Title: Outline of Florida State Government
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089049/00001
 Material Information
Title: Outline of Florida State Government
Physical Description: 33 p. : maps ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooks, T. J ( Thomas Joseph ), b. 1870
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla
Publication Date: 1935
Copyright Date: 1935
 Subjects
Subject: Comparative government   ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: Lib. copy missing t.p. & p. 1-2.
Statement of Responsibility: by T.J. Brooks.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089049
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AME9329
oclc - 41254494
alephbibnum - 002444105

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OUTLINE OF FLORIDA STATE GOVERNMENT

By T. J. BROOKS
Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture



A. LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
(a) SENATE: Composed of thirty-eight members, elected for four
years-one-half alternating with the other half, by even
and odd numbered districts, biennially.
(b) HOUSE: Composed of ninety-five members, elected biennially by
counties, representation based on legislative reapportion-
ment.
Five largest counties have three representatives each,
18 next largest have two each, all others have one rep-
resentative each.

B. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
(a) SUPREME COURT: Consisting of not less than three, and not
more than six members. Legislature of 1923 placed the
number at six.
(a') Method of Selection: Elective, six-year term for each and
elected at alternating elections.
(b') Jurisdiction:
(a2) Original, may issue
1-Writ of mandamus;
2-Writs of certiorari;
3-Writs of prohibition;
4-Writs of quo warrant;
5-Writs of habeas corpus;
6- .1l writs necessary or proper to the complete
exercise of its jurisdiction;
7-Any member has power to issue writs of habeas
corpus upon petition or on behalf of any person
held in actual custody, and may make such
writs returnable before him or the full bench,
or any Justice thereof, or before any Circuit
Judge.
(b') Appellate in
1-All cases of law and equity originating in Cir-
cuit Courts;
2-Appeals from Circuit Courts in cases arising
before Judges of the County Courts in matters
pertaining to their probate jurisdiction; the
management of estates of infants;
3-Cases of conviction of felony in the Criminal
Courts;
4-All criminal cases originating in the Circuit
Courts.


.J .L I U










JUSTICES -
Glen Terrell.
W. H. Ellis.
J. B. Whitfield.
Rivers H. Buford.
Fred Davis.
Armstead Brown.

(b) CIRCUIT COURTS; CIRCUIT JUDGES:
(a') Method of Selection: Appointed by the Governor and
confirmed by the Senate, for a period of six years. By
custom they are nominated in primaries.
(b1) Jurisdiction:
(a') Original and exclusive in
1-All cases in equity;
2-All cases of law not cognizable by inferior
courts;
3-All cases involving the legality to tax assess-
ment or toll;
4-Action of ejectment;
5-All actions involving the titles or boundaries of
real estate;
6-All criminal cases not cognizable by the inferior
courts.
(b2) Appellate
1-Actions of forcible entry and unlawful detainer
-and such other as the Legislature may pro-
vide.
2-Issuing writs of mandamus, injunction, quo
warrant, certiorari, prohibition, habeas corpus,
and all writs, etc.
(c') Direct Appellate in
1-All civil and criminal cases arising in the county
courts or before the County Judge in counties
not having county courts;
2-All misdemeanors tried in criminal courts;
3-Judgments and sentences of Mayor's Court;
4-All cases arising before Justices of the Peace in
counties where there are no county courts;
(d') Review of Supervisiory
1-Matters arising before County Judges pertain-
ing to their probate jurisdiction, or to the
estates and interests of minors;
2-Such other matters as the Legislature may pre-
scribe.










(SENATE BILL NO. 4)
AN ACT Redistricting the State of Florida into Judicial Circuits, and
providing for the appointment of Circuit Judges, and repealing ex-
isting laws in conflict with the provisions of this Act.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF
FLORIDA:
Section 1. That there shall be Fifteen Judicial Circuits in this State,
of not less than 50,000 inhabitants according to the State census of
1935, and the county or counties composing each and the number of
Circuit Judges therein, respectively, shall be as follows:


JUDICIAL CIRCUITS


OF THE


STATE OF FLORIDA


First Circuit: Composed of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaoosa and
Walton, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Second Circuit: Composed of Franklin, Gadsden, Leon, Wakulla,
Jefferson and Liberty, and shall have two Circuit Judges, but one of
whom shall reside in Leon County;
Third Circuit: Composed of Madison, Taylor, LaFayette, Suwannee,
Hamilton, Columbia and Dixie, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Fourth Circuit: Composed of Duval, Clay and Nassau, and shall have
three Circuit Judges in addition to the Circuit Judge of the Circuit
Court of Duval County appointed under the provisions of Section 42,
Article 5, of the Constitution;










Fifth Circuit: Composed of Marion, Citrus, Hernando, Lake, Sum-
ter, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Sixth Circuit: Composed of Pinellas and Pasco, and shall have two
Circuit Judges;
Seventh Circuit: Composed of Volusia, Putnam, St. Johns and
Flagler, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Eighth Circuit: Composed of Alachua, Baker, Gilchrist, Bradford,
Union and Levy, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Ninth Circuit; Composed of Brevard, Orange, Osceola, Seminole,
Indian River, Okeechobee, St. Lucie and Martin, and shall have three
Circuit Judges;
Tenth Circuit: Composed of Polk, Hardee and Highlands, and shall
have two Circuit Judges;
Eleventh Circuit: Composed of Dade and Monroe, and shall have
four Circuit Judges;
Twelfth Circuit Composed of Manatee, Sarasota, DeSoto, Char-
lotte, Glades, Lee, Hendry and Collier, and shall have two Circuit
Judges;
Thirteenth Circuit: The Thirteenth Judicial Circuit shall not be
effected by this Act and shall remain as provided under existing law.
Fourteenth Circuit: Composed of Holmes, Washington, Bay, Jack-
son, Calhoun and Gulf, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Fifteenth Circuit: Composed of Broward and Palm Beach, and shall
have two Circuit Judges.
Section 2. That in Circuits composed of two or more counties hav-
ing only two Circuit Judges under the provisions of this Act, both
Judges shall not be residents of the same county, except that in the
Tenth Circuit one Judge shall, and the other Judge may reside in
Polk County; Provided, that in the Seventh Circuit one Judge shall
reside in Volusia County, and one Judge shall reside in one of the
other counties of said Circuit, and that in the Twelfth Circuit one
Judge shall be appointed from and be an actual bona fide resident of
Lee County, and shall reside in Lee County during the continuance
of his appointment, and in the Ninth Circuit one Judge shall reside in
either Seminole or Brevard County, one Judge shall reside in Orange
or Osceola County and one Judge shall reside in Indian River,
Okeechobee, St. Lucie or Martin County; and that in the Eleventh
Circuit one Judge shall be appointed from and be an actual bona
fide resident of Monroe County, and shall reside in Monroe County
during the continuance of his appointment. Provided, however, the
provisions of this Section shall not apply to the Sixth Judicial Circuit.
Section 3. The Circuit Judges holding office at the time of the rati-
fication at the general election of 1934 of the amendment to Section
45 of Article V of the Florida Constitution, shall severally continue in
office and exercise jurisdiction until their then existing term or terms
of office as Judge or Judges of the Circuits, respectively, in which the
county of their resident may be included.
Section 4. That there shall be at least two regular terms of the
Circuit Court held in each county each year, also any special term or
terms that may be necessary from time to time; Provided that such
regular terms may be held at such time or times as now fixed, by law,
or until changed by statute; Provided that in Circuits having more
than one Circuit Judge, at least one of said Judges shall be available
as nearly as possible at all times to hold and conduct hearings in
Chambers.











Section 4-A. That the regular and special terms of court of each
county of said respective circuits may be convened and held as now
provided for by law; providing, however, that regular and special
terms of court may be held and be in session in the same or different
counties in such circuits simultaneously. Separate minutes of each
term, whether regular or special, shall be kept by the Clerk of each
court of such circuits.
Section 5. No civil or criminal cases, suits in equity, actions at law,
statutory or otherwise; and no writs, process, pleading, motion, infor-
mation, presentment, indictment, or other proceedings, order, finding,
decree, judgment or sentence, shall abate, be quashed, set aside, re-
versed, qualified, dismissed, defeated, or held to be in error because
of the changes in any Circuit or Circuits, or Judge or Judges, State
attorneys or other prosecuting officers by reason of any provision or
provisions of this Act.
Section 5-A. Provided, however, that this Act shall not be con-
strued as in anywise affecting or abolishing any other Courts or Judge-
ships in any county by reason of any county or counties being added
to or removed from any Circuit; but all such other or inferior Courts
or Judgeships shall continue in full force and effect as now constituted
and until changed by law.
Section 6. This Act and all appointments under this Act shall take
effect sixty days after the same becomes a law, as provided under the
said Amendment of Section 45 of Article V, Constitution of Florida;
Provided that no Circuit Judge shall be appointed to any vacancy or
to any term of office except as authorized under the provisions of said
Section 45 of Article V of the Constitution and this Act.
Section 7. All laws and parts of laws in conflict herewith be and
the same are hereby repealed.
Approved May 31, 1935.
Filed in office Secretary of State May 31, 1935.

(c) CRIMINAL COURTS; JUDGES.
(a') Method of Selection; Appointed by Governor for four
years. These courts are created by the Legislature.
County Judges' Courts in such counties have no juris-
diction and no prosecuting attorney.
(b') Jurisdiction: In all criminal cases, not capital, which shall
arise in said counties respectively.

CRIMINAL COURTS OF RECORD
Dade
Duval
Escambia
(Court of Record)
Hillsborough
Monroe
Orange
Palm Beach
Polk
7











JUDGES OF THE COURT OF CRIMES
W. F. Brown, Miami; Marion Hendry, Tampa.

(d) CIVIL COURTS OF RECORD; JUDGES.
(a') Method of Selection: Appointed by the Governor and
confirmed by the Senate-term four years.
(b') Jurisdiction: Original and exclusive in
(a2) All cases at law including writs of attachment and
garnishment in value under $1,500.
(b") Has not jurisdiction in cases of equity, or cases
involving the legality of a tax, assessment, a toll,
or of action of ejectment, or of action involving
the title or boundaries of real estate or in cases in-
volving less than $500.

(e) COUNTY COURTS:
(al) Method or Organization: By legislative enactment.
(b') Jurisdiction:
(a') Original in
1-All cases at law in which the demand or value
shall not exceed $500;
2-Proceedings relating to forcible entry;
3-Unlawful detention of lands and tenements;
4-Misdemeanors.
(b') Appellate in
1-Cases arising in the courts of Justices of the
Peace.
Counties which have County Courts are: Broward, DeSoto, Gadsden,
Glades, indian River, Jefferson, Lee, Manatee, Martin, Okeechobee,
Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Sarasota, Seminole and St. Lucie. See list
of County Officers for Judges and Attorneys.

(f) COUNTYJUDGE:
(a') Method of Selection: Elected every four years. Also
Judge County Court where established.
(b') Jurisdiction:
(a') Original in
1-All cases in which the value of property in-
volved shall not exceed $100;
2-Proceedings relating to forcible entry or un-
lawful detention of lands and tenements;
3-Such criminal cases as the Legislature may
prescribe;
4-Settlement of estates of decedents and minors;
5-Probate wills;
6-Grant letters testamentary and of administra.-
tion and guardianship;










7-The power of committing magistrate;
8-Issue all licenses required by law to be issued
in the county.

(g) JUSTICES OF THE PEACE:
(a') Method of Selection: Elected every four years.
(b') Jurisdiction:
(a2) Original only:
1-Case in which the value of property involved
does not exceed $100;
2-Criminal cases excepting felonies as may be
prescribed by law;
3-Issue process for the arrest of all persons
charged with felonies and misdemeanors not
within his jurisdiction to try, and make the same
returnable before himself, or the County Judge
for examination, commitment, or bail of the
accused.

JUVENILE COURTS
Dade
Duval
Hillsborough
Monroe
Orange

C. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
(a) THE GOVERNOR-CHIEF MAGISTRATE:
Dave Sholtz.
(a') How Chosen: By election every four years; not eligible
for two terms in succession.
(b') Powers and Duties:
1--Commander-in-Chief of the military forces of the
State except when they are called into the Federal
service;
2-Executes the laws of the State and recommends meas-
ures to the Legislature;
3-May demand of the Supreme Court interpretation of
provisions of the State Constitution upon any ques-
tion affecting his executive powers;
4-Signs all grants and commissions;
5-Has power to suspend officers who are not liable to
impeachment;
6-Has veto power of bills passed by the Legislature or
to disapprove any items in bills making appropria-
tions. Veto may be overruled by a two-thirds vote
of members present in each house.
Member of the following Boards and Commissions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-State Board of Education;
3-Board of Internal Improvement;










4-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage
District;
5-State Pension Board;
6-Board of Pardons;
7-Tax Equalization Board;
8-Sinking Fund Commission;
9-Budget Commission;
10-Text Book Commission.

(b) THE OFFICE OF SECRETARY OF STATE:
R. A. Gray.
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and
Commissions:
1-State Canvassing Board;
2-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
3-Pardoning Board;
4-State Board of Education;
5-Budget Commission.
(c') Divisions of his Office: Has charge of capitol and grounds:
1-Division of Letters Patent;
2-Division of Commissions;
3-Division of Recording and Filing.

(c) THE OFFICE OF ATTORNEY GENERAL:
Cary E. Landis.
(a') Method of Selection: Elected every four years.
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and
Commissions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-State Board of Education;
3-State Board of Pardons;
4-Board of Tax Equalizers;
5-Foreign Investment Board;
6-Board of Appraisers of Securities;
7-Board of Railroad Property Assessors;
8-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage
District;
9-Board of Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund;
10-State Canvassing Board;
11-Budget Commission.
(c') Legal Advisor of
1-The Governor;
2-The Cabinet Officers;
3-State Board of Health;
4-State Road Department;
5-State Hotel Commission;
6-State Shell Fish Commission;










7-State Plant Board;
8-State Board of Control;
9-State Live Stock Sanitary Board;
10-Board of Tax Equalization;
11-Is the State Supreme Court Reporter.

(d) THE OFFICE OF COMPTROLLER:
J. M. Lee.
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b1) Functions: Member of the following Boards and Com-
missions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-Board of Pardons;
3-State Canvassing Board;
4-Board of Finance;
5-Pension Board;
6-Railroad Assessment Board;
7-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage
District;
8-Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement
Fund;
9-Budget Commission;
10-Board of Appraisers of Securities;
11-State Text Book Commission;
12-Foreign Investment Company Board.
(c') Divisions of his Office:
1-Division of Accounts;
2-Division of Supervisor of State Banks;
3-Division of Tax Redemption;
4-Division of Pensions;
5-Division of Railroad Assessments;
6-Division of County Depositories;
7-Division of the "Blue Sky" Law;
8-Division of Bank Receivership.

(e) THE OFFICE OF TREASURER:
W. V. Knott.
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and
Commissions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-State Board of Education;
3-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage
District;
4-Board of Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund;
5-Board of Pensions;
6-Board of Tax equalization;
7-State Text Book Commission;











8-Ex-Officio Insurance Commissioner;
9-Budget Commission.
(c') Divisions of his Office:
1-Division of Accounts;
2-Division of Insurance.

(f) THE OFFICE OF STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC
INSTRUCTION:
W. S. Cawthon.
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(bl) Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and
Commissions:
1-State Board of Education;
2-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
3-State Vocational Educational Board;
4-State Text Book Commission;
5-Board of Managers of Florida Farm Colony;
6-Budget Commission.
(c') Divisions of his Office:
1-Division of State High School Inspector-M. R.
Hinson;
2-Division of Supervisor of Elementary Schools-R.
M. Evans;
3-Division of State Director of Vocational Education:
(a2) Division of State Supervisor of Agriculture-
J. F. Williams, Jr.; Assistant, H. E. Woods;
(b2) Division of State Supervisor of Trades and In-
dustries-C. O. Holley;
(c0) Division of State Supervisor of Home Economics
-Miss Bertha Frojen;
4-Division of Supervisor Teaching-Training Miss
Mary Sheppard;
5-Division of Supervisor Civilian Rehabilitation-C.
M. Andrews;
6-Division of Supervisor Physical Education-C. M.
Miles;
7-Division of State Agent for Negro Schools-D. E.
Williams.

(g) THE OFFICE OF COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE:
Nathan Mayo.
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and
Commissions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-Board of Pardons;
3-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage
District;










4-Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund;
5-State Text Book Commission;
6-Budget Commission;
7--State Marketing Board;
8-Milk Control Board.
(c') Divisions of his Office:
1-Division of Agriculture and Immigration; also con-
ducts Census Bureau, Enumeration of State Re-
sources, and State Advertising;
2-Division of Pure Food and Drugs, Stock, Feed, Fer-
tilizer, Citrus Fruits, Gasoline and Oil;
3-Division of Land;
4-Divis:on of Field Notes;
5-Division of Prison;
6-Division of Chemistry;
7-Division of State Marketing Bureau;
8-Division of Citrus Fruit Inspection;
9-Division of State Marketing Board.

BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS
BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF STATE INSTITUTIONS: This
Board is provided for in the Constitution and is composed of the
Governor and the cabinet. It has charge of the eleemosynary insti-
tutions of the State-the Industrial School for Boys, Industrial
School for Girls, State Asylum, State Farm-lets contracts for
State printing and makes text book contracts, supervises State
buildings and lets contracts for improvements.
BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF EVERGLADES DRAINAGE
DISTRICT: Composed of the Governor, Attorney General, Comp-
troller and Commissioner of Agriculture. It is a governing board
which has charge of the drainage projects and the general work
of reclaiming the Everglades.
SINKING FUND COMMISSION: Composed of the Governor, Secre-
tary of State, Attorney General, Treasurer and Superintendent of
Public Instruction. Administers moneys received by the State
banks as interest on money on deposit, for retiring the State debt.
TRUSTEES OF THE INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT FUND: They ad-
minister the disposition of State lands and the proceeds thereof.
They are the Governor, Attorney General, Comptroller, Treasurer,
and Commissioner of Agriculture.
STATE PENSION BOARD: Passes on all applications for pensions.
Composed of the Governor, Comptroller and Treasurer.
STATE BOARD OF HEALTH: Composed of three members appointed
by the Governor. Its duty is to administer laws on sanitation and
health.
Members-
Dr. Henry Hansen, State Health Officer.
Chas. H. Mann, Jacksonville.
H. Mason Smith, Tampa.
Wm. D. Nobles, Pensacola.










STATE VETERINARIAN-under State Board of Health. His func-
tion is to direct the work of eradication of the cattle tick, tubercu-
losis and hog cholera.
STATE PLANT BOARD: The personnel is the same as that of the
State Board of Control. Its duty is to administer the law on plant
disease and the shipping of plants.
FOREIGN INVESTMENT BOARD: Composed of the Treasurer, the
Attorney General and the Comptroller. Administers laws on foreign
corporations doing business in the State.
BUDGET COMMISSION: Composed of the Governor, Comptroller,
Treasurer, Attorney General, Secretary of State, Commissioner of
Agriculture and State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION: This Board is also established by
the Constitution. It is composed of the Governor, Attorney General,
Treasurer, Secretary of State, and State Superintendent of Public
Instruction. It has charge of the State School Fund, and' colobora-
tive supervision over State Colleges and the University with the
Board of Control. It has the power of veto over acts of the Board
of Control in the appointment of teachers and the setting of sal-
aries. It may remove subordinate officers.
STATE CANVASSING BOARD: Composed of Secretary of State, At-
torney General and Treasurer. Canvasses and reports on all election
returns.
STATE PENSION BOARD: Passes on all applications for pensions.
Composed of the Governor, Comptroller and Treasurer.
STATE BOARD OF PARDONS: This is another Board created by the
Constitution. It is composed of the Governor, Attorney General,
Comptroller, Commissioner of Agriculture and Secretary of State.
It passes on all questions of pardons.
STATE BOARD OF CONTROL: This statutory Board was created
in 1905 when the Legislature undertook to consolidate the institu-
tions of higher education. It supervises the expenditures for the
Institutions of Higher Learning and makes recommendations to
the Legislature concerning them. The personnel is appointed by
the Governor-five in number, selected from different sections of
the State, who serve without pay.
STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT: Composed of five Commission-
ers, who are appointed by the Governor, one from each Congres-
sional District and one from the State-at-large. It directs the con-
struction of State highways.
STATE BOARD OF DENTAL EXAMINERS.
STATE BOARD OF PHARMACY.
STATE BOARD OF ACCOUNTANCY.
STATE BOARD OF MEDICAL EXAMINERS.
STATE BOARD OF LAW EXAMINERS.
STATE BOARD OF PLUMBING COMMISSIONERS.
STATE BOARD OF ARCHITECTURE.
STATE BOARD OF VETERINARY EXAMINERS.
STATE RACING COMMISSION.










STATE BOARD OF CHIROPRACTICS.
STATE RAILROAD COMMISSION.
STATE BOARD OF OPTOMETRY.
STATE BOARD OF OSTEOPATHIC EXAMINERS.
STATE BOARD OF EMBALMING.
STATE BOARD OF ENGINEERING EXAMINERS.
STATE SCHOOL BOOK COMMISSION.
STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSIONER.
Wild Life, Shell and Salt Water Fish Lommission.
State Geologist.
Hotel Commissioner.
State Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
ADJUTANT GENERAL (Appointed by the Governor and holds office
at his pleasure, by provision of the Constitution; by Statute of
1921 the appointment is by advice and consent of the Senate).
STATE RAILROAD ASSESSMENT BOARD.
STATE REALTY BOARD.
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION BOARD.
BOARD OF EX-CONFERERATE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS HOME
BUREAU OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION AND IDENTIFICA-
TION.
STATE LABOR INSPECTOR.
SUPERVISING INSPECTOR OF NAVAL STORES.
STATE MARKETING BOARD.
STATE MARKETING BUREAU.
(The Marketing Commissioner is nominated by the Commissioner
of Agriculture and commissioned by the Governor.)
INSPECTOR OF AIRCRAFT.
CHILD WELFARE COMMISSION.
MOTOR VEHICLE COMMISSION.
AUDITING COMMISSION.
FORESTRY COMMISSION.
LIBRARY COMMISSION.
MILK CONTROL BOARD.
COMMISSION FOR PROMOTION OF UNIFORMITY OF LECISLA-
TION IN U. S.
STATE CONSTITUTIONAL, MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION.
DADE MEMORIAL COMMISSION.
JUDAH P. BENJAMIN MEMORIAL COMMISSION.
NATIONAL BOARD OF REVIEW, MOTION PICTURES.
FLORIDA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND.










FLORIDA CRIPPLED CHILDREN'S COMMISSION.
EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK COMMISSION.
STEVEN FOSTER MEMORIAL.
CROSS STATE CANAL COMMISSION.

(HOUSE BILL NO. 267)
AN ACT dividing the State of Florida into five (5) Congressional
Districts and prescribing and setting forth the territorial limits and
boundaries of each district.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF
FLORIDA:


CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS


OF THE


STATE OF FLORIDA


SECTION 1. That the State of Florida be and the same is hereby
divided into Five (5) Congressional Districts, same to be numbered
and designated as District Number One, District Number Two, Dis-
trict Number Three, District Number Four, District Number Five.
SECTION 2. The Counties of Charlotte, DeSoto, Glades, Lee,
Hendry, Pasco, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas,
Polk, Hernando, and Sarasota shall constitute and compose the First
Congressional District.










SECTION 3. The Counties of Alachua, Baker, Bradford, Clay,
Columbia, Dixie, Duval, Gilchrist, Hamilton, LaFayette, Levy, Nassau.
Suwannee, Madison, Taylor, and Union shall constitute and compose
the Second Congressional District.
SECTION 4. The Counties of Bay, Calhoun, Escambia, Franklin,
Gadsden, Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Okaloosa,
Santa Rosa, Wakulla, Walton and Washington shall constitute and
compose the Third Congressional District.
SE TION 5. The Counties of Broward, Collier, Dade, Indian River,
Martin, Monroe, Okeechobee, Palm Beach and St. Lucie shall consti-
tute and compose the Fourth Congressional District.
SECTION 6. The Counties of Brevard, Citrus, Flagler, Lake.
Marion, Orange, Osceola, Putnam, Seminole, Sumter, St. Johns and
Volusia shall constitute and compose the Fifth Congressional District.
SECTION 7. That when any new counties are created, such new
counties shall compose a part of the Congressional District out of
which the territory for such new county is located.
SECTION 8. That all laws or parts of laws in conflict herewith are
hereby expressly repealed.
SECTION 9. This Act shall take effect at the expiration of the
terms of office of the (ongressmen now serving from this State, pro-
vided that the general election to be held 1936 a Congressman shall
be elected from each district as by this Act created.
Approved May 28, 1935.
Filed in Office Secretary of State May 29, 1935.













COMPARATIVE STUDIES

By T. J. BROOKS

COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENTS
(1') Definition: A study of the similarities and contrasts
in the structure and administration of governments.
AS TO KINDS
(21) Explication
(12) Monarchies
(13) Absolute
(23) Limited
(33) Titular
(22) Republics
(13) Constitutional
(23) Non-Constitutional
(33) Socialistic
AS TO STRUCTURE
(3') Despotic Monarchies
(13) Abys-inia
(2-) Afghanistan
(33) Bhutan
(43) Hejaz
(53) Moroco
(63) Nepal
(73) Oman
(4") Constitutional Monarchies
(13) Belgium
(23) Bulgaria
(33) Denmark
(43) Egypt
(53) Great Britain
England
Scotland
Ireland and Wales
Canada
Australia
New Zealand
Union of South Africa
India
(63) Hungary
(73) Iraq
(83) Italy
(93) Japan
(103) Jugoslavia
(113) Netherlands
(12 ) Norway
(133) Persia
(143) Roumania
(15:) Siam
(163) Sweden
(52) Federated Republics
(13) Argentina
(23) Brazil
(33) Germany
(43) Mexico
(5') Russia
Soviet Union
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Georgia
Ukrania
White Russia
(63) Spain
(73) Switzerland
(62) Centralized Republics
(13) A'bania
(2-) Austria













(3") Bolivia
(4") Chili
(5:) China
(6") Columbia
(7 ') Cuba
(8") Czecho-Slovakia
(9 ) Ecudor
(10") Esthonia
(11") Fin'an.,
(12") France
(13 ) Greece
(14") Gautemala
(15") Haiti
(16") Honduras
(17") Latvia
(18X) Liberia
(193) Lithunia
(20") Nicaragua
(21") Panama
(22") Peru
(23") Poland
(243) Portugal
(25:) San Salvador
(26 ) Santo Domingo
(27") San Marino
(283) Turkey
(29") Uruguay
(303) Paraguay
(313) Venezuela
(72) Un-centralized Republics
(1") The United States of America


CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHIES

BELGIUM
CAPITAL: Brussels
AREA : 11,755 Square Miles
POPULATION: S.000,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
King
Premier
(2') Legislative Department
Upper Chamber, 154
Lower Chamber, 187
(3') Judicial Department

DENMARK
CAPITAL: Copenhagen
AREA: 16,568 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,600,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
King
Cabinet
Premier
(2') Legislative Department
Upper Chamber, 76
Lower Chamber, 149
(31) Judicial Department

EGYPT
CAPITAL: Cairo
AREA: 383,000 Square Miles
SETTLED AREA: 13,600 Square Miles
POPULATION: 14,300,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(1') Executive Branch of Government
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier













(2') Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, 100
(22) Lower Chamber, 150
(31) Judicial Department

GREAT BRITAIN
CAPITAL: London
AREA: 94,277 Square Miles
POPULATION: 45,000,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(1I) Executive Department
(12) King-Titu'ar
(22) Cabinet
(3') Premier Minister
(21) Legislative Depaitment: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, 757
(2-) Lower Chamber, 615
For five year term, subject at all times to dissolution
of Parliament by a vote against the program of the
party in power-when a new election is ordered.
(31) Judicial Department: It does not have the right to declare
Acts of Parliament "Unconstitutional." England has
no written Constitution.

SUBDIVISIONS OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
IRISH FREE STATE
CAPITAL: Dublin
AREA: 26,601 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor General-appointed by England
(22) Executive Council-appointed by the Executive:
(2') Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, 60
(22) Lower Chamber, 153
(31) Judicial Department

CANADA
CAPITAL: Ottawa
AREA: 3,690,043 Square Miles
POPULATION: 10,500,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Provincial
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor General-appointed by England
(22) Premier Minister-elected
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Upper Chamber, 96
(2") Lower Chamber, 245
(31) Judicial Department

AUSTRALIA
CAPITAL: Canberea
AREA: 2,974,581 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6,500 000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: A Dependency-Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor General, appointed by England
(22) Cabinet
(3I) Prime Minister
(2') Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, 36
(2") Lower Chamber, 75
(3') Judicial Department

NEW ZEALAND
CAPITAL: Wellington
AREA: 104,015 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,500,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: English Dependency














(11) Executive Department
(1') Governor General
(22) Cabinet
(3-) Premier
(21) Legislative Department-Parliament
(11) Upper Chamber, 40
(22) Lower Chamber, S0

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
CAPITAL: Pretoria (seat of administration)
Capetown (seat of legislature)
AREA: 472,347 S(uare Miles
POPULATION: 8,200,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: English Dependency
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor General
(22) Cabinet
(3") Premier
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Upper Branch, 40
(22) Lower Chamber, 148
(31) Judicial Department

INDIA
CAPITALS: Winter: New Delhi; Summer: Simla
AREA: 1,s05.332 Square Miles
POPULATION: 351.450,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: An English Dependency of 1,094,300
Square Miles and population of 270,612,000. The
remainder being "Indian States."
(11) Executive Department
(12) Ostensibly the King of England
(2-) Viceroy and Governor-General
(32) The Cabinet
(42) A Premier
(21) Legislatixe Branch-Parliament
(1) Upper Chamber, 60
(2-) Lower Chamber. 144
(3') Judicial Department

HUNGRY
CAPITAL Budapest
AREA: 35,911 Square Miles
POPULATION: 8,700,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(1') President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, 244
(22) Lower Chamber, 245
(3') Judicial Department

ITALY
CAPITAL: Rome
AREA: 119,714 Square Miles
POPULATION: 42,200,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy-Corporative
(11) Executive Department
(12) King-Titular
(22) Cabinet
(32) Facist Grand Council
(42) Premier-Virtual dictator
(21) The Legislative and Executive Branche; are interlocked
in an Upper and Lower Chamber- --the Lower being
selected by Grand Council. Membership in these
bodies is largely a matter of holding certain offices
in the National Government.
(31) Judicial Department

21













JAPAN
CAPITAL: Tokyo
AREA: 265,129 Square Miles
POPULATION: Including Korea, 91,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) Emperor
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, 400
(22) Lower Chamber, 466
(31) Judicial Department

YUGOSLAVIA
CAPITAL: Belgrade
AREA: 96,134 Square Miles
POPULATION: 14,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(2') Legislative lCpartment: Parliament
(12) Uppr Chamber, 120
(22) Lower Chamber, 305
(31) Judicial Department

NETHERLANDS
CAPITAL: Amsterdam
SEAT OF GOVERNMENT: The Hague
AREA: 12,593 Square Miles
POPULATION: 8,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Departm2nt
(12) Queen
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(2') Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, 50
(22) Lower Chamber, 100
(31) Judicial Department

NORWAY
CAPITAL: Oslo (name changed from Christiana)
AREA: 125,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
Composed of one body of 180
(31) Judicial Department

PERSIA
CAPITAL: Teheren
AREA: 628,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 10,000 000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) Crowned Ruler
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(2') Legislative Department: Parliament
Called National Assembly of 136 members
(31) Judicial Department













RUMANIA

CAPITAL: Buchare.t
AREA: 122,282 Square Miles
POPULATION: 18 000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(3") Premier
(21) Legislative D-partment
(12) Upper Chamber, 197
(22) Lower Chamber, 388
(31) Judicial Department

SIAM

CAPITAL: Bangkok
AREA: 200,14S Square Miles
POPULATION: 11 500 000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Supreme Council
(22) Privy Council
(3') Judicial Department

SWEDEN
CAPITAL: Stockholm
AREA: 173.154 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6.200,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(2') Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, 150
(22) Lower Chamber, 230
(31) Judicial Department

ARGENTINA
CAPITAL: Buenos Aires
AREA: 1,153,119 Square Miles
POPULATION: 11,500,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Department
(1") President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, 30
Elected for 9 years
Renewed by one-third a year
Elected by Provincial Legislatures
(22) Lower Chamber, 158
Foul year term
Renewed by halves every two years
(31) Judicial Department

BRAZIL
CAPITAL- Rio de Janeiro
AREA: 3,285,318 Square Miles
POPULATION: 40.500,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) Chief of Provisional Government
(22) Cabinet













(2') Legislative: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, 63
(22) Lower Chamber, 212
(31) Judicial Department

GERMANY
CAPITAL: Berlin
AREA: 181,714 Square Miles
POPULATION: 64 000 000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Chancellor-Virtual Dictator
(2 ) Legislative Department: Parliament
Consisting of one body (Riechstag) of 577 members.
15 members for any recognized parliamentary group
to be entitled to elect members of important stand-
ing committees.
(31) Judicial Department

MEXICO
CAPITAL: Mexico
AREA: 767,198 Square Miles
POPULATION: 16,500,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch
(1') Upper Chamber, 58
(22) Lower Chamber, 153
(31) Judicial Department

RUSSIA
CAPITAL: Moscow
AREA: 8,187,253 Square Miles
POPULATION: 162,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Socialistic-Representative
(11) Executive Branch*
(12) President of Central Executive Committee and other
committees
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Commission
(22) Soviet Congress
(13) Council of the Union, 472
(23) Council of Nationalists, 138
(31) Judicial Department
* The Secretary of the Communist Party is virtual dictator-Stalin
(Bolsheviki means "majority"; Soviet means "group."

SPAIN
CAPITAL: Madrid
AREA: 190,050 Square Miles
POPULATION: 23,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(Cortes) Consisting of one body of 470 members
(31) Judicial Department

SWITZERLAND
CAPITAL: Berne
AREA: 15,940 Square Miles
POPULATION: 4,100.000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic













(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(2-) Federal Council
(3 ) Chancellor
(2') Legislative Branch
(12) Council of States. 44
(2-) National Council, 187
(3') Judicial Department

AUSTRIA
CAPITAL: Vienna
AREA: 32,3l9l Square Miles
POPULATION: 7,000,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(1') Executive Department
(1') President-4 years
(2') Cabinet
(3') Chancellor
(21) Legislative Department
(1') Upper Chamber, 50
(22) Lower Chamber, 165
(3') Judicial Department

BOLIVIA
CAPITALS: La Paz and Sucre
AREA: 514,155 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Branch
(1') President
(2-) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Upper Chamber, 28
(22) Lower Chamber, 72
(3') Judicial Department

CHINA
CAPITAL: Nanking
AREA: 4,278,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 444,653,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(1') State Council
(22) Chairman and Minister
(21) Legislative
Standing Committees
(31) Judicial: Ministry of Justice and a Supreme Court

CHILE
CAPITAL: Santiago
AREA: 287,890 Square Miles
POPULATION: 4,300 000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(2') Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, 45
(2-) Lower Chamber, 133

COLUMBIA
CAPITAL: Bogota
AREA: 440,846 Square Miles
POPULATION: 8.000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(1') President
(22) Cabinet













(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, 56
(22) Lower Chamber, 117
(31) Judicial Department

CUBA
CAPITAL: Havana
AREA: 4,164 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,608,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department-Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, 37
(22) Lower Chamber, 128
(3') Judicial Department

CZECHOSLOVAKIA
CAPITAL: Prague
AREA: 54,207 Square Miles
POPULATION: 14,800,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, 150
(22) Lower Chamber, 300
(3') Judicial Department

ECUADOR
CAPITAL: Quito
AREA: 116,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2.500.000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, 43
(22) Lower Chamber, 56
(3') Judicial Department

FINLAND
CAPITAL: Helsinki
AREA: 150,986 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3.700,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(1') Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(3-) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: One body-Parliament, 200
(31) Judicial Department

FRANCE
CAPITAL: Paris
AREA: 212,659 Square Miles
POPULATION: 42,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department
(1") Upper Chamber, 312
(22) Lower Chamber, 612
(3') Judicial Department

26













GREECE
CAPITAL: Athens
AREA: 49,912 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6,300,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Branch
(1") Upper Chamber, 120
(22) Lower Chamber, 258
(31) Judicial Department

GUATEMALA
CAPITAL: Guatemala
AREA: 48,290 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,100,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(2-) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
Composed of 69 Members
(31) Judicial Department

HONDURAS
CAPITAL: Tegucigalpa
AREA: 46,332 Square Miles
POPULATION: 860.000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
Composed of 48 Members
(31) Judicial Department

LITHUANIA
CAPITAL: Kaunas
AREA: 21,804 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,400,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Branch-One Body of 85 Members
(31) Judicial Department

NICARAGUA
CAPITAL: Managua
AREA: 51,660 Square Miles
POPULATION: 750,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative
(12) Upper Chamber, 24
(2') Lower Chamber, 43
(31) Judicial Department

PARAGUAY
CAPITAL: Asuncion
AREA: 61,647 Square Miles
POPULATION: 900,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic













(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, 20
(22) Lower Chamber, 40
(31) Judicial Department

PERU

CAPITAL: Lima
AREA: 532,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6,200,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
Composed of 145 Members
(3') Judicial Department

POLAND

CAPITAL: Warszawa
AREA: 149,958 Square Miles
POPULATION: 30.700,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(1') Executive DEpartment
(12) President
(2-) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, 111
(22) Lower Chamber, 444
(31) Judicial Department
The old Marshal, Dictator Pilsudski, having come to believe that Dictator
Mussolini's so-called "Corporative State" represents progress, introduced iti spirit
into Poland's new Constitution thus, Article LXXVII: "To control the financial
activities of the State and of institutions of a legally public status; to examine
the State fiscal accounts; and to submit annual recommendations to the Sejm, for
release to the Government, there is established the Supreme Chamber of Control
based on the principles of corporative membership and the independence of its mem-
bers. The Supreme Chamber of Control is independent of the Cabinet. The Presi-
dent of the Republic appoints and dismisses the President of the Supreme Chamber
of Control. .. "
The President of the Republic, according to the new Constitution, also must or
may do pretty much everything else. In some dismay, Scientist Moscicki finds
himself not only endowed by Article XII with the ordinary powers of a European
president whose acts must be countersigned like those of a king by the appropriate
minister, but further endowed by Article XIII with what the new Constitution calls
"prerogatives," these requiring no counter-signature. At his autocratic pleasure
he can dissolve the Sejm and Senate and can dismiss the Premier, First President
of the Supreme Chamber of Control, and the Commander-in-Chief and Inspector
General of Poland's armed forces by land, sea and air. Moreover the President
orders Polish general elections and nominates one of the candidates who may
succeed himself as President, the electoral machinery being so rigged that a
determined President can virtually control the choice of his successor.

PORTUGAL
CAPITAL: Lisbon
AREA: 35,490 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6.200,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(2") Cabinet
(3") Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(1") Upper Chamber, 71
(2') Lower Chamber, 163
(3') Judicial Department














TURKEY
CAPITAL: Angora
AREA: 294,416
POPULATION: 14,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Branch
(12) President
(2-) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(2') Legislative Branch: Grand National Assembly consisting
of 317 Members
(31) Judicial Department

URUGUAY
CAPITAL: Montevideo
AREA: 72,153 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(1') President
(2-) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(1C) Upper Chamber, 19
(22) Lower Chamber, 123
(31) Judicial Department

VENEZUELA
CAPITAL: Caracas
AREA: 393.874 Souare Miles
POPULATION: 3.000.000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Branch
(1-) President
(2') Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(1") Upper Chamber, 40
(2 ) Lower Chamber, 81
(31) Judicial Department

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
CAPITAL: Washington
AREA: Continental U. S.. 3.026.789 Square Mile
Including out-lying possessions 3,738,395 Square Miles
POPULATION: Continental U. S., 126,000,000
Including out-lying possessions, 13.,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Administrative Department
(1-') President-Elected for four years
(22) Cabinet-Appointed by the Pre-ident
(2') Legislative Department: Congress
(1-) Upper House, 96-Elected for 6 years
(2-) Lower House, 435-Elected for 2 years
131) Judicial Department: May decide the consttitutionality of
laws passed by Congrees when cases are brought to
Court involving the validity of an Act. Nine Judges.
appointed by the President for life.













WHEN A CABINET MINISTRY RESIGNS IN ENGLAND
"There is no statutory requirement that a ministry sha'l go out of office whenever
it loses the support and confidence of a majority in the House, but by a custom
which has now prevailed for nearly two hundred years, it is bound to do so.
"There are various ways in which the Hou e of Commons may show its lack of
confidence . The House may vote to reduce the salary of a minister. . Or the
House may reject some government measure . or the House may undertake to
pass some bill which the Government opposes, and the issue may be one of con-
fidence in the government ....
"Finally, if the House is dissatisfied with the cabinet's general policy, without
reference to any particular measure, it can at any time pass a resolution expressly
declaring its want of confidence.
"Britih cabinets, as a matter of fact, have rarely been forced to resign, during
the past one hundred years, by reason of an adverse vote in the House of Commons.
They have gone out of office for the mo- t part as the result of adverse action by
the people at the polls. On the other hand a decision to dissolve parliament and
call a general election has sometimes been dictated (as in 1924) by a setback in
the House.
"Snap votes and mishaps due to the absence of ministerial supporters do not
entail the cabinets resignation. The cabinet has at all times the privilege of demon-
strating by proposing a resolution of confidence, its control of a majority in the
House.
"It is the privilege of the cabinet when it finds itself faced by defeat in the
House, to make an appeal to the people. In other words the prime minister can
advise the king to dissolve parliament and order a general election. During the
election campaign the ministry continues in office, but if the result of the polling
is unfavorable, it does not usually wait for parliament to assemble (but resigns) . .
The king sends for the leader of the victorious party, and asks him to form a new
ministry.
Wm. B. Munro, Governments of Europe, (Rev. ed, of 1931) p. 86.
It is to be noted that it is a Cabinet measure which is considered to indicate a
defeat of the Ministry, and that the Ministry may resign without asking the King
to dissolve parliament. A Prime Minister who actually commands a majority in
the House, who wishes to initiate legislation or a policy, novel or revolutionary in
character, may request the King to dissolve parliament so that th2 opinion of the
electorate can be taken.


THE RIGHT OF A DOMINION TO SEND A MINISTER
In the British Empire the term "Dominion" is officially used as a convenient
abbreviation for "self-governing Dominion." The Dominions are Australia, Canada,
Irish Free State, Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa. Although New
foundland has Dominion status it is not represented in the League of Nations and
India, although it does not yet possess Dominion status, is represented in the League
of Nations. The self-governing dominions which are members of the L ague of
Nations possess therefore a quasi-international status, and de facto have the same
independent status as Great Britain, with which they are equal members of the
Imperial Conference, although de jure they are still subject to the supremacy of
the British Parliament. (Encyclopedia Britannica, "British Empire" p. 178.)
By the Imperial Conference of 1926 the Dominions were defined as "autonomous
Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one
to another in any aspect of their domestic or foreign affairs, although united by a
common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British
Commonwealth of Nations." On December 11, 1931, the Statute of Westminister
became law which by legal enactment recognizes this status of the Dominions as
defined at the Imperial Conference of 1926. During 1931 the Dominions had also
passed the Statute of Westminster.
"A Dominion may negotiate a treaty without the intervention of the diplomats
of Great Britain, and it may send a minister of its own and consuls to a foreign
country. Ireland and Canada already send ministers to the United States and the
United States sends a minister to each of these countries. Until a Dominion
establishes its own legation in a country it is advised to use the diplomats of
Great Britain." (Frank A. Magruder, National Governments and International
Relations, 1933, p. 236.)













A List of References on Comparative Politics and Govern-
ment with Special Reference to France, Germany,
Great Britain, Italy, etc.

GENERAL
Bonn, Moritz J. The crisis of European democracy. New Haven, Pub. for the
Institute of politics by the Yale University press, 1925. 103 p. (The Institute
of politics publications, Williams college, Willliamstown, Mass.) D653.B65
Bryce. James Bryce, viscount. Modern democracies. New York, The MacMillan Co.,
1921, 2 v.
Finer, Herman. Foreign governments at work; an introductory study, London,
New York, H. Milford, Oxford University press, 1921. 83 p. (The world of
today. (24))
Goodnow, Frank J. Comparative administrative law; an analysis of the adminis-
trative systems, national and local, of the United States, England, France,
and Germany. New York and London, G. P. Putnam's sons, 1903 2v. in 1.
JF1351.G65 1903
Strong, C. F. Modern Political Constitutions. 1930. G. P. Putnam.
-----.-...... New governments of eastern Europe. New York, H. Holt & Co.
(1927) 826 p. (American political science series; general editor, E. S. Corwin.)
D443.G56
"Select documents on the new governments of eastern Europe" p. 559-800.
Estonia. Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Russia.
Ray. Major European Governments, 1931. Ginn & Co., Boston.
Harden, Maximilian, Germany, France and England, Translated and edited by
William Cranston Lawton, New York, Brentano's (1924) 326 p. DD249.H3
Mallory, Political Handbook of the World, 1932, Harper Brothers, N. Y.
McBain, Howard L. The new constitutions of Europe, by Howard L. McBain and
Lindsay Rogers. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page & Co., 1923, 612 p.
JF11.M25 1923
Bibliographical foot-notes.
Morley, The New Democratic Constitutions of Europe, 1928. Humphrey Milford,
London, England.
Pipkin, Charles W. Social politics and modern democracies. New York. The
MacMillan Co., 1931. 2v. HD7876.P47
Selected bibliography: v. 2, p. 397-402.
France. Great Britain.
Strong, Charles F. Modern political constitutions: an introduction to the com-
parative study of their history and existing form. New York, London. G. P.
Putnam's sons, 1930. 385 p. JF51.S7
"Books recommended": p. xii-xviii.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC
Argentine Republic. Constitution. Instruccion civica. La Constitucion national
explicada articulo por articulo. Buenos Aires, JLauouane & cie., 1928. 238 p.
Rowe. Leo S. The federal system of the Argentine Republic. Washington, The
Carnegie institution of Washington, 1921. 161 p. (Carnegie institution of
Washington, Publication No. 258) JL2018.R6
Bibliography: p. 133-136.

FRANCE
.............. The government of France. Authorized translation by J. Bayard
Morris. London, G. Allen & Unwin, Ltd. (1924) 222 p. JN2597.B35
"This work was originally published in Paris in 1919. Since that time changes
in the French constitution have made certain passages obsolete and M.
Barthelemy has supplied me with new matter in order to bring the book up-to-
date."-Tran lator's note.
Bibliography at end of each chapter.

GERMANY
Armstrong, Hamilton F. Hitler's reich, the first phase. New York, The MacMillan
Co., 1933. 73 p. DD251.A7













.. ............ The new German constitution. Tr. from the French by Joseph
Gollomb. New York, A. A. Knopf, 1922. 339 p. JN3953.1922.B7
"The constitution of the German commonwealth" (text) : p. 297-339.
Germany: twilight or new dawn? New York, Whittlesey house, McGraw-Hill book
Co., inc., 1933. 226 p. DD253.G4 1933
Hitler, Adolph. My Battle. Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1933, 297 p.
A DD247.H5A32
Abridged and translated by E. T. S. Dugdale.
........................ Germany in transition; lectures on the Harris foundation, 1924.
Chicago, Illinois. The University of Chicago press (1924) 236 p. DD249.K7
Mattern, Johannes. Principles of the constitutional jurisprudence of the German
national republic. Baltimore, the Johns Hopkins press, London, H. Milford,
Oxford University press, 1928. 682 p. (Semi-centennial publications of the
Johns Hopkins University, 1876-1926) JN3954.M3
Bibliography: p. 649-666.


GREAT BRITAIN
Adams, George B. Constitutional history of England. New York, H. Holt & Co.
(1921) 518 p. (American Historical series. General Editor; C. H. Haskins.)
JN118.A3
"General bibliography": p. ix-x.
Blauvelt, Mary Taylor. The development of cabinet government in England. New
York, the MacMillan Co.; London, MacMillan & Co., Ltd., 1902. 300 p.
JN401.B7
Clarke, John J. Outlines of central government, including the judicial system of
England. 3d ed. London, New York, Sir I. Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1928. 251 p.
Bibliography: p. 215-236. Law
Emden, Cecil S. The people and the constitution. Oxford, The Clarendon press,
1933. 336 p. DA44.E5
........................ Democracy at the crossways; a study in politics and history, with
Special reference to Great Britain, London, MacMillan & Co.. Ltd., 1919.
511 p. DA577.H4 1919
"List of the principal Books referred to": p. 497-504.
Hogan, Albert E. The government of Great Britain, its colonies and dependencies.
5th ed., rev. and enl. by Isabel G. Powell. London, W. B. Clive. University
totorial press, Id., 1923. 272 p. JN321.H7 1923
Jcnks, Edward. The government of the British empire. London, J. Murray (1929)
414 (i.e. 424) p. JN321.J44 1929
"Fourth edition November 1929."
Keith, Arthur Berriedale. The constitution, administration and laws of the
Empire. London, W. Callins Sons and Company, Ltd. (1924) 355 p. (The
British Empire, a survey ... edited by Hugh Gunn. (111) DA11.K4
Bibliography: p. 324-334.


ITALY
Abbot, Willis J. Mussolini tells why he prefers fascism to parliamentarism for
Italy. (New York, Italian historical society, 1928) 13 p. (Italian historical
society. Pamphlet no. 2) DG571.A7
Bonomi, Ivanhoe. From socialism to fascism; a study of contemporary Italy. Trans-
lated by John Murray. London, M. Hopkinson & Co., Ltd. 1924 147 p.
DG571.B65
Ferrero, Guglielmo. Four years of fascism. Translated from the Italian "DaFiume
a Roma" by E. W. Dickes, with a forward by C. J. Squire Sprigge. London,
P. S. King & Son, Ltd. 1924. 138 p. DG571.F45
Goad, Harold E. The making of the corporate state; a study of fascist development.
London, Christophers (1932) 167 p. DG571.G55
Bibliogrophy: p. 159-163


JAPAN
Fujisawa, Rikitaro. The recent aims and political development of Japan. New
Haven, Pub. for the Institute of politics by Yale University press, 1923.
222 p. (The Institute of Politics publications. Williams college, Williamstown,
Mass.) DS841.F8













Hershey, Amos S. Modern Japan, social-industrial-political, by Amos S.
Hershey, and Susanne W. Hershey. Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merril Co., (1919)
382 p. (Problems of the nations, P. L. Haworth, Editor) DS806.H4
Quigley, Herold S. Japanese government and politics; an introductory study.
New York, London, The Century Co. (1932) 442 p. (The Century Political
Science Series) JQ1615.1932.Q5
"Select references" at end of each chapter; bibliographical foot-notes.

RUSSIA
Brailsford, Henry N. How the soviets work. New York, Vanguard press (1927)
169 p. (Vanguard studies of Soviet Russia) DK267.B7
Davis, Jerome, ed. The new Russia between the first and second five year plans.
New York, The John Day Co. (1933) 265 p. "A selected bibliography": p.
259-265. DK266.D3
The communist party and the government, by Jerome Davis, p. 107-131.
Dreiser, Theodore. Dreiser looks at Russia, New York, H. Liveright, 1928. 264 p.
DK267.D7

Hoover, Calvin B. The economic life of soviet Russia. New York, The Mac-
millan Co., 1931, 361 p. HC335.H6
Bibliography: p. 349-351.
Hopper, Bruce. Pan-sovietism, the issue before America and the world. Boston,
and New York, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931. 287 p. "A reproduction of eight
lectures entitled "Soviet Russia after thirteen years," given before Lowell
institute in 1931."-Pref. DK266.H5
Russell, Bertrand Russell, 3d earl. Bolshevism: practice and theory. New York,
Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920. 192 p.

SWITZERLAND
Brooks, Robert C. Civic training in Switzerland; a study of democratic life. Chicago.
Illinois, The University of Chicago press (1930) 436. (Studies in making of
citizens.) DQ36.B7




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