• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 History
 Breeds of beef cattle
 Essentials of animal breeding
 Herd management
 Pastures
 Feeds and feeding
 Barns and silos
 Common diseases and parasites of...
 Marketing cattle
 Country hides and skins
 Stamping beef, beef cuts and their...
 Appendix
 Table of Contents
 Copyright














Title: Beef cattle in Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089046/00001
 Material Information
Title: Beef cattle in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Lewis, L. H.
Publisher: State of Florida, Florida Dept. of Agriculture,
Publication Date: 1938
Copyright Date: 1938
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089046
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Acknowledgement
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    History
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Breeds of beef cattle
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Essentials of animal breeding
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Herd management
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
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        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Pastures
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
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        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Feeds and feeding
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
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        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Barns and silos
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Common diseases and parasites of cattle
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Marketing cattle
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
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        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Country hides and skins
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Stamping beef, beef cuts and their preparation
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
    Appendix
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Table of Contents
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
    Copyright
        Page 200
Full Text





Bulletin No. 28 New Series Nov. 1938


BEEF CATTLE

IN FLORIDA

(REVISED)


STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner

TALLAHASSEE


K_ K


Bulletin No. 28


New Series


Nov. 1938
























Acknowledgments
The author desires to express his appreciation to all
agencies from whose data materials were taken, and
especially to the Florida Experiment Stations, Livestock
Sanitary Board, Florida Extension Service, Agents of
Various Railways, and the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture, and other State Experiment Stations.








INTRODUCTION
The production of beef cattle in the United States has
undergone a great many changes since the days when cattle
took the place of the roving buttalo herds on tile western plains.
Every state in the Union raises some beef cattle and it seems
safe to predict that the future will see vast herds of beef cattle
being raised in sections that heretofore have not been noted for
cattle raising.
For the most part all kinds of farming is being conducted
on a more extensive scale. Former large ranges have been
divided into smaller areas which contain farms that are reach-
ing their maximum production through the application of
scientific Inethods. This includes the various branches of stock
raising.
In the State of Florida there have been cattle for :150
or more years, or since the early days of Spanish settlement.
These early importations by the Spaniards were not given
any attention in the way of herd management, the cattle
being left to rustle for themselves. Fortunately the ranges in
Florida provided forage for this early stock, and as a result of
this compulsory self-feeding the offspring of these early cattle
are today noted for their ruggedness and rustling ability.
Florida is naturally adapted to beef cattle production. The
climate permits grazing for about ten months of the year and
on tile soils found ill hammock and flatwood ranges, a full
twelve months grazing is possible. To produce the best quality
of beef it is advisable, however, to supplement the forage crops
with properly balanced food rations as suggested herein.
There are approximately 1,200,000) head of range cattle in
Florida, having a value of approximately .$22,000,000.
Production of good beef cattle in Florida fundamentally is
the same as in other states. There must be carefully selected
breeding stock, and proper facilities provided for the care of
the calves, the cows and the bulls.
The right kind of feed, water, and minerals in the right
balance are most necessary in the production of good beef.
Florida enjoys a very good market position, the outlets being
almost unlimited. With an under-production the market de-
mands in the Southeast are perhaps the highest of any section
in the United States.
There is a heavy demand for veal calves which will undoubt-
edly stimulate their production in Florida. There are about
:!0 meat packing plants in the states of Florida, Georgia and
Alabama, as well as markets of the North and East, which
assures a market for all the marketable cattle Florida pro-
duces.
Florida beef should be advertised as such and when the con-
suming public becomes acquainted with its quality the demand
should exceed the present demand for "western beef."













CHAPTER I


History

GENEALOGY
The ancestors of our modern beef cattle roamed the earth
when wild animals first inhabited its forests. It is difficult to
state definitely the original sections where these genera began
life and it seems most reasonable to believe that almost every
section of the globe contributed to their general welfare. Their
origin antedates history.
In tracing the progenitors of our domesticated herds mncli
must be left to conjecture although there is abundant sub-
stantiative evidence in support of the conclusions reached.
In tracing the parentage of "Bossy" it is very interesting
to read the opinions of those who have devoted years to re-
search and investigation. According to Frederick B. Mumford
(Bailey) "At least three distinct pre-historic species Bos
primigcniins; Bos lolfifrons; and Bos frontosus are the fore-
bears of domesticated cattle. The first species, prinigenius,
known also as Urns, was domesticated by the Swiss Lake-
dwellers. Considerable numbers of Urins existed down to his-
toric times in the forests of Europe. C'esar mentions this
animal as having been seen in large numbers in the Hercynian
Forest, and describes it as being 'little smaller than the ele-
1phant, but with form and characteristics of a bull.'
"The Friesland cattle of Continental Europe and the Pem-
broke cattle of Wales are supposed to have descended from
Urns. At the present time degenrate examples of this species
may be seen in the parks of Great Britain,-Cadzow Forest
and Chillingham Park having the purest specimens of these
animals. They are white with reddish ears, and become fierce
and dangerous when angered.
"The Bos longifrons or Celtic Ox, formerly wild in Sweden,
was also bred by the ancient Lake-dwellers. It is smaller than
our modern breeds. Owens regards this species as the original
of the Welsh and Highland breeds of cattle and later of the
Shorthorn. Bos frontosus was larger than Bos longifrons and
existed in Scandinavia. The mountain cattle of Norway are
also supposed to have been derived from this species.
"The domesticated cattle of the world are now classed in
two species: the Bos lauruts, or common cattle of Europe and
America and the Bos Indicus, the humped cattle of India, also
called Zebus. The humped Zebu was domesticated in Egypt
over 2,000 years before the Christian era.
5








6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

"The prevailing type of cattle coniiion to Europe and
America belongs to the species, Bos liurus. From this animal
all the various races and breeds have descended. This species
early reached a high degree of development in Europe and has
been widely dispersed to every civilized country on the globe.
The first attempts toward development were very crude and
little progress was made.
"Systematic improvement which resulted in specialized
breeds began about the close of the 18th century. The greatest
progress was made in (ireat Britain, and to Robert Bakewell,
(1725-1775) of Leicestershire, England, must be given the
credit of producing such markedly superior animals; types
which justly have entitled hi t to the distinction of being called
the father of the science and art of modern cattle breeding.
"A general classification divides the existing breeds into
beef and dairy cattle."
Careful selection and breeding originated by Robert Bake.
well was carried on in Scotland and England by Colling Broth-
ers, Amos Cruickshank, Richard Tompkins, and Hugh Watson.
This work was continued in America and is still receiving tile
best thought of our outstanding cattle breeders. While we
have very fine breeds for the production of beef it is reason-
able to expect that further improvements will result front the
research that will continue to be conducted by breeders.

DESIGNATION OF "CATTLE"
Among the old English writers we find the word "cattle" or
"catel" used collectively to designate all kinds of live animals
held as property or those raised for food or beasts of burden.
This classification included horses, sheep, swine, and some
writers even applied the word to cover bees and poultry. Our
present dictionaries give the meaning of the word "cattle" to
be: "domesticated bovine animals such as oxen, cows, bulls,
and calves; also thoughh seldom now) any live stock kept for
use or protil such as horses, camels, sheep, goats, swine, etc."
In tlhe olden days such writers as ('hau(cer and Wiclif used
the word "cattle" as referring to wealth or substance gen-
erally. The word "cattle" is used now to express property in
living animals, the form of chattel being applied to inanimate
personal property.
Bovine animals were those known as "horned cattle" and
at later periods as "black cattle" and "neat cattle." The black
breeds of Scotland and Wales probably explain the use of the
designation "black cattle." "Neat cattle" were so called be-
cause of their usefulness, "neat" having its origin in the Anglo-
Saxon word "neaten," meaning "to make use of."








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 7

In the old English the equivalent for cattle is kinee" or
"kyan," derived from "cy," the plural of "cu," which is the
Anglo-Saxon for "cow."
The term "ox" often used for cattle in general, signifies
more correctly mature, castrated males that are used for draft
purposes. In Continental Europe a broader meaning is given
to the word as it is used to include all male cattle.
Animals which may be comprised as cattle in its more re-
stricted meaning are oxen or neat cattle which have been
placed in six groups, Buffaloes (India and Africa : Bison
(Europe and North America ; the Ytk (Thibet) the G(Iur
Gaioyl and Bntin (India and Further India ; Eastern and
African domesticated cattle or Zrbu, and Western or European
domesticated cattle. The India Buffalo, Yatk, Ga(tal and Ban-
tin have also been domesticated.
All of the species named are rather closely related except
the Buffalo.

OUR PRESENT LAND CONDITION IN FLORIDA
Idle land is a liability to its owner and a drag on the pros-
perity of the community. It. therefore, appears one of the
problems of Florida is to make use of land not otherwise pro-
ducing. in order that taxes and overhead expenses may be
taken care of.
We should keep in mind that a few years ago millions of
acres of lald were in perfectly good virgin timber; these lands
having been cut over without (Government control. Some of
these lands were put into farms for cultivation, or have been
allowed to grow volunteer timber. We need to improve two
major crops in this State-livestock and timber.
There are thousands of acres of land unsuitable for cattle
or lands which do not give very high return per acre of beef.
Such lands might be used for timber. The best lands no doubt
should be used and improved for cattle. The whiter sand lands
of Florida should be stocked to limber, but the darker, heavier
types of land should be kept, used and improved for cattle. It
is possible to raise cattle and timber on the same land, but im-
possible to raise a full stand of timber and the maximum num-
ber of cattle on the same land. We should think of terms of
using our lands in terms of their adalptalility.
Florida is producing about 40 %/ of its present beef con-
sumption. With the proper utilization of such landss as are
adapted to pasture, Florida can more than supply herself with
the beef that she needs. With improved pasture conditions,
Florida can produce alout three times as many pounds of beef
as are being produced at present.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Florida has approximately 35,111,000 acres of land, of
which about 5,000,000 to 6,000,000 acres are in cultivation;
3,000,000 in beaches andl pleasure resorts; approximately 4,-
000.000 acres are white sand carrying a high percentage of
silicon which might be developed into the production of glass;
therefore there are approximately 25,000,000 to 28,000,000
acres adaptable to the production of beef cattle. There are,
in round figures, about 17,000,000 acres of lands off the tax
books. What shall be done with these lands except to develop
them in cattle and in timber?
The Federal Government has bought up thousands of acres
of land in Florida for $:l to $4 per acre. How will the sale of
these lands to the Federal Government affect in the future our
tax problem ? Should not something be done to put these lands
back on the tax books?
Mr. (ireen, who was former director cf the Federal Experi-
ment Station at McNeill, Miss., has done considerable work
on pastures in that area. There are many lands in north and
west Florida similar to the lands in Mississippi. He states
that our native wild grass lands in wire grass will produce
from 15 to 18 pounds of beef per acre, while improved lands
in that territory have produced up to 300 pounds of beef per
acre; that steers on lespedeza and grass pasture made a gain
per acre of 220 pounds from June 1st to November 11th. It is
a known fact that improved pastures will give from three to
ten times as much beef per acre as our average wire grass
pastures, therefore the necessity of pasture improvement.
Many lands in central and south Florida have as great carry-
ing capacity as the lands of south Mississippi.

FLORIDA IS ADAPTED TO THE PRODUCTION
OF BEEF CATTLE
Florida is particularly adapted to the production of cattle
for the following reasons:
1. She has the lands adapted to the production of im-
proved pastures.
2. She has ample rainfall to generally guarantee an abun-
dant growth of feed, as well as pastures. Florida has never
had a serious drought and has never been generally flooded,
therefore her lands are safe.
3. Her soils are generally heavy enough to produce a good
carrying capacity of grass per acre when put in improved
pastures.
4. Her seasons are mild, making for as long a grazing sea-
son as any state.








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 9

5. Feeds can be produced cheaply in Florida.
6. Improved beef type cattle, grades and pure breds, have
done well and are doing well.
7. Lands can be obtained at cheap prices and in large
acreages, making for cheap fencing per acre unit.
S. Florida has sold calves not only to the thirty live stock
markets in the States of Alabama, Georgia and Florida, but
has sold thousands of calves on the Jerse ('ity and Baltimore
markets at pleasing prices. Feeder steers have been shipped
to Kentucky and )Ohio.

9. Many producers in Florida are finishing steers in their
own feed lots. Our best cattle feeders have made these cattle
into quality -grades of medium, good, choice, and even prime
cattle.

THE NATIVE FLORIDA COW
Native cows vary in color, showing evidence of such breeds
as the .ersey, Ayrshire and Devon. (ows averaging about 700
pounds are obtainable. In many respects the native Florida
cows are the most desirable for establishing a herd in this
state. By proper selection of cows from these survivals of
the fittest" and the mating of them with suitable bulls, beef
cattle improvement should be rapid.
As an indication of the development of the beef cattle in-
dustry in the state the increase in Hillsborough County is
cited. According to the statistics prepared by the V. 8. De-
partmlent of Conmmerce, cattle on farms in Hillsborongh County
on April 1st, 19:0. amounted to 12,603 head and on January
1st. 1935, there were 21,5!9, or an increase of 71%. The num-
ber of cows and heifers two years old and over increased 77%
in the same period.

Number of Head and Approximate Value of Florida
Beef Cattle
Year Number of Herd Value per Head
1910-845,188 head cattle valued at..............................
1920- 638,981 head cattle valued at..............................
1921-766,000 head cattle valued at ............................ 21.70
1922-774,000 head cattle valued at............................. 16.10
1923
1924-740,000 head cattle valued at............................. 19.80
1925- 710,000 head cattle'valued at.............................. 18.50
1926-575,000 head cattle valued at ............................. 21.10
1927-592,000 head cattle valued at............................. 17.00








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


1928-533,000 head cattle valued at.............................. 17.60
1929-480,000 head cattle valued at .............................. 23.40
1930- 432,000 head cattle valued at.............................. 29.10
1931--432,000 head cattle valued at.............................. 23.70
1932-458,000 head cattle valued at.............................. 17.90
1933- 480,000 head cattle valued at.............................. 14.00
1934- 600,000 head cattle valued at. ............................ 14.80
1935- 890,000 head cattle valued at............................... 15.50
1936-1,000,000 head cattle valued at .............................. 17.50
1937- 1,200,000 head cattle valued at .............................. 18.00

The State Fair held in Tampa, Florida, during February,
193(i, resulted in the purchase by stock breeders of over 600
high grade bulls. With this widespread interest in cattle pro-
duction throughout the state it is reasonable to expect that
Florida will within a reasonable period of time be able to sup-
ply all local demands for beef. At present 75'/ of the beef
consumed within the state is shipped here by various large
beef packers.
"Florida dollars spent in Florida help to build Florida
industry," and it is expected that the beef cattle industry in
Florida will before many years grow to such size that every
local demand for beef may be supplied by good Florida cattle.

Per Capita Consumption of Meat
For a period of 30 years, from 1900 to 1929 inclusive, the
per capital consumption of all meats, including lard, for the
United States was 1)9.) lbs. The largest per capital con-
suimption occurred in 1924 with 149.7 lbs., while the smallest
consumption was in 1!)17 with 120.1 Ibs. The meat consump-
tion per capital for the United States in 1)92) was as follows:
Beef, 51.4 lbs.; Veal, (.8 lbs.; Lamb and Mutton, 5.8 lbs.;
Pork, 72.8 lbs.; Lard, 14.3 lbs.; making a total of 151.1 lbs.
per capital, including lard, but a total of 13(i.8 lbs. of meat.
Florida is producing between -10 and 45% of its present beef
collnsullptioll.
SELECTING A BREED
There is no best breed of beef cattle. The various breeds
for the production of desirable beef are practically on a parity,
although breed characteristics may be different. For the same
specific purposes, certain peculiarities may appear as advan-
tages in one breed over another.
Select the breed that is preferred, especially if the same
breed is to be found on farms or ranches in the community
where the experiences of other breeders may be learned and
studied. An inexperienced stock breeder should visit well bred
herds of all the various breeds if possible in order to become
conversant with the different breeds.










CHAPTER II

Breeds of Beef Cattle

The principal breeds of beef cattle in the Viited( States
are Shorthorn (both Horned and Polled Hereford (both
Horned and I'olled Aberdeen-Angus, (,alloway. D)evonl Red
Polled, and Blrahlman (Zebul. These breeds (excepting the
Brahmian) have been carefully bredl for Imanly generations in
the United States: all of tlese breeds except Brallman hav-
ing been originally developed in England; the Brahmllan were
bred and developed in India. The dairy breeds do not yield
tlhe largest quantity or the best quality of beef, therefore the
beef breeds are mlaximumin for beef production.

SHORTHORN
Shorthorn beef cattle are very extensively raised. They
were brought to the United States in 178S: by Miller and
onghll, of Virginia and M aryland, respectively, from the
Tees River Valley, in Northeastern England, where they-
were known as Yorkshire. Holderness, Teeswater, or Dur-
haum, cattle. Col. Lewis Sanders, of Kentucky; Samuel Thorne,


* -': ... -f "- .

Shorthorn bull
11










12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Shorthorn cow


Polled-Shorthorn bull








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


of New York; Abram Renick and R. A. Alexander, of Kentucky,
may be considered founders of the Shorthorn breed in America.

The Shorthorn attain the largest size of any of the beef
breeds. These cattle have great adaptability. They may vary
in color from red or white to any combination of red and white
or a blending of red and white (roan).

The Shorthorn breeds well with native and grade cows. The
bulls are very prepotent and are used to grade up scrub cattle.

The Shorthorn cow excels in milk production and is pre-
ferred on small farms to supply milk and butter for the family
in addition to raising a calf for beef. The steers produce very
high class beef.

This breed is a good beef type, being wide, deep, lengthy
and thickly fleshed. The horns of the cow are small and curve
forward, and should be of a waxy, yellowish color. The head
should have great width between the eyes, short from the eyes
to the large and flesh-colored muzzle, having large, open nos-
trils. The neck should be short and full, smooth and well
covered with flesh; the crops full, the heart girth large, and
foreflank low. The chest wide and deep, with the brisket thick
and well to the front. The ribs well sprung and the barrel
well developed. In good individuals the back is broad and the
loin is wide, deep, and thickly fleshed. The hips are wide and
well covered with flesh; the rump is long, wide, and level, car-
rying an abundance of flesh. The hind quarter is almost
straight from the root of the tail to the hocks: it is wide and
thick, carrying the flesh well down. The flank is low; the
udder, having teats of medium size, is usually well developed,
extending well forward, with prominent milk veins.

The bull should possess the same desirable features as the
female, but show masculinity, a larger and thicker neck,
heavier bone throughout, greater depth, thickness, and scale.
His horns are heavier and less curved than the cow's.

POLLED SHORTHORN
Polled Shorthorn, formerly known as Polled Durham, is
similar to the Shorthorn in every way except it is hornless.

HEREFORD
These cattle are very popular and rank next to Shorthorn
in numbers in this country. They were imported by Henry
Clay and Lewis Sanders in 1817.











14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Hereford bull


-w,


Hereford cow


r~crl r

~unN
~cp~~l

i 3
.-' ~:.dr:~CY
-o~


~~f-~L';
Ib ~d f~.4








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


Hereford cattle, because of their "rustling" ability," found
favor. On scant pastures and on the range where water holes
are far apart, the Hereford las shown its merit. Not only do
these cattle thrive under adverse conditions, but they also re-
spond readily to a favorable environment. The lblls are active.
vigorous, prepotent, and very sure breeders. They mature early
and fatten readily in the feed lot.
The Hereford color may be described as a medium to deep
rich red, with white head, breast, belly, crest, switch, and legs
below the knee and hock. A pure white face is preferred. The
hair is usually medium or long, soft and silky, with a curly
tendency.


rolled-i-eretord bull


The horns of the bull are somewhat coarser, straighter, and
heavier. The neck is short, thick, and blends well with the
shoulders. (ireat width, depth, length of chest, and a fullness
of tile crops account for their constitution and endurance. The
loin is broad and deep. The rump and hind quarters are usually
well developed.

POLLED HEREFORD
The Polled Hereford is a new breed developed in America
by mating Hereford cattle that are naturally polled.










16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Aberdeen-Angus bull


Aberdeen-Angus cow








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


ABERDEEN-ANGUS
The first known importation of Aberdeen-Angus cattle was
made in 1S73 by (leorge Grant. of Victoria, Kansas. They are
black in color and have no horns. Aberdeen-Angus cattle are
0god rustlers, and are valuable for grading up native cattle.
The cattle give more milk than the Hereford, but not so much
as the Shorthorn.
Cattle of this breed mature very early and have a tendency
to fatten well at any age. The body is more cylindrical,
smoother throughout, and smaller than either Shorthorn or
Hereford. Their readiness to fatten, early maturity, excep-
tional vigor, high quality, general smoothness all uniformity,
and the high percentage of valuable meat produced have made
them popular anong cattle feeders. They usually dress out a
higher percentage of marketable meat than any other breed.
The head of the Angus shows a sharp, tapered poll, great
breadth between the eyes. prominent forehead and eyes. nose
of medium length, large louth and muzzle, and large nostrils.
The neck is short and full. The bull has a well-developed
crest, but the neck does not always blend smoothly with the
shoulders, which are sometimes prominent. The chest shows
great depth, width and length. The body is compact, the ribs


Galloway bull








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


are curved, long and well sprung. The deep covering of flesh,
the smallness of bone, and the deep rounding, bulging hind
quarters give a maximum quantity of meat.
The high quality is shown by the soft, pliable, mellow skin
and fine hair. The meat has large fibers and is of good quality.
The constitution and vigor of this breed is indicated by a well-
developed chest and good heart girth. For grading up native
stock and for crossing, they hold an enviable record.

GALLOWAY
It is not known when Galloway cattle first made their ap-
pearance in the United States. They do not respond so readily
to careful feeding and management as the other breeds, being
slow in maturing and are smaller than any of the other beef
breeds. The Galloway is low-set and deep, the head being
covered with long, wavy hair, and the ears are set far back
from the forehead. The body is long and of medium depth;
the rump long and well filled, although the tail head is usually
set rather high. The bone is fine, the skin mellow, the hair
soft and silky, and the meat fine and of high quality. The
Galloways have commanded special attention because of their
prepotency, as shown by the uniformity of the offspring when
the bulls are used for grading up or for crossing.


Galloway heifer








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


BRAHMAN CATTLE (ZEBU)
The term Brahman (Zebu) has been designated by the
United States Department of Agriculture as the name for all
breeds of "Indian cattle" in the United States. These Indian
cattle are commonly known as "Brahmas" and as "Zebus." In
India in the early days these cattle were used primarily for
milk and work, and were rarely killed for meat. Certain ani-
mals have been called the "sacred cattle" of India. There are
about 31 breeds of Indian cattle in India. The Nellore or
Ongole, Guzerat, Gir, and Krishna Valley are the breeds rep-
resented in the United States.
All the Indian cattle breeds belong to the species Bos
indictis and are characterized by the prominent hump above
the shoulders, abundance of loose, pendulous skin under the
throat, on the dewlap, navel, and sheath. Good specimens
have great depth of body. showing considerable depth of
muscling in the loins and hind quarters. The rump is droop-
ing, although in the best individuals it is rather full and
rounding. The ears are usually long and drooping, and the
voice is more of a grunt than a low.
The Xcllorc breed is one of the largest in size and varies in
color from steel gray to almost pure white, has a moderately
long face, fine muzzle, and broad forehead. The horns are
inclined outward and slightly backward; the small ears pointed
and drooping. The hump is well developed in both sexes. The
body is of moderate length and the legs fine, with an abundance
of clean bone.
The Guzcrat is somewhat larger than the Nellore. The
head, neck and shoulders are usually darker than other por-
tions of the body. The head is long and slightly bulged above
the eyes. The ears are longer and more pendulous. The horns
rise vertically. The neck blends smoothly into the shoulder.
The body is deep and wide, with a less drooping rump. These
cattle are white to black, preferred colors being white to
steel gray.
The hair is short and fine and the skin is generally pig-
mented. Brahman cattle have a very beneficial characteristic
in that they sweat. This enables them to stand intense heat,
although they likewise can adapt themselves to cold. These
animals do not open their mouths and pant.
The Gir breed is of medium size and the color is often a
combination of a medium shade of brown with a dull red. The
neck, ears and legs. are frequently darker than other portions.
The forehead is prominent. The horns are usually thick at











20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


munpon muzerate Dranman, nousxon, exas, wa'4.
Weight 2200 pounds


ampion iuzerat Brahman cow, Houston, lexas,
Weight 1525 pounds








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 21

the base, curve backward and outward abruptly, and then
upward. The ears are long and pendulous, often extending
below the nose in calves. A nick near the point of the ear
on the inside is characteristic of the breed. The body is
fairly broad, the rump decidedly drooping and the dewlap
is large and pendulous. These cattle are round bodied and
generally shorter legged as well as shorter bodied than the
(luzerat and Nellore breeds.
The Krishna Valley breed is similar to the cllore. The
head is wide and massive. The horns are short, thick at the
base. slightly flattened, and extend outward horizontally. The
body is wide and deep, and possesses straighter top and bot-
toll lines than are found in most of the other breeds. The
legs are straight, well fleshed. with large flat bones.
The Indian cattle were introduced into the United States
about 1850. The Brahinin or Indian bulls are valuable in the
(Glf ('oast region in crossing with the native southern cattle
and the domestic beef breeds. The Indian cattle transmit
hardiness, grazing ability, and prolificacy to their offspring.
The crossbred calves develop very rapidly. Breeders who use
BrluhMin bulls have had more success in selling the crossbred
offspring as calves or yearlings off of grass in the fall of the
year than as older cattle. Cattle possessing Brahmlan blood
usually show a high dressing percentage.
Brahman calves, when born, are small as compared with
calves of other breeds, but they take on weight rapidly. They
will weigh from 151' to 20'/ more at ages froln : to 5 months,
and at the time they are weaned they generally weigh from 50
to 75 pounds more than calves of the same age from other
breeds.
The Advantages of Good Brahman Blood
Louisiana states that the rate of gain of calves for 3 months
was 1.81 pounds per day for Brahman half-breeds, and 1.34
pounds per day for Hereford grade calves. In 1930 their tests
showed that the Brahmas gained 1.58 pounds per day from
birth and the Herefords 1.42 pounds per (lay. In 1931 the
average growth of eleven Brahman half-bloods was 2.12 pounds
per day and for 24 beef type calves 1.72 pounds per day from
birth. In 1932, Brahman cross bred calves gained 1.94 pounds
per day and the beef type calves gained 1.69 pounds per day,
a difference of 14.9( in favor of the Brahmas.

DUAL-PURPOSE BREEDS
The principal dual-purpose breeds of cattle in the United
States are certain types and families of the Shorthorn, to-
gether with the Red Polled and Devon.








22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 23

The type of animal necessary for the production of large
yields of milk is entirely different from that of beef animals,
and it has been impossible to produce a breed of superior
merit for both purposes. The dual-purpose animal, however,
may be a desirable milker and also produce calves which de-
velop into good beef animals.

RED POLLED CATTLE
This breed is a fair grazer and has long been celebrated
for early maturity, easy fleshing qualities and fairly good
milk flow, but most beef producers prefer either Shorthorn,
Hereford or Aberdeen-Angus cattle. The bulls are very pre-
potent and give uniformity in offspring when bred to native
cows. The color ranges from light to dark red. The head is
lean, medium in length, with well-defined poll covered with
a tuft of hair of medium length. Tlhe neck is longer and thin-
ner than in the beef breeds. The chest is usually well de-
veloped and tei ribs well sprung, but lack a thick covering
of flesh. The barrel is developed to a greater extent than
with the major beef breeds and the loin and hind quarters are
more lightly fleshed. The bone is of medium size, the skin is
thin, soft and pliable and the hair short and fine. The udder
is well developed in the back, ain the teats large.


Red-Polled bull








L DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Red-Polled cow

DEVON
Dcro, cows are good milkers and the steers are used as
work oxen or for beef. Endurance, intelligence, and galmeness
have made them unexcelled as work oxen. They are solid red
in color, white being permitted on the udder, or near the scro-
tum, and oi the switch when properly graded. The shade of
red varies. The )eroius incline more to the beef than to the
dual-purpose type. They are close-coupled, very compact,
smooth, and rank high in quality.
Although the Deoln makes a somewhat slower growth and
fatteus less rapidly than tile beef breeds, they produce meat
line in texture and of good quality.
DcIron bulls are very prepotent and have been used very
satisfactorily in grading up the native range cattle in sections
of Florida.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A GOOD BEEF TYPE BULL
Type of cattle have an important bearing on dressing per-
cent or yield. Good beef type cattle, if cut in two parts hori-
zontally, 75% of the value would be found in the upper
portion, therefore, the reason for good strong backs, loins,
rumps, as well as well-laid shoulders, and well-sprung ribs.
If such cattle were cut in two parts perpendicularly the rear










BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


Devon bull


Devon cow








26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

portion holds 60% of the value of the carcass, therefore the
necessity of good, strong backs, well developed loins, good
straight runps, and good development, deep and wide
throughout the round, being well developed to the hock.
The bull, when correct in form and fatness, presents a
massy, blocky appearance from every angle of view. Two
dimensions of the beef bull should be great width and depth;
the third dimension, length, should not be extensive. As
viewed from the side, the body is rectangular, very deep and
short from shoulder to hip; the body is very wide, the legs are
short and placed squarely under the body. The back is uni-
formly broad, the more width the better. Viewed from the
side, the top line and underline are straight and parallel. An
animal showing too much length of middle is referred to as
being "rangy," while an animal standing high off the ground
is usually termed **i".;% ."
The head should be of medium size, short and broad, with
a broad muzzle indicating capacity for grazing anl feeding.
The head below the eye is short, the eyes being wide apart,
large, prominent, bright, clear and placid, indicative of a quiet
disposition. The forehead is very wide, the jaws broad and
well muscled, the ears of medium size, of fine texture and
neatly attached to the head. The entire head should be clean
cut, giving a well bred appearance, sometimes referred to as
character. The nostrils large, indicating capacity for breath-
ing and hence a good constitution.
The neck should be short, thick and muscular, and show
depth and fullness at the shoulder; the throat neat and trim.
A long neck is indicative of poor quality and is usually asso-
ciated with a rangy type of body.
The shoulders should be very smooth, blending perfectly
with the rest of the body; the shoulder blades should lie snugly
against the ribs beneath and be covered over with a uniformly
thick layer of flesh; the top of the shoulders wide and nicely
rounded over with flesh, not rough or angular or unevenly
covered. Prominent shoulders cause the development behind
them to appear insufficient.
The brisket and chest are highly important. The brisket
should carry forward prominently and wide, be well fleshed,
neat, presenting a full, well developed and trim appearance.
A deep, full chest with a large heart-girth indicates a rugged
sort of animal possessed of much constitutional vigor. The
floor of the chest should be wide as indicated by the distance
between the two fore legs; with the fore rib, lying just behind
the shoulder, arching boldly so that no flatness or depression
exists behind the shoulder. The flesh should carry down deep








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 27

and full at the front flanks just behind the elbows. Every in-
telligent feeder places emphasis on the depth and width of the
chest. The fore quarters must, therefore, be smoothly laid, and
thickly fleshed, and very wide and deep, showing no lack of
constitution anywhere, not rough or too prominent.
The front legs should be short and placed squarely under
the animal; come straight down, and the toes point straight
ahead. The arms should be wide and muscular at its attach-
ment to the shoulder. "Fineness of bone and smoothness of
joints are evidences of quality whereas rough, coarse animals
have heavy joints and a big shank bone."
The back carries great weight. It should be wide, straight
and strong. The back furnishes one of the high priced cuts
of beef and always receives critical attention in judging. Width
of back is secured when the ribs are arched boldly from the
spinal column: if the ribs are not arched the back must neces-
sarily be narrow. When touched with the fingers, great depth
and mellowness should be found.
The ribs should be well sprung and carry down with much
depth to help make a roomy or capacious body. (attle have
13 pairs of ribs. the last pair should come close to the hips. A
wide, deep middle is essential to digestive capacity. The ribs
should be fairly close together.
At all points the animal should fill out plump and smooth
to form a straight line from front to rear; with the fleshing
over the ribs thick, smooth and even; the hind flank well filled
with flesh. If the front and hind flanks carry down properly.
the underline will be straight.
The loin is that portion of the top lying between the rear
edge of the back and the hips. It has no ribs below it but con
sists of large muscles affording the very choicest cuts of the
entire beef carcass-the porterhouse and sirloin. The loin
should be very wide and thick and thickly covered with flesh
that is smooth and firm, padded and plumped with muscles
having the proper degree of fatness.
The hips should be laid in snugly. While it is generally
said that animals should have wide hips, the width should not
be beyond what can be covered over with flesh.
The rump is that portion between the hips and the tailhead.
It should be level and carry out the top straight line and
square up the end of the body, and as wide as the rest of the
animal's back near the hips, and taper generally but slightly
toward the tailhead. The tailhead should be on a level with
the back. otherwise it presents the appearance of being rounded
off. The rump should be smooth and evenly coated with flesh.
The thigh is that portion of the body between the rump and
the lower leg. It should be wide and plump and come down








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


with some bulge practically to the hock. "Plumpness and thick-
ness to the hock" is a common saying among judges. Viewed
from the side or from the rear, the thigh should be wide and
near the thickness of the body to give the animal a uniform
appearance.
The hock and hind legs of a beef animal are very important.
These should indicate capacity for fleshing, be straight and
properly placed and set squarely under the animal. The arm
or leg below the hock carries straight down. The bone or joints
clean cut and show refinement.
The twist is that portion between the hind legs. It should
he very deep and full and carry well down toward the hock.
The proportion of muscle in an animal is evident at its
birth. If an animal is not born with the kind of frame work
it should have, it is not likely that it will ever have it. Quality
is shown by the head, the spring of rib, the hair, the skin, and
bone. The amount of flesh which a beef animal will carry is
of the highest importance.
A good animal is considered "pony" type, not "rangy." The
demand is for animals which will finish at most any age, par-
ticularly for "baby beef." The compact, pony type animals or
the heavy bodied compact animal is of the type for which
feeders seek, and the type which breeders most need.


A GOOD BEEF ANIMAL


Front view


Rear view








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


Prominent, placid eyes set in a broad, short face are im-
portant characteristics.
PURE-BRED COW
Those desirable characteristics of the pure-bred bull should
likewise appear in a good pure-bred cow. except that the ap-
pearance of the head and neck will display femininity. A good
cow likewise has a (quiet temperaIment.

PUREBRED SIRES AND HERD IMPROVEMENT
See How Rapidly the Proportion of Native Blood (Black Por-
tion) Diminishes When a Purebred Sire Is Used

f Purbrz n sff-,^ i R4 .


Progress in Five Generations Using Progress in Five Generations Using
Purebred Bulls and Native Cows Grade Bulls and Native Cows
Replace Scrub and Grade Sires with Good Purebreds
Join the "Better Sires-Better Stock" Campaign
For full information
Consult your County Agent, your Agricultural College or
the United States Department of Agriculture













CHAPTER III


Essentials of Animal Breeding

From earliest beginnings of rational mental processes
human beings have asked the question "Why?" Failing to
receive an answer concerning things which they could not
understand, they have theorized and developed explanations
as a result of such theories which have not had any basis in
fact. From the time when the simple sphpherds of Asia
watched their flocks beneath the stars and wondered at the
mysteries of nature around them, man has marveled at the
mysteries of heredity. In some foltrm or other many of these
meditations have persisted as beliefs until modern times and
for which no definite proof has ever been presented.

MATERNAL IMPRESSIONS
A famous ancient classic is the bargain which Jacob made
with his father-in-law. Laban. Some breeders of cattle have
believed that objects of striking color appearing in the vision
of the female at the time of conception had an influence on
the characteristics of the progeny. So far as the Biblical case
is concerned, it appears that Laban was not so skilled in ani-
mal husbandry of his day as his crafty son-in-law, and judging
by what we know of the livestock of Palestine, it would have
been far more remarkable if a large proportion of the calves
had not been speckled and spotted.
The pregnant mother, whether of the human or of tile ani-
mal family, should be an object of the utmost solicitude and
should receive the most thoughtful, tender care. The develop-
ment of tile young creature in her body taxes both bodily
strength and nervous organization. We must not forget, how-
ever, that there is no direct connection of circulation or
nervous system between the mother and the fetus. Therefore,
the fetus can not be affected by what the mother sees or hears.
Accidents to the mother, however, such as sudden strains,
falls, etc.. may have effects resulting in the serious injury or
death of the young. These results are not due to heredity, no
matter what the effect on the young may be.

ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE
Females usually accept service only (luring the period of
heat. As a rule, not more than one service is necessary during
the period of heat to insure conception. After conception
takes place, the female does not generally come in heat again
during pregnancy.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


THE BEGINNINGS OF LIFE
The life which results when two animals are mated has its
controlling elements in the nuclei of germ cells. It needs only
nourishment to become, in time, a full-fledged baby member of
its race. Food will have a profound influence on this mite of
life, but, so far as we know, the character of the resulting
animal, its sex, its identity, and its individuality, whether it
is to be white or black, long-haired or short-haired, ring-
streaked or spotted, are now settled by the laws of life.

THE ART OF BREEDING SELECTION
Keeping in mind the principles laid down in the foregoing,
it is clear that in order to make the best out of the hereditary
material represented in a herd, and to use the laws of nature
to the best advantage, the standard set must be kept clearly
in mind. This standard must be definite and should be as
practical and simple as possible. The exercise of selection,
wisely and judiciously pursued, offers the breeder one of the
two most effective means of benefitting from the operations
of chance, which otherwise might result in confusion. Con-
stant selection of a good type will increasingly intensify the
properties of a given set of characteristics, but this selection
must be pursued constantly. There is a continual pull, back-
ward and downward against which the breeder must work by
wise and skillful matings. If this intelligent direction by
human skill should be removed, our animal stock would rapid-
ly degenerate to the level of the type of centuries ago.
The male is usually depended upon to correct faults in the
parents. The breeding animals should have: Good bone; deep,
broad chests; strong, broad backs; and fully developed bodies.
Especial attention should be paid to the head, for that part of
the body discloses many characteristics which otherwise would
be overlooked. Width between the eyes, full, prominent nos-
trils indicate points of value both to the breeder and the
feeder. In males, masculinity is important. The evidence of
the masterful impressiveness of the masculine sex is often ap-
parent in very young animals. Avoid cows with heads like
those of steers. These points make up in total what breeders
call "character" and are among the most important considera-
tions which a breeder must bear in mind in building up a herd.
(Good feed, care, and attention are valuable adjuncts to
selection. Starved animals which never have had an oppor-
tunity to demonstrate their capacity to produce meat, furnish
poor material from which to make selection of animals capable
of maximum and economical production.
While faults undoubtedly can be corrected by the use of
males of superior individuality, it may be unwise to use some








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 33

females for breeding even market stock. To sell them and
substitute better individuals, either high grades or pure-breds,
is often the most profitable in the end.
Selection alone is not always certain to result in steady
progress. Different combinations of hereditary elements may
develop the same characteristics. The introduction of the
blood of a line which merely looks like that of the old stock,
may at any time breed differently. The result will be the
undoing of past progress, the next generation showing the
variability characteristics of the second generation of a cross.
Only by breeding within relatively narrow limits can there be
reasonable assurance that mating animals which look alike
have the same heredity.

INBREEDING
Next in importance to selection is the judicious mating of
related animals. This is known as inbreeding, and various
terms, such as line-breeding, close breeding, and incestuous-
breeding, have been used to define varying degrees of intensity
of inbreeding.
This is one of the most discussed subjects in the whole field
of genetics. All sorts of bad results are attributed to it. Lack
of vigor, non-resistance to disease. decline in size and fecun-
dity, and even sterility are the fate of inbred animals, in the
minds of many people.
We have, however, the accepted fact that progress in ani-
mal breeding began only when breeders began to inbreed. The
work of Bakewell, and the method that has been most far-
reaching in its results was that he mated his animals with
first regard to their individual suitability for the mating, and
with secondary importance placed on their relationship. Since
the time of Bakewell every breeder who has made an impress
of permanent importance, has used inbreeding as the most use-
ful means at his command.
When related animals are mated there is brought together
more uniform hereditary material than when those that are
not related are mated. The probability that the offspring will
be like the parents is increased, but there may be hidden in
the hereditary material the factors of an undesirable charac-
ter. It is possible to inbreed some animals much more in-
tensely than others, and certain strains of breeds in the same
species exhibit similar traits.
Inbreeding should be practiced only by the most skillful
breeders, and only when they have definite knowledge of the
ancestry.
The successful use of inbreeding is one of the best tests of
a breeder's skill, and it is absolutely necessary to possess the
requisite skill to make such a step successful.








34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

CROSS-BREEDING
Cross-breeding is the mating of pure bred animals of dif-
ferent breeds of the same species. Except to produce market
animals, cross breeding should be used only by the highly
skilled breeder, and it is not then practicable unless there has
been an opportunity to place the progeny on the market for
breeding purposes.
PURE BREEDING
The art of breeding reaches its zenith in the breeding of
pure-breds-the most fascinating, inspiring, and remunerative
branch of animal breeding when successfully followed, but the
most difficult and disappointing when not successful. This
type of breeder is far more than a business man or a farmer.
He is an artist, and the artistic appeal is first in importance
to him.
A breeder's success largely depends on the ability to judge
animals, knowledge of the pedigrees, and acquaintance with
the characteristics of the ancestors of those animals. The
breeder's ability as a judge must be based on an instinctive
gift to recognize animal types and carry them clearly in mind.

GRADE OFFSPRING
Early maturity is very important in economical beef pro-
duction, and pure bred calves will often weigh over 100 pounds
more at six months of age than calves sired by native bulls.
Grade calves will carry more fat and will be heavier muscled,
with a higher quality of meat in the carcasses than that ol-
tainable from natives.
There is likewise greater uniformity in tie grade offspring.

BREEDERS OF PURE-BREDS
Only an experienced breeder who is a good judge of beef
cattle should raise pure-breds. The breeder must know how
to manage the herd in every particular, what to feed, how
much to feed and when to feed. Winter feed must be pro-
vided in abundance and summer grazing crops must be ample.
CONCLUSIONS
In presenting this excerpt from Farmers' Bulletin 1167,
we suggest that every interested cattle breeder obtain a copy
of the bulletin and study it.
To summarize very briefly, let us bear in mind the follow-
ing fundamental facts:
1. All animal forms on the earth have developed gradually
from lower forms by very slow changes. This is the process
known as evolution.
2. The young animal starts on its career when two bits of
hereditary material (germ plasm) unite, one from the female
(the egg) and the other from the male (the sperm). When the









BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


SCORE CARD FOR BREEDING BEEF CATTLE


SCALE OF POINTS


Animal No.


Points Deficient


Animal No._

Points Deficient


Student's Corrected Student's Corrected
Score Score Score 1 Score


1. Weight and size, according
to age.................... 10

2. Form, deep, broad through-
out, low-set; straight top
and underline ............. 25

3. Constitution, good depth
and width of chest........ 15

4. Quality, smooth throughout;
good handler as indicated
by soft, loose, pliable skin
covered with fine mossy
hair; bone fine, yet of
sufficient substance and
strength to carry body... 15

5. Condition. carrying enough
natural flesh to indicate
vigor; free from patchiness 10

G. Breed, type and color, clean
cut head and neck with good
form; color markings typi-
cal for breed............. 10

7. Se. character, strong mas-
culine head and neck in bull
more refinement through-
out in cow than in bull. 10

8. Disposition, docile with
quiet temperament........ 5


Disqualifications automatically eliminate the animal from competition in
the class.
(Taken from U. S. Dept. of Agri., Bureau of Animal Industry.)

union is complete, the sex, identity, and individuality of the
animal are settled. Chance plays a most important part in
determining these factors.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


3. From now on the fate of the animal depends on its nour-
ishment and environment.
4. The breeder can do much to bend the operations of the
laws of chance to his own ends by careful selection of breeding
stock. "Breed the best to do the best."
5. Next to selection, the best means at the command of the
breeder to fix type in his animals, is inbreeding. It is a power-
ful tool, but a dangerous one in unskillful hands. Inbred sires
are more impressive as a rule than sires which are not inbred.
6. Nature does not work lawlessly. Occurrences attributed
to super-natural means can be more rationally explained as a
manifestation of some operation of a law of heredity.
If a breeder has a clear conception of these facts, he can
usually explain by one or the other, nearly every occurrence
which he may observe. The more clearly he thinks on these
subjects the more successful he will be as a breeder.

SOME REASONS FOR HAVING CATTLE SHOWS
There are two kinds of shows held in Florida from a
statewide standpoint; 1st, the breeder's show; 2nd, the fat
cattle show (nothing but steers). These shows are held pri-
marily to promote (1st) bulls, (2nd) improved breeding of
cattle, (3rd) improved pasture conditions, (4th) the grow-
ing of improved feeds for cattle, (5th) improved herd man-
agement such as culling the herd, keeping the best brood
cows, the use of pure bred bulls, the segregation of the breed-
ing herd from heifers (not of breeding age) or steers, and/or
separate pastures for heifers, steers, and the breeding herd,
(6th) it promotes improved market outlets, it stimulates
competition between producers as well as between buyers, etc.


How to arrange rope to throw an animal








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 37

JUDGING BEEF CATTLE
The art of judging is the foundation of all beef-cattle shows.
A successful breeder must be a good judge, otherwise he
can not mate individuals and get the best possible offspring.
A thorough knowledge of judging feeders is important, as
profit in cattle feeding depends upon buying the right stock.
Without ideals stock judging can not be successful. The
ideal fat beef type for illustration, is the animal with a low-
set, deep body that is smooth, has level lines and is covered
with a thick, even, firm flesh. Good quality of hair, and bone,
together with general character and style, is likewise impor-
tant.
CALVES OR STEERS FOR THE SHOW
(1) Do not force the animal; if lie fails to clean up the
ration throw out the waste and start with fresh, clean feed.
(2) If the animal goes off feed, do not feed grain, keep hay
before him gradually restoring normal feeding.
(3) When a ration has to be changed, do so gradually.
Plan ahead and do not run out of feed.
(4) Feed at regular hours, as nearly the same time each
day as possible.
(5) Keep grain troughs clean.
(6) Keep salt before animals at all times.
(7) Let the animal have free access to water at all times.
An animal weighing about 1000 pounds requires about 10 gal-
lons daily.
(8) If potatoes are used, chop into small pieces.
(9) The practice of allowing calves or steers on feed to
run out in pasture or fields increases the cost of gain and it
takes longer to finish the animal. If a junior calf is being fed,
it may follow the cow in a small pasture, but will do better if
kept in fairly close quarters, especially during the last three
or four months of the feeding period.
(10) Teach the animal to lead at the start of the feeding
period or before. If he is gentle and likes you, better gains
will result; and he will make a far better showing at the Fair
or Show.
(11) Keep the feed lot clean. The use of plenty of bedding
will result in contentment which makes for greater gains.
(12) The animal should be weighed at the start of the feed-
ing period. If scales are convenient, weigh on the same day
each month.
(13) Keep a record of all feed and expenses so you will
know what you are doing.








38 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

(14) If possible, feed more than one animal. Two animals
will be more contented than one and will do better, but if you
can feed but one animal, put another in the lot for company.
(15) During fly time, hang gunny sacks where your ani-
mal can walk under them. He will soon learn to keep off the
flies.
(16) Do not change your feed and practice every time a
neighbor makes a suggestion. Know what you are doing.
It is poor policy to wait until the last few weeks to pre-
pare an animal for a Show. A gentle animal paves the way
for better showing and makes for greater gains.
PREPARATION FOR SHOWING
After the proper animal has been selected for feeding, train
him to show his good points. Sometimes it is best to halter
and tie him for a few days. Treat him kindly but be firm.
Teach him to stand squarely. If an animal for showing retains
his horns, they should be trained to conform to the shape of
the breed which lie represents. Rough surfaces of the horns
can be worked down with a rasp, or scraped with a piece of
glass. Finish with a little sweet oil on a soft rag, rubbed in.
Sometimes it is necessary to level the sole of the feet. The
use of hoof pincers nmay be used satisfactorily; do not trim the
hoof close enough to make the animal foot-sore.
Brushing the calf every day improves the coat of hair and
keeps the animal clean. If thle animal is washed, be sure to
select a warm, bright day. To curl the hair, moisten the coat
with a weak solution of dip, then use your lining comb on the
sides of the animal. The hair can be raised by brushing up-
ward with a stiff brush.
Polled animals, such as Angus, Polled Hereford, etc., fre-
quently need their heads clipped. Clipping around the tail-
head improves their appearance; start the clipping ten to
twelve inches from the end of the tail bone and clip to the tail-
head, tapering it off smoothly at the rump.
Shiowing-To make the best show of the animal, be on your
toes and keep your eyes on the animal every minute lie is in
the ring. Stand on the left side of your animal, keep his head
up, see that he stands squarely and in line. Watch the judge
and move your calf at his request.
When you receive a ribbon, if it is to be exhibited, place it
on the calf.
Study all the animals that defeat yours.










CHAPTER IV


Herd Management
A breeder who understands herd management will regulate
the breeding in the herd. The bull is allowed with the cows
only during the breeding season and in this manner the birth
of calves will be controlled, and the size of the calves will be
uniform, which is very important if the male calves are to be
grown out as "feeder" steers.

GREATER PROFIT AS A RESULT OF IMPROVING CATTLE
Florida cattlemen may increase their profits from cattle.
1st, by culling the herd-the elimination of non-breeders, shy-
breeders, and cows of inferior conformation, type and quality,
and elimination of the scrubbier animals in the herd. 2nd,
producing more calves per year or by increasing materially
the percent of calf drop. 3rd, disease control methods. 4th,
planting and using more and better grazing crops the year
round. 5th, better feed methods. 6th, control of parasites,
screw worms, lice; and diseases, such as contagious abortion,
tuberculosis, hemorrhagic septicemia, etc. While very few
diseases exist in Florida, preventive measures should be exer-
cised to protect the cattle industry. 7th, through timely mar-
keting. Bean fed cattle should be marketed prior to lot fed
cattle, etc. Sth, taking better care of the cows during the win-
ter and during the nursing period. 9th, by earlier castration
of bull calves and by dehorning, particularly that group to be
sold as feeders. 10th, providing plenty of shade in hot weather.
11th, greater protection of the cattle during the winter season.
12th, providing at all times a plentiful supply of good, clean
drinking water. There are sections in Florida where it would
pay producers to have windmills to provide good water when
normally there might be a scarcity. 13th, keeping proper min-
eral mixtures before the cattle at all times. 14th, the use of
good, pure bred, beef type bulls. 15th. the control and sys
thematic breeding of the breeding herd. 16th, the protection
of heifers until they are about two years old before allowing
them to be bred. 17th, keeping in separate pastures the vari-
ous classes of cattle. The control of bulls for timely breeding.
calving and marketing. 18th, the elimination of the scrub bull.

SOME WAYS OF INCREASING THE SIZE
OF FLORIDA CATTLE
The size of cattle has an important relationship to the
price of cattle and the quality of such cattle marketed. Large
cattle invariably produce better calves, especially if such








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


cattle carry conformation and the quality they should carry.
Cattlemen generally are interested in profits in cattle and
the size of cattle bears a very important relationship to profits.
Below are given a few factors for cattlemen to consider in
increasing the profits from their herds. By practicing good
herd management, the size of Florida cattle can be materially
increased, making it possible to obtain more beef during a
shorter period of time.
1. A proper balance of minerals kept before cattle and com-
bined with plenty of grass will materially increase the size of
cattle.
2. Nothing is more important than providing plenty of
water for cattle at all times. The average cow requires about
10 gallons of water per day. This water should be good, clean
and plentiful even in dry weather. The writer has seen cattle
suffer from lack of water in Florida. It might be well to pro-
vide a few windmills scattered over the range, to provide this
water during dry spells.
3. The use of improved or pure bred bulls will materially
increase the size of cattle. These bulls should increase the
size and quality of cattle from 25% to 50%, mostly 30%.
4. Heifers should never be bred until they are about 18
months old. This will allow them to grow and be more fully
matured before their first calving, and will materially increase
the size of them as cows. These heifers should be about 10%
to 15% larger.
5. The sale of the first calf off of the heifers will allow her
to grow and will.protect her during the winter months, with
no calf at her side, thereby increasing materially her winter-
ing condition, which will automatically increase her size, about
10%, probably more.
6. Heifers not old enough to be bred should be put into
pastures to themselves. Steers should be kept in pastures to
themselves. Bull pastures should be provided, in which to
keep the bulls when not being used for breeding purposes.
There should be bull pastures, heifer pastures, steer pastures,
and breeding pastures.
7. It is advisable to put heifers in a pasture to themselves
for their first calving. This will allow practically all of the
veterinary work to be done in one pasture.
8. Culling the herd is an important part of herd manage-
ment and when properly executed will materially increase the
size of the cattle. Generally, the herd should be culled some
each year. Such culling will provide an income from the cat-
tle. Why allow cattle to die on the range when they might be








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


converted into an income if culled and sold when they should
be sold?
9. The sale of calves will materially improve the wintering
condition of their mothers. This will allow their mothers to
grow into larger cows. Just in proportion as calves are sold,
just in proportion will the producer increase the size of his
calf crop. The size of the calf crop bears an important rela-
tionship to profits. There are many reasons for selling calves.
10. It might be well in figuring out the location of corrals
or barns to take into consideration their location as related
to their various pastures described above. Make it convenient
to draw the cattle to one central point located with an outlet
for such corrals to the pastures.
11. The size of cattle is tremendously increased by the use
of plenty of feed. Nothing will provide better and more eco-
nomic feeding than plenty of improved pastures. The size of
cattle can be materially increased by the wise use of improved
grasses in our pastures. Plenty of feed throughout the year
will give a material increase in size, probably 10 % to 15 %.
12. It is best to feed bulls during the winter months, to
put them in good condition for breeding purposes the follow-
ing spring, and in proportion as the breeding herd is main-
tained in better physical condition during the winter, the
larger will be the offspring and the larger the calves will be
the following year.
In analyzing the above suggestions and if cattlemen gener-
ally practiced them, it would easily be possible to increase the
size of our cattle from 33 1-3% to 100 %. By combining all
of the above suggestions on how to increase the size of our
cattle, it is easily possible to increase them 50%. If we re-
member that our native cows weigh less than 500 pounds, it
would, by practicing the above suggestions outlined, be possi-
ble for us to have 700-pound cows as an average on our ranges.
These thoughts are given for the careful consideration and
have a direct relationship to profits from the herds of Florida.

TO OBTAIN A CALF CROP
A cow herd cannot be successful without a successful calf
crop. The herd should produce 80 to 100% calves annually
to be most profitable. This requires good herd management.
fencing, improved pastures, winter feeds, care of the breed-
ing herd, corrals, careful, efficient help, use of minerals,
water, and often shade. It involves systematic manage-
ment, timely breeding, timely selling, and many other vital
things, as well as conditions. For success, Benjamin Franklin
said, "Make a plan and then work the plan."








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Below are given some factors entering into getting a good
calf crop.
1. Remove the culls from the cow herd, especially old cows,
poor breeders, and the kind of cattle that are generally un-
profitable. Select the cow herd for quality and improve its
quality. Keep cows that give plenty of milk. Keep those that
are generally in thrifty condition and generally give calves
annually.
2. Use good bulls. Do not overtax the bulls' service. Gen-
erally one bull to 25 or 30 cows is recommended.
3. Provide an abundance of good pastures. These pastures
should contain a mixture of grass and legumes, and as far as
possible provide pastures for winter use.
4. Do not overlook plenty of the right kind of minerals.
5. Good clean water is essential and should be plentiful.
(. Breed heifers after they are 18 months old and not be-
fore. Sell the heifer's first calf and allow her to grow into a
cow. Heifers are frequently overtaxed with their first calf.
7. Control the breeding season so that the cows drop calves
early in the spring when grass is growing, and practice those
things found in this bulletin especially as relating to increas-
ing the size of Florida cattle.
S. Practice selling some calves annually as well as feeder
steers. Sell at least 25% of the poorest quality heifer calves.
as calves; do not permit these to grow into cows.
9. See that nothing interferes with the growth and develop-
mient of the calf. A mother that is getting plenty to eat and
gives plenty of milk is a great asset. Do not neglect the breed-
ing herd. Plenty of feed in the form of pastures will go a long
way towards increasing the profits from the cow herd as well
as the calf crop. Do not have just one kind of grass, try to
have two or more grasses in the same pasture. (As far as
possible provide winter pastures.) Supplement some winter
feeding to the cow herd when pastures are short.

CULLING
All old, weak cows, non-breeders, and those animals with
poor conformation should be culled from the herd in the early
fall and sent to the butcher to save on the feed cost.

SEPARATION OF HEIFERS
Separate the heifer calves from the breeding herd when
they are about 6 months old. Keep them separate until they
are 20 to 24 months old when they may be bred. Unless the
young heifers are separated they cannot be properly fed for








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


the next season's calf crop. Good herd management in this
respect assures better cows for the foundation of the herd.
Growing heifers during the winter months should have
roughage in the form of silage and some concentrate feed.
Velvet beans and corn make good winter feed.

NEW BORN CALVES
If a new born calf does not immediately begin breathing
when it is born, any mucus in its mouth or nostrils should be
wiped out. Natural breathing may be induced by forcing air
into the lungs with a bellows or by alternate compression and
relaxation of the walls of the chest.
Soon after the calf is born the cow should be given all the
luke-warm water she desires. Do not give the cow cold water.
It is well also, to feed a small amount of bran mash. If the
cow produces more milk than the calf takes during the first
day or two, that remaining in the udder should be milked out.

EARLY CARE OF CALVES
Two calves, one of which is motherless, about the same age,
may be suckled by one cow; if not, this calf should be taught
to drink milk, which may be done by allowing the calf to suck
the feeder's fingers and immediately immerse the fingers in
milk while the calf is still nursing the fingers.
The calf's feed for the first day or two will consist of three
or four pounds of whole milk. Do not force it to drink as the
calf will take the milk 12 hours later at its next feeding time.
Slowly increase the quantity about a pound each day until the
calf is getting S to 10 pounds daily.
Good quality beef calves gain alout 2 pounds a head daily.
when creep-fed a ration of 4 pounds grain mixture, over a
period of about six months. A mixture of 2 parts of sihelle:l
corn and 1 part of whole oats, by weight, makes a good feed
for tlhe first three months, thereafter, increase the mixture to
5 parts of shelled corn, 2 parts of whole oats. and 1 part of
linseed meal.
During tile first 30 days, one fourth of a pound of grain
should be fed to each calf in the creep the first two or three
days and then gradually increase the amount to average about
1 pound a head daily. The grain may be increased gradually
until by the end of the fifth month of creep-feeding when the
calves will take about S pounds a head daily. The amount of
grain may be reduced to about one-half provided the calf has
had a liberal supply of milk throughout the suckling period,
and the pasture is in best condition.
Calves that are to be fattened in the dry lot may or may








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


not be creep-fed on grass during the entire suckling period.
Generally if calves or steers are feed while on grass the pas-
ture should be of excellent quality. They should have good
mothers and be highly bred.
Breeding or young, growing beef cattle may not need a
mineral supplement in addition to salt if they are afforded a
variety of feeds. They generally require mineral supplements.
Pregnant cows, nursing cows, or cows of the dual-purpose
breeds if fairly heavy milkers may need a heavier allowance of
minerals than contained in their regular feeds.
A good mineral mixture is made of 5 parts (by weight) of
finely ground limestone, 5 parts of sterilized bone meal, and
1 part of salt (to make the mixture more palatable).

NUMBER OF COWS PER BULL
Under range conditions, pasture mating is obtained and
for that reason fewer cows should be allowed per bull. The
number of cows allowed per bull will depend on the age of the
bull; young bulls being allowed fewer than older ones.
The following general rule may apply to pasture mating:
For yearling bulls, 8 to 10 cows per season.
For two-year-old bulls, 15 to 25 cows per season.
For three-year-old and older bulls, 20 to 35 cows per season.
Where selected mating is practiced, 25 to 50 percent more
cows may be bred annually per bull than where pasture mat-
ing is followed.

HOW OFTEN TO CHANGE BULLS
It is necessary to change bulls at least every two years if
his offspring runs with the breeding cows in the pasture with
the bull. The best thing to do is to select a given number of
cows and place them with a given number of bulls in the same
pasture and wear out the cows and the bulls together. Put
the heifers from these bulls into pastures of other bulls which
are not related. It is not advisable to breed a bull to his own
offspring. Select heifers should go with new or select good
bulls in another pasture. By practicing these methods it is
possible to wear out bulls and cows together and save quite a
bit of money in buying new bulls.

REASONS FOR USING PURE BRED BULLS
The following are some reasons for using pure bred bulls:
1. A pure bred bull will generally pay for himself with his
first crop of calves.
2. His keep may be slightly more than that of a scrub, but













GESTATION TABLE
Service on date given in first column should bring calf on date given in second column


Feb. Nov.I Mar. Dec.


Jan. Oct.

1 10
2 11
3 12
4 13
5 14
6 15
7 16
8 17
9 18
10 19
11 20
12 21
13 22
14 23
15 24
16 25
17 26
18 27
19 28
20 29
21 30
22 31

Nov.

23 1
24 2
25 3
26 4
27 5
28 6
29 7
30 8
31 9


1 10
2 11
3 12
4 13
5 14
6 15
7 16
8 17
9 18
10 19
11 20
12 21
13 22
14 23
15 24
16 25
17 26
18 27
19 28
20 29
21 30

Dec.

22 1
23 2
24 3
25 4
26 5
27 6
28 7


Apr. Jan. May Feb. Jun. Mar.

1 8 1 7 1 10
2 9 2 8 2 11
3 10 3 9 3 12
4 11 4 10 4 13
5 12 5 11 5 14
6 13 6 12 6 15
7 14 7 13 7 16
8 15 8 14 8 17
9 16 9 15 9 18
10 17 10 16 10 19
11 18 11 17 11 20
12 19 12 18 12 21
13 20 13 19 13 22
14 21 14 20 14 23
15 2" 15 21 15 24
16 23 16 22 16 25
17 24 17 23 17 26
18 25 18 24 18 27
19 26 19 25 19 28
20 27 20 26 20 29
21 28 21 27 21 30
22 29 22 28 22 31
23 30
24 31 I Mar. Apr.

Feb. 23 1 23 1
24 2 24 2
25 1 25 3 25 3
26 2 26 4 26 4
27 3 27 5 27 5
28 4 28 6 28 6
29 b 29 7 29 7
30 6 30 8 30 8
31 9


July Apr.


1 8
2 9
3 10
4 11
5 12
6 13
7 14
8 15
9 16
10 17
11 18
12 19
13 20
14 21
15 22
16 23
17 24
18 25
19 26
20 27
21 28
22 29
23 30
24 31

Jan.

25 1
26 2
27 3
28 4
29 5
30 6
31 7


Aug. May Sept. Jun.

1 10 1 10
2 11 2 11
3 12 3 12
4 13 4 13
5 14 5 14
6 15 6 15
7 16 7 16
8 17 8 17
9 18 9 18
10 19 10 19
11 20 11 20
12 21 12 21
13 22 13 22
14 23 14 23
15 24 15 24
16 25 16 25
17 26 17 26
18 27 18 27
19 28 19 28
20 29 20 29
21 30 21 30
22 31
July
Jui.
22 1
23 1 23 2
24 2 24 3
25 3 25 4
26 4 26 5
27 5 27 6
28 6 28 7
29 7 29 8
30 8 30 9
31 9


Oct. July Nov. Aug. Dec. Sept.

1 10 1 10 1 9
2 11 2 11 2 10
3 12 3 12 3 11
4 13 4 13 4 12
5 14 5 14 5 13
6 15 6 15 6 14
7 16 7 16 7 15
8 17 8 17 8 16
9 18 9 18 9 17
10 19 10 19 10 18
11 20 11 20 11 19
12 21 12 21 12 20
13 22 13 22 13 21
14 23 14 23 14 22
15 24 15 24 15 23
16 25 16 25 16 24
17 26 17 26 17 25
18 27 18 27 18 26
19 28 19 28 19 27
20 29 20 29 20 28
21 30 21 30 21 29
22 31 22 31 22 30

Aug. Sept. Oct.

23 1 23 1 23 1
24 2 24 2 24 2
25 3 25 3 25 3
26 4 26 4 26 4
27 5 27 5 27 5
28 6 28 6 28 6
29 7 29 7 29 7
30 8 30 8 30 8
31 9 31 9


May

23 1
24 2
25 3
26 4
27 5
28 6
29 7
30 8
31 9








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


one does not have to apologize for his offspring. Generally
speaking, his feed is no greater than that of the scrub. The
profit from him is from 25 % to 75% greater. He may be fed
during the winter months and should be, for the reason he is
valuable in that his get is valuable.
:i. The offspring from a pure bred bull gives a greater per
cent of high priced cuts than from a scrub.
4. A greater price is received per pound for the better
grades of cattle.
5. Generally, thele is no greater cost per calf, therefore
less cost per pound, as better bred calves are larger at birth
and grow faster after birth.
(;. The offspring from a pure bred bull will conform to good
feed lot practices as related to feeder cattle type.
7. It is easier to sell the better grades of cattle in that they
argue for themselves, and the outlet buyer demand is greater.
S. Pure bred bulls give greater uniformity of conformation
and type, and ultimately more quality and better color of
calves, than those from scrub bulls.
9. A half-breed beef type heifer when bred to pure bred
bulls will average 50% better in price than scrub cows to
scrub bulls, therefore one simplifies his marketing problem by
improving the beef type blood in one's herd.
10. It is easier to sell quality animals than those of in-
ferior quality.
11. Coupled witl pure bred bulls, our breeders should cull
out the cows which are poor in type, shy in breeding, cows
which "go on to the lift" in the winter, and old cows which
fail to breed regularly or fail to give good calves. Culling
should be done from two angles: (a) "Cut out" scrub bulls
and substitute high grade and pure breds. (b) "Cut out" in-
ferior breeding stock within the cow herd.

A FEW PRODUCER'S REASONS FOR NOT BUYING
BULLS, AND ANSWERS
1. Some cattlemen do not purchase pure bred bulls for fear
they will breed up the herd too fast. It is impossible to elimi-
nate all of the scrub cattle by tile breeding-up process, using
our native cattle as a basis for breeding up. One may use
Brahman blood to replace some of this scrub blood, thereby
retaining hardiness. In fact, the combination of Brahman
and British blood may be the answer to breeding up herds in
the coast country and peninsula of Florida. The producer
may cross breed on his native cattle for first cross, Short-
horns; for the second cross, Herefords; and for tie third








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


cross whatever breed he figures might give him best results.
It might be Angus or it iniglt be Brahman.
2. Other cattlemen do not use pure bred bulls because
their neighbors will not purchase them, and they claim they
are unable to furnish bulls for the entire community. In such
instances the owner might fence his cow herd and get the full
benefit of the ])ure bred bulls bought, or he might segregate a
portion of his best cows in pastures and use good pure bred
bulls. thereby obtaining ultimately good half-breed bulls to go
on his range. Most states have made their most rapid prog
ress in improvement of cattle when such cattle are behind
fences, and can be bred in season for good management under
screw worm conditions.
*. Others fail to purchase pure bred bulls for fear the plure
bred bulls might die. Insurance is reasonably cheap on live-
stock; such bulls might be insured against accident or deatli,
therefore providing the purchaser with funds to replace such
bulls.
4. Others fear to purchase these bulls because the older
scrub bulls in some instances whip the younger pure bred
bulls, thereby rendering poor service from the pure breds.
When any pure bred bulls are purchased of any breed, these
pure breds should be placed under fence with some of the best
cows in the cow herd, and separated from other bulls, so as to
reap the full benefit from the purchase.
5. Others fail to purchase pure bred bulls for fear the non-
aggressive cattlemen might castrate such bulls. This is an-
other reason for placing improved cattle behind fences, where
the owner can give good care and management to his herd.
6. Others fail to purchase pure bred bulls because they
have not been convinced of the importance of a little feed and
care during the winter months. It is impossible to starve
profits into cattle. Bulls which have been well wintered usu-
ally get more calves of a finer, better quality that more than
pays for the feed given them. These calves will be generally
better in proportion as the parents of such calves wintered
well.
Under screw worni conditions, cattle should be bred so as
to drop calves as early in the spring as possible, generally
during the months of February, March, April and May. Timely
breeding therefore is an important factor in controlling screw
worms as well as fitting into the best markets.

USE OF BRAHMAN BLOOD TO BREED UP CATTLE
IN COAST SECTION
In tile coast country, and Florida has considerable lands
of such a nature, Brahmunan blood has wide adaptability.
1. They are quick growing.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


2. They do not suffer from heat and can travel great dis-
tances.
3. The cows are good mothers and produce rich milk to
produce a sleek, fat calf.
4. They have high dressing percentage.
5. They seldom ever have pink eye.
6. They are very prepotent, having unusual ability to trans-
mit their qualifications to any breed or class of cattle.
7. They are very hardy cattle with strong rustling ability.
The following are some of the disadvantages of Brahman
cattle.
1. They are highly nervous and certainly have to be han-
dled very carefully.
2. These cattle are generally leggy. They invariably have
drooping rumps and quite frequently slightly swayed backs.
3. If confined to small pastures, they are more difficult to
fence against than British breeds.
4. While the calves are readily sold as veal, Brahman steers
are generally discriminated against by leading packer markets.
British blood is indispensable for best market outlets.
When British blood is combined with Brahman blood, so as
to overcome the handicaps as outlined above and yet retain
the hardiness of Brahman cattle, much good will be accom-
plished by such crosses, both to the advantage of the producer
and probably to Florida's cattle industry as a whole. Where
winter feeds are produced it would be probably best to stick
to British blood cattle.
Brahman blood may be placed on the native cow for the
first cross calf. No doubt the second and third crosses should
come from British blood, either from Hereford, Shorthorn or
Angus. The following has been suggested as the probable solu-
tion of this breeding up business, especially in marshy or
prairie lands of the State: For the first cross, use Brahman
blood. Second, use Hereford or Angus blood. Third, use
Shorthand blood; and repeat. Others suggest the use of
Brahman blood for first cross, Hereford blood for second cross,
and then repeat. No doubt a combination of Hereford and
Shorthorn and Angus blood with Brahman blood should give
good results in the production of calves or veal. Where feeder
steers are produced, Brahman blood might be diminished and
British blood increased. Other producers prefer to use noth-
ing but British blood, while a few prefer to use nothing but
Brahman blood. It will be interesting to note the improve-
ment which will take place during the next ten years.








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


HOW TO BREED UP A HERD
There are a number of important factors in breeding up
a herd.
1st. Cull the cow herd by eliminating the poorer quality
females.
2nd. By using pure bred bulls.
3rd. By segregation of the breeding herd from other classes.
4th. Protecting heifers until 18 months or older before
allowing them to breed.
5th. Provide separate steer pastures.
6th. The wise use of minerals.
7th. Ample water in dry weather.
Sth. Ample shades on some of our ranges where shade is
not sufficient.
9th. Improved pastures. Improved pastures will give from
3 to 10 times as much grazing as wire grass pastures or non-
improved pastures.
10th. If one is unable to purchase sufficient pure bred bulls
for his cow herd, he should use some of the best half-breed or
three-quarter bred or seven-eighths bred grade bulls. The use
of good grade bulls would materially improve cattle as com-
pared with scrub bulls. The bulls should always be better
than even the best cows in the cow herd. If the bull is no bet-
ter than the cow herd, no improvement can be made.
11th. The wise use of providing winter feeds and especially
for the bulls.
12th. Timely breeding to tit timely markets will allow the
cow herd a rest period which will materially improve her con-
dition and ultimately improve the cow herd.

BREEDING TIME-RANGE CATTLE
Cattlemen generally obtain best results if their cows are
bred from May .15 to October 15. Cows bred during this time
will drop calves from February 15 to July 15. Such calves
dropped during this time can be marketed in season to tit best
market months, which are generally April, May, 1June, and
early July. The best heifer calves of the early calf crop should
be retained in the herd as replacements, or to increase the size
of the herd. All calves born after June 15 may be sold as
calves. If any calves are kept for steers, they should be the
best calves in the herd, should be dehorned and castrated
early, so they will be suitable for feed lot purposes. Bulls
may be turned in the pasture with the cows May 15 and taken
out any time after September 15, but not later than October
15.







50 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Under the above plan cows will be bred when they are in
good flesh; calves will drop when pastures start as well as
when pastures are at their best. This will mean more milk
from the mother, with plenty of grass, which will give better
calves. Calves dropped February 15 should be ready to go to
market from May 15 to June 15. Calves dropped in April
should go to the market in July and August. Cows wintering
without calves at their sides invariably winter from 15% to
25% better than if accompanied by their calves.
Beef cattle represents a cash crop. The calf can be sold
for cash, the larger the calf crop, in terms of cows kept, the
greater the profits. A good calf crop is indispensable, as it
represents a "coupon".
Farmers with high grade and purebred herds, who provide
themselves with plenty of feed, sometime prefer to breed cows
so that they will drop calves in the fall. This system has its
advantages, but for typical range cattle it no doubt would be
best to follow the plan outlined above.

GOOD CALVES AND FEEDER STEERS
The following are some of the fundamental problems in-
volved in the production of good calves or feeder steers.
1. The proper selection of good breeding stock, using the
best females on hand and breeding them to a more excellent
type of beef bull.
2. The use of pure bred bulls.
3. Better and improved herd management such as segrega-
tion of steers, heifers and yearlings from the breeding herd.
4. The protection of heifers until 20 months old before be-
ing bred.
5. Keeping steers in pastures to themselves. Improved
winter conditions. Dehorning. Water to protect cattle dur-
ing short drought periods, etc.
6. Selling quality beef steers not exceeding 212/ years of
age. (It is very unprofitable to sell generally steers from 8
to 15 months of age, as they are difficult for the packer to
handle.)
7. The sale of quality calves.
8. The production of some feed for better wintering of the
cattle, etc.
HERD MANAGEMENT-BEEF PRODUCTION ON
THE FARM
In past years of beef cattle production it was the custom
to market them at the age of 5 or 6 years, whereas, hundreds
of thousands are now marketed when 2 or 3 years old.








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


In addition to raising beef cattle, many stock raisers have
found it profitable to buy young animals and fatten them.

BEEF COWS
A beef cattle raiser should produce sufficient cows to per-
mit the marketing of at least one carload of cattle each year
and also enough heifers to replace the cows taken from the
herd.
The size of the herd for successful operation is controlled
by the available pasture and the quantity of feed crops that
can be produced. Pasture is the cheapest feed.

CARE OF THE COW HERD
During the seasons when the grass is exceedingly succulent.
hay or other dry roughage should be fed as a supplement,
although strictly beef cows do not. as a rule, require supple-
mental feed if the pasture is good.
The feeding of legume hay or protein concentrate is recom-
mended when the grass is maturing.
Silage or root crops will provide breeding cows not on pas-
ture the needed supplement. Legume hay, straw or stover
with some protein concentrate should be included in the ration.

CARE OF THE BULL
Rations for the bull are similar to those for the heifer, but
in sufficient quantities to promote strength and vigor. A good
bull is at least fifty percent of the herd.
A properly managed bull may be used in a limited way for
breeding purposes when 18 months old.
The bull calf, when a year old, should be taught to lead and
stand tied. Impress upon him the fact that you are his mas-
ter, and lie will learn to depend upon you for proper treatment.
Do not leave the bull with the cows the entire year. Pro-
vide separate pasture for him or turn him with the steers
after the breeding season is over. They will keep him com-
pany and make him more contented. During the breeding
season and if his service is heavy, he will probably need a little
extra feed. When feed is required and/or during the win-
ter season, feed grain with a little protein supplement. Bulls
may be fed on the same feed as pure bred cows but will gen-
erally need more feed because of additional weight. They
should generally be kept in as good or better condition than
the cows. During the heavy breeding season if extra feed is
required, feed about two parts of corn and one part of bran or








52 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

oats. It generally requires 1/2 pound to 1 pound of grain to each
100 pounds live weight, enough to keep the bull in good breed-
ing condition. During the winter he may be given 30 pounds of
silage, 10 pounds of cowpea hay, 6 to 10 pounds of grain (corn
or oats), and about 11/2 to 2 pounds of cottonseed meal. Good
legume hay may be substituted for silage, feeding about all he
will consume, and 1 pound to 11/ pounds of cottonseed meal
will be ample. This is about all that would be fed ordinarily
in dry lot with no pasture. With pasture available feed only
enough to keep the bull in good thrifty condition. Ordinarily.
good pasture will meet the requirements of the sulnmer. When
feeding, remember the gentler the bull the closer he should be
watched-you can never trust a bull whether horned or de-
horned.
WHEN TO SELECT A CALF TO SHOW
Select a calf when it is a few months of age. while it is
with its mother, or before it is weaned. The calf's mother
should have a deep body of good width.

THE KIND OF CALF TO SELECT
It is best to select a pure-bred calf of the breed you prefer,
provided your nearby stock raisers have not already adopted
some other breed. The registration certificate will be fur-
nished by the breeder and signed by the National Breeders'
Association.
Good livestock books, journals, and bulletins issued by the
Florida Department of Agriculture or by the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculutre will acquaint you with details covering
the breed you intend to raise.
Size up the calf by looking at it from a distance of about
15 feet. Its weight or growth, age, conformation, quality, con-
dition, body, breed type, and general disposition may be
learned by close scrutiny. Examine the head, neck, forequar-
ters, body, and hindquarters, in the order named. Don't for-
get that the calf selected will either be a herd bull or a founda-
tion breeding cow.
These are indications of quality: A thick coat of silky.
glossy hair, loose, smooth, pliable skin, strong legs with good
bones that are not too long.

FEEDING THE CALF TO WEANING TIME
It is a mistake to feed the cow heavily on grain soon after
she has dropped the calf. The calf needs plenty of milk but
an over supply should not be given.
When four to six weeks old bring the calf in to suck early
in the morning, afterwards feed it some grain. It should be








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 53


allowed to suckle at night before given any grain, then re-
turned to the grass lot or fed a little hay.
A calf may be taught to eat grain at the age of 4 to 6 weeks,
by feeding it in a creep. Wheat bran is an excellent feed for
this purpose. A good ration for the first few weeks consists
of the same number of pounds of coarsely ground corn, oats,
and wheat bran, to which a small quantity of oil meal is added
every few days. Start the calf on one-fourth of a pound of
grain a day, feeding one-half of the amount night and morn-
ing. After a few weeks weigh out and feed a ration of whole
oats 4 parts, shelled corn 2 parts, and oil meal 1 part to be
substituted for the ground feeds. For every 100 pounds of
live weight, the calf should eat 2 or : pounds of grain each
day.
Calves may be weaned gradually when S to 12 months old,
and within 12 to 15 days.

FEEDING FROM WEANING TO MATURITY
Spring calves are fed differently from fall calves. The
amount of feed given to a weaned calf may be increased more.
Within 4 to 6 weeks after a calf is weaned it will probably
consume from 4 to (; pounds of grain with 10 pounds of solids.
and 2 or : pounds (if clover hay, with a small amount of other
roughages (like stover or straw). unless sufficient pasture is
available.
Grain rations for tlie calf may be (composed of equal pounds
of corn, oats. and bran. or corn 5 parts and oats or bran 3
parts, by weight, with 1 part of linseed-oil meal added to both
unless the ration proves to be too laxative.

BABY BEEF
Baby beef is produced from an animal of desirable beef
type conformatiom and quality. Such animals should not be
permitted to lose their baby flesh. These animals are usually
under 20 months of age. These animals should be produced
from high grade beef type cows and pure bred beef type bulls,
for best results. Baby beef generally weighs on foot from 500
to 1200 pounds. most often from 5.00( to 1000 pounds. Such
cattle command high prices when properly finished. Calves
grown from good cows should receive grain along with milk
and pasture for best results. Grain should largely supplement
the mother's milk during the nursing period. Before weaning
time these calves are fed a grain ration. After weaning they
should have a highly concentrated ration of grain.

EQUIPMENT NEEDED FOR THE GROWING CALF
Buildings for cattle should be cool in summer and dry and
comfortable in winter.








54 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

When feeding grain, separate the calf from the herd,
putting it in a dry, clean pen. A bull calf should not be per-
mitted to run with the heifers after 3 or 4 months of age. Use
plenty of straw, leaves, shavings, or other litter for bedding.
Calves do not thrive if compelled to sleep on foul-smelling,
damp bedding. Keep the water trough or stream clean. Do
not allow mud to accumulate near the drinking place. Foot
diseases may be contracted from dirty watering places.
A bin that will hold several weeks supply of mixed and
weighed grain should be provided. Protect the contents against
rats and other animals.

CASTRATION
All male calves not selected for breeding purposes should
be castrated when calves are from one to six months old, the
younger age being preferable. Young calves bleed very little
and recover sooner after the operation than older ones.
If the calf is not to be shown, the lower portion of the
scrotum may be removed. The calf should be thrown down,
and the scrotum washed well with an antiseptic solution. The
lower one-third or one-fourth of the scrotum should be cut off
with a clean knife, thereby exposing the lower portion of each
testicle. Then cut through the glistening membranes which
enclose the testicles, and pull the testicles outward, stretching
the cord considerably, but not jerking it loose from its attach-
ment in the abdominal cavity. Scrape the stretched cord with
the sharp edge of the knife until the cord severs. Bleeding is
less if the cord is severed by scraping rather than by cutting
it off direct or jerking it loose from its proper attachment.
Good drainage is provided when the end of the scrotum is
cut off.
To leave the scrotum in its entirety, this is done by cutting
through the wall of the scrotum on one side, removing the
testicle through the incision, then making another incision on
the opposite side, to remove the other testicle. The incision
should be long and made directly over the testicles on each
side. They should extend well down to the lower end of the
scrotum to provide good drainage.
Bull calves have a tendency to take on the characteristics
of a bull if castration is delayed. If early castration is prac-
ticed, such calves have the tendency to develop as steers should
develop. Bulls generally show slightly more development in
the fore quarters while cows, on the other hand, show great
development in the rear quarters. Since bull calves, early
castrated, have a tendency to take the shape of a cow, they
should therefore have greater development in the rear quar-
ters by early castration. Bull calves which are to be con-








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


averted into steers should be castrated when from 1 to 3 months
of age. There is a great possibility in Florida for producers
to raise steers for feed lot purposes; such calves should be
castrated early and be dehorned so as to make them desirable
for buyers of feeder cattle.
The use of bloodless casterors or Emasculators is recom-
mended under screw worm conditions for young bull calves,
as a means of controlling screw worms. For details on their
use, see your County Agent or other persons of experience.

DEHORNING
Removing Horns with Caustic: Horns may be removed on
young calves before they are 10 days old by the use of caustics
which prevents the growth and development of the horn. Caus-
tic potash or caustic soda are prepared in stick form and can
be employed easily. When the calf is from three to nine days
old a "button" or thickened area may be felt at the point where
the horn will develop. Clip the hair from over each "button,"
leaving each spot about the size of a nickel. Put a heavy
layer of vaseline around the edges of the clipped area. Take
a stick of caustic soda or potash; wrap one end securely with
paper to protect the hands; moisten the other end; rub very
briskly over each "button" three or four times until the caustic
becomes dry. Repeat this operation two or three times. Be
careful that the caustic is not applied too wet. The calves
should be kept out of rain for 12 hours after this treatment.
Use of Saw: In dehorning cattle, three to five years old
and older, it is best to use a saw, since the dehorning clippers
are apt to sliver or crack the bone which forms the horn core.
Treatment Folloiing Dehorning: After dehorning, it is
advisable to apply a thin layer of pine tar over the wound and
adjoining areas to repel flies and prevent infection. Cattle
should be dehorned in cool weather when there is less danger
from flies.
Should the cavity (frontal sinus) become infected, as indi-
cated by pus being discharged where the horns were removed,
it should be irrigated with boric acid solution or a hypochlo-
rite solution forced into the cavity with a syringe, turning the
head sidewise to allow the solution to flow out of the cavity.
Should maggots collect in the wound, saturate a piece of
clean cloth with chloroform or gasoline and insert same into the
cavity, or syringe out with a weak carbolic acid solution, using
three tablespoonfuls of carbolic acid to one quart of water.

MARKING
When cattle are branded the branding iron should not be
too hot, and the brand should not be burned too deep. If pos-








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


sible confine the brand marks to the regions of the neck and
shoulders, thereby protecting the hide. The use of a wire
brand in the place of the heavy iron will prevent serious injury
to the hide.
Cattle are marked by identifying cuts in the ears as shown
by the illustration and this system is becoming more general,
in place of splitting the dewlap.


O3pi~ PW-- 4-- -~3j








1r~ri/r-- -----FaC



Common earmarkB of cattle.


DETERMINING THE AGE OF CATTLE BY THE TEETH
The United States Department of Agriculture, in Farmers'
Bulletin 106i, states, "The age of cattle can be approximated
closely by the appearance (development, and subsequent wear)
of their permanent incisor teeth. Cattle have eight incisor
teeth, all in the lower jaw. In the calf at birth two or more
of the temporary or first set of incisor teeth are present. With
the first month the entire eii'lht incisors have appeared.
"As the animal approaches 2 years of age the center pair
of temporary incisor teeth or pinchers is replaced by the per-
manent pinchers, which at 2 years attain full development.
"At from 21/2 to :3 years the permanent first interme liates
are cut and are usually full developed at 3: years.
"At 31/2 years the second intermediates or laterals are cut.
They are on a level with the first intermediates and begin to
wear at 4 years.








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 57

"At 41/. to 5 years the corner teeth are replaced, the animal
at 5 years having the full complement of incisors with the
corners fully developed.
"At 5 to 6 years there is a leveling of the permanent pinch-
ers, the pinchers usually being leveled at No. 6 and both pairs
of intermediates partially leveled and the corner incisors show-
ing wear.
"'Froml 7 to 8 the pinchers are noticeably worn; from S to 9)
the middle pairs, and by 10 years the corner teeth.
"After 6 y-ears the arch gradually loses its rounded contour
and becomes nearly straight by the 12th year. In the mean-
time the teeth have gradually become triangular in shape, dis-
tinctly separated, and show the progressive wearing to stubs."













CHAPTER V


Pastures

GRASS
By John J. Ingalls

"Next in importance to the divine profusion of water, light
and air, those three great physical facts which render exist-
ence possible, may be reckoned the universal beneficence of
grass. Exaggerated by tropical heats and vapors to the gigan-
tic cane congested with its saccharine secretion, or dwarfed by
polar rigors to the fibrous hair of northern solitudes, embrac-
ing between these extremes the maize with its resolute pen-
nons, the rice plant of southern swamps, the wheat, rye, bar-
ley, oats, and other cereals, no less than the humbler verdure
of hillside, pasture and prairie in the temperate zone, grass
is the most widely distributed of all vegetable beings, and is
at once the type of our life and the emblem of our mortality.
Lying in the sunshine among the buttercups and the dande-
lions of May, scarcely higher in intelligence than the minute
tenants of the mimic wilderness, our earliest recollections are
of grass; and when the fitful fever is ended, and the foolish
wrangle of the market and the forum is closed, grass heals
over the scar which our descent into the bosom of the earth
has made, and the carpet of the infant becomes the blanket
of the dead.
"As he reflected upon the brevity of human life, grass has
been the favorite symbol of the moralist, the chosen theme of
the philosopher. 'All flesh is grass,' said the prophet; 'My
days are as the grass,' sighed the troubled patriarch; and the
pensive Nebuchadnezzar, in his penitential mood, exceeded
even these, and, as the sacred historian informs us. did eat
grass like an ox.
"Grass is the forgiveness of nature-her constant benedic-
tion. Fields trampled with battle, saturated with blood, torn
with the ruts of cannon, grow green again with grass, and
carnage is forgotten. Streets abandoned by traffic become
grass-grown like rural lanes, and are obliterated. Forests de-
cay, harvests perish, flowers vanish, but grass is immortal.
Beleaguered by the sullen hosts of winter, it withdraws into
the impregnable fortress of its subterranean vitality, and
emerges upon the first solicitation of spring. Sown by the
winds, by wandering birds, propagated by the subtle horticul-
ture of the elements which are its ministers and servants, it
softens the rude outline of the world. Its tenacious fibers
59








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


hold the earth in its place and prevent its soluble components
from washing into the wasting sea. It invades the solitude
of deserts, climbs the inaccessible slopes and forbidding pin-
nacles of mountains, modifies climates, and determines the
history, character and destiny of nations. Unobtrusive and
patient, it has immortal vigor and aggression. Banished from
the thoroughfare and field, it bides its time to return, and
when vigilance is relaxed, or the dynasty has perished, it
silently resumes the throne from which it has been expelled,
but which it never abdicates. It bears no blazonry of bloom
to charm the senses with fragrance or splendor, but its homely
hue is more enchanting than the lily or the rose. It yields
no fruit in earth or air, and yet should its harvest fail for a
single year, famine would depopulate the world."

NATIVE PASTURES
bloodd native pastures are found in many sections of Flor-
ida and where the soil is good there is sufficient feed for one
steer to every 1 to 5 acres. On flatwood ranges there should
be an allowance of 10 acres for each annilal and those sec-
tions having poor soil not over one steer to every 20 acres.
Improved pastures have been developed in Florida, one or more
of the various kinds of grasses grown being adapted to prac-
tically every kind of soil found in the state.
A pasture is the most valuable asset a cattleman may have.
It takes more than a fenced area to make a pasture. A pas-
ture should be composed of nutritious grasses and legume
plants. Grasseous plants generally have less calcium per


Pasture scene in North Florida








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 61

pound than legununous, therefore a pasture should have a
combination of grasses and legumes if possible. This will make
for better balanced feed for the cattle on pasture.
It takes a wide variety of nutrients to supply all the re-
quirements for the animal's body. Legume plants carry more
protein while grasses cary a higher proportion of sugars and
starches than legumes. Legumes generally have more calcium,
used in hone building, anud more protein used in muscle build-
ing. Proteins, starches, sugars, fats and minerals are vitally
necessary to animal life. Vitamins are necessary to provide
normal functions of life, health and growth. A pasture, there-
fore, should contain grasses (either Carpet, Dallis, Bermuda,
Bahia, Centipede, Para, Vasey, or any other palatable.
nutritious grass or combination of grasses), and legume crops
(such as Lespedeza, White clover, Alyce clover, or any other
legume which will mix with grasses to give a better balanced
feed for pasture). Where lime cannot be had for legumes or
where legumes do not grow well in a pasture mixture. bone
meal or finely pulverized oyster shell or ground limestone may
be necessary and may be provided for the cattle in mineral
boxes, or a portion of the pasture may be lined and fertilized
so as to grow legumes. Phosphorus and calcium are two vitally
necessary elements in bone building and in milk production.
Mineral deficiency in calcium and phosphorus affect the yield
of milk rather than its composition, therefore if ample milk for
the calf is provided these elements must be supplied.
Acid soils indicate lack of calcium and possible lack of


Carpet grass pasture in Central Florida








62 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

phosphorus with a strong indication of the lack of calcium
(lime) therefore legume crops are less apt to grow on acid
soils than on alkaline soils. The use of lime in acid pastures
will do much to help correct bone deficiency.



















A pasture that carried one animal per acre from April to November

Carpet Grass. This grass gets its name from its carpet-
like sod. Cattle relish it. It grows in all sections of the state
on compact, moist soil where there is comparatively little
shade. It will grow from stem or root cuttings, but more
readily by sowing the seed.
Seed may be sown from February to July. Early spring
seeding is advised, when there is sufficient moisture to insure
germination. It continues to give good grazing until stopped
by a heavy frost. Carpet grass will not stand fire.
Dallis Grass. Perennial-grows well in Florida when seed-
ed on low, moist soil, and produces an abundant growth under
favorable conditions. Will withstand considerable frost. It
does best on soils with clay base.
Bermuda Grass. One of the well-known Florida grasses.
When grown on the right type of soil, it produces an abund-
ance of grazing during a large part of the year. On the light,
sandy soils it supplies a fair amount of grazing. Bermuda
will stand all kinds of hard grazing during the entire year.
This grass may be propagated from either seed or root and
stem cuttings.








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


Cowpea hay in stacks in South Florida


Para Grass. From Fort Pierce on the East Coast and
Bradenton on the West Coast southward, this is a valuable
pasture grass. It grows best on rather moist soil and pro-
duces a heavy growth of nutritious grazing material. Para
grass will not stand a heavy frost or light freeze. It is propa-
gated by root and stenl cuttings. This grass will grow as far
north as Bartow, Fla.

Lespedeza. This is also known as Japanese clover, and used
in pasture mixtures in most parts of the state. On low lands
lime should be added and probably some phosphate. It does
best on lands with clay base.


Pasture on rolling land






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


L 1


Bahia grass among the pines

GOOD PASTURES
The grazing season is lengthened and the pounds of beef
produced per acre will run from three to ten times as inch as on
wire grasses. Good grass will invariably carry on the same
acreage from three to six times as many cattle.



- *


Soudan grass in South Florida. Grows well in all parts of the state
















KIND OF PAS'


Mixed grasses-
Bahia, Bermuda

Bahia ..............

Bermuda ..........

Carpet .-------......


BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA

SOUTHERN GRAZING TESTS
Average Gain
Per Steer Dur- Average
TURE ing Grazing Daily Gain
Period in Pounds
-Carpet 197 pounds 0.77 pounds
n,.ii;un.


189 pounds

171 pounds

165 pounds


0.74 pounds

0.67 pounds

0.65 pounds


Napier grass


Pounds of Beef
Produced
Per Acre

280 pounds


270 pounds

243 pounds

236 pounds


a s

------------

--------------

--------------








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


NAPIER GRASS
Napier grass, a native of tropical Africa, is known in its
native country as Elephant grass.
Colonel Napier, of South Africa, was responsible for the
introduction of this crop to other sections and is given the
credit for its development agriculturally.
It is a cane-like perennial that has been grown successfully
in practically every section of Florida, attaining a height of
6i to 14 feet. Tle best crops are produced on fertile soil. The
leafy stalks mature during the latter part of October, the
spikes, which resemble millet, produce seed in the early part
of November. It will not mature seed in north Florida. It is
generally propagated by steins.
Napier grass makes a good soiling crop and it has a palat-
ability and nutritive value that is not exceeded by any similar
nion-leguninous feed. Grazing should be rotated--grazing
about ten days and rest thirty days.

GREEN NAPIER GRASS COMPARED WITH OTHER FORAGE CROPS


i C
Nutrients 0 J i >
o o n

Water .-......-..........---. 78.1 75.1 70.40 72.8 61.81 65.84
Ash .-.....-......... ... .......---- 1.2 1.4 .60 2.4 2.92 2.68
Protein ....-----..- ...- 1.9 1.5 .45 1.7 2.92 3.58
Carbohydrates .............. 13.0 14.0 21.40 13.4 17.29 14.13
Fat ......-..- ..... ....... ..... .6 1.0 .60 .5 .29 .53
Fiber ..-...-..- ................. 5.2 7.0 6.55 9.2 14.77 13.24

NAPIER HAY COMPARED WITH OTHER HAYS


Nutrients S .
E- 4 c 4 U i Zo
W ater .......-............... -11.6 8.6 9.5 9.8 9.9 9.35
Ash ........- ..-- .......- ....-- ..- 4.9 8.6 8.5 5.0 7.6 9.92
Protein ....................-... 6.2 14.9 8.0 7.4 7.3 11.32
Carbohydrates ..............1 45.0 37.3 42.9 39.2 44.6 41.06
Fat ..........................- | 2.5 2.3 2.4 1.8 1.4 2.15
Fiber .....-......-...--.........- 29.9 28.3 28.7 36.8 29.2 26.20
(Note: The data in the above tables was obtained from Henry & Morrison's
"Feeds & Feeding"; and bulletins published by the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station and the Agriculture Gazette of New South Wales.)
Complete data on Napier Grass will be found in the Bul-
letin, "Forage and Pasture Crops in Florida," issued by the
Florida State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Fla.








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 67

Wild Grasses. There are a number of wild grasses, native
to Florida, which supply good pasture during the different
seasons. Further information on pasture or feed crops pro-
duced il Florida will be found in Bulletin No. 30 entitled,
"Non-legume Feed Crops," issued by the State Department of
Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida.

PERSIAN CLOVER
PcrsiNt' (lor-cr, also known- as Shaftal clover, is an annual
native to Northern India and parts of Persia. It is used as a
forage and soil improving crop.
The stems grow to 2 or : feet in length, but being weak and
hollow they do not grow erect. A small head grows on tile
stems which produces a lavender-pink flower.
Persian clover has been grown in tile South as a winter
annual, the growth being made in early spring. From about
the first of March until IMay the growth is rapid, when it is
ready to be cut for hay. The crop is suitable only for low
rich lands in sections where low temperatures are not experi-
enced.
The seedings should be made where the growing plants will
not have to compete with other growth. Plant in a pasture that
is either closely grazed or mowed.
For complete information relative to this crop it is sug-
gested that the grower write direct to Chief Agronomist 1. VS.
Dept. of Agriculture. Washington, D. C.

ALYCE CLOVER
Alyce closer is adapted to that portion of Florida as found
in its peninsular. It has not been tried in north and west
Florida suliciently to know its adaptation there. It has par-
ticular adaptability to lands which are underlain with lime-
stone and phosphate rock. It makes excellent growth in tlhe
summer. It is a very leafy legume and has good palatability.
It often produces from 2 to 3 tons of hay per acre. It has
possibilities of becoming the "Alfalfa" of Florida. Producers
should not overlook this legume.
It should be planted in small quantities to find out its
adaptability, but extended as rapidly as possible when found
adaptable.
MAIDEN CANE
The grass known as "Maiden Cane" is abundant in the
Everglades and north and westward to the region near Leon
County, Florida.
The grass rarely produces seed and if planted from root
stalks the crop will not prove to be profitable. Where it grows
naturally, it has proven to be a crop of great value.





















hAr *.u "'1


r-
r.
i! ~~-"t

:~qCti~~l.

''
41


Maiden cane









BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


The following table gives the analyses of "Maiden Cane"
harvested at different seasons.

Date Harvested
May 8 July 6 July 20
Percent Percent Percent


Moisture .....................
Ash ............ ............
Protein .-------...- ........
Crude fiber.................
Starch and sugar..........
Fat ........... .. ........


11.62
5.94
16.76
22.27
39.54
3.87


10.21
3.22
10.02
29.95
42.68
2.92


11.57
2.65
9.83
29.30
44.28
2.37


Further information on this crop is obtainable front Bul-
letin No. 30, published by the State Department of Agricul-
ture, Tallahassee, Florida.


Cowpeas-A good hay crop


HAY, FORAGE, AND SILAGE CROPS
Hay and forage crops are nearly as important to livestock
production as grass.
The most commonly grown hay and forage crops are corn,
sorghum, Napier grass, J.alanese cane, cowpeas, soy beans,
velvet beans, beggarweed, etc.
Napier grass on muck soil may yield 30 to 40 tons of
green material per acre, and on the lighter sandy soils, from
five to fifteen tons. IJpanese cane will yield about the same.
The yield of cowpeas and soy beans varies from one-half to
two tons of hay per acre, and velvet beans will usually yield














Y~~~
"6 ~ ~.
a sF~1~7r~c


Corn in the extreme northwestern part of Florida


;1
o










a
m





3:
m

c3

o
r


o
w
a
C
r

d

M








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


more than either covwpeas or soy beans. Beggarweed will yield
from one-half to two tons of hay per acre.
Napier grass is also an excellent soiling crop, for in addi-
tion to its heavy yield per acre, it may be cut two or three
times during the growing season.
The crops generally grown for silage are corn, sorghum,
sugar cane, peas, and soy beans.
Corn is a very important crop inl Florida. (Generally be-
tween 500,000 and 750,000 acres are planted to corn each year
in Florida. There are many farmers who. in the past few years
have obtained average yields of 30 to 40 bushels an acre. In
five-year contests that have been held the past two or three
years, the yields have been from 60 to 100 bushels an acre.
(ne club boy a few years ago made an average yield of 100
bushels an acre for three consecutive years. Corn must be
planted thick for silage.

WINTER PASTURES
The owners of small herds of cattle can grow an economli-
cal winter pasture of succulent feed in oats or rye which, if
not grazed too closely, will supply an abundance of winter
feed. If sown in October, these crops may be grazed about the
middle of Decelmber. Two pounds of shelled corn or ground
snap corn and 1 1or 2 pounds of cottonseed meal, should be fed
when cattle are grazed on oats and rye.
Telrct Brcun Iic(ld.s (ad Rcmmnnt Corn Fiel(ds. Winter feed
is also provided by -growing velvet beans and corn. Cattle are
turned into the field of velvet beans during late fall after the
larger ears of corn are harvested. ()ne acre of beanls will carry
one cow for three or four monlthls.

WHITE CLOVER
IWhitc clorcr, hop clover, and Carolina clover, and a few
strains of Melillotus have adaptability to central and north
Florida. These clovers generally require lime, phosphate and
potash. The proportion of these to use are approximately
2000 pounds of lime, 600 pounds of acid l)hosllhate, 100 pounds
of potash. These fertilizers should be added about two weeks
before planting the seed. Usually the best time to plant these
seed runs from the 1st of October to the 10th of November.
These are the times when these plantings give greatest yields
per acre.
Not only must the seed be virile but these seed must be
inoculated with proper inoculation. The seed that have been
inoculated must be protected from the sun then planted as
quickly as possible, otherwise the inoculation might be lost.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


To succeed with this crop the ground must have some prepara-
tion, must be treated with fertilizers named above, the seed
must be inoculated, and protected after being planted.

ROUGHAGES
Peanut Hay. Peanut hay is fed in many sections of Flor-
ida. The plants are dug in late summer and early fall and the
vines cured in small stacks around upright poles resting on
two crosspieces about 12 inches from the ground.
When the vines are properly cured the hay, after going
through the peanut picker, will be clean and bright. Peanuts
are high in protein and calcium. The hay makes a valuable
roughage for beef cattle. Feeding trials at the' Florida Agri-
cultural Station show that cows can be wintered on peanut
hay alone; however, a few pounds of cottonseed meal and
shelled corn or ground snap corn should be added to the ration.
Cowrptc Hay. The cowpea is a legume high in protein. Cow-
pea vines should be cut before they begin to shed their leaves,
and left in the swath until the upper leaves are well wilted.
Then the vines are raked into windows before the leaves are
dry and allowed to remain for a day or two for additional cur-
ing. Numerous small stacks are made in the field for the final
curing. The hay is generally baled to facilitate handling. bloodd
quality cowpea hay is about equal to alfalfa in feeding value,
and when curell properly is an exceptionally good winter feed.
Little concentrate feed is required as a supplement to cowpea
hay.


Cowpea hay ready for the stack in Central Florida








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


Beggarwced Hay. In some sections of Florida beggarweed
makes a good hay crop. This plant is a legume. Beggarweed
should be cut before the lower leaves drop off. The hay cures
easily and is very palatable. It is a good feed for wintering
the breeding herd.
Telcet Beans In Pod. Velvet beans are grown extensively
in Florida as feed for beef cattle. They may be fed in the feed
lot, or grazed during the winter months. The earlier maturing
varieties, "90-D)ay Speckled" and the "O)sceola." are preferred.
The "Florida Velvet Bean" furnishes more forage but does not
mature so early.
Feeding trials show that 2 to 21,' pounds of velvet beans in
the pod are equal to 1 pound of cottonseed meal.
Four to 10 pounds of velvet beans in pod are fed daily to
fattening steers, depending upon the size of steers.
The beans are often ground in the pods. Trials show that
velvet bean feed meal is slightly more valuable than whole
beans in the pod.
Mola.sse.x'. (ane molasses (Blackstrap i is relished by beef
cattle, and has been used for fattening steers throughout the
southern states. Ilackstrap will replace 2./ 'c to 40 of
shelled corn in the ration. Tihe dry matter of molasses is high
in nitrogen-free extract, comparing very favorably with corn.
Blackstrap is exceedingly low in protein which must be sup-
plied in other feeds in the ration.
The daily amount of molasses fed usually is 21/, to -1 pounds,
depending on the corn allowance, and the size of steers.
Oats. Oats are not an economical feed for fattening cattle,
blit are important in the grain mixture of growing calves and
breeding stock. Oats are higher in crude protein than corn
but lower in nitrogen-free extract. (ats may lie mixed with
corn for feeding bulls. (Oats, corn, bran, and linseed meal is
used as a grain mixture.

KUDZU, A FORAGE CROP
What Kudzu Is and lWhat It Is Good For. Kudzu, a peren-
nial leguminilous vine is native to Japan. Its leaves are some-
what like those of a bean lnut larger. The deep purple flowers
are borne in clusters. Seed is rarely produced in the United
States. It may be grazed or cut for hay, but it must be
handled with a certain degree of care.
Habit and $ oil Preferencc. The Kudzu roots sends out sev-
eral shoots. They have been known to grow 70 feet in a sea-
son, but the growth is slow until the ground warms up. In
moist soil the stems will take root at tile joints. One advan-
tage of Kudzu is that it will grow on soils too acid for alfalfa
or clovers.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


ASpacing tiad umiber of Plants Required. Rooted plants 2
years old or more may be used to establish a crop but is expen-
sive. Three rows of corn between two of Kudzu the first sea-
son, and two the next season can be grown.
A spacing of 31/ by 7 feet requires 1,800 plants to the acre.
Setting the Plants. Plants may be set in furrows opened
with a plow or in holes made with a posthole digger or a spade.
The furrows should be deep enough for roots to be placed
upright.
Roots must not be allowed to dry out; roots must be dug
andI set carefully before growth starts; as deep as the length of
the root and with crown buds or "eyes" at or about 1 inch
below the surface.
The Georgia College of Agriculture places the required
number of plants at three or four for every square yard of sur-
face. This large number of plants must come front the rooted
joints, and the joints can not root unless they lie on moist
ground. The plants must be cultivated for the first year or
two to rid the field of weeds.
Yields and Quality of Hay. In the Alabama experiments,
the best average yield for three years was 2 tons per acre, the
best yields being obtained the first year, when on one plot 5,749
pounds per acre was cut. The Georgia College of Agriculture
reports yields of 1 to 4 tons per acre.
Analyses show a protein content equal to that of alfala.
It cures readily and well, its leaves do not fall in curing, and
the hay is readily eaten by all kinds of livestock.
Cutting. Kudzu should not be cut until the ground is well
covered with growth and many vines have rooted, and depends
on the number of plants originally set, the care given, and the
season. When ready to cut, the mass appears to be a tangle of
vines. Kudzu under favorable conditions can be cut in the
morning and brought into the barn the same (lay. Cutting
need not be done at any special time. The Alabama experi-
ments indicate that two cuttings give better results than three
or more, and that cuttings should be made in June and October.
Grazing. Kudzu makes good grazing, bunt it can easily be
over-grazed. Early grazing by milk cows will affect the milk
flavor unfavorably.
As a Soil-improving and Cover Crop. When turned under,
Kudzu will increase the yields of following crops. The Ala-
bama station reports heavy increases in sorghum hay, corn,
and oats for 10 years after a crop of Kudzu was turned under.
Kudzu Not a Pest. There is no danger that Kudzu will be-
come a pest. Hogs will eat the starchy roots and destroy a
stand.









BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


POISONING OF LIVESTOCK BY PLANTS THAT PRODUCE
HYDROCYANIC ACID
Poisonous Plants In Florida
In the large grazing areas of the western states, poisonous range plants
have long been known. The large number of valuable animals now in the
State, coupled with several costly experiences with poisonous plants, has
increased interest in the possibilities of plant poisoning.

Conditions That Make Certain Plants Dangerous
There are certain abnormal circumstances under which cattle poisoning
is most apt to occur. The most important, perhaps, exists in times of pro-
longed dry spells or in overgrazed pastures. At such times the growth of
normal forage plants is severely curtailed and, unless additional feed or new
grazing is provided, the animals turn to plants not ordinarily eaten.
practice to le discouraged is the dumping of plant clippings in a
pasture or pen.
Another dangerous practice consists in turning newly purchased animals
loose in a wild pasture or range. It is best to turn them first into grazing
land that is free from such plants until they become somewhat naturalized.
Plants causing fatal poisoning and frequently rapid death:
Johnson grass-wilted Angel trumpet-D. suareolens
Sudan grass-wilted Wild cherry-especially young or wilted
Oleander foliage
Iaurel--Kalmiai latifolia Cherry laurel-especially young or wilted
Dwarf laurel-K. hiirsuta foliage
Thorn apple-Datura Metel Sorghum- especially stunted or frosted
Purple thorn apple-l). tatula plants (suckers)
Jimson weed-Datura Larkspur hardy and annual species
stramonium Gopher apple-seeds (rare cases)
Plants causing serious poisoning:
Pokeweed Water hemlock-especially the roots
Wormseed Daubentonia-seeds poison chickens
Spiny amaranth Lupine--seeds alone are poisonous
White wild indigo Tung-oil seeds
Nightshade Potato-wilted stems and tops
Stagger bush ('rotalaria specrtabilis-seeds poison chickens
Pink root and quail
Yellow or Carolina jasmine (rotalaria sagittalis-poisonous to horses
Mexican poppy Cocklebur-seedling stage poisonous to hogs
Allamanda Elderberry-poisonous when raw, except
Button bush ripe berries
Atamasco lily Bitterweed or sneezeweed-poisonous to
Lucky nut or yellow oleander horses, causes bitter milk in cows
Purge nut-especially seeds Castor oil bean-seeds are toxic

Quantity of Hydrocyan ic Acid in Planits. Hydrocyanic acid
develops only when the noriiiiil growth of1 plants has been
retarded or stopped by drought, frost, bruising, trampling,
wilting, lmowing, or other cause.
Well-cured sorghum or Johnson grass contains little or no
hydrocyanic acid and may be eaten by livestock without danger
of poisoning.








76 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Preventive Measures. Cattle on a corn ration are less like-
ly to be poisoned when grazing on dangerous sorghuns. It is
a wise precaution to give animals a starchy feed, such as corn,
before allowing them to graze in the vicinity of plants capable
of developing hydrocyanic acid.
Symptoms of Hydrocyanic Acid Poisoning. Hydrocyanic
acid acts very rapidly. A brief period of stimulation is fol-
lowed by paralysis. Stupor, difficult breathing, and frequent
convulsions with symptoms of colic result from the action of
the poison.
Renmedies. The injection of methylene blue, sodium nitrate,
or sodium thiosulphate, preferably intravenously, has proved
to be an effective remedy. The dose for cattle is 2 to 3 grams
of sodium nitrate in water followed by 4 to ( grams of sodium
thiosulphatce inl water. A trained veterinarian should give the
treatment.
Because of the reports current in some sections relative to
sorghuIms being poisonous the following report by R. B.
Becker, Dairy Husbandman of the Agricultural Extension
Station, is given:
"Sorghum is not often poisonous when fed to livestock. Per-
haps an explanation of the properties of this and similar
plants may help you to understand tle reason why it is some-
times dangerous to use as feed.
"A whole group of plants which include the sorghums, Su-
dan and .lohnson grass normally contain in their makeup a
very small proportion of a compound called glucoside. This
glucoside is broken down in the digestion to liberate free
prussic acid, the most rapid acting toxic substance present in
any plant.
"The glucoside content of this group of plants is increased
considerably when the growth has been checked by such fac.
tors as droughts, severe insect attack or plant disease, in the
second growth, or immediately after it has been frozen. Plants
that have been cut and allowed to wilt have the prussic acid
spread out in free form where it is dangerous to feed.
"Instances of this latter case are in the waste leaves which
accumulate around the silage cutter during the time of filling
the silo in the late fall. These wilted leaves should either be
put in the silo or placed where livestock cannot get them. In
making silage with any of these products, the prussic acid is
liberated and gradually evaporates over a period of time so
that after the ensiling process is completed there is practi-
cally no hazard in feeding silage from these plants. Prussic
acid evaporates almost as rapidly as kerosene or gasoline and
disappears in the air."











CHAPTER VI


Feeds and Feeding

EVALUATING FEEDS *
"Feeds group themselves into two major classes: (1)
roughages, and (2) concentrates. Roughages serve chiefly as
sources of bulk and heat. To a much less extent they may
serve as sources of energy and fat. Legume hays also furnish
appreciable amounts of protein. concentrates on the other
hand, serve as sources of two distinct groups of feed essen-
tials: (1) heat, energy and fat, and (2) protein. Evaluating
concentrates is more complicated than the problem of evalu-
ating roughages.
FEED CONSTITUENTS
"The first step in evaluating either concentrates or rough-
ages is to acquire a knowledge of tihe functions of their basic
constituents water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals,
and vitamins.
"1. IWatcr. It is present in all feeds, varying from six to
ten percent in some hays to ninety percent or mllore in turnips,
wet beet pulp. etc. The water content of feeds is not impor-
tant from a nutritive standpoint, lint its replacement of other
constituents is a matter that must be given consideration.
"2. Protein. This is a very important constituent. It is
absolutely essential in an animal's ration. Some other con-
stituent cannot be substituted for protein, and the animal
body cannot make protein out of other constituents. It is
also the most expensive constituent in livestock rations. It
is used in building and repairing many body tissues, including
nerves, glands and muscles. It stimulates both appetite and
digestion. Its great, ultimate, practical value lies in the fact
that it increases gains and at the same time decreases the
cost of gains.
"1:. ('arbohydrat's. They make up the greater portion of
most feeds, are the cheapest of all constituents and produce
heat, energy. and fat. It is highly important to remember that
carbohydrates are made up of two components: (a) filer,
and (b) nitrogen-free extract. The term carbohydrate is of
little value in attempting to evaluate feeds because of the fact
that two feeds may have almost identical carbohydrate con-
tents, yet one will be a valuable fattening feed because its
carbohydrates are made up of a high percentage of nitrogen-
free extract and a low percentage of fiber, while the other will
have considerably less value because its carbohydrates are
*By Dr. C. W. McCampbell, Head Animal Husbandry Dept., Kansas State College.
77








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


made up of a high percentage of fiber and a low percentage of
nitrogen-free extract. Since the fattening value of a feed de-
pends to such a large extent upon its nitrogen-free extract
content, it should be emphasized that the higher the nitrogen-
free extract and the lower the fiber content of a feed the bet-
ter fattening feed it is. It might be well to replace the term
carbohydrate with the terms fiber and nitrogen-free extract.
"4. Fat. It produces heat, energy and fat and also helps
to maintain the normal function of the digestive tract. Com-
paratively small amounts are needed and most rations con-
tain an abundance ol fat; normally it carries 21/4 times the
value of carbohydrates in computing rations.
"5. MJineals. This group of constituents is important in
building up several different tissues of the body and in main-
taining the normal function of the nerves, blood, etc. The
mineral problem v a r i e s with different ages and different
classes of animals. It is more acute in young than in older
animals, and in hogs than in cattle. Some feeds are rich in
certain minerals and deficient in others. The same is true in
tie case of rations. Perhaps the most important mineral prob-
lem where no legume hays are fed is a proper supply of cal-
cium or lime. Lime deficiencies can be made up by the use
of calcium carbonate in the form of ground limestone or bone
meal at comparatively little cost. One should use steamed
hon e meal.
"6. Vita innis. These substances are necessary for normal
health, growth and reproduction. The vitamin requirements
of different ages and classes of animals vary considerably.
Green feed and sunlight furnish an abundant supply of the
vitamins needed by farm animals. The vitamin problem is
not a difficult one during the summer months, and green-
colored hay or green feeds such as rye or wheat pasture plus
sunshine usually take care of the vitamin problem during the
winter months.
"The Xutrients in a Feed. Chemical analyses give us
definite information as to the nutrients present in feeds.
"1. The Availability of the Nutrients. The importance of
this factor can be emphasized by comparing corn and bran.
Chemical analyses of these two feeds show that 100 pounds
of corn contains 88 pounds of nutrients, whereas 100 pounds
of bran contains 83.6 pounds. Digestion trials reveal the fact
that 100 pounds of corn contains 85.7 pounds of digestible
or available nutrients compared to 60.9 pounds of digestible or
available nutrients in 100 pounds of bran. In other words,
97.5 percent of the total nutrients in corn are digestible or
available while only (7.5 percent of the nutrients are avail-
able in the case of bran.








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


"2. The Quality of the Nutrients. This must be considered
carefully and especially with commercial feeds. A large
amount of a certain commercial feed was sold because it con-
tained almost as much carbohydrate as corn and cost 10 per-
cent less. ('orn contains approximately 72 percent carbohy-
drate-2 percent fiber and 70 percent nitrogen-free extract.
The commercial feed contained 71 percent carbohydrate 2S
percent fiber and 43 percent nitrogen-free extract. Forget-
ting the disadvantage of its greater bulk, this commercial
feed was worth around 40 percent less than corn. The quality
of the nutrients is particularly important in the case of pro-
tein supplemental feeds. Experience as well as experimenta-
tion has demonstrated that one pound of linseed oil meal is
worth more than a pound of choice cottonseed meal as a pro-
tein supplemental feed. Yet, one pound of choice cottonseed
meal contains approximately 25I percent more digestible pro-
tein than one pound of linseed oil meal. The explanation of
this apparent inconsistency lies in the difference in quality
of the proteins of these two feeds.
":3. Palatability. This is an important factor for the rea-
son that it makes little ditference how nutritious a feed imay
he if it lacks palatability. Its value is lessened to tie extent
to which animals refuse to eat it. Wheat is a good illustra-
tion of the effect of palatability upon the value of a feed. Its
chemical analysis shows it to be just as good, pound for pound.
as corn from a nutritive standpoint, and since it is quite pal-
atable to hogs, a pound of wheat is worth just as much as a
pound of corn in the production of pork. Since it is not so
palatable to cattle, it is worth less, pound for pound, in the
production of beef, not because the nutrients are not present
and available, but because cattle will not eat as much wheat
as they will corn.
"'. The Quality or Grade of the Fi'ed Itself. There is con-
siderable difference in the feeding value of corn of different
grades. The same is true of other feeds. It is highly impor-
tant that the quality or grade of feeds compared le known.
Otherwise comparisons or evaluations may be misleading. This
has often been the case in comparing corn with barley.
Usually corn grades fairly high, whereas barley grades low.
"5. Bulk. The less bulk a given feed has the more satis-
factory it is as a fattening feed. We recognize the value of
a small amount of shorts in a hog ration, but we also know
that shorts is not so satisfactory as corn as the entire concen-
trate in hog-fattening rations. This is partly due to less diges-
tible nutrients per pound of feed in shorts, but more par-
ticularly to the difference in the bulk of corn and shorts.
While one pound of shorts contains 80 percent as much








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


digestible nutrients as one pound of shelled corn, yet one quart
of shorts contains only 38 percent as much digestible nutrients
as one quart of shelled corn-less than half. The excessive
bulk of shorts compared to corn makes it impossible for a hog
to consume as much nutrients in the form of shorts as in the
form of corn, and naturally a hog will not fatten as fast on
shorts as it will on corn.
"6. Form in 1Which Feed is Fed. The value of a given feed
may vary greatly for different classes of livestock, depending
upon the form in which it is fed. Ground shelled corn may
be worth as much as 25 percent more than unground shelled
corn for three year-old steers. In the case of cattle the value
of some feeds vary considerably, depending upon the age of
the animal. For instance, unground shelled corn is worth
approximately as much pound for pound as ground shelled
corn for calves, but not for older cattle. The stage of the
feeding period is also an important factor in determining the
form in which a feed should be fed. This is particularly true
in the case of cattle. The form in which any feed is fed must
be given thoughtful consideration in evaluating feeds.
"7. Differences in Vllue According to Howr Feed is Fed.
There may be as much as 5)0 percent or more different be-
tween the values of a feed, fed in a well-balanced ration, and
in a ration that is not well balanced."
Different feeds have different physical as well as chemi-
cal characteristics that may affect digestion under some con-
ditions. The feeder must know how to feed a given feed in
order that these characteristics may not do any harm.
With so much information printed in books, bulletins, cir-
culars and the agricultural press, the livestock feeder can
learn a great deal about food values if lie will study carefully
the material available.

FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL BEEF CATTLE
PRODUCTION ON GENERAL FARMS IN
WEST FLORIDA
The following should be considered in the beef cattle pro-
gram for West Florida, where crops are grown:
(1) The size of the farm; (2) the proportion of feed crops
that are concentrates and roughages and the proportion of
these feeds high in protein; (3) the amount and quality in
pastures. Can the cattle be grazed on open range or are they
confined to fenced pastures; (4) the regular labor supply avail-
able for tending livestock; (5) the amount of capital available
for fattening livestock; (6) the amount of capital invested in







BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


equipment; (7) and the adaptability of the operator to various
kinds of cattle production, etc.
Where farm herds are kept and the cattle or more or less
confined to the farm, and suitable feeds are raised to ade-
quately feed the herd, and where the steers are fed out on the
farm, it is best to raise a pound of concentrates for each pound
of roughage produced. If one specializes in purchasing feeder
cattle, the feed raised should be about in the proportion of 2
to 21/2 pounds of grain to each pound of roughage raised.
The importance of well bred animals is illustrated by (1)
well bred animals have a higher value at marketing time than
poorly bred; (2) the bull should be of high merit; (3) the
bulls should be of the same breed each year so as to properly
color the calves. Better bred cattle of the same breed bring
better prices than mixed breeds if of equal quality. They are
more attractive.
The price paid for a pure-bred bull depends upon the kind
and number of cows to be bred, and the attention given the
bull after he is bought. The bull may be used near his capacity
for service. Under present conditions and prices of cattle, cat-
tlemen can afford to pay for good 2-year-old bulls in a produc-
ing herd from $75 to $150 per head. It probably would be best
to pay for quality bulls from $125 to $150 per head.
To maintain a good herd from 10 to 20% of it should be
replaced annually with good heifers. These heifers may be
raised on the farm or on the range. To build up rapidly a
herd of half-breed cattle, from 50 to 75% of the best heifers
may be retained. With a replacement of 20% to 25% each year
effective and efficient culling is accomplished with excellent
replacements.
FEEDER STEERS
Those who have been feeding cattle for a number of years
realize more and more the importance of, (1st) breeding;
(2nd) feeding of a balanced ration consisting principally of
home-grown feeds; (3rd) the necessity of cattle being de-
horned. They refuse to feed horned cattle. (4th) On well-
bred cattle the importance of the feed period running from 120
to 180 days. (5th) The importance of buying these feeder
cattle as cheaply as possible. Breeding, feed and the length
of the feed period have an important relationship to price at
sale time. They prefer such breeds as high grade or pure bred
Herefords, Angus, and Shorthorns.
Some cattle feeders of this State are not particular about
where they buy their cattle, but the cattle must be of good
beef breeding, must be dehorned, and generally run in ages
from 11 to 2%/ years. They should show beef type. These










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SCORE CARD FOR FAT AND FEEDER BEEF CATTLE


SCALE OF POINTS





A. General Appearance-38 %
1. Weight, according to age; Es-
timated .-........ Ibs.; actual
..... ..... lbs.
2. Form, broad, deep, low set,
smooth, compact, cylindrical;
straight top and underline
stylish ...... ...........
3. Quality, loose, pliable skin of
medium thickness; dense,
clean, medium-sized bone; fine
soft hair .... .... .....................
4. Condition, deep, even covering I
of firm, mellow flesh, free from
patches, ties, lumps and rolls;
full cod and flank indicating
finish -- ....--... ..
B. Head and Neck--6%
5. Muzzle, broad; mouth large;
nostrils large and open ..-.
6. Eyes, large, clear, placid....
7. Face, short, jaws strong .._
8. Forehead, broad, full; ears me-
dium-sized, fine texture
9. Neck, short, thick, blending
smoothly with shoulders;
throat clean with light dew-lap
C. Forequarters-8%
10. Shoulder vein, full ...
11. Shoulders, smoothly covered,
compact, snug, and neat
12. Brisket, trim, neat; breast,
wide and full.......... .- ..... I
13. Legs, wide apart, straight,
short, arm full; shank fine
D. Body-30%
14. Chest, full, deep, wide; girth
large; crops full...
15. Ribs, long, arched, thickly and
smoothly fleshed
16. Back, broad, straight, thickly
and smoothly fleshed
17. Loin, thick, broad, evenly cov-
ered ------ .- ...----
18. Flank, full, even with under-
line .....
E. Hindquarters-18 %
19. Hips, smooth, evenly covered
20. Rump, long, wide, level; tail-
head, smooth; pin-bones wide I
apart, not prominent -..---------
21. Thighs, deep, full..----
22. Twist, deep, plump .......-..
23. Legs, wide apart, straight,
short, shanks fine, smooth_._


Animal No..-..-.....


Points Deficient


Animal No...----..


Points Deficient


Student's Corrected Student's Corrected
Score Score Score Score
I


101



101|____



8 1
|I














10 I









2
I











3 1





21
I
1

2 I

2 _

81
2 ___ ___________
32 ___ ____________
2 __________ i ___
l r ____ _


I I




I I


II


(Taken from the U. S. Dept. of Agri., Bureau of Animal Industry.)








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 83

feeders prefer the blocky, compact type of feeder steers. The
cattlemen of Florida have an excellent opportunity to furnish
feeder cattle to tie feed lots of Florida. Generally feeder cat-
tle demand higher prices than normally prevail on butcher
cattle, for the reason that if they are good butcher cattle, the
buyer of feeder steers has active competition from the packers.
The feeders of cattle naturally must have some selection. 1st,
to get uniform colors or breeding; 2nd. to get uniform
weights: and 3rd, to get uniform quality.

FEEDING CATTLE FOR BEEF
Beef cattle production furnishes one of the best ways for
the economical use of grain and roughages raised on the farm.
Seventy-five percent of the fertilizing constituents of feeds
consumed by livestock is returned in the manure, and for this
reason feeding operations can be made to assist materially in
restoring fertility to the soil, and reduce purchases of ferti-
lizers which cost Florida farmers $16,000,000 annually. Save
and use more barnyard fertilizer.

TWO METHODS OF FATTENING CATTLE
There are two methods of finishing cattle for beef,-fatten-
ing in the dry lot and fattening on grass.
Where grade herds are maintained for beef, the calf crop
is usually fed out by the producer on farms combining live-
stock and grain farming. The calves are fattened and mar-
keted as yearlings, either by allowing the calves to run with
their dams on pasture, with the addition of a grain ration,
creep-fed, or pasturing calves separately, giving them access
to grain in a creep-feeder in addition to nursing two or three
times a day. Spring calves handled in this way are weaned
in the fall and then put in the feed lot where liberal rations
are fed for a period of six to eight months.

SELECTING FEEDERS
The price, according to age, weight, grade, quality, uni-
formity, and condition, should govern the selection of stock
for feeders. There is greater economy in feeding high quality
stock. High-grade steers make better use of feed and will
produce a larger percentage of the high priced cuts.
The kind of feeds available and the length of feeding period
should govern the age of cattle to feed. Younger animals
require a longer feeding period. The feed of young cattle is
used either for maintenance, growth, or fat. More of the feed
above that required for maintenance goes toward fat formation
as growth ceases, and older cattle will fatten in less time.
An abundance of feed permits the profitable feeding of










84 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FEEDER AND STOCKER CATTLE SCHEDULE
(Department Bulletin 1464, U. S. D. A.)


Subclass Age selection


Class
















Steers ....
























Heifers....










Cows --









Bulls -


j All ages


Feeder












I




Stocker











Feeder--





Stocker




Feeder.-




IStocker_



Feeder-




Stocker.


Weight selection


Lightweight, 850 lbs.
down ..--..----------




Medium weight, 850
to 1,000 lbs.... _-




Heavyweight,
1,000 up -------------




Lightweight, 600 Ibs.
down-...-............---




Medium weight, 600
to 750 lbs.-------------




Heavyweight, 750
lbs. up.-...............





All weights .......------





....... do .-...... ..--- .....




.... do.......---. --- -..




---...do ........-- -...




-... do ---..~........--..-




---- do--....---- ......- ..-


Grade

SFancy or No. Al
Choice or No.1
Good or No. 2
SMedium or No. 3
Common or No. 4
Inferior or No. 5
Fancy or No. Al
Choice or No.1
Good or No. 2
Medium or No. 3
Common or No. 4
Inferior or No. 5
TFancy or No. Al
Choice or No.1
Good or No. 2
Medium or No. 3
Common or No. 4
Inferior or No. 5
TFancy or No. Al
Choice or No.1
Good or No. 2
Medium or No. 3
Common or No. 4
Inferior or No. 5
Fancy or No. Al
Choice or No.1
Good or No. 2
SMedium or No. 3
Common or No. 4
Inferior or No. 5
Fancy or No. Al
Choice or No.1
Good or No. 2
Medium or No. 3
fCommon or No. 4
Inferior or No. 5
{Fancy or No. Al
Choice or No.1
Good or No. 2
Medium or No. 3
Common or No. 4
Inferior or No. 5
SFancy or No. Al
Choice or No.1
Good or No. 2
Medium or No. 3
Common or No. 4
Inferior or No. 5
Choice or No.1
J Good or No. 2
Medium or No. 3
Common or No. 4
Inferior or No. 5
Choice or No.1
Good or No. 2
Medium or No. 3
Common or No. 4
Inferior or No. 5
Choice or No.1
Good or No. 2
Medium or No. 3
Common or No. 4
Inferior or No. 5
Choice or No.1
Good or No. 2
SMedium or No. 3
ICommon or No. 4
Inferior or No. 5








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


younger cattle, although older cattle make better use of rough-
ages.
A difference of three or four months in age shows in the
size of young cattle, but is not seen in the older cattle which
have a more uniform finish.

TIME TO BUY FEEDERS
It is best to buy early in the fall if low grades of cattle are
purchased for immediate dry lot fattening. This will permit
the marketing of them late in winter or early in spring. The
lower grades usually reach their best prices before June. Best
quality steers may bring a good price later in the season.
Purchase feeders in the fall if they are to be finished on
grass with sufficient roughage to carry them through the win-
ter. Only fairly mature feeders should be bought in the spring
if they are to be finished on grass the following summer. Buy
feeders when you believe they can be bought worth the money
whether spring, summer, fall or winter.

DRY LOT FEEDING
Highly finished beef cattle is produced by feeding consider-
able quanttities of grain with roughage. To accomplish best
results requires scientific and practical handling of the herd
in dry lot.
FATTENING CATTLE IN THE DRY LOT
(U. S. Dept. of Agr. Bulletin No. 1592.)
Fattening or carbohydrate feeds should be fed in conjunc-
tion with roughages and supplemented with feeds rich in pro-
tein.
Protein concentrates, such as cottonseed meal or cake, are
used generally in rations in which straw, stovers, or silage
makes up the roughage. Purchase the feed that will supply
protein most cheaply. Cottonseed meal having a protein con-
tent of 45 percent and priced at $25 a ton will supply protein
more cheaply than 36 percent meal at $20 a ton.
Carbohydrates with roughages should be supplemented
with feeds rich in protein.
The roughages used in dry lot feeding determine largely the
most desirable type of ration to feed. Where legume hays are
plentiful a dry ration is in more general use, whereas with
grass hays, stovers, and straws as the principal source of dry
roughage, silage usually makes up a very important part of
the ration. Dry rations are used during short feeding periods
and for feeder cattle weighing over 800 pounds. Silage rations
are recommended for the lighter weight feeders being fed a
longer period.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


The quantity of corn necessary for the development of a
2-year-old feeder into a finished or fat animal is estimated at
approximately 50 bushels. This animal would be expected to
gain around 250 pounds or probably more if well bred, less of
course if poorly bred. Young cattle make greater gains than
mature ones on the same quantity of feed. These animals
should gain approximately 225 to 300 pounds while in the feed
lot. The average cattle feeder has more experience with 2-
year-old steers in Florida, therefore he is probably more suc-
cessful with them than with cattle of younger ages, particu-
larly calves. To finish out calves requires more care as well
as more experience in feeding to put the finish on them. Young
steers under 15 months of age require more grain to finish or
less roughage, while older cattle can be finished on less grain
and more roughage. With all cattle, only sulticient roughage
to well condition the cattle is necessary, if a high finish is ex-
pected. It takes primarily a grain ration to put the top finish
on a tol bunch of cattle.
With a corn-and-peavine hay or clover-hay ration the average
cattle feeder obtains a gain of 100 pounds on 3-year-old steers
with approximately 950 pounds of corn and 435 pounds of hay.
Two-year-olds require from 93 to 95 percent as much feed as
3-year-olds; yearlings 85 to 90 percent; and calves 70 to 75
percent.
STARTING CATTLE ON FEED
No definite rules exist for starting beef cattle on a fatten-
ing ration. The first few weeks in the feed lot is a very critical
period for the feeder steer, which should be started on limited
quantities of concentrates and with very gradual increases
during the first 30 days. Roughages of good quality may be
fed in any quantity.

SALT FOR FATTENING CATTLE
Block (or barrel) salt should be kept where the cattle can
get it at all times. When cattle are supplied a variety of feeds,
including legumes, there appears less need of supplying min-
erals other than salt. Fattening steers consume from three-
fourths to 11/2 ounces of salt per head per day.

MINERAL DEFICIENCY
When the grasses and other feeds that cattle eat are defici-
ent in iron and copper, there will be irregularity in breeding
with a resultant small number of calves. Calcium (lime) and
phosphorous are necessary for good bone development; grow-
ing calves need these elements. The different compartments
of the mineral boxes should be regularly replenished and the
minerals placed so that the herd may have access to them








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


wherever they are feeding. Steamed bone meal. common salt,
and salt lick which is composed of common salt, 100 pounds;
red oxide of iron, 25 pounds; and powdered copper sulphate,
1 pound, well mixed together, should be put in one of the com-
partments of the mineral box.

MINERALS FOR LIVESTOCK
Practically every State in the Union has its problems as
related to mineral deficiencies. Some of these States have
mineral deficiencies of major importance as related to major
minerals. Others have their troubles as related to what are
termed minor minerals.
Not only must livestock have carbohydrates, fats and pro-
teins, but they must have water, minerals and air. Livestock
do not require a large percent of minerals in their rations,
but such requirements as they need are very important if
proper development of the animal is to take place.
Calcium and phosphorus constitute about 75~ of the min-
eral matter of the body, and about 90'/o of the mineral matter
of the bones of farm animals. Practically all of the calcium,
and about four-fifths of the phosphorus of the body are present
in the teeth and bones, the remaining calcium is found prin-
cipally in the tissues and blood, the remaining phosphorus is
in combination with proteins, etc.
Naturally if animals do not get these elements in suf-
ficient quantity from food eaten, they will have to be supplied
in the form of bone meal or from other mineral sources. Good
bone development is dependent upon an adequate supply of
calcium and phosphorus.
An adequate supply of calcium and phosphorus for nutri-
tion are dependent upon the following factors:
1st. The animal.
2nd. The presence of vitamin 1).
3rd. An adequate supply of calcium and phosphorus.
4th. A substantial ratio between calcium and phosphorus.
5th. Sunlight.
The absorption and use of calcium and phosphorus, as
well as other minerals, is dependent upon the absorption of
the elements from the alimentary canal into the blood stream,
and deposition of these elements into the bones or other parts
of the body. It is very important that an adequate supply
of these elements be present in the feeds. These should be
used so that a proportionate balance between calcium and
phosphorus is maintained. The normal calcium and phos-
phorus rations are thought to be in the ratio of 2 to 1, or 1
to 2. An excessive amount of one to the other interferes with








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


the absorption of one or the other. Deficiencies of phosphorus
and lime (calcium) usually occur as result of an inadequate
amount of these elements in plants on soils being grazed, or
an unbalanced condition of these elements as related one to
the other, or the lacking of one of these elements where the
other is present.
It is best to add phosphate and/or lime to the land and
use it through plants. Bone meal should generally be kept
before all Florida cattle on grass. It is also advisable to keep
salt sick mixtures, as well as salt, before these cattle at all
times. Cobalt has been found to be of material help in many
instances. A cobalt solution may be added to bone meal, salt,
or salt sick mixtures, thereby materially helping to overcome
mineral deficiencies.
FEEDS FOR THE CALF
Feeds which the calf should have are divided into two
groups: "concentrates" and "roughages." The concentrates
include either whole or ground grains and their by-products,
such as corn, oats, velvet beans, rye, bran, cottonseed cake,
peanut meal, and linseed-oil meal. Roughages are of two kinds.
dry roughages, such as hay, stover, and straw, and succulent
roughages, which include silage and root crops. Pasture
grasses or plants such as Bermuda, Lespedza, Johnson, Car-
pet, Dallis, Bahia and Para are classed as succulent rough-
ages, also winter pasture, which may be obtained by grazing
oats, rye, soy beans, cowpeas, velvet beans, white clover, or
other crops sown to mature at the time pasture is desired.
Most feeds contain protein, carbohydrates, and fats, but
many are deficient in some on of these important compounds.

THE VALUE OF CREEP FEEDING CALVES
Texas used 577 calves on test to show the benefits of creep
feeding. 255 head were not creep fed while 322 were. The
creep fed calves made an average of 60 pounds per head more
gain than non-creep fed. They were more uniform in grade,
easier to handle, and were more desirable for feeders. They
sold from 97c per hundred to $1.00 higher at market time.
The mothers of creep fed calves made an average gain of
40 pounds a head greater than non-creep fed; they came into
heat earlier, and gave a larger calf crop the following season.
The creep fed calves made it profitable to feed them.

FEED TERMS EXPLAINED
Concentrates-Grains, cottonseed meal and tankage, which
are rich, concentrated, and supply a large amount of feed per
unit weight.








BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


Roughages--Hay. straw, roots and silage, which are coarse
and bulky in nature.
Legumes-Lespedza, clovers, alfalfa, cowpeas, soy beans.
and peanuts. These plants have nodules on their roots con-
taining bacteria which can take nitrogen from the air. Legumes
are richer in protein and minerals than grasses.
Xutrients-Substances in feeds which nourish animals.
Proteins-The only nutrient which can produce growth and
make repairs in the animal's body. Proteins include such
feeds as lean meat. skim milk, wheat bran, cottonseed meal,
tankage, fishmeal, peanut meal, etc. These are some of the
feeds which contain relatively large amount of protein.
Carbohydrates and Fats-These are the nutrients which
produce fat, heat and power to do work in the animal's body.
Fat is about 214 times as valuable for these purposes as car-
bohydrates. Feeds containing large amounts of starch and
sugar are rich in carbohydrates, while those containing large
amounts of fat are contained in oily feeds.
Mineral Matter -Nutrients used principally to build the
skeleton, hair, hoof, horn, etc. Legume hays, bran, linseed
meal, peanut meal, skim milk, have relatively large amounts
of mineral matter.
Vitamins-Substances found in feeds in very small quan-
tities which are necessary for growth, reproduction and pro-
tection against diseases.
Crude Fiber-The coarse, woody part of plants, one of the
carbohydrates much less digestible than sugars or starches.
Tankage-Waste matter from tanks; especially the dried
nitrogenous residue from tanks in which fat has been rendered,
used as a feeding stuff.
Ration-The quantity of feed given an animal during one
day. There are several kinds of rations, namely starvation
ration, maintenance ration, productive ration.
Balanced Ration-A ration which contains the right pro-
portion of nutrients to nourish properly the animal to which
it is fed.
Nutritirc Ratio-Is the relationship which exists between
carbohydrate and fat equivalent to that of protein. Invari-
ably steers require 1 pound of digestible protein to 7 or 8
pounds of digestible carbohydrates or carbohydrate equiva-
lent. (Henry & Morrison.)
Feeders should provide themselves with an authorized book
on feeding as a means to scientifically prepare balanced foods
for cattle.
PROTEIN
Protein is that part of the feed which builds lean meat,
hair, and hide. Carbohydrates and fats form animal fat, and








90 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

are classed together as carbohydrates. Those concentrates
which are high in carbohydrates and fats usually contain little
protein. Mineral matter, which builds bones, lean meat, and
blood, is a very necessary part of feeds.
Legume hay is used to supply a large part of the protein
needed in the ration. Hays and roughages, both dry and suc-
culent, should be used in the ration for they aid digestion.
A calf's ration (feeds for one day) should include at least
one feed containing a large amount of protein and two or more
carbohydrates, such as corn, oats, or barley. This makes "a
balanced ration" and should be fed if possible.

PROTEIN FEEDS
Concentrates: Roughages:
Cottonseed meal Alfalfa hay
Linseed-oil meal Lespedeza
Velvet beans Peanut hay
Peanut meal Legume forage
Soy beans
CARBOHYDRATE FEEDS
Concentrates: vI', 1h,1 :
Gras hays (Bermuda, Johnson
Corn grass, etc.)
Straws (oat, etc.)
Oats Corn or sorghum stover
Corn or sorghum silage
Rye Roots, Pasture grasses

RATIONS AND SUBSTITUTES FOR CALVES
Feed: Substitutes:
Corn.................... Oats, or other feeds high in carbohy-
drates and fats.
Oats ....................Bran, ground oats, coarse middlings.
Bran .................. Ground oats, coarse middlings.
Cottonseed meal ......... Cottonseed cake, linseed-oil meal,
peanut meal, velvet bean feed, soy
bean meal, or other feeds high ir
protein.
Corn stover............. Oat straw, other straws or stovers.
Feed just the quantity the calf will eat. Provide a variety
of hays. Calves can use cheap roughages to advantage, but
good legume hays give better results. Well-cured, bright, corn
stover or oat straw will supply a part of the needed rough-
age, and aid the calf's appetite and digestion. Do not over-
feed the calf.
Provide good pasture. Exercise good judgment when pas-
turing legumes or winter pasture crops, permitting short
periods of pasturing when the calf is first allowed to graze.









BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 91


FEED FOR GROWING CALVES
Two to three pounds of grain ration is sufficient to keep
calves in a growing condition.
The following grain mixtures are recommended:
Ration 1
Corn ............... .................... 100 pounds
Ground oats................................. 100 pounds
Ration 2
('orn .... ... ............. ...... ... ............. 100 pounds
;round oats ........ ............................ 100 pounds
B ran ..................... ..... .............. 100 pounds


Ration .3
Corn ........................ ..............
G round oats............... .................
W heat bran ............. .....................
I.inseed meal...................... .........
Ration
Corn ............ ........ .. ............
G round oats....................................
W heat bran ............ ..... ............ ......
Cottonseed meal ................................

(hain mixtures for larger calves:
Ration I
Ground snapped corn ...... ............. .......
Oats ................. ....................
B ran ................... ......................
Cottonseed meal ................... ..........


pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds

pluntds
pounds
pounds
pounds



pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds


iRation 2
Ground snapped corn ................... .. ..... 200 pounds
Velvet bean feed meal. .......................... 100 pounds
Oats ............................................. 100 pounds
Ration J
Ground snapped corn. .......................... 200 pounds
O ats ........................................... 200 pounds
Cottonseed meal.............................. 50 pounds

RATIONS FOR WINTERING CALVES WEIGHING
ABOUT 400 POUNDS
t


No. 1 Lbs.
Corn or sorgo silage........... 12
Clover, soybean, or cowpea hay.. 5

No. 2
Corn or sorgo silage........... 15
Oat, rye, or wheat straw....... 15
Cottonseed meal or linseed meal. 1

No. 3
Corn and soybean silage........ 15
Corn stover or straw.......... 6
Cottonseed meal or linseed meal. '%


o 0. 4 LbS.
Corn or sorgo silage............ 15
Mixed hay or stover............ 6
Cottonseed meal or linseed meal. 'V
No. 5
Corn or sorgo silage........... 15
Lespedeza or pea vine hay..... 10
Velvet beans in pod............ 4
No. 6
Iespedeza or pea vine hay...... 7
Grass hay, straw, or stover...... 2
Cottonseed meal, linseed meal or
peanut meal .................. 1


T








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


RULES OF FEEDING
1. Provide a variety of feeds at all times, if possible.
2. Do not make sudden changes in the feeds used or in the
amounts given.
3. Do not overfeed the calf. Feed as much grain as it will
clean up in 30 minutes.
4. Do not underfeed the calf. It should make a continuous
gain.
5. Do not annoy or disturb the calf unnecessarily.
6. Do not feed moldy, musty, or spoiled feeds.
7. To waste time in feeding or preparing feeds needlessly in-
creases the cost of grains. Grain should be fed whole ex-
cept when teaching the calf to eat and possibly also near
the end of the fitting or finishing period.

FEED AND CARE OF THE BREEDING HEIFER
As the breeding heifer gets older, cheaper and more bulky
feeds are used, but fed liberally. Daily rations consisting of
15 to 20 pounds of silage, 4 or 5 pounds of legume hay, with a
small amount of other roughage. Stover straw or cheap hays
will prove to be economical. Good silage is very good feed
for the heifer. As a substitute, sufficient grain as recom-
mended for older calves may be fed with the addition of rough-
ages to assure satisfactory growth.
Keep the heifer on pasture.
When 20 months old the heifer may be bred. Increase the
ration during the gestation period so as to promote the heifer's
growth and for the development of the fetus or young calf.
Minerals and common salt should be included in the ration,
especially lime and phosphorus.
Reduce the bulking part of the ration previous to calving
time, and substitute some laxative feeds such as bran, oats,
and linseed-oil meal. Animals on pasture need no change in
the ration. Legume hays should be fed during the winter.
Corn, cottonseed meal, or similar feeds should be fed previous
to calving time. ,
Be sure the heifer is not disturbed by other animals. Keep
her away from rough, steep hillsides.
Let the cow care for the calf after it has been dropped. It
is important that the calf get the cow's first milk, and both
cow and calf should be carefully watched.

VALUE OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT FOR
STEER FEEDING
The following summary covers four experiments, averaging
132 days with 2-year-old steers, in which a nitrogenous supple-
ment was added to a ration of corn and a carbonaceous rough-
age.










BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


The addition of the protein supplement increased the aver-
age daily gain 0.6 pound a day and reduced the total concen-
trates required to produce 100 pounds gain from 1,082 pounds
to 862 pounds and the roughage from 622 pounds to 402 pounds.

The addition of cottonseed meal as a supplement to the
grass increased the daily gain. The use of the protein supple-
iment increased the selling prices of the cattle, so that they
Made a much greater profit than the cattle receiving grass
alone.

SUMMARY OF FOUR FEEDING EXPERIMENTS SHOWING THE VALUE
OF A PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT *

Feed per 100 pounds gain


Number Average Concentrates
Ration of daily Carbo-
steers gain naceous
Protein roughage
Corn supple-
ment

Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn and carbonaceous roughage_. 44 1.60 1,082 522
Corn, protein supplement, and car-
bonaceous roughage .......-.. 54 2.20 766 .96 402

Bulletin references: Illinois Experiment Station Bulletin 83; Indiana Experi-
ment Station Bulletin 115; Nebraska Experiment Station Bulletins 90 and 93.

COST OF A POUND OF PROTEIN WHEN THE PERCENTAGE OF PROTEIN
IN THE FEED AND THE PRICE PER TON ARE KNOWN


Cost of 1 pound of protein when percentage of protein is-


Price of feed
per ton



$ 5.00 -
$ 7.50
$10.00
$12.50
$15.00 ----
$17.50
$20.00 ...
$22.50
$25.00 ...
$27.50
$30.00
$32.50
$35.00 ---
$37.50 .
$40.00
$42.50 ---
$45.00 ------


$55.00
$57.50
$60.00
$62.50 -- ..---
$65.00 .- ......-


15 20

Cents Cents
1.67 1.25
2.50 1.87
3.33 2.50
S4.17 3.13
5.00 3.75
5.83 4.37
6.67 5.00
S7.50 5.63
8.33 6.25
9.17 6.87
10.00 7.50
10.83 8.12
11.67 8.75
S12.50 9.37
13.33 10.00
S14.17 10.62
S15.00 11.25
| 15.83 11.87
16.67 12.50
S17.50 13.12
18.33 13.75
19.17 14.37
20.00 15.00
S20.83 15.62
1 21.67 16.25


25 30 35 40 45 50


Cents Cents
1.00 0.83
1.50 1.25
2.00 1.66
2.50 2.08
3.00 2.50
3.50 2.91
4.00 3.33
4.50 3.75
5.00 4.16
5.50 4.58
6.00 5.00
S 6.50 5.41
S7.00 5 .83
S7.50 6.25
S8.00 6.66
8.50 7.08
9.00 7.50
9.50 7.91
S10.00 8.33
S10.50 8.74
S11.00 9.16
11.50 9.58
12.00 10.00
S12.50 10.41
13.00 | 10.83


Cents
0.72
1.07
1.43
1.79
2.15
2.50
2.86
3.21
3.57
3.93
4.29
4.64
5.00
5.36
5.72
6.07
6.43
6.79
7.14
7.50
7.86
8.21
8.57
8.93
9.29


Cents Cents
0.63 0.56
.94 .83
1.25 1.11
1.56 1.39
1.88 1.67
2.19 1.94
2.50 2.22
2.81 2.50
3.12 2.78
3.43 3.05
3.76 3.33
4.06 3.61
4.38 3.89
4.69 4.17
5.00 4.44
5.31 4.72
5.62 5.00
5.93 5.28
6.25 5.56
6.56 5.83
6.88 6.11
7.19 6.39
7.50 6.67
7.81 6.95
8.13 7.23
















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A part of a good Angus herd knee deep in grass in Florida









BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


RATIONS FOR HERD BULLS
No. 1
Cowpea or peanut hay..................... 10 to 12 pounds
Ground snapped corn ...................... 4 pounds
Cottonseed meal ........................... 2 pounds


No. 2
Cowpea or peanut hay......................
Ground snapped corn ......................
V elvet beans in pod ........................
No. 3
Corn, sorghum or sugarcane silage..........
Cowpea or peanut hay. ..................
Ground snapped corn ......................
Cottonseed m eal ......................... .


10 to 12 pounds
2 to 3 pounds
2 to 3 pounds

15 pounds
5 pounds
2 to 3 pounds
1 to 2 pounds


RATIONS FOR DRY, PREGNANT COWS, WEIGHING
ABOUT 1,000 POUNDS


No. 1 Lbs.
Corn or sorgo silage............ 30
Lespedeza hay ................ 5
Straw ................... Unlimited

Xo. 2
Corn or sorgo silage........... 35
Corn stover ................... 10
Cottonseed meal or linseed meal. 1
No. 3
Corn silage .................... 35
Cottonseed hulls or grain straw. 10
Cottonseed meal ............... 11 /


No. 4 Lbs.
Lespedeza hay ................. 5
Mixed or grass hay............ 15
B arley ........................ 2

No. 5
Corn or sorgo silage............ 30
O at hay ....................... 10
B arley ........................ 2
No. 6
Sorgo silage ................... 40
Lespedeza or pea vine hay...... 5
Velvet beans in pod............ 2


SIGNIFICANT FACTORS IN WINTERING BEEF CATTLE
AT LOW COST-GOOD COWS
Corws. (1) Very thin cows should be fed enough to gain
from 100 to 125 pounds to offset calving losses. (2) Cows in
fair condition need to be fed only enough to maintain body
weight-a maintenance ration. (3) Fleshy cows may lose con-
siderable weight during the winter without harm, provided
their condition does not go below fair. (4) Thin cows pro-
duce as large calves at birth as fat cows; they produce as
large calves at weaning time as fat cows provided feeder grass
is plentiful enough during the spring and summer to insure
sufficient milk for the calves. (5) Cows fat or in good condi-
tion in the fall, winter much more easily than thin cows.
Special efforts should be made to keep cows in good flesh as
far into the winter as possible to save feed. (6) When calves
have good size in the fall it is advisable to wean them to save
feed on the cow. (7) Calving time is the hardest time for the cow.
If winter hangs on and the cows are in poor condition, the
cow and calf may both (lie at calving time. Young cows or








96 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

heifers expecting to calf in the winter or early spring should
be separated from the herd and fed liberally.

Steers and Young Stock-Steers can be wintered easier
than cows or calves. They may be fed more sparingly even on
the same feeds. Calves may be brought through the winter
in good thrifty condition by giving them 5 pounds of hay per
day plus oat straw-all they will eat. Young yearlings can
be brought through the winter on even less. Cattle do not
need much shelter in some southern sections other than brush
or timber for wintering but they need water and salt. Rough-
age is the principal feed used in wintering dry cattle. The
cost of the roughage per ton and the amount necessary to get
the cows through the winter is important. Oat hay makes an
excellent feed for cows in winter.

Bulls-Bulls may be fed on the same feed as breeding cows
but in larger proportions.


SUGGESTED RATIONS FOR WINTERING BEEF
BREEDING COWS
Daily Allowance for Cows Weighing 600 to 800 Pounds
No. 1
Cottonseed cake ......................... 2.5 pounds
The cake should be fed in feed bunks in
the pasture, the cow receiving some
roughage from the pasture.

No. 2
Cowpea, peanut or beggarweed hay......... 10 pounds
Cottonseed meal .......................... 1 to 2 pounds

No. 3
Corn, sorghum or sugarcane silage.......... 15 to 20 pounds
Peanut or cowpea hay....................... 3 to 5 pounds
Cottonseed meal ........................... I to 2 pounds

No. 4
Corn, sorghum or sugarcane silage.......... 20 to 30 pounds
Cottonseed meal .......................... 1 to 2 pounds
No. 5
Corn, sorghum or sugarcane silage.......... 20 to 30 pounds
Cottonseed meal ...... ..................... 1 pound
Velvet beans ............................. 2 to 3 pounds
No. 6
Velvet beans grazed in the field. Beans grown
with corn and larger ears of corn harvested,
leaving smaller ears to be grazed with beans.









BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA 97


OTHER RATIONS FOR COWS


No. 1 Lbs.
Corn silage ................ 25 to 80
Cereal straw or stover.... Unlimited
Cottonseed meal ........... 1 to 1l

No. 2 Lbs.
Corn (or sorgo) silage.....25to 30
Cottonseed meal ........... 1 to 11
Winter pasture


No. 3 Lbs.
Grass hay or stover.........18 to 20
Cottonseed meal or cake .... .1 to 2


No. 4 Lbs.
Sorghum silage ............30 to 85
Stover or cereal straw....Unlimited
Cottonseed meal or cake........ 11/


In experiments conducted in the Southeast by the Bureau
of Animal Industry in which the cake was fed in troughs in
the pasture, it was found after several years' work that the
feeding of cottonseed cake to cattle on pasture caused the cat-
tle to fatten more rapidly, to develop greater finish, and to
make greater profits in most cases than with similar cattle
which received pasture alone.


Daily rations suitable for fattening cattle on grass follow:


FOR AN 850-POUND FEEDER STEER

No. 1

10 pounds cracked shelled corn (135
days).
Grass pasture (135 days).

No. 2

8 pounds corn-and-cob meal (12C
days).
2 pounds cottonseed cake (last 90
days).
Grass pasture (120 days).

No. 3
12 pounds cracked shelled corn (last
90 days).
Grass pasture (150 days).


FOR CALVES SUCKLING DAMS

No. 1

Grain mixture fed in self-feeder with-
in creep ground shelled corn 5
parts by weight, oats 2 parts, lin-
seed meal, 1 part.
Grass pasture (with dams).
(A calf will consume from 2% to 8
pounds of grain.)

Grain and grass (150 days).

No. 2
Grain mixture fed in self-feeder-
ground, shelled corn 4 parts by
measure, oats 2 parts, wheat bran
1 part.
Grass pasture-separate from dams.
Calves allowed to nurse twice daily.
Grain and grass (150 days).










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SUGGESTED METHOD OF INCREASING FEEDS IN THE RATION FOR
FATTENING STEERS OF VARIOUS WEIGHTS

Daily feed per head for first day and at beginning of stated periods


Ration and weight of steers 0





Corn and legume-hay ration: I
400-pound steers- Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lba Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs.
Corn----.....--------------.. 3 5 7 8 10 12 15 16 16 15 ..
Hay-..-------......... 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5
600-pound steers-
Corn.-----------... ---------...... 4 6 8 10 14 16 20 20 18 ..
Hay --.---- ----------- 6 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 6 .
800-pound steers-
Corn....................- 5 7 10 13 18 20 22 20 .
Hay----...-..--....- ..... -8 10 10 10 10 9 8 8
1,000-pound steers--
Corn----................. 6 8 12 16 20 24 24
Hay----------------.... ... 10 12 12 10 10 10 8 ..
Silage ration:
400-pound steers-
Corn--------... .......... 3 4 4 5 7 9 10 11 12 13 14
Protein meal............. ---1 1% 1% 1% 2 2 2 23H
Hay '-....-.-------- ....- 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Silage-.......---....-- -- 6 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 6 5
600-pound steers-
Corn--..-...- ..........-- 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 14 14 14
Protein meal--.......-- ... % 1 I 13 1% 2 2% 3 2% .--
Hay...--............... -4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4, 4 ...
Silage---.............-- 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 8 6 --
800-pound steers-
Corn--................ 4 6 8 10 12 16 1 6 16 16 ..- -
Protein meal-....--..-... -- 1 1I I 1 1% 2 2% 3 3 -...
Hay--.... ------.......... 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 4 ..
Silage................ -------10 15 16 16 16 16 14 12 10 .
1,000-pound steers-
Corn-..........------.....-...... 5 7 8 12 18 18 18 18
Protein meal ........- 1% 2 2Y 2% 2% 2% 2 ...
Iay..............-- ...... 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4
Silage-----......--..- ..- 10 20 20 20 20 18 15 12 ---.

I Legume hay, such as alfalfa, clover, soy bean, or cowpea.
'The hay in silage ration may be a mixed hay or any of the grass hays.


SUGGESTED RATIONS FOR YEARLING STEERS OR SPAYED HEIFERS AND
FOR HEIFERS THAT ARE TO BE ADDED TO THE BREEDING HERD
(Quantities of feeds are for each 100 pounds of live weight)


Feeds in ration






Corn silage ---.....--
Wheat straw ..- ....
Protein concentrate ..
Mixed or legume hay


Average daily quantity of feed for-


Steers or spayed
heifers

Ration 1 Ration 2


Pounds Pounds
35 35
8 --- __
1.5 .. ---
5


Breeding heifers


Ration 3 Ration 4


Pounds Pounds
35 30
6
6 -.-. ......
2.5 -----
-------. 8









BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA


SUGGESTED SCHEDULE OF INCREASING FEEDS IN THE RATION FOR
FATTENING CALVES

Daily feed per head for first day and at beginning of stated periods

Feed
d Firstee T F Sec- Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Sev- Eighth
sond Third Fourth nd enth
wee week week on month month month month month
week eek month month

L. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb.
Corn-------........ --..... 3 4 4 5 7 9 10 11 12 13 14
Protein concentrate. 3 % 1 Y% 1 1 2 2 21 2%
Hayi -..-....... 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Silage........ --- 6 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 6 5

I Preferably legume hay, such as alfalfa, clover, soybean, cowpea, or lespedeza.


TWO-YEAR-OLD STEERS
According to Henry's "Feeds and Feeding," 2-year-old steers
to be fattened and on full feed per (lay, for 1000 pounds live
weight, require from 1.7 to 2.1 pounds of digestible crude pro-
tein daily; or they require a total of digestible nutrients from
151/2 to 181/ pounds; or a nutritive ratio 1:7 1:8.

Some additional rations for fattening 2-year-old steers,
basis 1000 pounds live weight:

No. 1
Corn silage .............................. 40 pounds
Oat straw, all animal will eat
Velvet beans in pod .................. .... 12 to 14 pounds

No. 2
Corn silage ............................... 40 pounds
Legume hay .............................. 3 to 4 pounds
Velvet beans in pod ...................... 12 pounds

No. 3
Corn silage ............................... 40 pounds
Cowpea hay ............................... 2 pounds
Shelled corn .............................. 15 to 18 pounds
Cottonseed meal .......................... 2 to 3 pounds
and follow steers with hogs

No. 4
Corn silage ............................. .0 pounds
Oat straw, all animal will eat
Shelled corn ............................... 15 to 18 pounds
Cottonseed meal ........................... 3 to 4 pounds
Follow steers with hogs

No. 5
Corn and velvet beans in the field
Cottonseed meal ........................... 2 to 4 pounds









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


No. 6
Corn silage ............................... 40 pounds
Corn ...................................... 7 pounds
Velvet beans ........................... 7 pounds
No. 7
Corn ..................................... 10 pounds
Velvet beans ............................. 5 to 7 pounds
and all the grass or peanut hay the animal
will eat
No. 8
Peanut or peavine hay or mixed grasses with
peanut or peavine hay, all animal will eat,
and-
Corn ...................................... 7 to 8 pounds
Velvet beans ............................... 4 pounds
Cottonseed meal .......................... 2 to 3 pounds

In getting steers on feed requires careful management.
Gradually increase the quantity of feed in the ration, studying
and observing carefully the steers to see that they are not over
fed. If many steers are fed it is advisable to have a hospital
feed pen. The time required to finish animals in the feed lot
depends upon the age of the animal, the breeding of the ani-
mal, the feeds given to the animal and the length of the feeding
period. Well bred steers 2 years old may be fed from 5 to 6
months at a profit. The kind of markets to which the animal
is sold, the number of steers generally on feed, etc., will deter-
mine largely how long to feed them. Too many steers are
being sold unfinished. Older cattle usually fatten faster than
younger ones, or younger cattle usually require a longer fat-
tening period. In general, concentrates should be increased
as the feeding period advances.

FATTENING STEERS FOR MARKET
Many feeds are produced in north Florida suitable for fat-
tening steers for market. Those selected for such purpose
should be considered on account of cheapness and their rela-
tive feeding value for fattening. Steers may be fattened in
the beginning by grazing such field crops as corn and velvet
beans. The following are some rations for fattening steers in
feed lots as recommended by the Agricultural Experiment
Station, University of Florida, in their Bulletin 260:
No. 1
Silage .................................... 30 to 40 pounds
Cottonseed meal ........................... 3 to 6 pounds
No. 2
Silage .................................... 30 to 40 pounds
Cowpea, peanut or grass hay................ 2 to 4 pounds
Cottonseed meal ........................... to 6 pounds




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