
source of all minerals and vitamins.
A Few Suggestions Concerning Florida Menus
To supplement a general diet with a sufficient supply of fresh
or canned FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.
S Two vegetables, one green (in season) every day.
A raw vegetable or a fruit every day.'
A generous amount of roots, tubers and pod vegetables.
Milk, eggs, meat, starches and accessories to complete the
Points to Remember:
1. Fruits supply sugar in nature's own form and combinations.
2. Potatoes and root vegetables help to take the place of bread.
3. Vegetables supply protein in small amounts but of good
4. Nuts partake of the nature of meats and fats.
5. "In season" foods are more economical than "out of sea-
6. Foods produced locally cost less than products from other
7. Simple, natural foods, prepared to hold the texture, flavor
and nutritive value, are most wholesome, attractive
8. Vegetable plate:
Taste-One mild in flavor, one pronounced, one acid
Texture -One boiled or steamed.
One in sauce.
Protein-Beans or peas.
One served with egg, milk, or cheese.
Color-One or two bright colors-beets, carrots, to-
mato, squash, rutabaga; one green; never
serve all white.
1 Canned grapefruit, tomatoes, strawberries, are good substitutes in food value for
the fresh fruit.
96 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Group Varieties -of Vegetables
Too often in meal planning no distinction is made as to vari-
eties of groups of vegetables. There are four distinct types con- 4
sidered from a nutritive standpoint-Pods, Roots, Tubers and
This is the legume group. These vegetables are especially rich
in protein and are, therefore, partial substitutes for meat in the
diet. In the fresh stage they are fairly rich in vitamin B. They
are a good source of phosphorus, and a fair source of iron. They -0
are alkaline in their reaction and have this advantage over other
protein foods. Peas and lima beans are somewhat similar in food
value. String beans or snap beans are more like green leaves.
Their mature seeds are similar to peas.
This group is not outstanding in food value but it has a place
as a group in adding variety and aLtractiveness and in supple-
menting more concentrated foods. Carrots, especially raw carrots,
are a good source of vitamin, as are also beets and rutabagas.
Kohl-rabi is a splendid source of phosphorus, calcium and protein.
This group is made up of the vegetables rich in carbohydrates,
such as while and sweet potato and is, therefore, an important
source of energy. The sweet potato is especially rich in vitamin
A. White potato has vitamin B and, if properly ccoked, has a
mineral value. It is a good plan to alternate the use of these two
potatoes and to allow them to help take the place of bread and rice
as the potatoes have an excess of base over acid. Potatoes should
never form the basis of a diet. They are lacking in calcium.
This group has two types, the thick leaves, such as cabbage,
onion, cauliflower, lettuce, and the thin leaves, such as turnip
greens, spinach, mustard. The mineral, vitamin, protein and
roughage values have been previously discussed.
Papaya with Lime. Mango or Peach with Cream.
Soft-cooked Eggs. Toast with Butter. Bacon. Hot Muffin.
Sugar and Cream for Coffee Milk or Coffee.
Milk to Drink. Lunch
Lunch Cottage Cheese Salad with Escarole.
Avocado Salad with Lettuce. Marmalade. Bread and Butter.
Bread and Butter. Fruit Juice.
Milk or Lemonade.
Vegetable Soup (cream). Fruit Cup.
Chicken or meat. Baked Fish with Tomato and
Sweet Potato, baked Butter. Pepper Sauce.
Stewed Okra. Green Beans. Green Beans Baked Potato.
Lemon Pie Blueberry Pie.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 97
Bananas with Orange Juice.
Eggs Scrambled in Thin Cream.
Corn Muffins and Butter.
Milk or Coffee.
Bread and Butter. Celery.
Smothered Chicken with Plum Jelly.
Steamed Chard. Baked Squash.
Lettuce and Tomato Salad.
Bacon. Toast. Pineapple Jam.
Milk or Coffee.
Fruit Salad with Cheese Toast.
Turnips and Turnip Greens
Green Pepper and Tomato Salad.
Orange Juice (undiluted).
Waffles. Stewed Guavas.
Milk or Coffee.
Cabbage Salad with Grated Carrot.
Toast with Butter.
Beets, Green Beans,
Yellow Squash or Carrots.
Okra. Cole Slaw.
Corn Sticks. Butter
Spiced Plums. Peanut Cookies.
Blueberries with Orange Juice.
Scrambled Eggs with Bacon.
Cheese with Stewed or Fresh Figs.
Brown Bread. Milk.
Broiled Steak. Steamed Onions.
Sliced Tomatoes with Peppers.
Stewed Pears. Cookies.
Orange or Grapefruit Juice.
Broiled Ham or Bacon.
Corn Hoecake or Thin Toast.
Coffee or Milk.
Baked Potato. Steamed Spinach.
Boiled Cabbage with Ham Hock.
Sweet Potato, baked half shell.
Baked Pears. Cookies.
Fresh Figs with Cream.
Wilted Endive with Bacon Dressing.
Steamed Egg. Corn Sticks.
Broiled Spanish Mackerel
with Lime Juice.
Baked Potato. Celery.
(Grapefruit Juice Set in Ice.)
Toast. Stewed Guavas.
Milk or Coffee.
Celery. Sliced Tomato.
Cream Chicken with Green Peas.
Hot Biscuit. Roselle Jelly.
Waffles. Tupelo Honey.
Celery. Bread and Butter.
Broiled Chicken, Haw Jelly.
98 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Papaya with Lime.
Graham Toast. Milk.
Lettuce and Tomato Salad.
Bread and Butter.
Creamed Vegetable Soup.
Meat. Steamed Chard.
Fish Chowder. Baked Potato.
Sliced Figs and Cream.
Baking Powder Biscuits.
Baked Red Snapuer.
Chinese Cabbage. Mango Sauce.
Glass of Florida Orange Juice.
Poached Egg on Toast.
Spinach with Egg
Graham Bread and Butter.
Lady Peas. Summer Squash.
Graham Toast. Butter,
Stuffed Green Peppers.
Cake. Glass of Milk.
Head Lettuce with Thousand Island
Spiced Melon Pickle.
Boiled Ham. Brown Bread.
Cream Spinach. Baked Beans.
Strawberries and Cream.
Oyster Omelet with Celery.
Hot Baking Powder Biscuits.
Green Peas. Mashed Potatoes.
Tomato and Lettuce Salad.
Buttered Beets. Corn on the Cob.
Hot Rolls, Buttered.
Steamed Onion. Baked Potatoes.
Mango Brown Betty.
NOTE-Milk has been mentioned only occasionally. Menus for children
should be built around a quart of milk daily. Menus for grown-ups should
include milk every day, the amount varying with the amount of vegetables
and fruit used.
FLORIDA FRUITS- AND -VEGETABLES
1. CALORY TABLE
(Selected from "Feeding the Family"-Mary Swartz Rose, and from
Bulletin 28, U. S. Department of Agriculture.)
Select 600 out of 3000 calories daily from fruits and vegetables. The
following table is for convenience in planning menus. The number of cal-
ories for ordinary servings rather than the usual 100-calory portion is
Asparagus (5 tips) ........................
Celery (1 cup, chopped) ..................
Cauliflower (4 heaving tbs.)......
Cabbage (1 cup, shredded).........
Carrots (1 medium) .......................
-Corn (1 medium ear).......................
Brussels sprouts (four) ..................
Beets (2 heaping tbs.) .....................
S Beans (string, % cup).....................
Beans limass, fresh, 2 tbs.)......
Eggplant (i medium) ..............
Lemons, (1 large) ......................
Lettuce ( % head) ......................
Onions (1 medium) ........................
Parsnips (medium) ..........................
Potato (medium white, bkd.)...
Potato (medium sweet, bkd.)...
Peas (green), 2 cup.......................
Peas (field), V1 cup ........................
Strawberries (1 cup) .....................
Squash (2 heaping tbs. )..................
Spinach (2 heaping tbs.) ..............
Turnip (2 heaping tbs.) ................
Tomatoes (medium), uncooked
Tomatoes (stewed, % cup)........
Tomatoes (1 cup cream soup)..
Bananas (average size) ...............
Blackberries (3 heaping tbs.)...
Cantaloupe (1/2 melon) ..............
Grapefruit (1/2 large) ..................
Grapes (1 large bunch)..................
Blueberries (4 heaping tbs.).....
Orange (average) ......................
Peach (average) ........................
Pear (average) ...........................
Pineapple (2 slices) ........................
Plum (average) ....................................
Strawberries (4 heaping tbs.)...
Watermelon (large slice)...............
Marmalade (orange), 1 tbs..........
Butter, 1 tbs. .................................
Milk (whole, 1 glass) .....................
Egg (1 m edium ) .................................
Cheese (1% in. cube) .....................
Bread (2% in. slices, white)......
Corn muffins (1 medium)............
Molasses (11/2 tbs.) ....................
Sugar (2 tbs.) ......................................
Cream (thin, %4 cup) .......................
Wesson Oil (1 tbs.)......................
2. VITAMIN TABLE
Reported occurrence of vitamins A, B, and C in fruits and vegetables.
Selected from Circular 84, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Sibyl L. Smith, Senior Chemist. Experiment Station.
$ indicates that the food contains the vitamin.
$ 1 indicates that the food is a good source of the vitamin.
1 t t indicates that the food is an excellent source of the vitamin.
indicates that the food contains no appreciable amount of the
indicates that evidence is lacking or appears insufficient.
A Relative distribution of vitamins A, B, and C
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
ITEM A B C
A vocados .................... ............. .................. ............. *
Bananas, baked in skin......................................... *
Bananas, baked without skin............................. I
B ananas, raw ................................................................. 1 to
B read fru it ...................................................................... *
Cactus (pricklypear) .................................... t
100 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Relative distribution of vitamins A, B, and C
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
ITEM | A B C
C an taloup es ................................................ .... ........ ....
Cashew apples .......................... .................* *
Chicos (sapodillas) .......................................... $ $ s
Custard apples ............................. ......................
Grapefruit (or juice), fresh..............................
Grapefruit juice, dried ............................... $t t t t
Grapefruit peel, outer ........................................ -tot t$ *
Grape juice, dried .............................. ............... -
Grapes (or juice), fresh ................................... .... to$ t t
G uavas .................................... .......................... *
Lemon juice, concentrated............................ * t
Lemon juice, dried ................................ .... : t t
Lemon juice, frozen, stored ............................ *
Lem on peel, outer ................................... .............
Lem ons, cold storage ............................................ *
Lemons (or juice), fresh .................................... $ $
Lime juice, concentrated.................................. * I $
Limes (or juice) ................................. *
M angoes, dried ............................................. ..... *
Mangoes, ripe and unripe ........................... *
Mulberries ................. ................ .......... *
Orange juice, concentrated .............................. $ $
Orange juice, dried .......................................... $ t $
Orange juice, fresh ................................... $ $ .t
Orange juice, frozen, stored .............................. *
Orange peel, dried and fresh ...........................*
O range peel, inner ................................................ *
Orange peel, outer ................. ..............................
Oranges, cold storage ............................................. *
Papaya juice ......................................................... *
Papayas ........................................... ............................. $ t
Peaches, canned ........................................ $ to$ $ $ $ tot
P eaches, cooked ........................................................... *
P eaches, dried .............................................................. *
Peaches, raw ................................................. $ to$ $
Pears, canned (cold-packed).............................. * -to$
Pears, cooked ....................................... ........ * -
Pears, raw, fresh .............................................. t tot $ $
Pears, raw, stored .............................. * t