• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Main
 Production and disposition of U.S....
 Disappearance of U.S. flue-cured...
 Estimated world production of flue-cured...
 Exports of flue-cured tobacco from...
 Exports of U.S. tobacco by types...
 Exports of U.S. tobacco by types...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Flue-cured tobacco in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089052/00001
 Material Information
Title: Flue-cured tobacco in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin - State of Florida, Department of Agriculture ; 40
Alternate Title: Production of flue-cured tobacco in Florida
Physical Description: 74 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Clark, Fred ( Fred A )
Brothers, S. L.
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1958
Copyright Date: 1958
 Subjects
Subject: Flue-cured tobacco -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tobacco -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tobacco -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "October 1958R."
Statement of Responsibility: Fred Clark and S.L. Brothers.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089052
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMT2020
oclc - 44530551
alephbibnum - 002565740

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
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        Page 17
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        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Production and disposition of U.S. manufactured cigarette - 1935 to 1956
        Page 67
    Disappearance of U.S. flue-cured leaf tobacco 1925-26 to 1953-51 crop years
        Page 68
    Estimated world production of flue-cured tobacco
        Page 69
    Exports of flue-cured tobacco from U.S. by countries
        Page 70
    Exports of U.S. tobacco by types and countries 1954
        Page 71
    Exports of U.S. tobacco by types and countries 1956
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Back Cover
        Page 77
        Page 78
Full Text



'FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

in FLORIDA

by S. L. Brothers and Fred Clark









STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT of AGRICULTURE
Nathan Mayo-Commissioner
TALLAHASSEE








BULLETIN NO. 40-OCTOBER 1958R


FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

IN FLORIDA




Fred Clark
Associate Agronomist
and
S. L. Brothers
Assistant Agronomist


University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida


STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, COMMISSIONER
TALLAHASSEE






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1

PRODUCTION OF FLUE-CURED


TOBACCO IN FLORIDA



Fred Clark and S. L. Brothers


INTRODUCTION
According to early historical records, tobacco (Nicotiana
tabacum L.) was planted in Florida in the late 1820's. However,
there is no definite information available as to when flue-
cured tobacco was first introduced. Flue-cured tobacco is often
called bright tobacco and gets its name from the curing process
which consists of heaters and flues to furnish controlled heat.
Flue-cured tobacco is the principal cash field crop in Florida,
and contributes more than fifty percent of the total income
on farms where it is grown. Comparing two ten year periods,
1938-1947 and 1948-1957 the average yearly yield has increased
from 879 pounds to 1195 pounds per acre. The average yearly
gross return has increased from $4,855,837 to $11,176,972.
The complete history of flue-cured tobacco production from
1923 to 1957 is shown in Table 5.
There are other types of tobacco-cigar wrapper (Type 62)
and cigar binder (Type 56)-grown in the state. However,
the purpose of this bulletin is to describe the cultural and
environmental conditions under which flue-cured tobacco is
grown in Florida.



DESCRIPTION OF TOBACCO

BOTANICAL
Tobacco is native to the new world and belongs to a large
family of plants, known as the solanaceae family. There are
approximately 85 genera containing over 1,800 species in this
family.







TABLE 1 FLORIDA TOBACCO DATA (Flue-cured)
Acres Harvested Actual Cents Gross
Year Allotted Acreage Production Yield Per Lb. Value
1923 0 200 130,000 660 22.0 28,600
1924 0 2,500 1,690,000 677 19.5 329,550
1925 0 4,500 3,260,000 724 15.1 492,260
1926 0 3,100 2,480,000 800 22.7 562,960
1927 0 5,400 4,070,000 754 19.0 773,300
1928 0 7,100 4,430,000 625 12.3 544,890
1929 0 6,800 5,100,000 750 18.1 923,100
1930 0 7,300 5,770,000 790 10.4 600,080
1931 0 6,000 4,350,000 725 6.6 287,100
1932 0 2,000 1,200,000 600 11.0 132,000
1933 0 5,000 3,700,000 740 12.0 444,000
1934 4,300 4,700 3,410,000 725 20.0 682,000
1935 6,800 7,000 6,020,000 860 17.7 1,065,540
1936 8,400 8,000 7,200,000 900 22.0 1,584,000
1937 8,800 16,800 14,110,000 840 21.1 2,977,210 0
1938 13,500 16,300 15,890,000 975 20.3 3,225,670
1939 14,500 29,500 20,650,000 700 12.3 2,539,950
1940 13,600 12,700 11,750,000 925 17.5 2,056,250
1941 13,699 11,155 8,045,468 721 21.3 1,713,684 0
1942 15,168 12,649 10,934,130 864 32.3 3,531,723
1943 15,391 13,599 11,698,786 860 40.8 4,773,105 Z
1944 19,911 18,952 16,953,254 895 36.2 6,137,077
1945 21,681 19,093 16,887,724 884 38.8 6,552,437
1946 24,602 20,287 18,891,830 931 47.7 9,011,403
1947 25,786 22,245 23,120,702 1,039 39.0 9,017,073
1948 18,739 16,082 16,302,721 1,014 47.5 7,743,792
1949 19,995 18,730 20,233,098 1,080 37.8 7,648,111
1950 20,198 17,875 18,241,731 1,020 51.8 9,449,217
1951 23,353 22,256 26,971,201 1,212 52.1 14,051,996
1952 22,700 22,700 25,878,000 1,141 51.3 13,275,000
1953 21,200 21,200 22,684,000 1,070 51.5 11,682,000
1954 21,500 21,500 27,735,000 1,290 54.5 15,116,000
1955 21,356 20,897 29,650,170 1,419 45.7 13,561,000
1956 18,822 17,559 21,662,765 1,234 48.6 10,538,911
1957 15,110 11,284 15,361,273 1,361 56.6 8,703,697







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 3

Tobacco is classified in the division of Spermatophyta in
the following manner:
Division --------Spermatophyta
Sub-division -____-------Angiosperm
Class --- --------Dicotyledon
Order --------- Tubiflorace
Family -------- Solonaceae
Genus -----------Nicotiana
Species .---------Tabacum
Variety ------------402
Selection
Tobacco belongs to the genus Nicotiana which was estab-
lished by Linnaeus in 1753 and in his original classification
only two species were included, those being cultivated by the
American aborigines and early colonists, namely Nicotiana
tabacum and N. rustica.
Nicotiana tabacum has 24 chromosomes, and it is generally
accepted that it is a natural cross between N. tomentosa and N.
sylvestris. Species of N. tabacum may be mammoth, inter-
mediate or dwarfed in size; however, N. tabacum as grown in
Florida is of the intermediate type of growth with an average
height of 5 to 6 feet.
Nicotiana tabacum may vary in growth characteristics, length
of internodes, color of flower, pubescence of leaf, venation,
color of leaf and many other morphological characteristics, as
well as usage characteristics, which aids in separation of
varieties.
Flue-cured tobacco as grown in Florida is used principally
for cigarette manufacturing.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
The overwhelming popularity of cigarette tobacco, N. tabacum,
is due primarily to its aroma and other smoking qualities of
the leaf. These qualities are mostly chemical in nature and
may be greatly affected by weather conditions during the
growing period.
Chemical properties are also influenced by soil, climate,
fertilization, cultivation, curing and fermentation and are re-







4 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

sponsible for the wide differences in composition of the various
commercial types of tobacco. See Table 2.
Flue-cured tobacco is widely noted for its high sugar and
medium nicotine content which makes it ideally suited for
cigarette tobacco. The flue-cured tobacco grown in Florida
meets all necessary requirements for good cigarette tobacco.

HISTORY
Some of the early leaders and growers of flue-cured tobacco
in Florida were J. J. Sechrest, former county agent in Hamilton
County, R. S. Adams, E. C. Corbett, J. L. Law, J. C. Cameron,
Hugo Leslie, A. C. Witt, Isaac Blanton, A. C. Fowler, and
C. O. Lewis. There are many more who could be named as
pioneers in establishing the industry. B. B. Saunders and Nat
Smith, tobacco warehousemen of Valdosta, Georgia, were very
active in their support of the industry in Florida as well as in
South Georgia.

TOBACCO SOILS

The type of soil on which flue-cured tobacco is grown greatly
influences the physical appearance as well as the chemical
properties of the leaf; therefore it is important that the best
adapted soils be used for growing tobacco.

Good leaf appearance and best quality are generally produced
on well-drained soils of low to medium fertility. Florida has
a considerable acreage of soil low to medium in fertility.

The principal soil types on which tobacco is grown as present
are:* Norfolk fine sand, loamy fine sand; Blanton fine sand;
Arredondo fine sand and loamy fine sand; Gainesville loamy
fine sand; Archer fine sand, loamy fine sand and fine sandy
loam; Hernando fine sand, loamy fine sand and fine sandy
loam; Newberry fine sand; Ruston loamy fine sand; Marlboro;
Tifton; Orangeburg; and several others. Approximately fifty
percent of the cultivated soils west of Gadsden County are
Norfolk and Ruston, which are classified as excellent tobacco
soils; however, very little flue-cured tobacco production is
found in that area.

* Soil Classification-Courtesy of J. R. Henderson, Soil Technologist,
Florida Agricultural Extension Service.




TABLE 2


(1)
(2)
(3)

(4)
Nitrogenous (5)
Constituents (6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)


Carbohydrate
Constituents





Acids


(11)

(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)

(18)
(19)
(20)


% Volatile Bases (VB) as Ammonia
% Nicotine
% Volatile Bases minus Nicotine as
Ammonia
% Ammonia
% Glutamine
% Asparagine
% Glutamic Acid
%/ Aspartic Acid
% Nitrate as N03
% Protein
% Reducing Sugars (Before Inver-
sion) as Dextrose
% Pentosans
% Pectin as Calcium Pectate
% Lignin
% Volatile Acids (VA) as Acetic
% Formic Acid
% Volatile Acids (VA) minus Formic
as Acetic
% Malic Acid
% Citric Acid
% Oxalic Acid


(21) % Volatile Oil
Aromatics (22) %/c Alcohol Soluble Resins


(23)
(24)
Mineral (25)
Constituents (26)
(27)
(28)


Bright
(1) 0.282
(2) 1.93
(3) 0.079

(4) 0.019
*(5) 0.283
(6) 0.194
(7) 0.035
(8) 0.023
(9) Trace
(10) 5.69
(11) 22.09

(12) 6.23
(13) 6.19
(14) 5.37
(15) 0.153
(16) 0.059
(17) 0.076

(18) 3.96
(19) 0.78
(20) 0.81
(21) 0.148
(22) 9.08


Calcium as CaO
Potassium as K20
Magnesium as MgO
Chlorine as C1
Phosphorus as P205
Sulphur as S04


Courtesy of American Tobacco Company


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CIGARETTE TOBACCOS

Showing Some Characteristic Differences Between Major Types


Burley
0.621
2.91
0.315

0.159
0.300
0.861
0.118
0.336
1.70
11.06
Trace

7.38
9.91
5.66
0.103
0.027
0.068

9.20
8.22
3.04
0.141
9.27


Maryland
0.366
1.27
0.233

0.130
0.352
0.124
0.112
0.039
0.087
10.06
Trace

8.28
12.14
10.26
0.090
0.022
0.061

3.44
2.98
2.79
0.140
8.94


Turkish
0.289
1.05
0.179

0.105
0.172
0.450
0.086
0.227
Trace
7.44
12.39

6.05
6.77
6.43
0.194
0.079
0.091

5.40
1.03
3.16
0.248
11.28






6 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

Although the acreage of tobacco has not increased appreciably,
it is necessary that good farm practices be used in caring for
tobacco soils if satisfactory production is to be obtained. Plant-
ing of flue-cured tobacco has been mainly on soil that is newly
cleared, or on soil that the individual grower knows has pro-
duced other crops without damage by root-knot. Another crop-
ping system has been the use of "layout" land or weed land,
which has proved best for tobacco production. This practice
is not always practical as many growers are reluctant to set
aside weed land for tobacco in their farm program. The number
of general farm crops is limited for good rotational plantings
with tobacco. Corn, peanuts and oats are crops generally grown
preceding tobacco, while watermelons may be grown, when
planted on newly cleared soils.
Leguminous cover crops are not recommended to precede
tobacco. Several crops that are highly susceptible to root-knot
and which tend to increase the nematode population are cow-
peas, okra, cucumbers, squash, cantaloupe, lupines and sweet
potatoes. Growers should not use these crops in rotation with
tobacco. In addition to the preceding crops, Florida Pulsey',
Richardia brasilinsis (Moq.) Gomez, a native weed, is one
of the more common host plants for root-knot in Florida soils.


Fig. 1: A Tobacco plant field in South Florida.
1Press bulletin 629 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 7


Fig. 2: Spraying the Tobacco Plant Field for Control of Blue-mold

VARIETIES

Tobacco varieties are classified on the basis of leaf char-
acteristics, and are grouped as follows:
1. Narrow to medium leaf: Mammoth Gold, Yellow Special A,
Yellow Mammoth, Hicks and many others.
2. Broad or wide leaf: 402, Golden Harvest, Virginia Gold,
and Virginia 21.
The selection of tobacco seed and variety to grow is a matter
of individual preference. Where diseases such as black shank,
Granville wilt, and mosaics prevail the choice is restricted to
resistant lines. At present the only area where diseases are
a limiting factor is the black shank area of Gadsden County.
Varieties resistant to black shank or Granville wilt are not
included. There are no commercial varieties resistant to nema-
todes. Dixie Bright 101, 102 and C-187 have multiple resistance
to both black shank and Granville wilt and are recommended
for diseased areas. D-B 28, or Golden wilt are grown primarily
in Granville wilt areas.
The Orinico type or Narrow-leaf tobacco varieties together
with the broad leaf varieties are very popular in Florida be-







12 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

threads per square inch. These covers aid in maintenance of
better moisture and prevent damage from wind and frost.
(See figure 3) It is often advisable to provide extra protection
on extremely cold nights. However, the cloth should be removed
after plants attain the size of a quarter so that they will toughen
as they grow. The beds should be covered on all frosty nights.
Hardened plants survive best when transplanted to the field.
Plants grown in open areas may be scorched from frost and
appear damaged. However, if given additional growing time
they will recover and make satisfactory field growth unless
the bud was damaged.


Fig. 3: Tobacco Plants Damaged by Frost


WATERING
Water is most essential for establishing plant stands and
is very essential for maximum plant growth. Excess water,
particularly in low, poorly drained areas, may injure plants,
and in some instances plants will drown because of poor
aeration in wet soil. The amount of water and frequency of
application may be governed by atmospheric conditions and
vigor of plant growth. When pulling plants for transplanting
it is advisable to water the bed before pulling and sprinkle
the bed after pulling to settle the soil around the plants. (See
figure 4)







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 13

FIELD PRODUCTION

There are twenty-nine counties in which flue-cured tobacco
is grown in Florida at the present time, and there are some
6,633 growers producing approximately 15,110 acres. Table
3 and 3A shows counties and the harvested acreage for these
counties in 1956 and 1957. It should be noted that the bulk
of the acreage occurs within the Suwannee Valley area. The
soils of that area are quite suitable for tobacco production.
However, soil management is an important factor in crop
production, and tobacco is a crop that is affected by cropping
and management practices.

ROTATIONS

There has been a wealth of virgin land in the flue-cured
tobacco area of Florida, and growers have used newly cleared
land for a major part of their production. Today, with very
little good tobacco land left to be cleared and with the trend
toward more intensive farming through the use of the tractor,
there is greater need for a cropping system. Land is so valu-
able today that the farmer can't afford to follow the old
cropping system of much idle land. (Sometimes called cracker
farming.)


Fig. 4: Pulling Plants for Transplanting







14 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA


TABLE 3

1956

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO


A record of the sales, resales, and average
sold on all Florida markets is shown below:


Pounds


Producers Sales
Resales
Gross Sales


17,921,736
2,588,413
20,510,149


Value


$8,727,881.11
$1,220,436.43
$9,948,317.54


price of tobacco



Average Price


48.70c
47.15c
48.50c


No. of
Allot-
County ments


Actual
Allotted Harvested Yield
Acreage Acreage (Pounds)


NO. FARMS
PLANNING
With
With out
Allot- Allot
ment ment


Alachua 624 2,401.17 2,202.57 1,304 543
Baker 173 321.69 273.32 1,380 145
Bradford 104 308.37 266.24 1,258 92
Calhoun 2 3.26 3.26 1,220 2
Columbia 794 2,054.50 1,905.44 1,323 728 1
Dixie 68 137.41 128.65 1,287 59
Duval 2 2.38 2.28 1,341 2
Gadsden 169 272.31 247.69 1,205 153
Gilchrist 265 488.79 438.36 1,162 238
Hamilton 463 2,393.88 2,332.33 1,225 455
Hillsborough 2 2.91 0 0 0
Holmes 36 51.65 50.87 1,405 32
Jackson 112 206.20 170.68 1,049 88
Jefferson 253 432.31 378.90 1,204 220
Lafayette 420 1,393.86 1,308.09 1,314 395 2
Lake 1 0.26 0 0 0
Leon 34 51.61 34.34 1,145 20
Levy 117 189.31 164.77 1,032 94
Liberty 2 1.53 1.53 1,231 2
Madison 1,005 2,444.31 2,252.62 1,212 911 1
Marion 10 26.10 11.68 1,088 4
Nassau 43 79.65 69.81 1,329 36
Orange 5 2.68 0 0 0
Polk 1 1.06 0 0 0
Sumter 38 50.91 42.30 1,039 34
Suwannee 1,522 4,581.23 4,450.84 1,158 1,486 1
Taylor 178 385.71 407.18 1,150 112
Union 192 558.69 513.75 1,352 178
Volusia 1 1.67 0 0 0
Washington 1 1.67 1.67 983 1

TOTAL 6,637 18,847.08 17,559.17 1,234 6,030 5


Total Production: 21,663,361 pounds








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 15


TABLE 3A

1957 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO ALLOTMENT,

HARVESTED ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION

DATA-FLORIDA

Allotment Farms Harvested Acreage
No. of No. of Production Yield
Farms Acreage Farms Acreage (Pounds) (Pounds)


652 1,921.38 384
174 259.42 109
108 247.64 37
2 2.60 0
856 1,645.21 609
72 113.27 42
2 1.90 2
169 217.40 86
270 394.71 191
492 1,913.17 396
2 1.10 0
35 40.68 27
122 166.03 65
250 345.34 135
424 1,114.56 350
33 40.55 12
116 152.12 65
2 1.22 1
1023 1,957.40 686
12 20.38 1
43 64.61 22
4 2.10 0
1 0.37 0
38 40.77 32
1513 3,678.09 1219
197 308.56 91
203 453.93 126
2 1.34 0
1 1.34 0


State Totals 6818 15,107.19 4688


1,329.95 1,990,573 1497
169.21 169.760 1003
66.90 59,510 890
0 0 0
1,195.27 1,694,719 1418
84.39 91,951 1090
1.79 1,692 945
103.05 131,628 1277
297.46 361,574 1216
1,647.67 2,527,718 1534
0 0 0
32.48 38,014 1170
85.30 87,152 1022
187.41 234,516 1251
975.83 1,258.302 1289
22.76 32,118 1411
90.96 91,361 1004
0.42 120 286
1,353.51 1,868,092 1380
3.94 4,862 1234
37.04 46,254 1249
0 0 0
0 0 0
27.59 34,156 1238
3,075.36 4,059,052 1320
192.33 219,451 1141
303.38 358.698 1182
0 0 0
0 0 0

11,284.00 15,361,273 1361


October 10, 1957


County


Alachua
Baker
Bradford
Calhoun
Columbia
Dixie
Duval
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Hamilton
Hillsborough
Holmes
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Leon
Levy
Liberty
Madison
Marion
Nassau
Orange
Polk
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Washington







FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA


There are several problems closely related in handling a
rotation for tobacco. It is highly desirable that the crops
be handled so that the soil will be in the best condition for
tobacco. Several years of research have shown that weeds
are excellent for improving the soil and getting it in condition
for tobacco. It is practically impossible to set up one rotation
for each individual tobacco farm. As a general rule, it is
possible to crop the land to lupines, crotalaria, or hairy indigo
and follow this with corn or the millets and then follow the
corn or millets with oats or rye in the fall. The crop is grazed
or cut for grain, weeds are allowed to grow in the summer and
the following year the land is planted to tobacco.
Oats and rye may also be turned under as a green manure
crop. However, if this is done they should be planted early
and turned in early in February to permit ample decay and
to reduce possible wireworm and cutworm damage to the
tobacco plants. It should be noted that when the more root-
knot susceptible crops are grown in rotation that less sus-
ceptible crops should be planted ahead of tobacco. Corn, millet,
oats, and rye are the most promising crops to precede tobacco.
Even some species of weeds are susceptible to nematodes, and
this makes it almost necessary to establish a system of plant-
ing resistant crops which need clean cultivation to further
reduce nematode buildup. In addition to rotations, soil fumi-
gation for nematode control is recommended.

FIELD FUMIGATION
Soil fumigation has contributed to the crop returns of many
tobacco growers. (See figure 5) For review of the materials
and how they are applied the following suggestions are made
on the recommended fumigants.

Fumigants:
DICHLOROPROPANE-DICHLOROPROPENE (D-D)
ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE (EDB) 40 and 85
Application: These fumigants may be applied at the follow-
ing rates in the drill row: Seven to 8 gallons of EDB-40, or
2 to 21/2 gallons of EDB-85; or 9 to 10 gallons of D-D per
acre. For broadcast applications: 15 gallons of EDB-40; or
6 gallons of EDB-85; or 20 gallons of D-D. (See Table 4)


16






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 17









,. .







Fig. 5: Tobacco Fumigated in Background, Not Fumigated in Foreground
Tobacco Was Irrigated

EDB-85 should be used at the rate of 2.5 gallons per acre
in the drill row and 5 to 6 gallons in broadcast applications.
When to Treat: The soil may be treated in early fall, or
not later than three weeks ahead of transplanting. For flue-
cured tobacco one month to not less than three weeks time
prior to transplanting is preferred.
Soil Preparation: The soil should be prepared thoroughly,
as a trashy or roughly prepared soil may reduce effective-
ness of the treatment by allowing the fumes to escape too
rapidly from the soil. A moist soil also aids in retaining
fumigants and a soil moisture suitable for good growth is
recommended at the time of fumigating. The fumigants should
be applied from 8 to 10 inches deep.
Methods of Application: There are numerous types of ma-
chines that may be purchased or made and preference is de-
pendent upon the grower. Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station Circular S-29 illustrates construction of home-made
applicators which have proved very satisfactory.
Management of Treated Soils: If the fumigants are applied
broadcast, the cost per acre is increased; however, there is







18 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

more flexibility in later cultural practices than with the drill
row method of application. The drill row method costs less
and is just as effective provided some consideration is given
to the management of the soil at fumigating time to properly
work the drill row. This is best done by bedding the drill
row at the time of application. Several management practices
may be used.

TABLE 4
Rate of Fumigant Row Width Ft. Amount & Distance
8.75 gals/A 4 1 pint to 156 ft.
10 gals/A 31/2 1 pint to 156 ft.
6.5 gals/A 4 1 pint to 207 ft.
7.5 gals/A 31/2 1 pint to 207 ft.
2.5 gals/A 31/2 1/3 pint to 207 ft.
Many growers have transplanting machines which will place
the fertilizer, water and transplant in one operation. This is
ideal to use with the drill row method of fumigation. (See
figure 6)
Another practice which has been used successfully is to
apply one-half of the fertilizer at the time of fumigating the
soil. Then there is little need to disturb the soil again, because


Fig. 6: Tobacco Planter, which Fertilizes and Waters at the Same Time of
Transplanting







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Legend: O Rates of fertilizer and yield of tobacco
with a constant number of plants.

SRates of fertilizer and yield of tobacco
with 300 plants added for each 200
pounds increment of fertilizer.


I 30

20--


20









1000 S-


0








1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
Rates of fertilizer per acre


The effect of spacing and fertilization on the yield and
selling price in dollars per hundred pounds of tobacco.







20 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

the other half of the fertilizer is side placed. Better plant
stands and more effective nematode control are definitely
possible with this method. However, good results may also be
obtained when the drill row is opened and the fertilizer applied
and re-bedded at a later time. Very careful cultural practices
are required if this method is used.

FERTILIZATION OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
It has often been stated that good seed, soil and climate are
the three most important things necessary for success with
tobacco. Maximum success cannot be obtained without balance
in all of these and this includes fertility of the soil as well.
In Florida tobacco is grown on a wide range of soil types;
however, the inherent fertility may vary considerably. Good
tobacco soils are sandy to sandy loams with yellow to red
subsoil and good surface and internal drainage. In recent
years more of the poorly drained or flatwoods soils have been
used for tobacco because they have better moisture holding
capacity. Many of these soils are virgin and the pH is often
lower than is desired for tobacco, therefore, moderate liming
is recommended to raise the pH value. For example soils
which have these pH values, the following liming practices
are suggested:
pH 4.5 to 5-Apply from 1/ to 1 ton of dolometic limestone
at the first land preparation mixed in the soil well.
pH 5 to 5.5: Soils in this pH range need careful consideration
before liming because often a fertilizer will contain a limestone
filler which when applied in the drill row would provide
enough lime for good growth. However, in absence of a lime-
stone filler the application of 500 to 1000 pounds of dolomite
per acre should provide ample calcium.
pH 5.5 to 6: This pH range is considered ideal for tobacco.
There may be instances, when the available calcium is con-
sidered inadequate. However, caution should be exercised be-
fore making an application of lime under these conditions
because the calcium content of most tobacco fertilizers will
generally provide sufficient calcium for good growth.
Flue-cured tobacco is very responsive to fertilization and
over fertilization may result in a product of unsatisfactory
quality and value.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 21

Figure 11 shows the effect of different rates of fertilizers
and plants per acre. Sixteen hundred pounds of fertilizer per
acre with 6200 plants was best on this particular soil type
which was a Norfolk fine sand deep phase.
Recent tests with irrigation shows that there is little need
to increase the rate of fertilizer when irrigation is used prop-
erly. Excessive rates, when used with irrigation, result in
lower quality as is the case without supplemental water. These
conclusions are based on the assumption that irrigation rates
are not excessive. The following fertilizer sources and rates
are recommended:
Nitrogen: The level of available nitrogen is probably more
difficult to control within desired limits than is the case with
the other nutrients. Nitrogen is closely associated with many
of the constituents of quality. A low nitrogen level will result
in a low yield and value. (See figure 8) On the other hand,
however, over-fertilization with the element has resulted in
the production of a tobacco with undesirably high amounts
of nicotine and other nitrogenous compounds, low in sugar,
off in color and of poor quality in general.
The amount of organic matter in the soil is important in
determining the amount of nitrogen that should be used, how-
ever, most of the soils used in growing tobacco in Florida
are low in organic matter. It is necessary to distinguish be-
tween the soil types to the amount of nitrogen used. On the
average from 36 to 48 pounds of nitrogen, including both the
preplanting and sidedress fertilizer is recommended for to-
bacco. The optimum rate is often governed by the soil type,
previous cropping practices and weather conditions during
the growing season. The rate may be increased on the very
sandy soils and on soils lower in organic matter, and decreased
on the sandy loam soils higher in organic matter.
On heavier textured, more fertile soils, and where tobacco
has a tendency to be rough and of poor quality, the nitrogen
should be reduced to 24 to 36 pounds per acre depending upon
the fertility of the soil.
Tobacco should not be grown directly after a legume since
it is difficult to predict the amount of nitrogen needed in the
commercial fertilizer under this condition. The time and rate
of liberation of nitrogen from the decomposing legume plant








22 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA


--. 1- V








. - .p *t'


-- I


Fig. 8: Left shows 1000 0-8-6 (N-P-K). Right shows 1000 pounds of a
3-8-6 (N-)-K) Showing the Importance of Nitrogen for Tobacco Growth.


A .;





i- -.


Fig. 9: Leafroll caused by lack of Nitrogen in available form or Ammonia
toxicity







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 23

may be such as to lead to the production of tobacco of an
undesirable quality. Heavy broadcast applications of manure
are not recommended for the same reason. However, light
applications of manure, particularly on the poor spots in the
field, may be used advantageously provided the manure is
free of tobacco diseases.
It is recommended that not less than one-fifth of nitrogen
be derived from nitrate nitrogen. A one-third ration of nitrate
S nitrogen is not excessive and when used under growing con-
ditions such as shown in figure 9 this leaf roll condition does
not exist.
Figure 9 shows tobacco leaves damaged by excessive am-
monia nitrogen. This type of growth has been observed on
soil of low pH value and also on soils of good pH for tobacco.
A low nitrate carrying fertilizer, on a medium acid soil or
on one that has been fumigated will also give similar growth.
As the nitrifying organisms build up and with warmer weather
this growth condition will change to normal leaf development.

High organic nitrogen fertilizers have not been any more
desirable than all mineral or chemical sources of nitrogen under
both irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in Florida. Tests


Fig. 10: The Effect of Phosphorus on the Growth of Tobacco. Left: 40
pounds per acre; Right: 120 pounds per acre.







24 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

have shown that only approximately 25 percent of the total
nitrogen from organic sources would become available during
the tobacco growing season. Therefore, if water insoluble
organic are used, it is recommended that organic sources
such as cottonseed meal, soybean meal, dried blood or castor
pomace be used. These materials do aid in physical condi-
tioning of the fertilizer mixtures. However, principal consider-
ation should be for available nutrients.
Phosphorus: A liberal supply of phosphorus is important in
stimulating early growth of plants, and often an important
factor in producing high quality cigarette tobacco.
Soils differ in levels of available phosphorus. Most of the
soils of the flue-cured tobacco region are low in phosphorus
in the virgin state. Phosphatic fertilizers do not leach as
quickly as some of our other plant nutrients; therefore, on
soil with a long history of heavy applications of phosphate
fertilizer there is a great deal of phosphorus available to
the plant.
Because of the variation in amount of available phosphorus
in soils, the amount of phosphorus needed in the fertilizer
may vary widely, from a few pounds to a hundred or more
pounds per acre. Eighty to 120 pounds of available P205 per
acre applied in the row will meet the needs of the tobacco
plant for phosphorus under most conditions. Super phosphate
is recommended as the source of phosphoric acid. The effect
of phosphorus on tobacco growth is shown in figure 10.
Potassium: Potassium requirement for flue-cured tobacco
is high on light sandy soils.

Figure 11 and 12 shows the effect of low levels of potash
on tobacco growth. This type of growth was once common in
many fields of tobacco in Florida; however, in recent years
tobacco as shown in figure 13 has become common. Most of
Florida flue-cured tobacco soils are low in potassium, re-
quiring the use of fairly heavy rates of potassium for good
tobacco.

A relatively high potassium content in the cured tobacco
leaf is desirable from the standpoint of smoking quality. Plants
showing potassium deficiency symptoms on the leaves are
more subject to attack by leaf disease organisms. Soils vary


I







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 25


Fig. 11: Low Potash under Field Conditions


iency on Lett--Normal Leat on Kight


Fig. 13: Tobacco Fer


a 4-8-10 Showing All
Supplied






26 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

in supply of available potassium, depending upon fertilizer
used, cropping history, and soil type. A supply of ninety to
one hundred and forty pounds of potash (K20) per acre is
adequate for most conditions. When high potassium fertilizers
are used it is advisable to mix the fertilizer thoroughly before
transplanting, unless several days elapse between applying
the fertilizer and transplanting.
The need for use of rates beyond the above recommendations
appears to be of little value for best agronomic growth and
economical returns in Florida. If more potash is needed this
may be supplied by sidedressing with sulfate of potash.

Chlorine: Chlorine is not considered an essential element
for most plant growth. However, sizable quantities of this
element are found in most mixed fertilizers. It has been
shown that a small quantity of chlorine (about 20 pounds
per acre) in tobacco fertilizer increases the acre value and
yield of the crop. On the other hand, experiments have shown
that excessive amounts may injure the growth of the plant
and reduce the quality of the leaf. Excessive chlorine in the
plant results in a thick, brittle leaf which when cured be-
comes thin, soggy and dull in color. It also has an unfavorable
affect upon burning quality.

Soil types, moisture holding capacity of the soil and the
amount of rainfall are factors that are known to influence
the uptake of chlorine. The nature and magnitude of these
influences, however, are such that they can only be given
small consideration in arriving at a satisfactory rate of chlo-
rine. It is recommended that the application of this element
be held between the limits of 20 and 30 pounds per acre.
Chlorine from all sources should be considered.

Figure 14 shows the effect of excess chlorine on leaf develop-
ment. The use of not more than 2 units of chlorine cannot
be stressed too strongly, because if more than 30 pounds total
chlorine per acre is used, leaf thickening will result. In
addition, the hygroscopic or wetdog appearance may become
evident and the tobacco will darken during handling. For
success in both production and in marketing it is recommended
that full cooperation of all agencies is needed to hold the
chlorine content of tobacco fertilizers well within the range
of tolerance for good production and processing.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 27

Calcium: Calcium is used in sizable quantities by the tobacco
plant. Where this element is very low in the soil, or where the
pH is below 5.2, it is recommended that adjustments be made
through the application of dolomitic limestone. The amount
to be added should be determined by soil analysis. The fertilizer
should contain calcium in an available form in an amount
equivalent to a minimum of 60 pounds of CaO per acre. Most
of the commercial grade fertilizers supply the needed calcium
on soil of suitable pH. Liming practices for tobacco soils
have already been discussed. Soils with a pH above 6.2
are generally not recommended for tobacco.
Magnesium: Magnesium is a constituent of chlorophyll. Car-
bohydrates cannot be manufactured in the absence of this
material. The fertilizer should contain magnesium in an avail-
able form (at least one-half water soluble in the mixed fer-
tilizer) in an amount equivalent to 20-30 pounds of magnesium
oxide per acre.
Sulfur: Seventy-five to one hundred pounds per acre of SO3
equivalent in an available form is sufficient. There is a siz-
eble tolerance in the amount of sulfur that may be applied.
Calcium sulfate's solutility is so great that in areas of heavy
rainfall, an appreciable amount is lost through leaching. The


Fig. 14: Shows the Toxic Effects of Chlorine on Leaf. Note Curled Leaf
Margins. Left-40 Pounds Chlorine per acre. Right-20 Pounds Chlorine
per acre







28 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

loss may be accentuated by excessive irrigation in addition
to rainfall, therefore, it seems advisable to use fertilizers con-
taining slightly more sulfate.
Minor Elements: The need for boron, copper, manganese
and zinc in tobacco soils has not been demonstrated in a suf-
ficient number of cases to warrant their application. It is
definitely known that when these elements are applied in
too large a quantity they are very toxic to the plant.
Boron deficiency on tobacco has been observed in a very
few instances. Under such conditions not more than one-
fourth pound of boron per acre (approximately 2.5 pounds
borax) may be applied in the fertilizer.
Nutrient Starter Solution: Information at hand does not
justify recommendation of nutrient starter solution. In many
instances where starter materials have been tried by growers
they have not proved advantageous.

FERTILIZER APPLICATION
Fertilizer should not be applied in such a way as to come
in direct contact with the roots of newly set plants, in many
instances this causes a loss of plants and retardation of early
growth. On the basis of present knowledge the placement of
fertilizer in two bands approximately seven inches apart and
to a depth slightly below the root crown with the plants set
between the bands will reduce fertilizer injury to a minimum.
If band placement is not possible mix the fertilizer with soil
or place well below the roots.
In most cases the nutrients requirement of the tobacco can
be met through proper amounts of a complete tobacco fertilizer.
If needed, however, additional nitrogen or potash or both may
be side dressed within 20 days after transplanting, or at the
first cultivation. For this purpose part or all of the nitrogen
should be in a readily available form. Potash fertilizers low in
chlorides are recommended.
Pounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash supplied by
various analyses such as 2-8-10, 3-8-8, 3-9-9, 3-9-12 and 4-8-10
with and without 6-0-24 top-dresser are given in table 5. From
this table one can compare the pounds of plant nutrient sup-
plied by each analysis, as well as the pounds of nutrients
added by each increment of top-dresser. Figure 15 shows to-







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 29

bacco of excellent leaf quality when fertilized with a 4-8-10
analysis fertilizer.
To fertilize tobacco where irrigation is not used 36 to 45
pounds of nitrogen, 80 to 120 pounds of phosphoric acid and
90 to 140 pounds of potash per acre are recommended.
Where irrigation is used, and particularly where little regard
is given to amounts of irrigation water applied, and on very
sandy soils, rates of 45 to 60 pounds of nitrogen, 80 to 120
pounds of phosphoric acid and from 140 to 160 pounds of
potash may be needed to produce the desirable leaf quality.
Preparation of Soil for Transplanting: The shift from the
use of horses and mules to tractor preparation of soil for
planting tobacco, has aided in providing for a better soil
tilth. The earliness of preparation depends on the kind of
vegetation growing on the area, and to the decision of the
grower as to the need for fumigating the soil for the control
of nematodes.
Pasture grass sods generally require a longer period of
time between preparation and planting than most other types
of vegetation to allow for the better decomposition of the sod
roots. Deep plowing at preparation time is also helpful. Disk-
ing ahead of applying the fertilizer will control winter weeds
and put the soil in fine tilth before applying the fertilizer.
Methods of Applying Fertilizer: From tests and observations
tobacco has responded equally well from no fertilization at
transplanting time as it has when all or part of the fertilizer
was applied ahead, or at transplanting time. There are many
ways that fertilizer may be applied to tobacco, (1) drill row,
(2) side placement, (3) part drill row plus side placement and
by (4) broadcasting the fertilizer over the area.
The first consideration in using fertilizer is to make the
plants grow; however, if the fertilizer is not applied properly
poor plant stand may result from fertilizer burn to the young
plant roots, thus causing poor stands and uneven plant growth.
(See figure 16 and 17).
Most of the fertilizers are applied by a horse or tractor
drawn fertilizer distributor. There are transplanters available
which are used for transplanting and putting out the fertilizer
at the same time. At present more growers prefer the drill






TABLE 5


Pounds per Acre


Pounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash supplied by various
fertilizer analyses such as 2-8-10, 3-8-8, 3-9-9, 3-9-12 or 4-8-10,
with and without a 6-0-24* topdresser.

2-8-10 3-8-8 3-9-9 3-9-12
N1 P205 K20 N P205 K20 N P205 K20 N P205 K20


1000 pounds 20 80 100
50 lbs. 6-0-24 i 23 80 112
100 lbs. 6-0-24 26 80 124
150 lbs. 6-0-24 29 80 136
200 lbs. 6-0-24 32 80 148
300 lbs. 6-0-24 38 80 172

1200 lbs 24 96 120
50 lbs. 6-0-24 27 96 132
100 lbs. 6-0-24 30 96 144
150 lbs. 6-0-24 33 96 156
200 lbs. 6-0-24 36 96 168
300 lbs. 6-0-24 42 96 192

1400 pounds 28 112 140
50 lbs. 6-0-24 I 31 112 152
100 lbs. 6-0-24 34 112 164
150 lbs. 6-0-24 37 112 176
200 lbs. 6-0-24 i 40 112 188
300 lbs. 6-0-24 46 112 212

1600 lbs. 32 128 160
50 lbs. 6-0-24 35 128 172
100 lbs. 6-0-24 38 128 184
150 lbs. 6-0-24 41 128 196
200 lbs. 6-0-24 44 128 208
300 lbs. 6-0-24 50 128 232


30 80 80
33 80 92
36 80 104
39 80 116
42 80 128
48 80 152

36 96 96
39 96 108
42 96 124
45 96 132
48 96 144
54 96 168
42 112 112
45 112 124
48 112 136
51 112 148
54 112 160
60 112 184
48 128 128
51 128 140
54 128 152
57 128 164
60 128 176
66 128 200


30 90 90 30 90 120
33 90 102 33 90 132
36 90 114 36 90 144
39 90 126 39 90 156
42 90 138 42 90 168
48 90 162 48 90 192
36 108 108 36 108 144
39 108 120 39 108 156
42 108 132 42 108 168
45 108 144 45 108 180
48 108 164 48 108 192
54 108 180 54 108 216

42 126 126 42 126 168
45 126 138 45 126 180

48 126 150 48 126 192
51 126 166 51 126 204
54 126 174 54 126 216
60 126 198 60 126 240
48 144 144 48 144 192
51 144 156 51 144 204
54 144 168 54 144 216
57 144 180 57 144 228
60 144 192 60 144 240
66 144 216 66 144 264


4-8-10
N P205 K20
40 80 100
43 80 112
46 80 124
48 80 136
52 80 148
58 80 172

48 96 120
51 96 132
54 96 144
57 96 156
60 96 168
66 96 192

56 112 140
59 112 152

62 112 164
65 112 176
68 112 188
74 112 212
64 128 160
67 128 172
70 128 184
73 128 196
76 128 208
84 128 232


*6-0-24-Topdresser of nitrate of soda and sulphate of potash.
'=Pounds of nutrients.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 31


Fig. 15: Tobacco Fertilized with 1200 Pounds 4-8-10 Fertilizer

TABLE 6

CONVERSION TABLE FOR PLANTS PER ACRE


36" rows
Plant
Spacing
36" x 14"
36" x 15"
36" x 16"
36" x 17"
36" x 18"
36" x 19"
36" x 20"
36" x 21"
36" x 22"
36" x 23"
36" x 24"
36" x 25"
36" x 26"


Plants
per
acre
12,517
11,616
10,917
10,225
9,680
9,189
8,747
8,297
7,934
7,562
7,260
6,980
6,691


42" rows
Plant
Spacing
42"x 14"
42" x 15"
42" x 16"
42" x 17"
42" x 18"
42" x 19"
42" x 20"
42" x 21"
42" x 22"
42" x 23"
42" x 24"
42" x 25"
42" x 26"


Plants
per
acre
10,729
9,967
9,367
8,764
8,297
7,877
7,497
7,117
6,806
6,482
6,222
5,983
5,731


48" rows
Plant
Spacing
48" x 14"
48" x 15"
48" x 16"
48" x 17"
48" x 18"
48" x 19"
48" x 20"
48" x 21"
48" x 22"
48" x 23"
48" x 24"
48" x 25"
48" x 26"


Plants
per
acre
9,388
8,712
8,187
7,669
7,260
6,892
6,560
6,222
5,950
5,672
5,445
5,235
5,018


row method of applying the fertilizers which they do by opening
a furrow with a large shovel and then applying the fertilizer and
covering immediately with disc or hillers which makes a small
bed. It has been an observation of the authors that in the
skipping every fifth row method of planting that growers
would profit by cutting down on the fertilizer on the outside
border rows; or possibly increase the number of plants in
order to reduce border effects on the outside rows. The tobacco







32 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA


Fig. 16: Fertilizer Placed in Drill Row Not Mixed. Poor Plant Stands
Resulted


Fig. 17: Fertilizer Placed in Bands to Side of Plants
Fig. 17: Fertilizer Placed in Bands to Side of Plants







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 33

on the border rows may ripen more slowly than the inside
rows and often the cured tobacco is not as good quality.

Transplanting tobacco: The small beds made in covering
the fertilizer are generally boarded or smoothed off immediately
ahead of transplanting. Tobacco plants are usually transplanted
by commercial hand setters, or by horse or tractor drawn
transplanters. (See figure 18.) Plants that are six to eight
inches in height are more easily transplanted by any of the
transplanting methods mentioned. Plant spacing will vary
with individual growers; however, 7500 to 8500 plants are
generally recommended and table 6 shows row widths and
plant spacings.

Regardless of how planted all plants should be watered and
the soil firmly packed around the roots to insure good stands.
Many growers who are irrigating are leaving off transplant
watering at the time of setting the plant, however, they do
irrigate after setting a range. This practice has worked fine,
providing the grower did not have an infestation of wire-
worms. It is not easy to predict these infestations and a
small amount of water containing an insecticide would im-
prove stands and uniformity of growth if used when trans-
planting tobacco.

Cultivation: Suggestions on how and when to cultivate always
stimulate arguments on the part of the growers and the
discussion of cultivation will be limited to the conventional
methods. As stated earlier, tobacco land should be prepared
thoroughly before transplanting and regular field cultivation
generally begins after the plants have a well established root
system. The general practice is to plow the tobacco and hoe
it concurrently. The first two cultivations are fairly deep
and often one will hear a grower state that he "dirted" his
tobacco; that is deep plowing, pushing the soil around plants.
This practice sometimes fails to accomplish its purpose par-
ticularly if this method of cultivation is used at the wrong
time, or if weather conditions are not favorable at the time.

For the last several years a plant condition has been ob-
served throughout the flue-cured production area of the state
which resembles pumpkin bug injury in appearance. However,
this wilting or scalding condition has been associated with poor
seasonal conditions for growth. For example, in 1954, this







34 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA



.1.















Fig. 18: One Row Tractor Drawn Transplanter
scalded condition resulted from a very cool April, followed by a
cool dry May and a sudden change to high temperatures. Con-
tinued cultivation, caused many fields of tobacco to wilt and
many of the top leaves scalded. Continuous cultivation during
dry weather is not recommended unless irrigation is used.
At present growers are cultivating alternate row middles
once a week. Many growers will cultivate soil to the tobacco
and have a moderately high bed which aids in drainages and
against nematodes by furnishing additional soil for lateral
roots higher up the stalk than in a flat culture. Ridge culti-
vation is recommended, particularly where tobacco is grown
on low wet or poorly drained soil.
Topping and Suckering: Topping is the removal of the plant
seedhead or flower. It is recognized that topping and suckering
add to the quality of the tobacco, which increases the dollar
return per acre. To discuss this topic it will be necessary to
present pro's and con's. When and how to top tobacco may be
based on several factors. If weather conditions have been un-
favorable for uniform growth and there is still plenty of
fertilizer available for vigorous plant growth it is doubtful
if it would pay to top the tobacco early. It is often advisable
to leave seedheads and let them help utilize the extra plant
food when the rains begin. If the crop has grown and matured
vation~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~' isrcomndd priclrl heetoac sgrw
on lo wet r porly dainedsoil
Topin an ukrng opn s h eoa o h ln
sedha or~ flwr tieonzdta opn n ukrn
add~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ toteqaiyo hetbco hc ncesstedla

reur per ace.T dsus hi opc twilbencesryt
prsn r'sadcns.We n owt o obcomyb







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


under fairly good conditions topping early is advantageous.
It is difficult to have all plants in a field reaching maturity
at the same time, however, a good balance between the fer-
tility practice and adequate moisture aid tremendously in
the control on the frequency that tobacco should be suckered.
Early transplanted tobacco, followed with cool, wet weather
tends to button prematurely. This early flowering may cause
the tobacco to be of small leaf and of poor quality. To over-
come this it is often advisable to top, or cut the stalks down
to a height of 6 to 8 inches and then select a good sucker on
the second or third leaf from the top. Top-most suckers should
not be selected because they break-off more easily during
windy weather.
Topping and suckering have previously been done by hand
labor, which at present is both expensive and scarce; however,
the use of chemicals are satisfactorily replacing the need
for the time consuming hand labor and expensiveness of this
operation in tobacco culture.
Maleic hydrazide (MH-30) is a chemical hormone that is
commonly used, an herbicide recommended for use in con-
trolling suckers on tobacco, provided careful consideration is
given to maturity of plants, and that dosage recommendations
are followed closely.
Eighty to ninety percent of the plants should be in flower
before spraying with maleic hydrazide. Figures 19 and 20
show sucker control with and without MH-30.
Plants that have not reached full maturity will probably
show retarded leaf development if MH-30 is applied to them.
The chemical may be applied to both topped and untopped
plants, also it may be applied over the entire plant or only a
part of it, since the material is translocated to the active
growing regions of the plant.
Maleic hydrazide is used at the rate of from 5 to 7 pints
per acre, or approximately 1 pint per 1200 plants. (See table 7).
In any case it is the concentration and uniformity of spray
application on each plant that is important. Airplane appli-
cation of the material is not recommended.
Sucker control is not recommended under unusually dry grow-
ing conditions if the tobacco has been heavily fertilized (1,500







36 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA


Fig. 19: Sucker Control With MH-30


Fig. 20: Sucker Growth in Check Plot. No MH-30 Used

or more pounds per acre). Growth made by suckers under
these conditions helps to use up the excess nitrogen. This
improves the quality of the leaf.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 37

TABLE 7

MIXING GUIDE FOR MALEIC HYDRAZIDE


1 Acre 7,500-8,000 7 Pints 25-50 Gallons
/2 Acre 3,000-4,000 3/2 Pints 15-30 Gallons
1/4 Acre 1,500-2,000 1% Pints 5-10 Gallons
100 Plants 100 3-4 Tbsp. /2 Gallons

IRRIGATION OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
The use of irrigation in the production of flue-cured tobacco
has increased rapidly since 1952. Early tests with irrigation
showed that yields could be increased from 30 to 40 per cent
over non-irrigation and that there was no loss in quality.
In fact, years where irrigation has not given significant in-
creases in yield, the quality has always been significantly in-
creased by as much as 2 to 10 cents per pound. An explan-
ation of this is that rainfall was poorly distributed and
irrigation was used in drought periods which enabled the
tobacco to grow more uniformly. "Stop" and "go" growth is
not unusual for tobacco in Florida during the growing season
because of rainfall distribution. Figure 26 shows expected
monthly rainfall and plant requirements. It should be noted
that these data are based on several years of rainfall records
and that for tobacco to grow satisfactorily there is a need
to supplement the deficiency of rainfall to provide for plant
needs if maximum yields of good quality are to be produced.
Approximately 5 inches of supplemental water is needed over
the expected rainfall. This deficiency and poor distribution
of rainfall has made it very difficult to raise the average
acre yield of tobacco beyond 1,000 to 1,100 pounds without
irrigation. Table 8 shows an average weekly use of water
by the plants. These rates have been found to be very good
in supplying adequate water to produce high yields of good
quality tobacco. In order that plants would not suffer from
a lack of soil moisture between irrigation applications, a
sufficient amount of irrigation water was applied to return
soil moisture to a field capacity after not more than an esti-
mated 70 per cent of the available had been used.
Recent experiments with irrigation have definitely shown
the effect of rates of water, fertilizer and plant populations
on yields of tobacco.







38 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

E ESTIMATED WATER REQUIREMENT EXPECTED RAINFALL







I-
4
---------------- -------------------










MARCH 15-31 APRIL 1-30 MAY 1-31 JUNE 1- 2
PERIOD
Fig. 21: Expected Monthly Rainfall and Estimated Water Requirements
in Inches for Tobacco Planted March 15
Tables 9, 10 and 11 show the effect of each of these vari-
ables. The three years encompassed by the experiments repre-
sent what might be commonly called wet, (1953), average
(1954), and dry (1955) year.

Irrigation was applied in the "medium" treatment at a
rate to equal the amount of water used by the plant as
shown in table 8. In the "low" treatment, irrigation was
applied at a rate to equal one-third less than the amount used
by the plant and in the "high" treatment irrigation was
applied at a rate to equal one-third more than the plant
used. From the first to seventh day the plant used .06 inches
per day. Thus the "medium" application equalled .06 inches
the "low", .04 inches and the "high", .08 inches. The medium
rate of irrigation was equal to or better than other rates of
irrigation for all three years.

The 1,200 pound rate of 4-8-10 or 4-8-12 produced the
highest yield and quality of tobacco. Rates above 1,200 pounds
of this analysis did not give any increase in dollar value over
the cost of the additional fertilizer.

The optimum plant population appears to fall within the
7,500 to 10,000 plants per acre range. See table 6 for row
widths and plant spacings.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 39

Another very important practice in using irrigation is to
utilize a split application of the fertilizer. It is recommended
that from one-half to three-fourths of the fertilizer be applied
under the tobacco and the additional as a side application
from three to four weeks after transplanting.


TABLE 8

AVERAGE DAILY WATER USE FOR IRRIGATED


TOBACCO PLANTED ON OR ABOUT APRIL 1*


Period
Days after Transplanting


8-14
15-21
22-28
29-35
36-42
43-49
50-56
57-63
64-70
71-77
78-84
85-91


Inches per Day


.080
.100
.110
.130
.160
.220
.250
.220
.160
.150
.140
.130


To focus the attention of the value of irrigation the follow-
ing figures are given to show how irrigation has contributed
to the production picture and income within a county. These
figures were compiled from growers records during the years
1955 and 1956 and are presented in table 12.
In 1955 the average yield for non-irrigated tobacco (1115
acres) was 1417 pounds per acre, with a 46.2 cents per pound
selling price. The average yield for irrigated tobacco (439
acres) was 1830 pounds per acre. The selling price averaged
52.7 cents per pound. It should be noted that the irrigated
tobacco was only 28.2 per cent of total acreage and produced
36.7 per cent of the total gross value of the crop.










TABLE 9

The Effect of Plant Population on Total Yield, Quality and Value of

Tobacco-1954-1955

Irrigation Treatment


Yield
Lbs./Acre
High Quality,
Percent of
Total Yield
Value,
Dollars/Acre


"High"
1953 1954 1955


1,726 1,864 2,169



66.2 88.8 72.6

929 916 1,068


"Medium"
1953 1954 1955


1,720 1,845 2,362


74.0 88.2 73.3

957 1,001 1,173


"Low"
1953 1954 1955


1,786 1,901 2,088


64.5 87.7 70.8

926 1,030 982


1955 Yield differences significant at .05 level.
1955 Quality differences significant at .01 level.
1955 Value differences significant at .01 level.
Other differences not significant at .05 level or higher.






The Effect of Plant Population on Total Yield, Quality and Value of
Irrigated Tobacco-1953-1955


Year
Yield,
Pounds/Acre
High Quality,
Percent of
Total Yield
Value,
Dollars/Acre


5,00(
1953 195


POPULATION, P LANTS/ACRE
0 7,500 10,000
4 1955 1953 1954 1955 1953 1954


1,601 2,060


89.6 72.0

878 983


1,676 1,828 2,182


73.2 87.8 73.5

918 998 1,089


1955


1,810 1,830 2,319


63.5 89.3 74.4

956 997 1,168


12,500
1953 1954 1955

1,983 2,266


86.6 66.1

1,058 1,059


1953 Yield differences significant at .05 level.
1953 Quality differences significant at .05 level.
1954 Yield differences significant at .05 level.
1955 Value differences significant at .01 level.
Other differences not significant at .05 level or higher.


TABLE 12


Yield and Value of Irrigation on Tobacco in One County in Florida in
1955 and 1956


Using Irrigation
No Irrigation
Total Farms


No. of Farms
1955 1956
55 99
326 324
381 425*


Acres
1955 1956
439 524
1115 869
1554 1393*


Average Yield
1955 1956
1830 1420
1417 1121
:'[ 1533 13131


Total Production
1955-1956
808,253 744,292
1,580,287 974,349
2,283,540 1,718,741


* Different from 1955 total due to reconstitution or combining of allotments.
** Different from 1955 total due to a 12% reduction in allotments.


Average Price
Per Pound
1955-56
52.7c 51.1c
46.2c 48.9c
48.4c 50.0c


TABLE 11


Total Gross
Income
1955-56


$423,156
729,492
1,152,648


380,810
476,685
857,495







42 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

TABLE 10
The Effect of Fertilizer Amounts on Total Yield, Quality and
Value of Irrigated Tobacco-1955
Fertilizer, 4-8-10, Pounds/Acre
1,200 1,500 1,800 2,100
Yield, Pounds/Acre 2,135 2,180 2,250 2,264
High Quality Percent of
Total Yield 74.8 73.4 70.5 67.8
Value, Dollars/Acre 1,056 1,079 1,079 1,085
Yield differences significant at .01 level.
Quality differences significant at .01 level.
Value differences not significant.

For 1956 there were 869 acres of non-irrigated tobacco
producing 1121 pounds of tobacco per acre that sold for an
average of 48.9 cents per pound. The acreage of irrigated
tobacco had increased to 524 acres and the irrigated tobacco
produced an average of 1420 pounds per acre that sold for
an average of 51.1 cents per pound.

The acreage irrigated in 1956 was 37 per cent of the total
acres. The irrigated crop produced 44.4 per cent of the total
gross value in 1956.
It is believed that the above mentioned figures are very
significant when factors such as, variabilities in soil type,
cropping practices, fertilization rates, plant spacing and the
actual application of the irrigation water are taken into con-
sideration.
This trend has been experienced in several other countries
and serves to point out the benefits of irrigation as a regular
production practice.
In summary, irrigation, properly applied, blended with good
varieties, fertilization, fumigation, cultural practices and when
good harvesting and curing practices are followed is bene-
ficial to the farmer. Figures 22, 23, and 24 show some irri-
gation practices.

INSECT AND PEST CONTROL
Insects which attack flue-cured tobacco also attack many
other major crops. A detail description may be found in







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


U. S. D. A. Circular 639 or in the 1952 Yearbook of Agri-
culture "Insects".

INSECTS IN THE PLANT BED
Examine beds closely for insects or insect damage as soon
as plants come up. Apply insecticides as needed. A dust con-
taining 1% parathion and 5% TDE is effective against aphids
(lice), hornworms, budworms, fleabettles and climbing cut-
worms. Apply at the rate of 1 pound per 100 square yards
of plant bed. To control the same insects with a spray use
one of the following combinations:


Insecticide
50% TDE wettable powder
or
24% TDE emulsifiable concentrate
(liquid)
plus
15% parathion wettable powder
or
25% malathion wettable powder
or
40% TEPP emulsifiable concentrate
(liquid)
Apply 3 to 5 gallons of above spray
yards of bed.


Amount to Use Per 25
Gallons of Water
12 pound

1/ pint


12 pound

1 pound

1/4 pint

mixture per 100 square


INSECTS IN THE FIELD
Cutworms: Cutworms often cause serious damage to tobacco
and they are difficult to control because they migrate over
wide areas. Poison baits are the most effective means of
control. Present recommendations are; 1.5 per cent chlordane
bait, 5 pounds per acre for hill placement and 15 to 20 pounds
per acre for broadcast application. Apply before setting plants
in the field or immediately when damage is noticed.
Budworms: Tobacco budworms and occasionally corn ear-
worms are a menace to the crop. They may actually occur
on young seedlings before they are removed from the plant
bed and will continue their activity throughout the growing
season. The common name budworm indicates where the prin-







44 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA


Fig. 22: A Cart Used for Hauling Irrigation Pipe


Fig. 23: Field of Tobacco Ready for Irrigation


Fig. 24: Irrigated Tobacco Field


hgi~L.. .







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 45

cipal feeding area of the worm is on the plant. Adult moths
lay eggs on the underside of the topmost leaves. They hatch
and begin feeding immediately. Because of the density of the
leaves several leaves can be damaged very quickly by their
ravenous feeding. These worms have a special fondness for
flower buds and seed pods, and careful observation and dili-
gence are required to hold this pest in check.
Present recommendations are; 5 to 10 per cent DDT or
TDE. Dust at the rate of 20 to 25 pounds per acre. It is
important that the dust be placed in the bud for best results.
Corn meal with lead arsenate was once recommended because
it is thought that the worm would be attracted to the bait
rather than the leaf, thus reducing leaf damage. This prac-
tice is seldom used today. Some growers have had fair to
good success with the use of power sprays in controlling bud-
worms particularly when the spray nozzle is fitted immediately
above the plant heads.
Hornworms: (Southern or tobacco hornworms) These insects
may appear in early April. However, they usually appear in
greatest abundance during May, June and July. (See figure 25)
These larvae may grow to a length of 31/2 inches, and when
permitted to attain this size are difficult to control. Larvae
of this size may consume practically a whole leaf within
24 hours. It is best to control the hornworm while the larvae
is small.
The appearance of small pin head-holes on the leaves tells
one it is time to use control measures. Several materials are
recommended. Namely, TDE, endrin, DDT or parathion. Several
of these materials are compatible when mixed together as
either a spray or dust. The use of combination dust or spray
may be advantageous provided the insect populations are large
enough to warrant their use. TDE plus parathion is recom-
mended quite extensively for the control of hornworms, bud-
worms, aphids and flcabettles. Consideration of the need plus
cost is a matter for the grower to determine.
Recommendations: 5-10% TDE, or 1 to 11/2% endrin dust
used at the rate of 15 to 30 pounds per acre.
For Spray: 50% TDE, (DDD) or 50% DDT wettable pow-
der, 2-3 pounds in enough water to cover an acre, or 25%
TDE (DDD) or 25% emulsifiable concentrate at the rate of






46 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA


iCr
i^ ^u"


''^Vi' ~" '*
*) .fA
PI t


Fig. 25 Hornworm Damage on Tobacco


~'P
7.
"


Fig. 26: Aphids on Tobacco


Fig. 27: Pumpkin Bug Damage







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 47

3-4 pints in enough water to cover an acre, or endrin emulsi-
fiable concentrate (1.6) pounds actual per gallon with 1-2
pints in enough water to cover an acre. Materials for the
all-purpose spray for one acre 3-4 pints 25% TDE (DDD)
emulsifiable concentrate or 2-3 pounds of 50% wettable powder
mixed with one pound of parathion wettable powder or 1/2
pint 42% parathion emulsion. Aeroplane dusting requires the
higher poundage rate for best results. Good applications of
materials for the control of budworm or hornworm will con-
trol either or both of these pests. By starting in time these
pests are controlled more easily and at less cost.
Aphids: (Green peach Aphid). (See figure 26) This pest
has only recently proved damaging to tobacco and it has oc-
curred spasmodically every year since 1948. One measure of
control that is very helpful in preventing them to build up and
spread over the entire field is to dust the seedlings while
they are still in the plant bed. Many infestations have been
traced from the plant bed to the field. To control these pests,
1-2% parathion is recommended. It may not be necessary to
spray or dust more than once or twice to give control of aphids.

Insect Material Amount
Aphids
(plant lice)
1% parathion dust 10 to 30 lbs./Acre
or 1 lb. 15% or equiva-
15% parathion wettable lent in 100 gallons of
water
4 or 5% malathion dust 10 to 30 lbs./Acre
or
25% malathion wettable 4 lbs. 25% in 100
powder gallons of water
or
50% malathion emul- 2 pints in 100 gallons
sifiable concentrate of water
At present there are commercial dusts sold to farmers where
several insecticides are mixed together as all purpose dust.
It is well to remember that certain concentrations of these
dusts are necessary to give control and this is very important
when purchasing a dust. On the average these dusts have been
very successful; however, if only one of these insecticides are






48 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

needed to do a specific job they can generally be purchased
more cheaply on an individual basis rather than in combinations.
Grasshoppers: These insects have also assumed a place of
importance in tobacco production. Control is difficult, because
the insecticides that give the best control are not recommended
for use on tobacco. A 2% parathion dust applied when the
nymphs are small has given good control and 1.5% endrin
dust or 21/ 2 aldrin dust is also recommended.
Other Insects: Wireworms and cutworms are always bother-
some at transplanting time and may cause considerable damage
to plant stands. Two or 3 ounces of chlorodane (Technical) to
50 gallons of water using 250 gallons per acre has given control
of these pests.

Pumpkin bug damage can be quite severe some years. Figure
27 shows the kind of damage done by these pests. A satisfactory
control is difficult to obtain with present insecticides.

All of the material recommended for the control of insects
on flue-cured tobacco have been found safe to use. However,
there are numerous new insecticides being tested to determine
their effectiveness and only those that are recommended should
be used.

Carefully observe manufacturer's label precautions for all
insecticides.

DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL
At present there are numerous diseases that attack flue-
cured tobacco in Florida. However, only two or three are con-
sidered to be of economic importance.

In Plant Beds: Downy mildew or blue mold has been a
virulent disease since 1931, found principally in the plant beds.
The first symptoms of the disease will appear to cause the
leaves to yellow, wilt and twist, followed by a characteristic
bluish, downy coating on the lower surface of the leaves. This
disease has been known to appear in late January. In ordinary
seasons the disease will appear the last of February or
early March. Temperatures in the 50's to 650 F. range with
foggy mornings are quite conducive to its development. This
disease will spread rapidly over the entire bed area unless







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


controlled. Uncontrolled early outbreaks are a good source of
infection for other nearby plant beds.

Blue mold is readily controlled in plant beds by dusting or
spraying, and several materials are effective. Ferbam and
zineb are recommended, and the most commonly used at present.
Ferbam and zineb are used as preventive fungicides and give
protection only if the plants are kept dusted with the materials
so that blue mold is not permitted to get a start. Sodium or
potassium nitrate will not control blue mold. These materials
serve only as an aid in the recovery of blue mold-injured
plants.

Ferbam and Zineb Treatments: Ferbam and zineb are pow-
dered materials that may be used very satisfactorily as either
dusts or sprays and give excellent control of blue mold. Com-
mercially prepared dusts are most commonly used, but they
may be prepared by the grower as follows: 15% ferbam dust-
mix at the rate of approximately 20 pounds of fermate to
80 pounds of talc, pyrax or Fullers' earth. If a smaller quantity
is desired reduce to 1 pound of fermate to four pounds of
filler. 6.5% zineb-add nine pounds of filler to each one
pound of 6.5% concentrate.

These materials should not be used in the concentrated form.
The above concentrations of dusts will give excellent control
of blue mold. The fungicide should be applied twice a week-
always water and then dust-dust as quickly as possible after
rains and put the dust on instead of putting it off. Use ferbam
dusts at the rate of 11/2 to 2 pounds per 100 square yards of
bed, or zineb dusts at 1 to 11/2 pounds when the plants are
about the size of a dime or when blue mold is known to be
in the vicinity. As the plants grow increase the quantity pro-
gressively up to a maximum of 3 to 4 pounds per 100 square
yards per application when the plants are large enough to
transplant. It is best to apply the dust when the plants are
wet (after watering, rain or dew) and when there is the
least wind. Fifty pounds of a 10 or 15% dust should be ade-
quate to treat 100 square yards for one season, even with
severe blue mold conditions. Ten or more applications may be
necessary during a season. Continue dusting until the plants
have been transplanted.







50 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

Ferbam sprays-mix 3 ounces of 76% ferbam in 121/, gallons
of water (7 level tablespoons of ferbam equal 1 ounce). If
larger quantities are needed mix 2 to 3 pounds of ferbam in
100 gallons of water. Five to 10 gallons of this solution will
spray 100 square yards of bed.
Zineb sprays or dust-mix 11/ to 2 ounces of zineb (65%
active ingredient) in 10 gallons of water, or 2 pounds in
100 gallons of water. The amount of solution of zineb or ferbam
to prepare depends on the yardage to be sprayed. Weigh or
measure correctly the amount of the material to be used, place
it in a fruit jar or bucket and add sufficient water to wet
the powder. Shake or stir thoroughly and then pour into
the correct volume of water needed for spraying. Prepare
only enough material for one spraying and use it the same
day it is mixed. Three to five gallons of the solution per 100
square yards should be adequate to cover the plants when they
are about the size of a dime if a pressure sprayer is used.
More spray is needed to get good leaf coverage as the plants
grow larger. Spray at least twice a week. A pressure pump
or inexpensive bucket pump will provide the very fine mist
or spray necessary to get proper coverage. Approximately 40
to 50 pounds of a ferbam or zineb dust, or 3 to 6 pounds
of concentrated ferbam or zineb, will be adequate for a spray
preparation for 100 square yards of plant bed per season.
Dusting through the plant bedcover is more satisfactory
than spraying through them unless a power sprayer is used,
A UNIFORM COVERAGE OF DUST OR SPRAY ON THE
PLANTS AT ALL TIMES IS NECESSARY FOR BEST RE-
SULTS.

Recent tests with streptomycin, an antibiotic, has shown that
this material will control blue mold in tobacco plant beds. It
is also effective against many of the bacterial organisms, such
as wildfire. Rates of 100 ppm have given good control on
severely infected blue mold plants and rates up to 200 ppm
have not produced any leaf damage. Plants severely infected
with blue mold were sprayed three times within ten days,
made good recovery, and only one spraying or dusting every
seven days was necessary thereafter.

Blue mold has been known to occur in very recent years
under field conditions. Suitable weather for its development







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 51


Fig. 28: A popular method used for control of Budworms: Excess Dust
in Buds may damage Tobacco


Fig. 29: Tractor


Sprayer with 4 row boom. Wide rows are excellent for
using this type of equipment


is the principal reasons for its spread to the field. There is
little merit in attempting to control the disease in the field;
good warm sunshine offers best control.







FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA


Damp-off: This disease is not common in properly managed
tobacco beds. Plants affected with damp-off turn yellow and
will show evidence of stem rot at the soil level. The disease
may reduce plant stands very rapidly and frequent observation
of the plant bed should be made during the time of seed germi-
nation. If damp-off does appear its progress can be checked
by spraying the beds with yellow cuprocide, wettable spergon
or ferbam. The use of ferbam for controlling blue mold will
help materially in controlling damping-off but the disease
usually causes the greatest loss of plants soon after they emerge,
before spraying or dusting for blue mold control is necessary.
Recommended amounts of the materials are as follows:
Yellow cuprocide: 5 level teaspoonfuls in 61/4 gallons of
water, or 1 pound per 100 gallons of water.
Wettable spergon: 4 ounces for 6 gallons of water, or three
to four pounds per 100 gallons of water.
Ferbam: 11/2 ounces in 61/4 gallons of water, or 3 pounds
for 100 gallons of water. Apply 3 to 4 gallons of spray per
100 square yards if damping-off appears.

FIELD DISEASES
Nematodes: This parasite is not often a problem in plant
beds; however safeguards should be used in the plant beds
to prevent, or eradicate nematodes because it is very easy to
infect an entire field of tobacco with diseased plants. Methyl
bromide 1# per 100 square feet is an excellent nematocide
and will also control weeds. D-D and ethylene dibromide, used
at the rate of 3 to 4 quarts per 100 square yards, will also
provide good control. There is no substitute for good healthy
tobacco plants.
Blackshank: A disease which has been reported and ob-
served in plants throughout the flue-cured area of Florida.
However, it has not become established as a serious problem
outside of the shade tobacco area. This disease is capable
of attacking both the under and above ground portions of the
plant.
There are resistant varieties such as DB-101 which could
be grown provided the disease did become a serious problem.
Granville wilt: This is a bacterial disease which attacks
the roots primarily and then progresses as a dark brown streak







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 53

upward through the vascular portion of the plant. This disease
has also been observed in areas of the state, however, the
disease has not become serious. There are also wilt resistant
lines such as Oxford 26 and other new varieties are being
tested.
Frogeye and Brown Spot: Are most common on tobacco that
is approaching maturity. The two diseases are caused by
different organisms. However, their presence on the leaf has
not reduced the buyers acceptance because it is a good indi-
cation that the tobacco is ripe. No control measures are known.
Southern Stem or Stem Rot: This disease does not usually
affect more than 10 per cent of the plants. Affected plants will
wilt and die suddenly because the disease attacks the stem
at the ground level and the decay extends into the root.
Viruses: The potential danger of this disease appears to
be greater than many others because tobacco is a very sus-
ceptible host to many virus; such as common mosaic, ring
spot, etch, vein banding, and streak.

Several of these viruses have been known to be transported
into the production area from tobacco plants produced in the
southern part of the state. Not all southern areas are infected;
however, the multiplicity of natural host and the susceptibility
of tobacco lends importance to this disease. Many of the virus
infected plants cannot be identified until the plants have been in
the field five to six weeks. Then it is too late to begin re-
planting. There are varieties of tobacco that are tolerant to
many of the viruses; however, Florida growers should be on
guard to help prevent the establishment of a virulent disease
within the production area.

Other diseases: There are many more diseases which attack
tobacco and only the more important ones will be mentioned,
namely, Fusarium wilt-tobacco should not be planted after
sweet potatoes in Florida. Sore shin, hollow stalk and brown
root rot are diseases of minor importance as the casual or-
ganism, are often found only in small areas.
Injuries:

(1) Drowning, if water stands or the soil becomes water
logged, tobacco plants flop or leaves will droop instead of
remaining erect, roots lack oxygen and die.







54 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

(2) Lighting: A damage that is observed quite frequently-
the damaged areas are generally small-and the plant stems
exhibit a flaccid condition, and the pith will be separated
into sections or disc.
(3) Leaf scald: Already discussed on page 29.
(4) Drought spot: These spots are generally produced dur-
ing prolonged dry weather. The spots are reddish brown and
occur between leaf veins, or even the leaf may rim fire com-
pletely, this condition is quite noticeable on the lower leaves.
Frenching: There are increasing reports of this disease;
however, only a few plants are generally affected. Leaves are
narrow and strap like and it is thought that environmental
conditions influence the development.
Hail: Very damaging in tobacco when it occurs in abundance.
If heavy hail damage occurs early in the season; the crop
may be salvaged by cutting off the plants about three leaves
above the ground, leave one sucker and continue the regular
cultural practices. In some instances additional fertilizer may
be needed for best growth. If stalks are cut back be sure to
leave the two or three bottom leaves attached to the stalk.

HARVESTING FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Flue-cured tobacco is harvested by priming or picking the
leaves from the stalk. This method extends the harvest season
much longer than the stalk cutting method used in many other
types of tobacco.
Harvesting of flue-cured tobacco by priming should be done
as soon as the bottom leaves begin to develop a yellow color,
which generally occurs in seven to ten days after flowerbuds
begin to show. Tobacco that is primed before flowerbuds develop
is immature and lacks the necessary quality characteristics
of good tobacco. Two to four leaves are usually primed at
weekly intervals, more frequent priming may be needed under
some conditions. Individuals who remove the leaves from the
stalks are called croppers.
In recent years the field harvesting of tobacco has become
more mechanized.* (See figure 30) The old method of priming
* Use of Tobacco Harvesters in Columbia and Suwannee Counties, Florida
1954. Agr. Econ. Series No. 55-6. March, 1955.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 55


Fig. 30: Mechanical Harvesting of Tobacco-Scene shows unloading
strung Tobacco taking on sticks


J 9Jji' I I


Fig. 31: Stringing Tobacco and unloading from sled


required the sled to convey the tobacco from the field to a
central location for stringing. (See figure 31) The stringer
loops the string on the tobacco as it is passed in hands or
bunches by the handers. A hand of tobacco is three or four







56 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA












-'







Fig. 32: A frame barn showing good ventilation. Note the top and
bottom ventilators and the manner in which ventilation can be controlled

leaves grouped into a small bunch. The hands of tobacco are
looped on alternate sides of the stick. Thirty to forty hands
of tobacco are generally strung on a stick after which the
string is tied to the stick and the tobacco is then ready to be
placed in the barn.

In harvesting tobacco with a harvester the cropper places
the tobacco leaves into the fingers on the conveyor chain and
the stringer removes the tobacco from the conveyor, thus
eliminating the hander. The tobacco is strung in the same
manner. Tobacco harvesters are now being used more, both
on the farm and in custom operations.

After the tobacco has been primed and strung, it is then
ready for the curing barn.

Most tobacco barns are square 16' x 16' x 16' or 20' x 20' x
20'. However there are rectangular units such as 16' x 20'.
The inside of the barn will have from 4 to 5 rooms or pens
and each room will have from 6 to 9 tier poles and they are
generally spaced from 22 to 24 inches. Adequate spacing is
essential for good ventilation. (See figure 32).







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 57

CURING FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Flue-cured tobacco derives its name from the manner in
which it is cured. The employment of the flues, or pipes, to
transport or circulate the heat within the barn gave rise to
the name flue-cured tobacco.
The old wood furnace and flue method of curing is gradu-
ally being replaced by other methods of curing-fuel oil and
gas heaters are now being used more frequently for curing
tobacco. The old clay mortared pole barn, figure 40, has been
replaced by sawed boards and concrete block. Adequate ventila-
tion is necessary regardless of barn construction. This is very
important because a green or fresh leaf of tobacco will contain
over 80 per cent by weight of moisture, most of which is
removed during the curing process.
Most of the billion pounds of flue-cured tobacco that is
cured each year is cured by the empirical process, which
briefly defined is without due regard to science. Therefore, it
is easy to see why exact or pre-determined schedules cannot
be employed in curing tobacco.
The degree of tobacco ripeness or maturity may be influenced
greatly by environmental and cultural practices and for this
reason wide leaf quality differences are exhibited at harvest
time and these factors have to be considered by the curing
operator.
Curing tobacco, with regulated heat, is a very important
phase of the production process, because in the curing process
one is attempting to develop the best expression of all the
important factors which were employed in the production of
the plant. There are definite reasons why curing tobacco is
broken down in several stages, for each stage brings about
additional chemical changes in the leaf.
The removal of moisture is done by a gradual process
beginning with the yellowing stage when the temperature may
vary from 900 to 120 F. It is during this stage that approxi-
mately 25 to 30 per cent of the water is removed. It may take
30 to 48 hours during this stage.
For leaf drying, 1350 to 1450 several additional hours will
be required. When the leaf drying stage is completed a total
of 65 to 70 per cent of the water is removed. During this







58 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

stage, the temperature will advance as the leaf dries. Then
in the final stage, drying the stem, which is done at 1700
to 180 F., an additional 10 to 12 per cent of the total moisture
is removed.
It is impossible to state the total length of time required
to cure a barn of tobacco. The length of time may vary from
80 to 100 hours. The yellowing stage is probably the most
important, because if the temperature is advanced too high
and too quickly before the tobacco has yellowed a green color
will result and the leaf will remain green throughout the
curing process.
Recent tests have shown that some scientific approach is
possible in curing tobacco. The effect of humidity and temp-
erature were quite evident in some controlled experiments.
Poor results were obtained where temperatures were too low
and where humidities were too high. The optimum range for
humidity-temperature balance is influenced by the ripeness
of the tobacco, fertility practices, moisture and weather con-
ditions at the time of harvest. A high temperature with a
low humidity will set a green color in tobacco. A high temp-
erature with a high humidity retards the rate of wilting and
increases the rate of browning. A relatively high humidity with
a medium temperature encourages the development of leaf

AIPICI -K I IN"E^Um^'WB


Fig. 33: Showing cured leaf hanging in the barn







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 59

fungus organisms such as frog eye and brown spot in the
curing barn. This latter environmental condition will also cause
the soft rot organisms to develop within the curing barn.
All of these conditions lower the final quality of the cured
leaf.
Thus, the recommended range needed to overcome poor cures
are dependent upon ripeness of leaf, amount of moisture in
leaves, and the quality of the ripe leaf as related to leaf
disease organisms, all of these are closely allied in affecting
a good or poor cure. Under most conditions a 95-100 F.
temperature with an approximate 80 to 85 relative humidity
has given best results for yellowing.
Some "Do's" and "Dont's" in Curing Tobacco
DO
(1) Know your tobacco. All varieties do not ripen the same.
(2) Harvest ripe tobacco.
(3) Harvest as often as necessary. Overripe tobacco is
chaffy and light.
(4) Provide adequate ventilation in both the top and bottom
of the barn.
(5) Separate ripe and overripe tobacco during the stringing
operation. This helps in market preparation and de-
cidedly increases market value.
(6) Examine all cold spots in the curing barn for wet
stems before completing the curing process.

DON'T
(1) Crowd tobacco in the hand, on the stick or in the barn.
(2) Bruise by clamping tobacco under arm in harvesting.
(3) Sit or ride on green tobacco leaves.
(4) String tobacco more than 2 or 3 inches down on the
stem or web.
(5) Rush the curing process.
(6) Harvest green tobacco. It is hard to find a home for
green tobacco.
(7) Permit harvested tobacco to lie or hang in the sun.
(8) Bulk green tobacco for long periods of time, green
tobacco heats very easily.







60 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

The desired environment within the curing barn should be
maintained by regulating the temperatures and ventilation. In
order to insure adequate ventilation it is suggested that three
square feet of top and bottom ventilation openings be pro-
vided for every 100 sticks of tobacco.
Better cures are generally obtained by going slowly at the
correct temperature rather than going too fast. Good ventila-
tion is essential for removal of leaf moisture and without
adequate removal, dark and sponged tobacco will result.
Good curing will not substitute for poorly produced tobacco;
however good tobacco can be poorly cured.
Figure 33 shows cured leaf hanging in the barn.

STORAGE OF TOBACCO
A cool dry storage is very desirable for bulking down the
cured leaf. The percentage of moisture in the leaf is called
"in case", or "in order." These terms describe the moisture
condition of the cured leaf before and after it is removed from
the barn. If the case is too high the doors and vents of the
barn should be closed and the tobacco should be left hanging
in the barn until a suitable case for storage is obtained. This
particularly applies to good quality tobacco. It is often said
"only good quality tobacco gets in to high order". Many times
growers are forced to implement atmospheric conditions to
speed up getting the tobacco "in order". This is generally
accomplished by watering the ground of the barn. When this
practice is used the bottom two or three tier poles will often
get in too high case. When this kind of tobacco is stacked
particularly in a hot dry storage the tobacco may begin fer-
menting. Unless such tobacco is restacked, severe loss in quality
and dollar value will be experienced from the damaged tobacco.
It is best that all tobacco be left on the sticks until it is
prepared for market.
To say that restacking tobacco helps it would probably
provoke an argument; however, a periodic examination of
the cured tobacco is certainly recommended regardless of the
storage facilities. This examination generally requires the re-
stacking of the tobacco, because it is very difficult to find
wet stem damage in a large bulk of tobacco and some tobacco's
such as priming and lugs are more hydroscopic in nature and







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 61

may damage very readily under extended rainy weather. Gen-
erally lugs and primings are handled less frequently because
they get in too high order easily. Other important factors in
the bulking of tobacco, is how it is bulked, stems should
always point to the outside of the stack. The length of time
that the tobacco should remain in bulk is very important
from an over-all improvement in quality. Greenish tinge tobacco
definitely improves to a desirable lemon color when per-
mitted to remain in the bulk. Many off colors in tobacco are
often improved after it is bulked. It is also advisable after
it is bulked that the stacks be covered with tarps, sheets or
some similar material to keep out light and moisture.

PREPARATION FOR MARKET
This is one of the final steps in handling a crop of tobacco.
it suffices to say that good preparation is a very important
phase of the tobacco program. Preparation is something that
requires some pride on the part of the producers in presenting
his products for sale. The amount of time required to properly
prepare a crop of tobacco would depend upon the quantity and
quality of the crop. Sloppily prepared lots of tobacco only
serve to show the degree of pride a grower has in his crop.
Careful harvesting, stringing, handling, and curing con-
tribute immensely to a reduction in the amount of time and
labor required for good market preparation.
A good practice is to keep all of the groups of tobacco
such as priming, lugs, cutters, and leaf separated by curing.
This is most important because of the desire of processor's
to be interested in certain types or group classifications more
than in others. A co-mingling of the group classifications is
very undesirable and reduces their market acceptance.

Under most conditions only two to three farm grades need
to be considered in the sorting with group classifications.
Things such as string, sand, and feathers, and broken stems
should be removed from all tobacco.

Green and non-descript tobacco should be removed from
groups and marketed separately.

Type 14 tobacco is sold loose leaf. The tobacco is stripped
from the stick, graded if needed, and then it is placed on bur-







62 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

lap sheets in a circular manner with the stems pointing out-
ward. The tobacco may then be held or stored until the
market opens, or until the grower desires to sell it. Sheets
sizes may be varied up to 300 pounds; 300 pounds is the top
limit for a sheet of tobacco.

Every sheet of tobacco has to be inspected by government
graders before it is sold at which time the group, quality,
and color classifications are given. Example (X3L) X=Lug
Group, 3rd quality, (good) and L, indicates color, lemon.
Figure 34 gives a complete breakdown on grade classifications.
Figure 35 shows the marketing ticket giving needed informa-
tion on each lot of tobacco. Farmers should be keenly aware of
marketing influences and carefully study the market, this
will often be very profitable.

Table 13 shows warehouses charges on auction floors within
the flue-cured markets.

A comparison of tobacco quality and color by types is shown
in table 14. It should be of interest to note the differences in
percentages by groups and color of leaf.

For example, type 12 for the market year of 1955 and 1956
shows that 2.7 percent of the tobacco marketed was green,
in type 14, the percentage was 5.4, or twice as much. The
practice of harvesting and marketing green tobacco is very
costly.

Another striking contrast is in the amount of non-descript
tobacco reported from the two areas. From (type 12) 4.6
per cent whereas from (type 14) 8.3 per cent of the entire
crop was non-descript.
In comparing quality areas ranked on grade (3) type 12,
had 8.2 per cent of the leaf group which graded good, while
type 14 had 4.9 per cent.
For fair quality, grade 4, 19 per cent in type 12 and 14.7
per cent in type 14.
For low quality grade 5, 18.6 per cent in type 12 and 21.4
per cent in type 14.
For poor quality grade 6, 9.5 per cent in type 12 and 14
per cent for type 14.













TABLE 13


AUCTION SALES WAREHOUSE CHARGES ON FLUE-CURED

MARKETS, 1956-57 SEASON


State
Florida
Georgia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Virginia
State Law.


Type
Num-
ber
14
14
11-13
13
11


Auction Fee
(15 cents on all piles)
(of 100 pounds or less)
(and 25 cents on all )
(piles over 100 pounds)
25 cents per pile


Commission
On Gross
Sales
2-1/2
2-%2
2-1/2
2-/2
2-1/2


Additional Charges
(Weighing and handling, 10 cents)
(Per pile on all piles of 100
(Pounds or less, and 10 cents
(For each additional 100 pounds)
Weighing, 10 cents per 100 pounds









TABLE 14

PERCENTAGES BY GROUP, QUALITY AND COLOR, BY TYPES, FOR

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO, REPRESENTING COMPOSITION OF THE

1956 AND 1955 CROPS

Type 14-Georgia and Florida


1-
Group Choice
1956 1955
Pct. Pet.


A-Wrappers
B-Leaf
H-Smoking
leaf
C-Cutters
X-Lugs
P-Primings
Nondescript
Misc.2
Total


2-
Fine
1956 1955
Pet. Pct.


3-
Good
1956 1955
Pct. Pet.


4-
Fair
1956 1955
Pet. Pct.


5-
Low
1956 1955
Pct. Pct.


6-
Poor
1956 1955
Pct. Pet.


Total
1956 1955
Pet. Pet.


0.3 0.4 4.5 5.3 12.9 16.5 23.4 19.5 15.3 11.9 56.4 53.6


.1 .1
1 1
.2 .5 3.8 6.0
- --. 2.7 1.6


.4 .3 2.2
S 3.4
. 15.4
12.9
9.5
.2
100.0


1.7
8.7
16.9
11.8
7.1
.2
100.0


Group


A-Wrappers
B-Leaf
H-Smoking
leaf
C-Cutters
X-Lugs
P-Primings
Nondescript
Misc.2
Total







TABLE 14-(Continued)


A-
Color Wrappers
1956 1955


Pet. Pet. Pet. Pet. Pet. Pet. Pet. Pet


Pct. Pet. Pet. Pct. Pet. Pet.


16.1 16.9 0.4 0.3 1.7 5.4 5.9 7.7 6.3 5.0 30.4 35.3 L-Lemon


.6
26.8 27.5


-- .1
1.7 1.3 1.4


.6 .5 .1 .1


.2
2.9 6.6


.3 .2
.2 .1 2.2
.3


6.5 6.4 5.9


.9 LL-Pale Lemon
42.9 44.1 F-Orange
.7 .6 R-Red


L-Lemon
LL-Pale
Lemon
F-Orange
R-Red
S-
Mahogany
K-
Variegated
M-mixed
G-Green
Nondescript
Misc.2
Total
Unsafe
Order3
Unsound3


SVolume insufficient to quote percentage. Includes "Decayed," "Botched," "Nested," "Off-type," etc.
SThese percentages for unsafe order (W) and unsound (U) have been included in the breakdown of grades above,
and are shown here as additional information only.


B-
Leaf
1956 1955


H-Smoking
Leaf
1956 1955


C-
Cutters
1956 1955


X-
Lugs
1956 1955


P-
Primings
1956 1955


Total
1956 1955


Color


1 S-Mahogany

2.3 5.9 K-Variegated
7.9 1.1 M-Mixed
.2 .9 5.2 5.7 G-Green
9.5 7.1 Nondescript
.2 .2 Misc.2
100.0 100.0 Total
Unsafe
.3 .7 order3
.4 .7 Unsound3







66 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA


NO. B. TOBACCO INSPECTION CERTIFICATE
This tobacco, inspected under the Tobacco
Inspection Act by he U. S. Department of
Agriculture, is certified to be:
Planter TYPE 14
TYPE 14
And GRADE

(Date) BY Inspector U.S.D.A.)
FARMERS WAREHOUSES LBS.









Fig. 34. Sample of Warehouse Marketing Ticket.




Growers should be keenly aware of grade price relationship
and carefully study the market prices, this will often be very
profitable.

For example, the difference between a B5L and a B6L was
three cents on market average while under support there was
a seven cents difference between the two grades in 1957.
There is also an 11 cent difference within the low grade, there-
fore, a grade 5 might range from 60 dollars to 49 dollars
and the primary reason for the difference is because of special
factors, which are concerned with color of leaf.

The above comparisons offers Florida growers a challenge
to do a better job in harvesting, grading and marketing their
tobacco.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 67


APPENDIX

PRODUCTION AND DISPOSITION OF U. S.

MANUFACTURED CIGARETTE-1935 to 1956

(in billion cigarettes)


Calendar Consumed
Year Domestically
1935 134.4
1936 152.6
1937 162.8
1938 163.4
1939 172.0
1940 180.5
1941 206.1
1942 235.1
1943 257.4
1944 238.7
1945 267.2
1946 321.5
1947 336.0
1948 348.7
1949 352.3
1950 360.8
1951 380.3
1952 394.2
1953 386.8
1954* 368.9
1955 382.1
1956 391.6
Mostly shipments for use
the United States.


Commercially
Exported
3.9
4.6
5.7
6.4
6.8
6.6
7.6
2.9
4.2
7.6
6.9
24.1
22.8
25.2
19.5
14.3
16.8
16.2
16.1
15.4
15.2
15.3
by U. S. personnel


Total
Other' Produces2
1.4 140.0
1.7 158.9
1.9 170.0
1.8 171.7
2.1 180.7
2.3 189.4
4.0 217.9
19.4 257.5
34.6 296.2
77.4 323.6
58.1 332.2
6.5 350.0
11.5 369.7
13.5 386.8
13.6 385.0
17.5 392.0
22.1 418.8
24.7 435.9
20.7 423.1
17.9 401.8
15.1 412.3
15.7 424.3
1, including military, outside


SNot the sum of disposition as shown in the three columns at the left
because of end of year inventory changes.
* Preliminary.


T








68 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

DISAPPEARANCE OF U. S. FLUE-CURED LEAF TOBACCO

1925-26 to 1953-54 Crop Years

(in million lbs. farm sales wt.)


DOMESTIC
Chewing,
Year Cigarettes Smoking, Total
etc.
1925-26 138 49 187
1926-27 150 52 202
1927-28 152 52 214
1928-29 184 43 227
1929-30 196 40 236

1930-31 195 76 271
1931-32 172 91 263
1932-33 180 69 249
1933-34 194 66 260
1934-35 216 64 280

1935-36 235 77 312
1936-37 262 50 312
1937-38 273 94 367
1938-39 277 88 365
1939-40 330 72 402

1940-41 330 73 403
1941-42 401 68 469
1942-43 460 63 523
1943-44 462 57 519
1944-45 444 65 509

1945-46 568 52 620
1946-47 558 44 602
1947-48 590 46 636
1948-49 609 44 653
1949-50 634 44 678

1950-51 647 43 690
1951-52 669 41 710
1952-53 713 39 752
1953-54 678 36 714


EXPORTS
Grand
Leaf Cigarettes* Total Total

387 4 391 578
339 4 343 545
382 4 386 600
477 5 482 708
494 6 500 735

497 6 503 774
328 6 334 597
310 6 316 565
379 7 386 646
281 8 289 568

371 10 381 693
347 12 359 671
416 13 429 795
416 14 430 795
290 16 306 708

156 18 174 577
291 23 314 783
289 80 369 892
355 106 461 980
454 187 641 1,150

485 47 532 1,152
553 57 610 1,213
359 59 418 1,054
382 67 449 1,102
439 51 490 1,168

428 67 495 1,184
502 67 569 1,279
416 71 487 1,244
431 64 495 1,209


* Includes overseas shipments for U. S. personnel.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 69

ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION OF FLUE-CURED

TOBACCO

1935-39 Av., 1947-51 Av., 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955 and 1956

(Harvested during Calendar Year)

(in million lbs., farm sales wt.)

Country 1935-39 1947-51 1952 1953 1954* 1955 1956*
China 151 250 260 290 300 500 525
Japan 74 87 110 127 156 209 208
Canada 55 112 132 132 170 118 154
Southern Rhodesia 25 82 99 105 119 132 166
India 27 65 75 111 106 128 128
Brazil 13 46 26 59 56 55 64
Italy 4 16 25 24 26 26 24
Thailand 1 8 17 23 18 22 16
Formosa (Taiwan) 4 13 19 22 22 26 34
Union of South Africa 4 22 22 15 15 17 19
Korea 22 19 13 15 31 27 32
Argentina 1 8 11 15 15 20 32
Indonesia 0 *: 7 10 18 27 21
Northern Rhodesia 2 5 10 10 8
Western Germany 0 2 7 9 10 10 7
Venezuela 0 3 6 6 11 8 7
Australia 5 4 8 7 8 7 7
New Zealand 1 5 6 5 4 4 5
Nyasaland 2 3 3 4 4
Mexico 1 4 4 4 5 5 3
Pakistan 0 2 3 4 7 9 12
British E. Africa 0 2 3 4 5
Philippines ** 1 3 2 4 15 48
Other Foreign Countries 6 19 25 32 35 39 42
Total Foreign Countries 398 778 894 1,035 1,153 1,404 1,554
Total U.S. Production 864 1,246 1,365 1,272 1,320 1,483 1,422
Total World Production 1,262 2,024 2,259 2,307 2,473 2,887 2,976
Preliminary.
** Less than 500,000 lbs.








70 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

EXPORTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO FROM U.S. BY

COUNTRIES

1935-39 Av., 1940-46 Av., 1947-51 Av., 1952-53 Av., 1954 and 1956

(in thousand lbs., export wt.)

Country of
Destination 1935-39 1940-46 1947-51 1952-53 1954 1956
Canada 4,331 954 74 263 30 104
Mexico 3 168 478 1,032 1,800 1,381
Venezuela 4 61 166 488 300 318
British Guiana 155 279 328 330 356 270
Uruguay 229 559 979 653 1,644 2,395
Sweden 3,642 3,350 6,937 6,810 7,895 9,875
Norway 2,487 1,325 4,478 4,214 5,104 5,232
Denmark 2,498 398 7,577 8,449 7,946 10,507
United Kingdom 193,519 212,247 174,730 113,984 147,997 154,522
Ireland 6,081 8,142 16,925 16,075 13,701 8,472
Netherlands 9,490 3,968 24,141 28,308 29,914 24,743
Belgium & Luxembourg 3,712 2,423 15,301 9,160 7,479 15,550
France 1,071 894 1,684 4,008 2,653 2,293
Germany 4,060 0 36,796 63,641 34,819 57,298
Austria 12 0 2,776 2,718 1,254 7,705
Switzerland 257 842 3,968 3,009 2,789 3,511
Finland 1,028 770 1,668 2,898 5,126 4,975
Spain 137 304 380 1,124 2,167 2,804
Portugal 803 1,955 3,358 3,499 2,663 3,254
Italy 99 4 3,059 3,313 1,011 1,873
Yugoslavia 1 0 0 2,029 182 6,070
India 2,903 10,798 8,027 2,566 1,247 1,664
Pakistan 2,903 10,798 8,027 1,777 2,165 2,674
Ceylon 924 987 972 1,133 740 956
Thailand 3,202 1,517 3,314 6,380 4,577 8,793
French Indochina 190 478 1,590 3,025 1,858 6,579
Indonesia 2,021 1,400 6,419 12,839 9,748 17,308
Philippines 703 423 6,924 23,980 18,484 1,573
China 33,885 17,499 9,714 0 0 0
Hong Kong 1,624 3,304 4,338 3,615 2,888 3,244
Formosa 0 0 362 1,108 1,795 3,267
Japan 4,842 0 385 8,425 6,692 5,784
Australia 19,093 18,370 19,964 24,931 27,894 22,867
New Zealand 2,708 5,131 5,511 5,320 6,223 6,742
French Morocco 16 60 175 122 88 60
Algeria 88 48 270 233 263 417
Tunisia 88 48 131 110 287 505
Egypt 926 3,716 2,562 3,419 4,918 4,900
Nigeria 210 434 856 1,102 1,055 1,117
All others 5,935 5,059 10,754 5,698 5,993 8,877
Total 312,889 307,867 388,071 381,788 373,745 420,439
Total farm sales wt. 359,196 353,431 443,587 431,442 421,446 474,400








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 71

EXPORTS OF U. S. TOBACCO BY TYPES AND COUNTRIES,

1954

(Preliminary)

(in thousand lbs., export wt.)


Country of
Destination


Flue-
cured


Canada 30
Mexico 1,800
Venezuela 300
British Guiana 356
Uruguay 1,644
Sweden 7,895
Norway 5,104
Denmark 7,946
United Kingdom 147,997
Ireland 13,701
Netherlands 29,914
Belgium & Luxembourg 7,479
France 2,653
Germany 34,819
Austria 1,254
Switzerland 2,789
Finland 5,126
Spain 2,167
Portugal 2,663
Italy 1,011
Yugoslavia 182
India 1,247
Pakistan 2,165
Ceylon 740
Thailand 4,577
French Indochina 1,858
Indonesia 9,748
Philippines 18,484
Hong Kong 2,888
Formosa 1,795
Japan 6,692
Australia 27,894
New Zealand 6,223
French Morocco 88
Algeria 263
Tunisia 287
Egypt 4,918
Nigeria 1,055
Other 5,993


Burley
0
4,031
127
0
150
299
656
500
236
0
2,000
2,480
2,137
3,741
365
705
709
123
4,460
2,410
609
37
0
0
0
22
0
886
582
0
0
63
10
0
81
0
749
0
1,091


Total 373,745 29,259 3,047
Total farm sales wt. 421,446 33,560 3,595


Dark
Air- Fire-
cured Maryland cured Cigar
0 0 37 508
0 38 0 4
0 0 0 1
0 0 47 0
0 0 24 2
0 0 727 180
80 7 1,532 3
0 38 712 176
967 0 587 17
3 0 336 0
262 430 4,931 312
309 425 996 594
1,058 0 6,658 247
3 482 823 2,165
0 9 92 204
0 5,818 2,054 302
0 0 214 1
0 435 0 0
3 0 196 0
0 0 493 0
0 589 27 0
0 0 18 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 90
0 0 4 0
0 0 51 123
0 0 578 0
0 0 0 32
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 196 48
0 0 404 2
0 111 0 0
0 0 155 26
0 279 0 0
0 0 75 0
232 0 5 0
130 9 2,906 334


8,670 24,878
9,034 27,739


5,372
6,016








72 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

EXPORTS OF U. S. TOBACCO BY TYPES AND COUNTRIES,

1956

(Preliminary)


(in thousand lbs., export wt.)

Dark
Flue- Fire- Air-
cured Burley cured Maryland cured Cigar


Canada 104
Mexico 1,381
Venezuela 318
British Guiana 270
Uruguay 2,395
Sweden 9,875
Norway 5,232
Denmark 10,507
United Kingdom 154,522
Ireland 8,472
Netherlands 24,743
Belgium & Luxembourg 15,550
France 2,293
Germany 57,298
Austria 7,705
Switzerland 3,511
Finland 4,975
Spain 2,804
Portugal 3,254
Italy 1,873
Korea 6,070
India 1,664
Pakistan 2,674
Ceylon 956
Thailand 8,793
French Indochina 6,579
Indonesia 17,308
Philippines 1,573
Hong Kong 3,244
Formosa (Taiwan) 3,267
Japan 5,784
Australia 22,867
New Zealand 6,742
French Morocco 60
Algeria 417
Tunisia 505
Egypt 4,900
Nigeria 1,117
Other 8,877


2 49
2,050 0
18 0
0 8
203 34
2,149 1,641
1,167 1,979
687 839
25 780
0 335
1,594 5,480
2,576 1,108
364 3,542
6,465 1,027
614 466
231 2,571
1,180 49
221 0
4,572 101
973 3,752
0 0
0 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
15 1,334
0 355
546 0
441 20
0 0
0 0
77 275
5 356
0 0
97 50
503 0
1,145 158
0 0
1,279 2,275


474,400 33,490 31,858


County of
Destination


0
27
0
0
0
0
2
11
0
0
831
751
177
1,700
0
7,134
0
320
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
48
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
254
0
0
805


0 476
0 9
0 1
0 0
0 1
0 173
12 1
0 173
451 10
8 0
2 515
597 794
0 2
0 2,984
0 156
0 25
175 0
0 921
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 3
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 316
110 0
0 27
18 0
0 4
0 0
0 2
0 2
0 0
0 443
0 0
0 0
0 0
2,261 769


Total farm sales wt.


12,568 4,206 8,742




ELEMENTS AND DEGREES OF QUALITY IN TOBACCO
Classified by the Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, for the purpose of standard-
izing terms used in describing tobacco qualities and to assist in correctly interpreting grade specifications. While the
several degrees of each element are arranged to show their relative value, the actual value of each degree varies with
type and grade. In each case the first and last degree shown represent the full range of quality for the element and the
intermediate degrees show gradual steps between them.


Elements
of
Quality
Smoothness
Maturity
Body
Width
Porosity
Color Shade
Finish
Uniformity
Oil (or life)
Cleanness
Soundness
Texture
Elasticity
Solodity
Strength (Ten.)
Wax (or gum)
Grain
Flatness
Fiber Size
Fiber Color
Shape of Tip


RELATIVE DEGREES OF QUALITY


Silky
Overripe
Heavy
Broad
Spongy
Pale
Bright
Uniform-10 %
Fat
Clean
Sound
Fine Tex.
Elastic
Hard
Tough
Waxy
Grainy
Flat
Fine Fibers
Conforming F.
Round Tip


(b)
Smooth
Mellow
Fleshy
Spready
Porous
Light
Clear
Harmonizing-15%/
Rich in Oil
Dirty
Unsound
Good
Semi-esastic
Compact
Strong
Free of Wax
Not Grainy
Even Surface
Small Fiber
Blending F.
Oblate Tip


Unrough
Ripe
Medium
Normal Width
Open Weave
True Color
Normal Finish
Similar-20%
Oily

Damaged
Medium Tex.
Stretchy
Firm
Normal St.

Wavy
Med. Fibers
Emerging F.
Sharp Tip


Coarse
Unripe
Thin
Narrow
Close Weave
Dusky
Dull
Unmingled-25%'
Lean

Fair Tex.
Non-elastic
Flabby
Weak

Puckered
Large Fibers
Contrasting F.
Pointed Tip


Rough
Immature
Tissuey
Stringy
Tight Weave
Dark
Cloudy
Unmixed-30%
Dead

Poor Tex.

Flimsy
Tender

Shrunken
Coarse
Clashing F.


Crude



Dingy
Mixed-30%/


Curled


Injury The amount or percentage of injury.
Cure Well-cured or characteristics of excessive, insufficient, or improper curing.
Venation The number of degrees in the average angle between the main fibers and midribs.
Color & Length Color and length are elements of quality when they are not otherwise classified.
Yield The potential quantity of a given tobacco product which can be produced, per unit, from tobacco of a
certain type, grade, size, form, condition, or moisture content.
Waste Opposite of yield. Portions which are dead, lifeless, and do not have sufficient strength or stability to
hold together in normal manufacturing process, or due to excessive injury of any kind.
NOTE: The words "Very" or "Fairly" are used in the sense of more and less, respectively. They may be used in con-
nection with a degree of quality to express finer distinctions.






WORLD FLUE-CURED ACREAGE
(Estimated)
United States
Thousand
1200 Million I
1000 600 -
800 -00 -
600 00 -
400 -300 -
200 200-
0 100 -


WORLD FLUE-CURED EXPORTS
(Estimoted by Colendoa Year Farm Soles Weight)
United States
S II.S. (pabe iM P~--


I


Foreign
600 B- o d lIarl-&p*
500 -
400 kw biJiwVM (adMk^Uhllntifl hIi
300 -


1934-38 1952 1953 1954 1955


I







JO 17 IN JU N 9 1101









S. r't;.4p~~~~'
-- TY;~ ~ :


Illustrated here is Flue Cured Tobacco
Variety 402, one of the major varieties
grown in Florida.


G 2;4/ O


Leaf ripeness is shown harvested
green, G; ripe when harvested, R;
overripe when harvested, OR. 24
denotes rate of nitrogen fertilizer
applied.














The Hicks variety of Flue Cured To-
bacco, another major variety in Flor-
ida, is shown here.


- ' -l' *P
ItV4-:II;~~&7/ s~














Illustrated here is Flue Cured Tobacco
Variety 402, one of the major varieties
grown in Florida.


Leaf ripeness is shown harvested
green, G; ripe when harvested, R;
overripe when harvested, OR. 24
denotes rate of nitrogen fertilizer
applied.














The Hicks variety of Flue Cured To-
bacco, another major variety in Flor-
ida, is shown here.


.-~




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