Title Page
 Growing roses
 Flowering annuals
 Planting guide
 Herbaceous perennials for various...

Title: Flowering plants grown in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089043/00001
 Material Information
Title: Flowering plants grown in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Mayo, Nathan,
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture,
Publication Date: 1936
Copyright Date: 1936
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089043
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: akd9456 - LTUF
28551888 - OCLC
001962779 - AlephBibNum

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Growing roses
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Flowering annuals
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Planting guide
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Herbaceous perennials for various locations
        Page 93
        Page 94
Full Text

ill ~ N~~v Scijes October. i9:~;













Flowering Plants


In Florida


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New Selriess

October. 1936

in 5!)

I N 1 EX

Introduction -.. ......- ------ ------ ----.--------- -- ----..-----.. -- ..
Styles of Planting ........ ---- ---------- ...... -----------
(Irowing Roses ................ -------...... - -----
'Classification ..--.....------- ---.--------. 10)
Locating the Rose gardenn ...-.- ----. ... 11
W after Supply .......-....- 12
Soil Preparation ................----------- - ---------- 12
I propagating ........ -.... ---. -- -- ----..-. -- -- -- 12
I'lanting .-... 2............- - ----- - .... ..
(Cultivating .........1....- --------------.... 13
Fertilizing .... ................. 1
IPruning ............ ..---- -- 1i
C cutting R oses ... .................... ... ... .......---- 17
Care during Suniomer ..........- ----------. .. 17
Itlising Roses ('oimnl erciaii-lly .... .... ...... 1 7
Favorite Roses in Florida ......... ..... 21
W ell Kunown Va rieticts ....2........ ................... 24
D diseases .... ..... ..... ..... .... ......... .... ......-- - 27
S n Inary .....--... ...... ......... --- . .
Flowering Annu als .-.......................... ...........1--......
Planting 14
P'la n tin g .....-- ...... . ---- .. --. ... ----. -.... .. ....... ..........-..-.....-.... 4
Annuals Raised from Cu'ttings .... ... -- .. ..... -... -- '
Soil Preparation 4.. ........................ .......... ...- ......... .
F ertilizing --..... .~ 3...... ... Si
Uses of A nnuals ............. -- -- ----.... :(--
H erbaceous Perennials ------------ ~...~. .----. ... ...--..... 65
Planting ... ..... .. ........... ---------- ..- . (i5

Species and Varieties ..... ....--- .. ... -----------.. .... (ii


Plant life in the form of flowers, vines, shrubs and trees
covers most of the earth. From the arid deserts of the equator
to the frozen wastes of the poles plant life is discovered grow-
ing amidst seemingly impossible conditions.
The new green leaves of trees and shrubs, the velvet-like
petals of blossoms awaken from their hidden mystery of the
"rest period" with seasonal regularity. Plains, valleys, hill
sides, mountain tops, rocky gorges, sylvan-dells, swamp re-
treats, lake and sea bottoms all contribute to the mystery of
plant life.
The closer our attention, the deeper our study, the greater
is our interest, for so much lies beyond our comprehension.
The exquisite beauty of plant life seems elusive to the
power of expression. This beauty is not limited to blossoms
alone; it applies to the delicate formation of leaf and fern, to
the grandeur of mighty trees.
Nothing can take the place of shrubs, vines, flowers and
trees near the home. When planted correctly they add a value
to property that is unobtainable through any other source.
To understand something about plants and flowers we must
live with them-make them a part of our homes.
One famous flower grower once said: "To grow beautiful
flowers you must love them."

Formal ornamental plantings are preferred for public build-
ings and small places where space is limited.
Following Nature's style gives the most lasting satisfaction
In Nature's (Garden trees, shrubs, and vines grow in masses.
Open spaces are carpeted with green overdue, while hillsides and
flat spaces are blanketed with blooms.
Then there are the gorges and rocky crevasses with their
own particular kind of plant life. All that we have learned
about proper landscaping and the correct setting of plants has
been taught to us by Mother Nature.
Edward Kemp, the great English landscape architect, says:
Dloubtless the geometric style is that which an architect would
most naturally prefer, for it subordinates everything to the


iouse, and is a carrying out of the principles co('mllion to both
itself and architecture. A series of straight lines joining one
another at right angles and of beds in which some form of a
circle or a parallelogram is always apparent, or which lit into
any regular figure are the leading and most expressive features
of this style. Flights of steps, balustraded walls, terrace banks,
syummetry and correspondence of parts, circles, ovals, oblong
and angular beds, exotic forms of vegetation, raised platforlms
and sunken panels are some of the materials with which it
The type, size and style of the buildings influence tile posi-
tion and selection of the plants in any planting scheme. Build-
ings should be designed to harmonize with the general natural
surroundings. Florida has such a wide diversification of
natural landscapes that with thoughtful selection any type of
architectural effect can be achieved.

Attractive rose garden in Florida. Grass promenade


Perhaps no other flowering plant is more popular Iihan the
rose. This beautiful flower with all its gradations of color and
variations in form, size and color, occupies a unique position
of preference anong both horticulturists and home beautifiers.
True, there are many wonderful flowers from which to make a
selection, but the "place of preference" given to roses and so
general with flower-lovers everywhere. probably will never be

Red and Pink Radiance

iirp~ -I---


Study a rose, become intimate with it and something of its
intrinsic and almost elusive charm, will explain why roses are
so universally placed first.
The rose family consisting of over 100 genera, is a large one
known under the general name of Rosaceac, arranged in several

The Edith Cavell is a desirable ox-blood red Polyantha


groups according to the location of their origin, and containing
over three thousand varieties.
Roses have a long history of popularity. Ages ago the rose
was dedicated to Aurora as an emblem of youth, and as an
emblem of both beauty and youth it was dedicated to Venus.
Homer alludes to the rose in his "Iliad" and Sappho, the
Greek poetess, in her writings over 2.500 years ago. chose the
rose as the "Queen of Flowers."

Rev. F. Page Roberts


Centuries of history, legend andl song have given to roses a
more conspicuous place tlian to any other ielllnber of the plant
kingdom. The ancient custom of suspending a rose froll the
ceiling of the banquet hall to safeguard secrecy of anything
that might be said by those present accounts for our expres-
sion "sub rosa" (or under the rose).


Antoine Rivoire, a hybrid tea with creamy white blooms delicately tinted with pink

Romance. sentiment and history have during the ages been
so closely allied with roses that perhaps this beautiful flower
will iiever' become separated from lhumani life as long as life
shall last.
Roses are native to all countries having moderate tempera-
tures. These native roses have supplied the foundation for

Mrs. Aaron Ward, a hybrid tea with Indian yellow blooms




many of our cultivated varieties containing such a wealth of
beauty and fragrance.
Florida's fine climatic conditions make possible the culti-
vating of roses during the winter months when so much of the
United States is blanketed with ice and snow.

The particular class to which any rose belongs is somewhat
difficult, with some varieties, to define. There has been so
much inter-grafting of the various species that the character-
istics of different classes are frequently noted in more than one
Tea Roses
This variety is adapted to the Gulf Coast region, not being
able to witlistand cold temperatures. Some plants in this
group are robust although generally they are considered
weaker than the hybrids grown in colder sections. There is a
wide range of color in this group and the characteristics are
their tea-like fragrance and continuous blooming, (except dur-
ing tie winter months).
Hybrid Tea Roses
The comparatively small bushes which produce these flow-
ers, bloom almost perpetually. These bushes may be planted
with little distance between them. There seems to be little
limitation to the colors produced among hybrid tea varieties.
Many of the buds are pointed but all have strongly tea-scented
perfume. There are more of this type of roses planted in Flor-
id;a than any other.
Hybrid Perpetuals
The stems of these bushes are stiff and upright and have
rough, deep green foliage. The largest roses grown are pro-
duced on stems of these bushes developed from the previous
year's growth, while with the two previous varieties named,
Tea Roses and Hybrid Tea Roses, are borne on stems developed
during the current season. These large full blooms are some-
what flat and lack fragrance. Usually roses may be cut from
these bushes both in spring and in autumn.
The bushes of this variety are well shaped and produce
flowers in clusters almost continuously. They lack fragrance
but have a variety of shades of color. Two well known varie-
ties of this group are the Baby Rambler and Cecile Brunner.
Noisettes, Hybrid Wichurianas, and Cherokees are other
groups which have found favor in Florida.


Frequently it is impossible to plant rose bushes in the best
soil. the rosebed location being determined by the landscape
design. It should be remembered that roses will not do well
when planted near trees or large shrubs, the roots of which

Frau Karl Druschki, often called White American Beauty

will deplete the soil of plant food and water, preventing the
rays of the sun from supplying the rose plants with the light
and warmth so necessary for their full development and




growth. If five hours of morning sunlight is available each
day, the plants may develop satisfactorily, providing plenty of
plant food and water are supplied to tliem.
Sometimes the roots of large shrubs and trees are pre-
vented from robbing the rosebush roots by burying a sheet of
galvanized iron vertically along the edge of the garden closest
to the trees. The galvanized sheets should overlap several
inches and may restrict the roots of other plants for a year or
two. These plates should be examined every 1S to 24 months
by digging to the bottom of them to make sure that no roots
have grown under or between them.
Water Supply and Irrigation
Water must be supplied abundantly to roses, but good
drainage is absolutely necessary. This is true of most plant
life except those plants which grow in or under the water.
Unless proper drainage can be assured the beds should be
raised sufficiently to provide for drainage of surface water.

Soil Preparation
Poor, sandy, loose soil should be removed to a deplh of 15
to 18 inches and replaced with good hammock soil, cow manure
and a compost of rotted leaves. In light sandy soils large
amounts of organic matter should be added. In the clay or
clay-loam soils of western Florida, the addition of about 3
inches thick of cow manure, turned deeply into the soil, should
be sufficient.
Most roses can be grown froln cuttings, when planted in
low hammock or clay-loam soils. Those varieties not having
vigorous growth should be grafted or budded on a hardy stock
when they are to be planted in light sandy soil and this gen-
erally applies to the Florida improved varieties grown in the
central and southern parts of the state.
Ch.'rokcc, McCartiney, Banksia and Louis Philippe are a
few varieties that are grown front cuttings.
The improved varieties so often effusively described in nur-
serymen's catalogs frequently will not be suitable for outdoor
culture. The varieties of yellow and copper shades will last
but a single summer and for this reason the bloom growth of
the plant is forced and each season new plants are set out in
the rose garden.
The beds for rose bushes should not be over five feet in
width to facilitate weeding, dusting, spraying, cultivating and


pruning. Narrow beds will protect the new growth which is
so easily broken off. The garden walks should lie grass that
is kept well trimmed. They add a beauty to roses in bloom
that serves s "Nature's own frame."
Trellises placed at the sides of the beds to serve as wind
brakes will also provide a foundation for the climbing varieties
and add more beauty to tlhe rose garden. The dwarf varieties
may be used near the edge of the beds alongside the walks.

Rose bushes should he planted when in a state of complete
dormancy, usually in the latter part of D)ecember up to tile
early part of February, depending on weather conditions. A
cloudy day is best for planting.
Plant pillar and climbing roses about :' feet apart. Two to
three feet distances will lie satisfactory for Hybrid Tea Roses
and the Hybrid l'erpetuals. Other varieties of the two just
named may be placed as close as IS inches apart il rows slpaced
tlhe same distance. Polyiinthtus may be placed within 14 inches
of each other. Close planting will shade the ground and assist
in retaining soil moisture.
Before planting prune the plants back to four or live "eyes"
and cult off all bruised or Ibroken roots so that tihe are simootth
and clean.
Make tile holes for the roots large enoughll to take thle entire
root system without crowding. Before placing the plant place
about two handfuls of bone meal in the hole and cover it with
top soil. Set the plant at the same deptl as it grew in the
nursery and work tle soil around the roots, using plenty of
water to till the hoe level with the ground surface. Pack the
soil firmlyl w ith tile feet and then build upI a rim around tlhe
plant to hold the water.

A good mulch, about two inches deep of manure, is prefer-
able to mechanical cultivation. Hand cultivation, unless shal-
low, is liable to destroy numbers of feeder roots with conse-
quent retardation of plant growth. A new mulch should be
applied each spring. If manure is objectionable, about a pound
of tankage or cottonseed meal may be scattered around each
plant and raked in lightly and then some other organic
material may be used as a mulch. Peat moss, which is well
granulated, is most satisfactory for this purpose. Straw, lawn
clippings and oak leaves are also satisfactory, but do not serve
the purpose so well as peat moss.


With the appearance of the buds there should be applied
a garden fertilizer containing 4% ammonia, 6% phosphoric
acid and 5% potash. Rake the mulching material aside, scat-
ter the fertilizer and then replace the mulch. In the event the


Duchess de Brabant. Tea rose

plants are not making satisfactory growth another application
of fertilizer may be given in September or early October. One
pound of ammonia sulphate to every hundred square feet may


be applied to the sides of the plants every two weeks should
the plants lack nitrogen.
The art of pruning is to remove, scientifically, those parts
of a plant that are useless for producing the best results in its

AJ ,-^


Rose Marie, hybrid tea with attractive rose-pink blooms
growth, and through the operation to give strength to those
shoots which give promise of satisfactory production.
After planting. rose bushes should be pruned twice each
season. The bush varieties are pruned when dormant which

~ips~ee 4$


usually is in February and September. Use sharp shears and
make clean, smooth cuts. All dead, weak and blind shoots
are first removed close to the stem. Next the strong stems
are cut back about a third of their length. When the pruning

Gruss an Teplitz, crimson-flowered hybrid tea

is finished the bushes should appear symmetrical in shape.
Prune buds that point away from the center of the plant and
cut about 1/4 to 1/2 inch above the bud. Apply sulphur paste,


Bordeaux paste, or ordinary lead paint to every place where
it has been pruned, otherwise canker may develop.
Climbing rose plants do not need the pruning that the bush
varieties do, but all dead or weak stems should be removed
when discovered. The pruning of the heading canes should be
done after the heavy bloom in the spring. Only general direc-
tions can be given for pruning as the art of pruning must be
learned from experience. Pruning varies with the different
Cutting Roses
Cutting roses early in the morning while the dew is still on
the leaves is an experience that brings real joy to the rose-
lover. In making selection it is best to pick those which have
a few petals open and cut them with as short stems as possible.
Removing long stems depletes the foilage and tends to check
plant growth. The leaves of most plants perform a function
similar to that of lungs in animals. The cuts should be made
diagonally and on stems pointing away from the center of tile
plant tlie same as in pruning.
The gathered buds should be put in a deep vessel of cold
water soon after and kept there for about two hours before
placing them in the vases. Keep cut flowers away from drafts,
heating apparatus, or direct sunlight or they will soon wilt.
There should be about half of an inch cut off the end of each
stem every day and new water put in the container holding the
Care of Roses During Summer
Rosie plants will burst into a profusion of bloom during the
rainy season in Florida after which there will be a prolonged
dry season. During this period of drought it is best to make
no effort to induce further blooming.
Discontinuing irrigation will permit pruning in the early
fall. With the arrival of cool weather an abundant supply of
water and plant food will bring about new growth which is
necessary for new blooms. Rose plants produce flowers only
when they are growing. This care of the plants during the
summer will furnish a supply of good blooms during the win-
ter months.
Rose gardeners adjacent to cities usually develop markets
for good quality roses having long, stiff stems. Some commer-
cial growers find outlets in distant localities. Radiance is a
variety that is most successful though many other varieties are
grown commercially.


A fertile soil with good drainage is important. Cow manure
in liberal quantities, or cottonseed meal, or tankage (if man-
ure is not obtainable) in the proportion of 1 to 3 tons to the
acre, broadcast and plowed in at least two weeks before plant-
ing is essential to good production.

The Duchess of Wellington is a saffron hybrid tea

The plants are set about 18 inches to two feet apart in rows
that are placed every three feet.
Fertilizing and shallow cultivation must take the place of
mulching, which is impractical for large areas. The field is
cultivated as often as necessary to keep down the weeds and


With the formation of the flowers there should be an appli-
cation of garden fertilizer. From 1,000 to 1,500 pounds to the
acre plowed in lightly will increase both the size and quality
of the bloom.
One to two tons of raw bone meal applied to each acre dur-
ing tile rainy season will stimulate proper growth.

Betty-a coppery pink hybrid tea rose

Cultivate with a hoe to keel down the weeds during this
season. After the dry, warmer weather starts the plants should
be pruned lightly to remove all dead wood and to cut back the
longest stems.


Fertilizing starts again in the early fall, some time in Sep-
tember, together with light cultivation and irrigation if rains
are infrequent.
Rose growers on the lower East Coast of Florida are rais-
ing roses successfully on the muck soils. This soil is rich in

Etoile de Hollande, a hybrid tea with velvety crimson buds
nitrogen and the fertilizers used consist principally of phos-
phorus and potash, the amounts varying with the physical con-
dition of the soils. Fertilizers that are properly balanced, ade-


quate moisture, good drainage and cultivation are necessary
for successful rose growing in any section of Florida suitable
for their culture.

Messrs. W. L. Floyd and John V. Watkins, of the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service, suggest the following dozen
varieties as the favorites for Florida's climate and soils.

Francis Scott Key, large, deep red, thrifty

In this selection we have not given long stems, so much
desired in cutting roses, much consideration; rather beauty in
the garden and in vases and baskets in the house. All im-
portant colors are represented.


Marie Van Houtte: Light yellow, edged with rose; very
strong grower.
Lady Hillinydon: Slender, pointed buds and flowers of
saffron yellow. The climber of this is more vigorous than the
bush forim.

The Radiance is the easiest grown and most reliable pink hybrid tea.
One of our favorite dozen
Antoine Rivoire: Creamy-white delicately tinted with pink.
Hybrid tea.
Safrano: Salmon colored buds of exquisite shape, semi-
double flowers.


Mlatlon C'ocirhet: Rosy pink, double flower of fine form and
substance. The White Maaiin Cochet is also good as a bush
and there are climbing varieties of both.
Louis IPhilippe: A Bengal rose, often called Florida rose.
A wealth of dark red blooms are produced continually. It is
one of the few that grow satisfactorily from cuttings.
Radianrc: The most easily grown and reliable pink hybrid
tea. The Red Radiance is equally desirable.
Etoilh dr Hollande: A hybrid tea with velvety crimson buds
and flowers borne on strong, stiff stems.
Kaiis(rinr Augfuste Viktoria : A standard old hybrid tea.
Flowers are snowy while, with a tint of lemon in the center.
The climber of this also desirable.
Francis rNott Key: Large. deep red, lasts well when cut,
thrifty growing hybrid tea.
Frau Karl Druschki: often n called White American Beauty.
A hybrid perpetual, with large, full, snow white blooms.
JMadaim Lambard: Darker on outside of petals than on the
inside. stems rather short. The most vigorous pink we have.

Silrr M.oon: Vigorous. of rich foliage, bloom clear wlite,
single, with a mass of yellow stamens.
Yellowi Banlksia: 'Covered in spring with small fragrant
Dcroil.ic)ix: Strong climber, bloom white tinged with
JRciar M:Jaric Henritte: Tea, tine growing plant, producing
large cherry-red flowers.
err d'(Or: A vigorous climbing Noisette; flowers creamy
Paul's S crimson, blooms profusely in spring.
Dr. Van Fleet: Hybrid Wichuraiana, rank climber, flowers
fresh pink, deepening to rose in center.
Preference has been given to those which are vigorous, long-
lived. ever-blooming and resistant to diseases in Florida.


The following are some other varieties which we have found
to do fairly well in Florida:

Alexander Hill Gray: Yellow, not very prolific, difficult
to find perfect flowers.

Paul's Scarlet Climber blooms profusely in the spring


Bridesmaid: Pink.
Duchess de Brabant: Pale pink.
Helen Goodc: Creamy white.
Minnie Francis: Dark pink.
Natalie Bottoner: Cream yellow.
Perle des Jardins: (ream yellow.
Hybrid Teas
Betty: Coppery pink.
Dean Hole: Splashed silver carmine.
Duchess of Wellington: Saffron.
Etoile de France: Red.
Jonkeer J. L. Mock: Pink
Joseph Hill: Yellow, pink edges.
Grass an Teplitz: (rimson.
Killarney: Pink.
Luxembourg: Yellow.
Mrs. Aaron W'ard: Indian yellow.
Rose Marie: Rose pink.
Mary C'ontess of Ilclhester.
Hybrid Perpetuals
Anna de Diesbach: I'ink.
Paul Neyron: Rose pink.
Pink Fraua Karl Druschki: Pink.
Crimson Frau Karl Druschki: Crimson.
Baby Doll: Shades of pink, saffron and crimson blended.
Baby Rambler: Red.
Cecile Bruimer: Shell pink.
Edith Carell: Ox-blood red.
Marechal iMel: Yellow climber.
La marque: Yellow climber.
Chromatella: Lemon yellow climber.
Estelle Pradel: White climber.
Hybrid Wichuraiana
Silver Moon: White climber.
American Pillar: P'ink climber.
Dorothy Perkins: Pink climber.
Anemone: Pink climber.
Fortune's Yellow: Blend of yellow, orange and pink,

White Cherokce: White climber.
Ramona: Red climber.
Many stocks have been tried and compared, along them
Madamne Plantier, Rosa multiflora, R. canine, R. fortuncana,

.: Y ;aP^ ^

Marechal Niel (a noisette) one of the climbers

and R. odoruta. Rosa odorata (Texas Wax) is ordinarily a
long-lived plant, even under trying conditions, and can be
relied upon to furnish an excellent under stock for the popular
cutting varieties.

i - 4


r ifi


The study and observation of other rose gardens in your
particular region will suggest many satisfactory varieties.
In the list of cutting roses, which have proved sufficiently
successful to justify their trial throughout the state may be
Abol: A tine, white flower, deliciously fragrant. Very free-
C'h1ts. P. Kilhl,,: Beautifully shaped blooms of brilliant
E. G. Hill: Dlazzling, dark red flowers. freely borne.
Goldca Dtiwn: Large, light yellow flower which does not
Ltady Maargr't Stcrart: Golden yellow, shaded orange.
Mr.. E. P. Thom: Bright, canary yellow, vigorous and free-
Mr.s. Hcfiry Bowrlces: One of the very best new pink roses.
Pr vidcnt Herbert Hoo rr: Like Talisman, but more pink.
Pointed buds.
Rer. F. Pal/' Roberts: Copper red buds, opening golden-
Srl'OrcVir: A golden-yellow sport of Talisman.
our-(n ir de MadIiiam Bolllht: (range-yellow flowers like
Lady Hilliungdon.
Toilismaii: Bi-colored. Seirlet-orange and rich yellow. -Very
free blooming.


Blhck Spot is one of the most serious diseases with which
the rosarian has to contend. It is first evident in the form of
minute irregular black spots on the upper surface of the leaves.
As the fungus grows, the leaves turn yellow and drop off. When
the leaves are severely infected they may shed without turn-
ing yellow. The infection starts near the ground and spreads
upward on the plant until it is nearly defoliated. This reduc-
tion of the leaf area checks and stunts the bushes. The leaves
which fall off are a serious source of infection, since they pro-
duce myriads of spores of the fungus. It is very important
that all infected leaves be burned.
Black spot is especially prevalent during hot, humid
weather, and at this time special precautions should be taken
to protect the rose garden from tile ravages of this disease.


So far as known there is no cure for black spot. Preventive
measures are the only means of control.
Copper compounds, such as bordeaux mixture or ammon-
iacal copper carbonate, a colorless spray, are efficacious when
applied frequently in connection with calcium caseinate, soaps

Reve D'Or, climber (Noisette group)
or oil emulsions to assure good coverage. The disease spreads
so rapidly that a coating of some fungicide should cover the
plants at all times to forestall the entrance of the fungus into
the tissues of the plants. Plants in vigorous growth seem to
be less severely injured.


L7 ^


Recent research has shown that very fine sulphur is effec-
tive in controlling black spot if a coating of the material is
kept on the leaves. The grade known as 300 mesh, is used as
a spray, or a (lust. Dusting is usually preferable. Sulphur
sprays may be bought in the form of paste. During the sum-
mer, rose foliage that is covered with sulphur may suffer con-
siderable injury from burning.
Powdery Milder is a serious menace to roses, especially
the climbing varieties. Dorothy Perkins, Crimson Rambler
and many of the common bush varieties are highly resistant.
Tihe leaves and shoots of affected plants become dwarfed and
covered with a grayish-white coating. The shoots and buds of
those varieties most susceptible become deformed. Sulphur
fungicides, dusts or sprays, recommended for controlling Black
Spot are satisfactory for the control of mildew.
IRo.Z ('Clnker causes the failure of more rose gardens than
any single disease. Several fungi causing similar symptoms
are responsible for the trouble. The canes are the part most
frequently attacked. Small purplish spots develop along the
stem, and as they enlarge they become grayish or brownish in
the center. As soon as a cane is girdled, the upper portion
dies. The fungus usually continues down the stem, unless
pruned out. If it reaches the crow n, the whole plant dies. The
disease frequently begins around pruning cuts and other in-
juries. from which it spreads rapidly. killing the bark as it
The leaves are not affected to the same degree as the stems.
The flowers are often attacked, the outer petals turning brown,
drying and then dying. The flower is bound so tightly by these
dead petals that it fails to expand. This condition is fre-
quently confused with the injury caused by thrips.
Either a copper fungicide or one containing finely ground
sulphur may be applied consistently and thoroughly after the
removed of all affected canes. All parts of the plant must be
kept covered with tile protective coating. During periods of
rapid growth and damp weather, it may be necessary to apply
a fungicide once a week or oftener. It is necessary to add cal-
cium, caseinate, soap or oil emulsion to the spray in all cases
to obtain maximum protection.
Pruning wounds should be covered with lead paint or bor-
deaux paste immediately after they are made. Further protec-
tion may be obtained by dipping the shears in alcohol or for-
malin solution after each cut.


When setting a new rose bed, be careful that only healthy
plants are used. It is easier to keep rose canker out of the
garden than to cure it after it is present.

Joseph Hill, a yellow hybrid tea with pink edges

The following bulletins on Rose diseases may be obtained
from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.:
Farmers Bulletin No. 1547, or from the Florida Agricultural


Experiment Station; Bulletin 447, Rose (anker; 448, Black
Spot; 449, Powdery Mildew.

Rose Aphids, or plant lice, at times are serious pests. They
gather on the tender new growth and about new buds. Stlnted
shoots and imperfect blooms are the result if the insects are
allowed to go unchecked. Nicotine and soap sprays or nicotine
dust are efficient controls.
Rose Beetles feed on the tender buds. Destroy all thistles
because they are hosts to rose beetles.
Florecr Thrips are tiny. light-yellow insects that infest the
blooms during dry seasons in nullmbers beyond estimation.
Browned petals and balled buds that fail to open (similar to

The variegated Vinca used as a window box subject

the injury caused by rose canker) result from the attacks of
thrips. Somle varieties of roses are more seriously injured
than others. Water seems to be the most efficient control. All
roses should be gathered as soon as they open sufficiently, and
frequent applications of nicotine made if the insects are num-
erous. As weeds and flowers of many kinds harbor thrips, a
careful clean up program is recommended.


Pumpkin Bugs often attack roses, especially during the fall,
and punctured buds of abnormal shapes result. Knocking
them off into a pan containing a little kerosene is effective as
spraying is of little value. Thistles harbor pumpkin bugs, so
they should not be allowed to grow near the rose garden.
Catch crops, such as sunflowers, may prove of benefit if the
bugs are systematically collected from them.
Cottony-cushion Scale, when found feeding on the under
sides of leaves or on the canes, is best controlled by colonies
of Vedalia, a small beetle which is a specific predator. A cit-
ronella spray, if applied under very high pressure, will give an
effective check.

Popular and common White Cherokee, adapted for trellis or fence

It is possible to reduce the infestation by washing the scale
from the bushes with steam applied under pressure, using the
nozzle of the hose for the purpose.
Red Spider may be kept in check with the use of dusting
sulphur or heavy spraying with the hose.



Locate the rose garden at a dlitance from trees and large
shrubs and where it can receive at least five hours of sun-
shine each day.
Buy rose bushes that are budded or grafted on a suitable
Enrich the soil before planting.
Plant bush varieties in beds. 18 to 24 inches each way.
(live climbers more room.
I'lant at tihe same ground level that the bushes stood in the
llllrsery roW.
Group a number of individuals of each variety together to
get tle elect of color masses.
Use a heavy mulch of some organic material.
Give plenty of water and plant food. Fertilize two or
three times during thie growing season. To obtain good
blooms thle rose bushes or viles must be kept growing.
I'rmne twice each season. Remove dead, infected and weak
wood. (Give heaviest pruning when plants are dormant.

\Vatch for black spot and rose canker, and dust or spray
ill the manner recommended.
leplaz.-e weak. unthrifty plants. two or more years old.


That group of plants which do not possess woody stems,
are produced from seed and in one season's growth they bring
forth blossoms, reach maturity and then end their span of life,
are known as AInnuls. They are very dependable for Florida
gardens and many of them furnish colorful blooms during the
winter months. Others develop flowers during the months
from June to September; through careful selection of varieties
it is possible to arrange the planting schedule of the seeds so
that flowers may be cut every month of the year.
The hardy varieties will withstand cool weather, and bloom
from November to May; others thrive during warm weather,
and the season of heavy rains, and are to a great extent im-
munne to garden pests.
There is practically no limit to the use of Ann uals in add-
ing beauty to the home surroundings.

One fact that should be remembered is that cheap seeds are
not economical. It takes the same length of time and labor
to prepare the soil and plant poor seeds as it does for good
seeds. Poor seeds can never be depended upon to produce
quality plants or flowers.
The following method for seed planting has been tested for
over five years in Florida and while it is not the only method
to follow in seed planting, it has been found most satisfactory.
Those seed sown in the autumn, the seedlings of which will
stand transplanting, should be separated from those which
are not to be transplanted. Use a flat box with holes or cracks
in the bottom sufficient to permit good drainage. Put in this
box a layer of pine straw, dead grass, or other coarse material
to prevent the soil from being washed through the cracks.
Then fill the box within a half inch of the top with good
garden soil that is free from nematodes, and which contains a
quantity of well rotted organic matter, cow-manure, etc. Pack
the soil gently and flood it with a solution containing mercury
compound to control the disease known as "damping-off."
After the box has drained, sift the seeds through screen on
top of the wet soil, then sift sand or sandy soil on top of the
seeds just sufficient to cover them. If the covering is too thick
the seeds will not propagate satisfactorily.
A newspaper should be placed over the box after the seeds
are planted, and thoroughly moistened. Sprinkle water on the


newspaper whenever it becomes dry and continue to wet the
paper thoroughly until the seeds germinate. The box must
be protected from ants or they will carry the seeds away. They
should be placed so that ants cannot get to them.
Pantsics,. Snli)pd(lr(yon,. and Larkspur are popular Annuals
which are sown in the autumn. As these seed germinate read-
ily during warm weather it is advisable to place the seed-box
in a cool place, such as under a shady tree or in an open shed.
When the plants have appeared they need light and should be
moved, but protected from the strong rays of the sun by a
muslin covering which imay be le backed on a frame and laid over
the seed-box.
At this time give the seed beds another application of the
solution to control **daillping-off."
Transplant tlie seedlings when they show four leaves, on a
cloudy, cool day, if possible, about 12 to S8 inches apart.
As a further precaution the "damping-off" control solution
should be used immediately following transplanting.
Water the young plants thoroughly but remember that too
much water is just as harmful as too little.

Planting Direct To the Garden Plot
The group of plants which are planted in the open, where
they bloom, should have the same treatment as that given to
vegetables. The seeds are sown thinly in shallow drills, cov-
ered and treated with a **damping-off" solution in the same
manner as the seed-beds. Wet burlap will take the place of the
newspapers until the seeds germinate. If many ants appear
the seeds can be protected by sprinkling cornmeal or grits
liberally along the rows as thie ants will prefer this food to
the seeds.
With the appearance of the seedlings, and the removal of
the burlap covering, a second application of the "dalnping-off"
solution is given.
Thin the plants after they are well established, leaving from
12 to 18 inches between them.

Annuals Raised From Cuttings
Annuals may be raised from cuttings. Tips cut alout 3
inches long from the best and healthiest stems and inserted in
clean, coarse sand should develop a root system in about
20 days. To start the plants use a flat box the same as is used
for growing the plants from seeds. When the roots are about


an inch long the plants may be removed to flower pots or to
their permanent location.
Snapdragons, Verbena, Pinks, Carnations, Petunias, Fr,' ,.
ias, and Annual Chrysanthemums are some of the plants that
are raised from cuttings.
Soil Preparation
Special attention to the preparation of the soil is necessary
for the production of a good yield of hardy blooms. The gen-
eral directions for producing Annutals from seed apply to those
raised front cuttings. In low land the beds should be raised
at least 10 to 14 inches to assure proper drainage.
Good fertilizer containing potash, nitrogen, and phos-
phorus applied lightly every two weeks will assist the growth
of an abundant supply of blooms. A tablespoonful of sulphate
of almmonia or nitrate of soda dissolved in a gallon of water
and applied as a supplement to fertilizers containing potash
and phosphorus will stimulate plant growth.
Bone meal that has been steamed is likewise a very good
plant food and will not burn the plants.

Annuals For Cutting
Aster, baby's breath, blanket flower, blue-eyed African daisy,
blue lace flower, butterfly flower, calendula, California poppy,
calliopsis, candytuft, carnation, chrysanthemum, (annual),
clarkia, cornflower, cosmos (both species) florists' paint brush,
floss flower, gilia, godetia, globe amaranth, hunneimania lark-
spur, leptosyne, lupine, marigold. mignonette, mourning bride,
nasturtium, orange African daisy, painted tongue, pansy,
phlox, pinks, poppies, strawflower, scarlet flax, snapdragon,
stock, statice, sunflower, sweet pea. zinnia.
Re-seeding Annuals
Alyssum, blanket flower, blue-eyed African daisy, California
poppy, calliopsis. Chinese forget-me-not, cosmos (sulphureus),
floss flower, globe amaranth, larkspur, marigold, Moroccan
toad flax, nicotiana, petunia, phlox, poppies, sunflower, torenia,
Annuals For Window Boxes or Porches
Alyssum, balsam, carnation (Marguerite), double English
daisy, floss flower, lobelia. mignonette, moss rose, nasturtium,
pansy, petunia (dwarf), phlox, torenia, verbena.


Annuals For the Rock Garden
Alyssum. butterfly flower. California poppy, candytuft,
double English daisy, florists' paint brush, floss flower (dwarf),
lobelia, inignonette, Moroccan toad flax, moss rose, orange Afri-
can daisy, pansy. petunia (dwarf phlox, pinks, snapdragon
(dwarf ). stock. torenia. verbena.
Annual Vines
Cypress vine, gourd, morning glory, nasturtium (climbers),
sweet pea.


Annuals For Edgings
Alyssum, calendula, double English daisy, floss flower
(dwarf), lobelia, marigold (dwarf), Moroccan toad flax, moss
rose, pansy, phlox, snapdragon (dwarf), torenia, zinnia


Annuals Planted In the Fall For Winter and Spring Bloom
Alyssum, baby's breath, blanket flower, blue-eyed African
daisy, butterfly flower, calendula, California poppy, calliopsis,
candytuft, carnation. Chinese forget-me-not, clarkia, corn-
flower, double English daisy, florists' paint brush, gilia,
godetia, hunnemnania, larkspur, leptosyne, lobelia, lupine, mig-
nonette, Moroccan toad flax, mourning bride, nicotiana, orange
African daisy, painted tongue, pansy, petunia, phllox, pinks,
poppies, scarlet flax, snaprdagon, stock, statice, sweet peas.

Annuals Planted In the Early Spring For Summer Bloom
Aster, balsam, blue lace flower, celosia, chrysanthemums
(annual), cosmos (both species), cypress vine, floss flower,

Baby's breath adds daintiness and compactness
globe amaranth, gourd, marigold, morning glory, moss rose,
nasturtium, straw flower, sunflower, torenia, verbena, zinnia.

Alyssum (Alyssum maritimum)
The several varieties of Swccet Alyssum, with white or lilac
flowers, are among the best of annuals for edging and for
planting in the rock garden.


Low-growing, seldom exceeding a height of 12 inches, this
plant is well suited for tlte garden, window box or hanging
Of easiest culture, extremely hardy, Srccet Alyssum may be
sown every month in the year. and will bloom in four to six
weeks. Volunteer seedlings are usually abundant about older
Aster-China Aster (Callistephus hortensis)
The annual aster has been highly developed, the parent of
which was introduced from ('hina and should not be confused
with the smaller flowered perennial aster native to America.
The annual ('hiti Astcr is highly prized as a cut flower on
account of its variety of color and form. As protection against
the insects and diseases which prey upon the Chlinu A1ster the
plant should be1 grown in new soil each year. The plants need
solme shade. Eveni with tihe most careful attention, asters
will sometimes fail. The new wilt-resistant strains give prom-
ise oif successful culture.
Baby's Breath (Gypsophila elegans)
The white, rose or carline flowers of the three varieties of
Baby's BrUathl are delightful additions in the flower vase or
bouquet. Blanket flowers, dwarf sunflowers, carnations or pinks
may properly lie used as the principal part of the bouquet. The
linv flowers on wiry stemlls add daintiness and softness to the
well arranged flower cluster.
Boby's Breith blooms quickly from the time of sowinlg and
passes quickly into seed production. Several plantings at
imontlly intervals are recolnmlenided.
Balsam (Impatiens balsamina)
The cheerful Btlsa.it grows quickly, finds a natural place in
window-boxes, porch plants, or as a border in shady places.
The newer varieties are striking in form and color. The tops
of the seedlings should be pinched several times to assure
well-shaped hardy plants.
Blanket Flower (Gaillardia pulchella picta)
The annual varieties of the Blanket Flower, single, semi-
double and full double, are of great value in the flower garden.
The red and yellow daisy-like blossoms are highly appreciated
by those who enjoy their cheerful colors, and keeping quality.
The Blanket Flower does well in almost any type of soil, vol-
unteering annually and producing abundant flowers, even on
the poor light sands of the seashore.


Blue-eyed African Daisy (Arctotis grandis)
graceful light blue, daisy-like flowers about 21/2 inches
across having steel blue centers are obtained from these flower-
ing plants. They are not difficult to grow in almost any kind
of soil. New volunteer plants appear each year. As the
flowers close in tle afternoon they should be used in the morn-
ing-bouil uet.
Blue Lace Flower (Trachymeme caerulea)
The golmlar blossoms of the lIlu IaLre Flower are conl-
posed of many tiny light blue florets and resemble a sky blue
scabiosa flower. The value of the plants is entirely in their
blossoms as cut flowers which are rather out of the ordinary

California poppy

blending wAell into attractive arrangements.
Flowicr is not widely planted.

The Blue Lace

Butterfly Flower (Schizanthus pinnatus)
This delicate, graceful plant, when properly grown, is
covered with tiny, orchid-like blooms and always attracts a
great deal of attention. It requires constant care and most
favorable conditions.


Calendula (Calendula officinalis)
A universal favorite, the ('alniduhl is one of our most im-
portant winter-blooming annuals. The charming double flowers
are pro1dceil in shades of orange and yellow. As both garden
plants anld ct flowers they are unsurpassed. If the seeds are
sown in August and the seedlings pro)teted from the direct
sun for a Imoith or so before e wedding out. blossoms imay be
cut from IDecember until early spring, except during periods
of very low temperatures. The plants will stand considerable


cold : even though the blooms are wilted by heavy frosts, others
will open when warmer weather returns.
California Poppy (Escholtzia californica)
The California Poppy to be effective should be grown in
large groups in a garden that gets plenty of sunshine. Varie-
ties in creams, white and reds are now obtainable. Very hardy,


easily grown from seeds sown broadcast the California Poppy
deserves a place in every flower garden. The blooms are ex-
cellent as cut flowers and should be arranged in low contain-
ers with their own foliage. The flowers close in the evening.
Calliopsis (Coreopsis-several species)
The Calliopsis or Corcopsis is another type of the numerous
daisy-like flowers that are so suitable for annual borders. The
flowers are to be had in shades of yellow, maroon or terra
(otta, and add beauty to both garden and bouquet. The stiff,
wiry stems bear them in profusion. This plant is easily grown
and is highly reconnmended for culture.
Candytuft (Iberis in two species)
C('inlllrft varieties with their white, lilac, crimson umbels
of flowers, make very good edgings and are suitable for the
rock garden or for supplying cut flowers. The plant is similar
to Sweet Alyssum but grows taller and produces larger blooms.
('tildytuft is a hardy plant and easily grown.

Carnation (Dianthus in several species)
The hybrid annual Carinations, the result of intensive de-
velopmelnts with their delightful spicy fragrance, and variety
of charming colors, fit into any floral arrangements and give
complete satisfaction to the one growing them.
Celosia or Cockscombs (Celosia in several species)
The red or yellow plumes of these species are borne on robust,
quickly growing plants. These blooms are occasionally dried
as bouquets. They are easy to grow during the summer
months. Root-knot must be guarded against in their culture.
Chinese Forget-me-not (Cynoglossum amabile)
The late spring blue flowers of the Chliin, ," Forgct-ime-not,
commend their culture. They are easy to grow, volunteer read-
ily and bloom in a comparatively short time. Their greatest
use is for blue color masses in the garden.

Chrysanthemum-Annual (Chrysanthemum-several species)
The annual Chrysanthemumnis are among the most desirable
of the many plants cultivated for their blossoms. They ma-
ture earlier than the perennials and as either garden plants
or cut flowers they occupy a place of preference. It is best to
plant them when there is no danger of frost. They grow to
a height of 2 or 3 feet, and produce during the summer months
an abundance of yellow, white or banded, small daisy-like


flowers that are admirable for cutting. The plants should be
thinned leaving about two feet between them.
Clarkia (Clarkia in two species)
This plant is native to Western unitedd States. is hardy and
comparatively easy to grow during tlhe cool weather of the
winter and early spring. The plants. attaining a height of
about two feet. produce spikes of single or double flowers in

Early cosmos

shades of white, pink, salmon or red. They make good annual
borders and add to the floral arrangements.
Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus)
The Cornflotucr, characteristic of the old-fashioned garden,
is a favorite. The single and double flowers of white, pink,


red, blue and purple are produced abundantly in early spring.
Their beautiful clear colors add life to the border and the
blooms are excellent for cutting. Planting seeds separately
of different colors produce pleasing effects. Diseases reIlmin-
ing in the soil sometimes gi\e trouble in the late spring. It
is best to sow the seeds early which will assure blooms be-
lore the hot weather season, otherwise the plants are of easy

Florists' paint brush
(cltulre, germinate promptly, transplant well, and considerable
frost will not kill them.

Cosmos-Early (Cosmos bipinnatus)
The early Cosmos bear single crested or double daisy-like
Lowers in white, pink or red. They may be cut during .June
and July if the seeds are planted in March. The plant is, when
it attains its full growth, not very attractive. The blooms make
excellent summer flower arrangements. The plants grow rap-


idly and blooIm quickly and they should be tied to stakes to pre-
vent the wind from breaking off the heavy branches.
Cosmos, Late or Klondyke (Cosmos sulphureus)
Yellow flowers are produced in the autumln by many nlent-
hers of the ('omipoitcs. The Latt' ('osnos is one of the most
dependable of the Daisy Family. The ('osmos succeeds with-
out any attention whatsoever. The single yellow blooms ap-
pear in October.
Cypress Vine (Ipomeae quamoclit)
The finely cut foliage and attractive tiny blossoms of white.
red or salmon make it an attractive plant for small, tenpor-

The floss flower

ary screens and trellises. The seeds which are hard, germinate
better when they have been scarified before planting.
Double English Daisy (Bellis perennis)
In Florida, the perennial English Daisy or Bellis will not
thrive after the advent of warm weather in May and it is


grown as a winter annual. The English Daisy is well suited
for rock gardens and edgings. The plants are flat, tight ros-
ettes of shining green leaves from which the charming double
flowers of white, pink or red are borne singly on stems about
four inches long. This species produces the best effect when
set in close masses.
Florists' Paint Brush (Emilia flammea)
These clusters of small gay orange, tassel-like or brush-like
flowers are produced in the spring on stiff stems about 18


inches long. The flowers are rather small. They furnish a
light airiness to the bouquet.
Floss Flower (Ageratum conyzoides)
Nothing surpasses the Floss Flower or Ageratum. for blue
blooms during the summer period in the garden or as cut flow-


ers. The soft lacy blossoms blend well into any color combina-
tions. There are ldwarf and tall varieties in white, pink, or
shades of blue. The plants are easy to grow. seedlings usually
volunteering about old plants. They should be grown after the
danger of heavy frost has passed.
Gilia (Gilia spp.)
Another blue flower that blooms in the late spring is Gilia.
The flowers are rough, globular heads, about an inch in dianm-


eter, and are borne in
ability to thrive here.

profusion. The Gilia has proven its

Globe Amaranth (Gomphera golbosa)
This plant (sometimes called Batchelor's Button), should
not be confused with the Cornflower (Ccntaurca) which also
is known by that name. The Globe Amaranth thrives (luring
hot weather, producing myriads of white or red globular
flowers that resemble clover heads. They are used for per-
manent or dried bouquets. Tender, easy to grow, volunteering


in great profusion, the plants can be depended upon to succeed
under almost any conditions during the summer.

Godetia (Godetia spp.)
The Godctia or Satin Flower, will succeed in Florida, espe-
cially in partial shade. The open, primrose-like flowers of
white, rose or red are borne on spikes about 18 inches long.
The seeds germinate well in the autumn and the young seed-

Annual larkspur
lings, which closely resemble snapdragon plants,
The losses from transplanting are negligible.


grow quickly.

The Gourds in their many varieties are too well known to
necessitate descriptions or discussions. Interesting, unusual
fruits of multitudinous shapes are borne on the annual vines
which are exceptionally free from pests. They are useful for
temporary screens during the summer. The seeds should be
planted when danger of frost has passed.


Hunnemania (Hunnemania fumariaefolia)
The Hunnir'nniin sometimes called Tulip Poppy, resembles
a sulphur-yellow ('alifornia poppy of giant size, but coarser
and of greater substance. The plants, about two feet in height,
are very prolific. hardy anil easy of culture. The seedlings do
not transplant readily and the seeds should be sown where the
plants are to bloom. The J(unnmc nia( is excellent as a source
of sulphur-yellow color in the late spring border and a aa cut
Larkspur (Delphinium spp.)
The well-known Larkspur is so widely grown that it seems
hardly necessary to describe this valuable annual. Single and
double flowers of white, bitf, rose, blue, lavender and purple
are borne on tall, erect spikes during the early spring. Some
of the newer varieties having very double flowers of clear col-
ors, a1" very charming. Ltirkspi' r seeds fail to germinate if
they are planted early in the fall. It is best to wait until
November. then sow the seeds thinly in shallow drills, tirm
them into tlie ground and water with a tine spray without
coverilng. Volunteer seedlings are usually nulm'erons where
thle plants bloomed tlie previous season. These seedlings pro-
duce single flowers in colors that are not so clear nor so at-
tractive as the jiloers produced from new seeds. The young
plants are hardy. transplant very readily and react very favor-
ably top giood care.
Leptosyne (Leptosyne spp.)
Two varieties of annual Lcpto.syne will produce their yellow
flowers during the early spring in Florida. Good for culting,
they are nllluislal annuals.
Lobelia (Lobelia erinus)
Lolb ltis, in their beautiful shades of blue, in the dwarf
compact variety make a very desirable edging. The trailing
or hanging variety is used in rock gardens, pots, boxes and
)baskets. The charming dwarf plants, under six inches in
height. of many tiny branches, are covered with tiny blue
flowers throughout the blooming season. They need cool
weather, but cannot stand freezing, so must be grown during
the winter and receive protection on cold nights. The seeds
germinate well. For good color effects the plants should be
set no farther than 4 to 6 inches apart.
Lupine (Lupinus spp.)
For a tall border, the annual Lupines are very effective.
The cut flowers have excellent keeping quality. Long spikes


of pea-like flowers in white, pink and shades of blue are numer-
ous in the spring. Sow the seeds in their permanent place and
thin the seedlings to 12-inch intervals in the row. Usually the
plants need staking at blooming time.
Marigold (Tagetes spp.)
The African Marigold is tall, erect, attains a height of three
feet, and bears large globular flowers that range in color from
lemon yellow to orange. This plant is valuable at the back of
borders where height is desired. If the typical Marigold odor
is not objectionable, the blossoms may be cut in the early
The French and Mexican Mliriloldx are compact, dwarf,
(about l(i inches in height), and good plants for edging or
front positions to taller plants.
In late September and through October, the Mltrigolds con-
tribute their bright yellow and orange flowers to gardens

Annual lupine

whose brightness has begun to wane. Withstanding heat and
drought, thriving where many plants would perish, free from
pests, the Marigolds are useful both in the garden and the
home. Seeds germinate well and quickly, and the seedlings
are easy to handle.


like flowers of white, lemon, pink, blue and purple throughout
the winter and early spring. The small leaves are narrow,
dark green and delicate in texture. The plant self-sows, the
volunteer plants, apparently not deteriorating in quality or
the color of the flowers.
Blooming profusely, even during frosts, in poor sandy soil,
the Toad Fla.r can be most highly recommended for edgings,
borders and rock gardens.
Moss Rose (Portulacca grandiflora)
For a summer edging or rock garden plant, probably noth-
ing else equals the JMoss Ros', which grows to a height of four

Moss rose

inches. The leaves are narrow, thick, succulent, and are com-
pletely hidden in a blanket of gay colors in the mornings when
the flowers of an inch and a half diameter are open. Shades


Mignonette (Reseda odorata)
Its delightful fragrance has won for Mignonettc a place in
every flower-lover's heart. The dwarf plant which bears the
odd flower trusses of this old favorite should have a place in
every garden. The chief value of Mignonette is its use in bou-
quets of flowers which have no odor of their own. The seeds
do not germinate easily and hot weather is fatal to the plants.

Morning Glory (Ipomoea purpurea)
Nothing can surpass the annual Morning Glory, a vigorous,
rapid growing vine which is covered with glorious flowers
throughout the summer and fall. Seeds of the better kinds

will produce plants that bear large flowers of beautiful clear
colors. Volunteer seedlings usually have flowers of inferior
quality. The Morning Glory is excellent for making a screen
or as a covering for unsightly objects during the summer.

Moroccan Toad Flax (Linaria moroccana)
This little plant from Morocco is rapidly gaining popu-
larity. It is very hardy and bears spikes of tiny snapdragon-


of buff, salmon, pink and red are characteristic of the double
and single flowers.
The Moss Rose flourishes under the most trying conditions
of hear, drought and poor soil. The seeds germinate best dur-
ing warm weather. The young plants can Ie moved with very
little loss. Volunteer seedlings should not be used. Seeds of

7 s t
"^^^VL j /^lk



the best double strains will give the most satisfactory color
effects. As the blooming season is short, it is well to have
small plants available by sowing seeds at monthly intervals
during the suniner.
Mourning Bride (Scabiosa atropurpurea)
The globular, tufted flowers of the Morning Bride or Pin-
cushion flower furnish a range of color found in no other an-
nual. From white, all shades of yellow, blue, rose, red, na-
roon, to an almost black purple the colors are charming, and
always harmonious. The plants, which attain a height of

Pansies probably are the best annuals for winter edgings and borders
about three feet when well grown, are prolific, thrifty and al-
most indispensable in the spring garden. The keeping quality
of the blossoms is good; the long stiff stems make for artistic
flower arrangements.
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum spp.)
Nasturtiums if planted after the danger of frost has passed,
in the early spring, will furnish an abundance of delightful
color for a period of about two months. The many flowers of
yellow, orange and maroon make an attractive addition to the
garden and are good for cutting. A fragrant, double yellow
variety has met with considerable favor. Climbing varieties


make good screens for a short time. Free from pests, and en-
joying light soils, the Nasturtium well deserves its popularity.
Nicotina (Nicotina spp.)
Because the long, funnel-shaped flowers of most kinds of
ornamental tobaccos remain closed and of little beauty during
the day, the principal value of this plant is for its perfume
which is delightful when the flowers open in the evening. The
ornamental forms are large, coarse annuals, that succeed dur-
ing the late spring and summer. Several different colors are
Orange African Daisy (Dimorphotheca aurantiaca)
D)aisy-like flowers, about two inches across, in shades of
yellow, are produced in considerable abundance by the dwarf


spreading plants of Dimorphotheca. The flowers close in the
evening. Hybrids, having flowers of different colors, are avail-
Painted Tongue (Salpiglosis sinuata)
The striking, highly-colored, gold-banded and veined flowers
of the Painted Tongue resemble ornate Petunias. A wide


range of bright, bizarre colors is exhibited by these funnel-
shaped blossoms. Germination of the seeds is satisfactory in
cool weather, but even under good cultural conditions con-
tinual replacement is necessary.

Pansy (Viola tricolor)
Nothing can approach Pansics for edging or for bedding in
the late winter and early spring. The newer, highly-developed
strains are characterized by gigantic flowers of most striking
brilliance and endless variety of design. Being distinctly a
cool weather plant. the seeds will not germinate well in the
warmth of late summer. If fresh seeds are planted in a cool,


shaded place in late autumn, no difficulty should be experi-
enced. Set the plants 6 to S inches apart to obtain a continu-
ous border without breaks. A stock of plants should be kept
on hand to replace unthrifty plants in the border. The loss
from mowing, if properly done, is negligible. Pansies will
ordinarily stand considerable cold without injury.

Petunia (Petunia axillaris)
No garden would be complete without Petunies. The small
single varieties are valuable for color-effects, while the more
pretentious, single and double fringed and veined giants al-


ways attract a great deal of attention because of their un-
usual texture, size and colors.
The small single varieties are very easily grown from seeds,
when instructions for planting are followed.
The giant fringed Petunias demand the greatest care in
planting, watering and transplanting. The full, double-fringed

Annual pinks

varieties are propagated by placing tip cuttings in coarse sand.
Phlox (Phlox drummondi)
The annual Phlox is one of the easiest of plants to grow
from seed. The little flowers that cover the dwarf, spreading
plants throughout the early spring have a wide variety of
color. Excellent as an edging, for ribbon beds, as a ground


cover for a sunny expanse, and for naturalizing. Most pleas-
ing are the effects when planted as a solid color edging. For
rich, clear colors, it is best to plant fresh seeds than to rely
on volunteer seedlings.
Annual Phlox is relatively free from pests, transplants
most easily, and succeeds in dry, light, sandy soils. The Star
Phlox, with its irregular, pointed petals, is an unusual novelty.
Pinks (Dianthus in several species)
Pinks thrive as annuals, very often as perennials, if they
are cut back in the early summer and fertilized for a second
period of bloom. No attempt will be made to distinguish the
species or hybrids of Dianthlus. Different kinds should be tried
and selections then made. The hardiness of the plant, the old-
fashioned quaintness of the fragrant many colored blossoms,
the ease with which the seeds sprout and grow, commend the
annual pinks. Several new hybrid Dianthus are charming and
have considerable merit.
Poppy (Papaver in several species)
Poppies are garden favorites. The bright colors of the
hybrids of the Opium Poppy and the fragile, fine-textured,
delicately tinted flowers of the Shirley group, offer variety in
color and design. The Poppies do not transplant well, nor do
the seeds sprout in hot weather. It is best to sow the seeds in
November, where the plants are to grow. Ants are very fond
of poppy seeds, and grits should be sprinkled along the rows
to protect the seeds. Thin the seedlings to stand 12 to 18
inches apart. Some of the varieties of the Opium Poppy vol-
unteer and occupy the same garden spot year after year.
Scarlet Flax (Linum grandiflorum)
This red-flowered, hardy, bushy annual is growing in popu-
larity in Florida. It grows to about two feet. The clear color
is good in the border or in a flower arrangement. Seedlings
are easy to grow and can be moved with little loss.
Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus)
Although the .,iniil,,(I(ill is really a perennial, in Florida
it is treated as an annual because it rarely survives summer
temperatures and rains. It is a cool weather plant and suc-
ceeds when grown through the winter and early spring months.
The tiny seeds should be sown in a cool, shady place and
protected from ants. After germination, the seedlings are
easy to transplant and produce their spikes of delightful blos-
soms in the early spring. Invaluable as a cut flower, or for


the border, the Snapdragon in its highly-developed colors is
well worth growing.
Statice (Statice in several species)
The annual kinds of Statice are well adapted to our gar-
dens, thriving, even under difficulties. Statice silnuta has, in
the spring, tall spikes of blue or white flowers arising from
dwarf, tight rosettes of lobed, spatulate leaves. S. bonduelli
is very similar in habit, but produces yellow flowers; S.
Ns trori, the rat-tail Staticc, bears tall graceful spikes of deli-
cate pink flowers. All are desirable garden plants and excel-


lent for fresh bouquets or as everlastings. Like the Stracw-
flowers, they are hung in bundles, blossom end down, to dry
before being used. The germination is slow, but the plants
are easily handled after they are established.
Stock (Matthiola incana annua)
Stocks are old favorites and are to be had in full double
varieties in many pleasing colors. The plants vary in time of


bloom. The seeds give a good stand. The smallest plants
often produce double flowers. The plants should stand 8 to
12 inches apart. Plants must be sprayed for control of Aphids
or plant lice. Soil-borne diseases prevalent during warm
weather in old garden sites, must be guarded against and new
soils substituted.
Strawflower (Helichrysum bracteatum)
Tall, robust plants which attain a height of three feet when
well grown, supply attractive material for dried bouquets.

The strawflower

Cut the flowers when they are about half open, strip off the
leaves, and hang in bundles, blossom end down, in a shady
place until dry. A variety of gay colors is available. The
plants are best set out after the danger of frost has passed.


Sunflower (Helianthus in several species)
Great variation in height, habit and size of blossoms is
available in this group of heat-tolerant annuals. They are
good material for screens, boundaries and for cutting during
the months of May through September if successive sowings
of seed are made. The plants should be thinned to two foot
intervals, depending upon the variety. Refined types are ob-
tainable. Mildew, which attacks some varieties, can be con-
trolled by dusting sulphur.

Sweet Pea (Lathirus odoratus)

Si-rct Pcues are among the most important winter and
spring blooming annuals. There is a host of pests which prey
upon them.
The SNpmt'irsx. The most popular group. have reached a re-
markable state of perfection. Winter flowering strains planted
in the early fall should start blooming in December. The
spring or "late" flowering strains, if planted in the winter,
should produce a wealth of bloom in March, April or May.
The list of varieties is long.
The following method of planting has proven satisfactory.
If the soil is light. sandy, infested with rootknot, remove it
from a trench two feet deep where lie trellis is to stand. In
the bottom of this trench place six inches of rotted cow ma-
nure, and till to the ground level with a good compost of rich
hammock soil. It is important to treat the bed with a soil
sterilizing compound. Plant the seeds in a staggered double
row to permit the erection of a trellis between the rows. When
the seedlings emerge treat the bed again to control "damping
off." Thin the plants to stand a foot apart. When the plants
are six inches high apply steamed bone meal in sufficient quan-
tity to cover the ground white, then stir it in lightly. A mulch
of oak leaves or peat moss is valuable in conserving the mois-
ture. When tendrils appear provide a support of poultry net-
ting stretched between posts, or a trellis of cotton cords. Cut
the blooms frequently to prevent the formation of seed pods
which materially reduce the period of flowering. When the
stems begin to get short, apply a solution of nitrate of soda-
one tablespoonful in a gallon of water.
Aphids are controlled by tobacco sprays, and red spiders
by dusting with sulphur or syringing the vines with water un-
der high pressure. Remove and burn badly diseased plants.


The vines will stand considerable cold but the flower buds
are easily injured. Protection on cold nights is suggested
after the plants have commenced to blossom.

Torenia (Torenia fournieri)
This plant as an edging or rock garden subject will with-
stand heat and succeed with little attention. Torcnia grows
about 12 inches high and is covered throughout the summer
with masses of white or lavender, yellow-blotched blossoms

The zinnia

that are unusual. It is a creeping annual that develops new
roots where the runners come in contact with the ground.
These rooted tips may be used as new plants.

Verbena (Verbena hybrida)
The modern Yerbena, with its globe shaped heads of large
individual flowers grow in strong, clear colors and is a very
desirable garden plant. In some sections of Florida it is a
perennial, but it may be treated as an annual. If no particu-


lar color effect is desired, the plants may be propogated from
seeds. To grow the better varieties it is best to plant cuttings.
Zinnia (Zinnia elegans)
The Zinnia is a remarkably thrifty and heat tolerant plant.
The Zinnia's blossoms ranging in size from tiny liliputs to
giants that are close to eight inches in diameter, appear in
strikingly clear colors. There are pom-pom varieties, curled
and crested, picotes. quilled and others that contribute munch
variety to the flower garden.
The seeds may be planted either in flats or in the garden
after danger of frost has passed. Sowings of the seed should
be repeated every six weeks to have a succession of new blooms.
The lilipnts should be placed about 12 inches apart, while
the larger varieties should have at least two feet between them.
These plants are gross feeders and must be supplied with
albunldant plant food and \v;iter.
In the garden or in lhe bouquet Zinnias cannot be excelledd
during the summer or early fall months. For edgings the lili-
puts are especially desirable.

**: ;


When to Sow Approximate Tender or
Name Seeds Time in Bloom Hardy Page
Alyssum* ..................Any time........Any time .......Hardy..... 88
Aster ...................... Feb.-April.....I. Iuly-Aug....... Tender.... 89
Baby's Breath..............Aug.-Dec...... Jan.-June .......Hardy..... 39
Balsami.................... Feb.-April..... April-Nov. ...... Tender .... 89
Blanket Flower*............Sept.-Dee...... April-Aug. .....Hardy..... 39
Blue-Eyed African Daisy*.. Aug.-Jan ...... March-June .....Hardy..... 40
Blue Lace Flower.......... Feb.-April., ......July-Aug. ......Tender .... 40
Butterfly Flower........... Aug.-Feb. ..... April-June ...... Tender.... 49
Calendula ................. .Aug.-Oct...... Dec.-June ...... Hardy..... 41
California Poppy*.......... Sept.-Dec..... March-June ..... Hardy..... 41
Calliopsis .................. Oct.-Dec ....... \April-June ..... Hardy..... 42
Candytuft................. Aug.-Dec...... March-June .....Hardy..... 42
Carnation ..................Aug.-Dec ...... March-June ..... Hardy..... 42
Celosia .................... Feb.-April..... May-Sept. ...... Tender.... 42
Chinese Forget-Me-Not*.....A\g.-Felb ...... April-July ......Hardy..... 42
Chrysanthemum (annual)...Feb.-March.... May-July ....... Tender.... 42
(larkia .................... Sept.-Nov. ...... \pril-June ..... H ardy..... 43
Cornflower................... ug.-Oct...... .Dec.-J lne ....... Hardy.... 43
(osImos (hipinnatus) ....... Fel.-April..... May-Aug. ...... Tender.... 4t
Cosmos (sulphureus)*...... Ma- ..... Oct.- ....... Tender. ... 45
Cypress Vine* ..............March-Ma .... July-Sept. ...... Tender.... 45
Double English Daisy....... Sept.-Oct ...... Mar.-May ......Hardy..... 45
Florists' Paint Brush ....... Aug.-Dec. ..... March-June ....Hardy..... 46
Floss Flower* .... .......... Feb.-\April..... May-Aug. ... ..Tender ... 46
ilia ...................... Sept.-De ..... \pril-June .... H ardy.... 47
Gilohe Amaranth .......... March-.April... lMay-July ....... Tender.... 47
Godetia .................... Sept.-D)ec. .... April-June ..... Hardy..... 48
Gourd ..................... Fel.-A pril ................................ 48
lHunneiiania ............... Nov.-)De ..... ..\ )pril-June ..... Hardy..... 49
L arkspur* ................. .Oct.-Dee....... .Ma rch-May .....Hardy..... 49
I.eptosyne ................. Aug.-Nov. ..... .March-June ....Hardv..... 49
Lobelia ....................Sept.-March .... Nov.-May ...... Tender... 49
I.upine ..................... \ug.-)Dec. ..... March-June .... Hardy..... 49
Marigold*.................. Feb.-May. ..... Sept.-Nov. .....Tender .... 50
Mignonette................ Sept.-Nov..... March-Ma .... Hardy..... 51
Morning Glory............. Feb.-April ..... May-Nov. .......Tender.... 51
Moroccan Toad Flax* .......Sept.-Nov......)Dec.-Ma ....... Hardy..... 51
Moss Rose ................. Febh.-July...... May-Oct. ....... Tender.... 52
Mourning Bride ............Sept.-Dec ...... \pril-June .....Hardy..... 54
Nasturtium ................Feb.-March..... \pril-June ..... Tender. ... 54
Nicotiana ................... :ug.-No v...... Mlarch-June .. Hardy..... 55
Orange African Daisy...... Aug.-Fel ...... April-July ......Hardy..... 55
Painted Tongue ............ Aug.-Nov...... \pril-May ...... Hardy..... 55
Pansy...................... Aug.-Nov..... .. Jan.-May ....... Hardy..... 56
Petunia* ...................A g.-Jn... .... .I.Jan.-July ....... Hardv .... 56
Phlox* ................... Aug.-Felb...... March-July .... Hardy.... 57
Pinks ...................... Aug.-Fel ......J. an.-July ....... Hardy..... 58
Poppies*.................. Nov.-Dec...... March-May ...Hardy..... 58
Scarlet Flax............... Sept.-Nov..... April-June .....Hardy..... 58
Snapdragon.............. ....ug.-Dec...... Feb.-June ..... Hardy..... 58
Statice.................... Aug.-Dec....... April-Aug. ..... Hardy..... 59
Stock ......................Aug.-Dec...... Feb.-May ....... Hardy..... 59
Strawflower ............... Feb.-April...... June-Aug. ......Tender.... 60
Sunflower ...................Feb.-April ..... June-Aug. ......Tender.... 61
Sweet Pea ................ Sept.-Nov.......J an.-April ...... Hardy..... 61
Torenia................... Feb.-May...... April-Sept ..... .Tender.... 62
Verbena ...................Ang.-Dec...... Feb.-July ....... Hardy..... 62
Zinnia* .................... Feb.-Aug...... May-Oct. .......Tender.... 63
Re-seed and volunteer readily.


This group of plants will add to the Florida fNower garden
almost unlimited blooms during that season of ithe year when
other plants are not blooming and should be included to insure
a well balanced lhoral effect. Some of these plants provide
color and flowers after the annals have ceased to blossom.
Al least 40 kinds of perennials have been tested and proven
to be well adapted to Florida condiitions through the experi-
ments conducted liy the collegee of Agriculture at (ainesville.
Florida. A list of tlese pereilials is given herein, together
with suggestions for the cltnure and location of tlieni in the
planting scheme.
A careful selection of perennials will assure a goodl supply
of flowers from April until late fall.
Planting Suggestions
H'crbuceou'tis p( rnnliiitls sliould not be used alone for founda-
tiou plantings but rather as a finishing effect to the general
design. VWhen set in closely Iplanted masses they bring out a
color result which is very pleasing. The varieties embraced
in tile suggestions that follow refer to plants which blloom year
after year and also to the lion woody evergreens.
Growing the Plants
The easiest way to grow these plants is through division
as slihon in the illustration. After digging the plants Ilie soil
is shaken from tile roots and they are then divided into small
units each with its own stems and buds.
Ise plenty of water in planting and pack tle soil tirmly
around tile roots. PIrepare tlie beds in advance in tile manner
outlined for Ainnuals.
These plants may also lie propagatel byi cuttings taken
Irom old stems. These cuttings, three or four inches long,
are made with a sharp knife above and below the nodes, the
leaves being left oi the upper node, and then planted in sharp,
clean, sandy soil.
Flat boxes prepared alnd cared for as heretofore suggested,
are best for planting the cuttings.
Some of these plants may be grown from their seeds, to be
had when the seeds have ripened; others rarely, if ever, de-
velop seeds.
The same precautions, as previously recommended to pre-
vent "damping-off" are necessary to keep the young plants in
a healthy condition.


Other recommendations for the use of mulching material,
cultivating, pruning and fertilizing are given in the sugges-
tions for the cultivation of Annuals.
I'roper maintenance of perennials calls for attention and
care every month of the year.
In considering herbaceous perennials for winter plants,
Florida should be separated into three sections due to the dif-
ferences in soils, temperature, humidity, and rainfall in South
Florida, Central Florida, and North and Northwest Florida.

Dividing a herbaceous perennial to provide more plants
These variations will determine the precautions that must be
taken to protect the blooms during the periods of low tempera-
ture, the drainage that must be provided and the kind of fertil-
izers to apply.
Species and Varieties
The species and varieties recommended for planting are
included in the list that follows.
In the list, the common name appears first and the botani-
cal name immediately follows.


Adams' Needle (Yucca filamentosa)
This yucca is a hardy native to Florida which is valuable
for its subtropical effect. The tall spikes of white flowers,
produced in summer, are particularly striking. Tie thorns at
tile ends of the leaves should be cut off as the leaves unfold,
to prevent injury to the hands while working among the plants.
Adanm's \edle usually is propagated by means of offsets that

Native Adam's needle

Iarise about the old plants. A variegated form is sometimes
planted in an urn or flower pot.
Angelonia (Angelonia grandiflora)
This graceful perennial grows about two feet in height
and has lance-poiuled, toothed leaves about three inches long.
The flowers are dark blue, white centered and bloom from May
until frost. In the spring it is advisable to cut it back for
new. fresh wood.


Anyclouia is one of the very best perennials, withstanding
adverse conditions and responding favorably to abundant
water and fertilizer.
It is propagated by division or by cuttings.

Aspidistra (Aspidistra lurida)
The Aspidistra is very popular as a plant for the tower pot,
the window box or ground plot. It probably withstands more
abuse than any other plant, as shade seems to be its only
requirement. The stiff, shiny green leaves, 15 to 20 inches long,
grow in thick masses. It is \vry hardy, but winner may kill
the plants in the colder sections if not protected.

Banana (Muse. spp.)
These large herbaceous Iperennials are grown in many sec-
tions of Florida, gardens for fruit and their tropical effect. In
North Florida they are valuable as garden plants when used
behind hardy evergreen shrubbery or walls, as their unsightli-
ness, during winter, is hidden until new growth starts in the
spring. Brnanuus are usually dependable for a year-round effect
in the southern part.
Propagation is by division of the suckers from the parent
Begonia (Begonia spp.)
The BHcyonirs are one of the most popular groups of plants
for the house and conservatory, but with good conditions and
proper care, their planting extends to the garden plot. They
must have a soil rich in humus and plant food, and an abund-
ant water supply at all times. Protection from frost is im-
Propagation is by division, cuttings or seeds.
Beloperone (Beloperone guttata)
This striking and unusual perennial attracts a great deal
of attention wherever it is seen. The plant attains a height of
two feet, and is prolific in its production of showy coppery-red
flowers that are somewhat similar in structure to IBouq/uiivillea
bracts. The Belopl'rone will survive mild winters, but it should
be potted and taken indoors in the colder parts of the state.
Propagation is by seeds or cuttings.

Blanket Flower (Gaillardia aristata)
An erect perennial growing to a maximum height of two
feet, bearing showy yellow and red daisy-like flowers two or


three inches across. on stiff straight stems. It is liftticult to
distinguish this species froi tihe annual varieties.

The Blalnkt Floircr requires full suni for best results anll
develops in almost any soil that is not too wet.

Blooms may he had] the first year from seed and during the
second or third year the plants may l)e divided.

The blanket flower


Blue Flag (Iris spp). Native
The common garden irises do not thrive in Florida, except-
ing on the clay hills of the western end of the state where a
few varieties may be grown. Seven native species of irises that
are particularly graceful may be successfully transplanted and
grown in the garden. Noteworthy among these are I. savtnar-
ruim, I. he.r'agona, and I. virginica. They are water-loving herbs,
two feet in height, that bear lovely white, violet or purple flow-
ers in the spring. Large numbers should be planted as there
are few flowers to each plant. The native irises will thrive in
or near the lily pool and with a little extra attention to water-
ilng they may be grown in any good garden soil that is well
supplied with hunus.

Cacti, Epiphyllum Latifrons


Blue Sage (Salvia spp).
There are two forms of blue flowering sages, 8. azurica and
S. fariinecac. These are dependable for cutting and for the
garden in summer and early autumn.
There is a white flowered variety also.
The St'ria.s are propagated by division, cuttings, or seeds.

Cacti (Opuntia, Echinocactus, Mammillaria, Etc.)
As a result of the present day seeking of the unusual, tile
'Crti have become quite popular. The kinds of cacti available
from collectors and nurserlllen are almost endless and they
can be grown quite easily if given full sun and poor soil that
is well drained. They do not blend with other plants, so it
seems best to establish a separate cactus garden.

Canna (Canna, many species)
Recent years have witnessed remarkable development in the
garden ca*,rl. Tile new varieties have flowers of red, yellow,


white, buff or pink with foliage of green or bronze. Varieties
vary in height from 18 inches to seven or eight feet. Cannas
do well anywhere in the sun if there is an abundant supply of
water and plant food.


A pyrethrumni spray frequently applieil controls tlhe canna
leaf roller, (Geslina c;niialis), an insect that causes nisiighltly
injury to the leaves.
The root stocks shoulil be divided every two or three years
to prevent undue crowding. This is best done when tle plants
are killed to the ground by cold weather.

Cardinal's guard


Cardinal's Guard (Jacobinia coccinea)
Herbs which grow to live feet with large, remarkably shiny
green opposite leaves, that hear (tlrouhl the sumIner) l Il inerl-
ous show'y spikes of clrimson tubular flowers. The plant adds
very lbrilgt color to the gr ildnll all( is best grown in bold
()f easiest culture. ('ord(in l's Guard requires little or no
attention, but responds favorably to ablndalnt water and plant
food. Propagated by cuttings or division.
There is al orange lowered variety. but it is prolilbly not
so seIfll IS tile crimllsonll typle.

Century plant (in the foreground)
Century Plant (Agave spp.)
The (Century Ploat is so easy of cultivation that it is found
in many varieties, growing almost everywhere in Florida.
Century Plants are valuable when used sparingly to lend an
exotic effect.
Propagation is by suckers arising from the old plants.


Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum hortorum)
Chrysanth emt.u in flowers in multitudinous forms, range from
single daisy-like blooms through the pomn-poms, anemones and
spidery Japanese varieties to the huge globular flowers so pop-
ular at football games.
Many varieties, from all of the groups listed above, have
been successfully grown out of doors in Florida.
Divide the plants when growth starts in the spring, or bet-
ter still, take greenwood cuttings from sound, disease-free
sprouts in May. Tlhey will root in about two weeks and should
give good sturdy plants if properly handled.
As the plants grow, they should be tied every (i or 8 inches
to strong stakes as the stems may be broken by the load of
water-filled blossoms, or by the wind.
They prefer sun and being gross feeders, they demand
abundant food and water.
Aphids on Chrysanthemums may be controlled by the use
of nicotine sprays (Blackleaf 40), and leaf spot is checked by
copper sprays such as bordeaux mixture.

Coontie (Zamia floridana)
This is a hardy Florida perennial with long pinnate leaves,
valuable in the sub tropical plan, and as a winter-box plant.

Native coontie

. "^s"


Apparently grows well under most conditions. It is often seen
ill great patches in the pine woods.
Propamgated by seeds. division or offsets.

Cyperus (Cyperus spp.)

These graceful sedges are useful for striking foliage effects
when planted in or near water plantings. They grow well in
water a few inches deep.
Although low temperatures usually cut the stems to the
ground they quickly rally in 'warm1 weather.
There are two important species.
The Egyptian paper plant (C. papyrus) is probably the
more desirable, although nmore tender. Stout tri-angled stems
to a height of eight feet bear attractive clusters of small, wiry
leaves, about five inches long at their tips.
The umbrella plant (C. alterii folius) is the more widely
grown, probably because it is more robust. It is not so strik-
ing in appearance as the Egyptian paper plant, which is a
water-loving perennial growing to four or five feet in thick
The variety, !grtilis Hort.. is smaller and more slender. The
variety, trri!/i(ilftu Hort., is striped with white.
Propagation of both species is by division or seeds.


Day Lily (Hemerocallis in several species)
They comprise one of the hardiest and best groups of her-
baceous perennials and should be widely planted il Florida.
Many striking hybrids are now available and by carefully
selecting varieties, the garden will produce day lilies in bloom
during May, .June and .July. Even after the lemon or orange
lily-like blossoms have disappeared, the clumps of narrow
grass-like foliage are attractive.
Propagation is by division. The heavy clumps should be
divided every two or three years to prevent crowding.

Day lilies
False Dragon-head (Physostegia virginiana).
A vigorous, hardy herb about three feet in height that has


the characteristic square stems and toothed leaves of the mint
family. Tile white, pink or lilac flowers are borne iin a strike.
ing four-sided spike and are useful by virtue of the fact that
they blloomii inl tile autumn.
It is not particular as to soil, but responds well to good
ropalgation is by division.

False dragon-head

F 'trms in a variety are valuable for moist, shady locations.
Splendid kinds such as the cinnamon fern, (Osmiunda cilau-
inoiteia), and the different maidenhair ferns (Adiantunm .pp.)
may be collected in the woods. Scores of horticultural varie-
ties of ferns are grown in Florida. They should be protected
from extremely low temperatures.
Thoroughly enriched beds or borders containing peat or
muck on tie north side of walls are ideal locations for ferns.


Soil moisture is of prime importance in fern-growing. Prop-
agation is by division.

Ferns and other tender herbaceous plants

Four-o'clock (Miriabilis jalapa)
An erect bushy herb that is easily grown from tle large
black seeds. The fragrant funnel-shaped flowers in shades of
red, yellow, white or striped, borne in late summer and early
fall, open in cloudy weather or late afternoon and close in the
Four-o'clocks are killed to the ground by even light frosts,
but they will quickly recover in the spring.

Propagation is by seeds which are produced in large quan-
tities. Chance seedlings that are usually found about parent
plants are easily transplanted.


Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
These are striking perennial herbs, which are widely used
in cooking and medicine. In Florida, tlhe gingers find their
greatest use in the ornamental field. They thrive in shady,
moist locations. Usually winter-killed to the ground in colder
Propagation is by division of the rootstock.

Ginger-Lily (Hedychium coronarium)
The Gingcr-lily is an herb with canna-like leaves, about
three inches across, that grows to a height of four to six feet.
A water-loving plant admirably adapted to use in the lily pond
planting. The leaves are killed by a temperature of about
25. F.
The long-tubed, white flowers which appear in September
;and October r are extremely fragrant.

Native iris


Golden Glow (Rudbeckia laciniata)
A hardy herb whose flower stalks in the late fall rise to a


Golden glow
height of four or five feet and bear large, full, double, lemoii-
yellow flowers in great profusion that are excellent both for
garden decoration and for cutting.


Golden glowi seems to prefer north and west Florida to the
southern part of the state.
A half day's sun with shade in the heat of the afternoon
suits the plant very well. When used in bold clumps, on the
east side of a north-south hedge or wall, the effect is very
An abundance of plant food and water is required.
Propagation by division should be repeated every year or
two. Mildew may be checked by dusting with sulphur.

Japanese Snake's Beard (Ophiopogon japonicus)

Perennial stemless herbs of about a foot in height growing
from rootstocks and creeping by means of stolons. The white
or violet flowers are inconspicuous.
Like its close relative the Liriope, this grass-like plant is
very useful as a ground cover, for the window-box, or an edg-
ing. It grows well under tile most trying conditions of sun or
shade, heat or cold, drought or humidity.
Snake's Beard is an evergreen that should be used more ex-
tensively. There is a variegated variety.
Propagation is by division.

Justicia (Justicia spp.)

This is a large, coarse herb attaining a height of 4 to S feet
that bears, during spring and summer, loose terminal spikes
of red. pink or orange tubular flowers. It is most useful as a
background in tile herbaceous border.
I'ropagation is by cutltings.

Liriope (Liriope spp.)

A member of the lily family with graceful grass-like foliage
a foot high, the Liriopc is exceptionally fine as a ground cover,
for the window-box, or an edging plant. The Liriopc grows
well in most soils but seems to thrive best in the shade. It
bears its spikes of tiny blue flowers in the summer. It is ap-
parently free from pests and tolerant of heat and cold.
Propagation is by division.
L. Muscari, the wide-leaved Liriope, attains a height of 15
inches and is an excellent species for its flowers in June and
July. There is a variegated form.


Morea (Morea spp.)
A beautiful iris-like plant whose leaves grow in fan-shaped
basal rosettes. M. iridioidcs, the species illustrated, is better
known than .I. bicolor which is just being introduced. Appar-
ently hardy, vigorous and easy of culture. The clumps should
be divided every two or three years.
Propagation is by division or seeds.

The more
Orchids Growing in Florida
There are about twenty five species of native cpipihytal
orchids found growing in Florida. Some are both wonderful
and beautiful; all of them strange and exotic. Practically all
of them are found in the West Indies and it is thought that
floating vegetation, winds and birds account for their presence
here. Nine species of the Epidendrum have been discovered.
E. cochlhteatn has odd purple flowers that resemble pansies
somewhat. E. nocturnuma with its spidery white blossoms is
very attractive. tamnpcnscw produces a very pretty flower,
and the more than a thousand of greenish-yellow, brown-barred
blossoms borne by Cyrlopodium putnctatum are truly marvel-
ous creations.


Pampas Grass (Cortaderia argentea)
Pampas graiss is popular in Florida. It grows in large,
graceful clumps to 10 feet in height, hearing, in the fall. strik-
ing plumes which rise to a height of 12 feet. A gross feeder
that requires full sun for best development.
Valuable as a screen or -wheni used in connection with
clumps of bamboo. Often the leaves are browned by low tem-
peratures, but this does not impair the screening vaule of Pam-
pas grass. New growth quickly starts in warm weather.
The variety Rio des ro.x' ws as rose colored panicles.
Propagation is by division.
Periwinkle (Vinca rosea)
A robust, erect, ever-blooming perennial growing to two
feet everywhere in Florida. ()f easiest culture, it has escaped
cultivation and may be seen in old fields and about abandoned
In spite of the fact that it is so common. tlhe Peri'rinkle

deserves a place in most gardens because it is sure to give a
cheerful nass of color, even without attention. Very useful
and satisfactory when used in borders. In the winter districts
it may have to be replanted every year.
Propagation is by seeds or cuttings. Chance seedlings
abound year after year.
1. major variegata is a reclining or creeping perennial that


is much used in window-boxes and hanging baskets and is quite
hardy. Sansevieria (Sansevieria spp.)
Various kinds of Sanscvieria are popular at present as pot
plants, urn subjects and in patio plantings. Although they
are not sufficiently hardy to withstand cold winters, in the
warmer parts of the state they are used extensively.
Tolerant of heat, sunshine, shade, and drought, the San-
sevicrias will thrive with very little attention. Some 50 species
have been described.
The erect, thick, succulent leaves that arise from under-
ground rootstocks usually are mottled, sometimes variegated,
and are much sought after for their tropical character.
Propagation is by division or by cutting the leaves into
pieces 2 to 3 inches long and inserting them in sand.

The scarlet sage
Scarlet Sage (Salvia splendens)
This is undoubtedly the most widely cultivated salvia in


Florida. A vigorous perennial that furnishes bright scarlet
spikes throughout the summer until cut down by frost. In
cold districts, it is usually treated as an annual, unless pro-
tected from cold. Almost 20 horticultural varieties have been
Propagation is by cuttings or seeds.

Selaginella (Selaginella spp.)
A large family of fern-like plants containing many species
that succeed outdoors in Florida. They are much prized for
their delicate, feathery effect. Closely allied to the ferns, they
enjoy practically the same culture.
Most of the more desirable Selaginellas require shade, an
even supply of soil moisture, and a humid atmosphere for their
best development.
Propagation is by division of old plants.

Shasta Daisy (Chrysanthemum maximum)
The Skasta daisy is a perennial that is truly at home in
northern and parts of central Florida, although growers experi-
ence some difficulty in carrying the plants through the sum-
mer in southern Florida. Large. pure white, yellow centered
daisies borne on stiff leafy stems a foot and one-half in height,
are produced in profusion during the spring. These daisies
prefer full sun in the morning with, perhaps, partial shade in
the afternoon. The plants stand a temperature as low as 25
F. without apparent injury.
Propagation is by division in the fall.

Slipper Plant (Pedilanthus spp.)
These are succulent herbs growing to six feet which exude
a milky juice when bruised or crushed. Although members of
this group are very tender, they stand adverse culture condi-
tions and are valuable in South Florida gardens when a bizarre
effect is wanted. There are variegated varieties.

Spanish Bayonet (Yucca aloifolia)
This familiar plant warrants no special discussion. Valu-
able when massed for sub-tropical effect, especially where it is
too dry for many perennial plants to thrive. The many
branched spikes of fragrant white blooms are very striking.
Hardy throughout all of Florida.


Propagation is by offsets from old plants.
The thorns on the tips of the leaves should be removed by
pruning shears to prevent injury.
There is a variegated form.

Spanish bayonet

Stokes' Aster (Stokesia laevis)
This plant is without question one of the best native Ameri-
can perennials that succeeds in Florida.
The plants are about a foot high, growing in strong clumps
and bearing blue aster-like flowers three inches across, on stout
stems thought the summer.
Although .trl.i x' Astcr prefers high, well-drained, rich,



sandy loan. it will persist in poor, light sand. blooming year
after Vec r.
Extremely valhaldle for garden decoration and for cintting.
There are pink. white ani yellow forms, but they are not. hovw-
ever. as dependable as Ilie blue type.
Propagation is by division, which should hIe practise.I every
t three years.

Stokes' aster

Strobilanthes (Strobilanthes spp.)

A coarse, erect herb about three feet high that has attrac-
tive light blue funnel-shaped flowers from May until frost.
When grown in large clumps the effect is very striking from
sunrise until noon. Unfortunately, the flowers fade in the sun.
Prolific and cosmopolitan, S'trobi(larnths will endure almost
any hardship and seem to succeed anywhere in the state.
Propagation is easy by division,' cuttings or seeds. Volun-
teer seedlings are found in numbers about the parent plant.
S. isophyllus is larger, coarser, more heard than is the
more tender S. anisophyllus.


Tall Cup Flower (Nierembergia frutescens)
A graceful shrubby perennial herb to three feet high. Hand-
some cup-like white flowers tinted with blue are borne in pro-
fusion in early summer. They are easily bruised by the heavy
Apparently the cup flowers are little used, but they un-
doubtedly warrant more extensive planting.
Propagation is by cuttings, seeds, or division of tlie old

Transvaal Daisy (Gerbera jamesoni)
Within recent years Florida has discovered this superb
perennial. The plants, which grow in large clumps, about six
to eight inches in height, are vigorous, deep-rooted and quite
resistant to most diseases, insects and drought.
The large but delicate daisy-like flowers ranging in color
from white or cream to rose red, are borne on stiff stems a foot
or more in length. The flowers are produced continually if not
cut down by frost and have excellent keeping quality.
Propagation is by seeds or division. The latter method
seems best as there has been difficulty in germinating seeds,
unless they are absolutely fresh.
Divide at least every three years into well enriched soil.

Tradescantia (Tradescantia spp.)
T. discolor is a stiff, upright, tender foliage plant whose
long lance-pointed, strap-shaped leaves, purple below, grow
horizontally or nearly so.
Unusual in appearance and consequently prized as a con-
servatory plant. However, it succeeds in moist, shady outdoor
locations in Florida, but should be protected from the cold, and
it is advisable to lift the plants in the fall and carry them
through the winter in pots indoors.
The inconspicuous flowers are borne in clusters protected
by purplish, leaf-like bracts in the form of tiny boats which
grow very close to the upright stem.
Propagated by separating the young offsets from the parent
plant, or by seeds.
T. reflexa, a native perennial that attains a height of three


feet, with its typically blue and occasionally white blossoms,
is worth growing in the perennial border or near the lily pool.
The various forms of Wandering Jew (Trii7',les.irtit spp.)
are valuable as ground covers for moist, shady places or as
window-box material.

Tradescantia discolor

Verbena (Verbena hybridia)
The present-day Verbena in many charming colors, is a re-
sult of the hybridization of four species.
Usually perennials in Florida, verbenas are low, creeping
herbs, of the simplest culture, that are dependable for strong
color notes in the garden. Attacks of red spider can be fore-
stalled by dusting the plants with sulphur or syringing them


with heavy pressure from the water hose. Valuable for ground
cover in sunny places, edgings, rock gardens and for window
box work.
Propagation of choice kinds should be by cuttings, but if
no special color is desired, the seeds may be planted.
Moss rcrbena (1V. crioidcs) is proving valuable as a self-
seeding subject for bold masses of lilac color. Similar to the
above, but not so highly developed as to flower size.

Umbrella plant

Violet (Viola ororata). Europe
Everyone loves violets and can have them out of doors in
southern gardens. An acid soil abounding in humus and
plant food, moisture and shade are all that the violet requires.
The deliciously perfumed flowers are numerous from December
until May, unless extremely low temperatures are experienced.
Divide the old plants each year or two, in August or Sep-
tember, after they are through blooming. The variety Princess
of Wales is probably the one grown most widely in Florida.


Night Blooming Cerus

Cerus Peruvianus

A tall growing species of Cacti. Branches freely at the
base. The new growth is dark green but becomes a dull green
with age. The spines increase with the age of the plant.
Blooms at night, bearing flowers from six to seven inches long.

Epiphyllum Latifrons
Another species of (Cacti. Has long branches and long, flat


flowers. When in full bloom the flowers bend backwards. The
blossoms start to open in the evening and are fully opened by
The Night Blooming Cerus requires very little attention.



The Agriculture Extension Service, University of Florida,
and the U. S. Department of Agriculture through their bulle-
tins have assisted very materially in the compilation of this




Name e


Angelonia ................... 67
Blue flag .................... 70
Blue sage ................... 71
L iriope ..................... 81

Name Page
Stokes' aster ................ 86
Strohilanthes ................ 87
V erbena ..................... 89
V iolet ....................... 90


Adam's needle ...............
B anana .....................
Blanket flower ...............
C acti ........................
Canna .......................
Cardinal's guard .............
Century plant ...............
Chrystanthemum ............
False dragonhead ............
Four-o-clock .................
Justicia .....................
M orea .......................

Pampas grass ................
Periwinkle .................
Sage ........................
Shasta daisy .................
Slipper plant ................
Spanish bayonet .............
Stokes' aster ................
Strohilanthes ................
Tall cup flower...............
Transvaal daisy .............
V erbena .....................


Blanket flower ............... 68
C acti ....................... 71
( anna ....................... 71
Chrysanthemum ............. 74

D ay lil .....................
Four-o-clock .................
Golden glow ................


Adam's needle ...............
Banana .....................
C acti .......................
Cardinal's guard .............
Century plant ...............
Coontie .....................
D ay lily ....................
Four-o-clock ................
Japanese snake's beard.......

L iriope .....................
Periwinkle ..................
S age ........................
Sansevieria ..................
Slipper plant ................
Spanish bayonet .............
Strobilanthes ................
V iolet ......................


Adam's needle ...............
A spidistra ..................
B anana .....................
B egonia ....................
Blue flag ....................
C acti .......................
Century plant ...............
Coontie .....................
Cyperus .....................
D ay lily ....................
Ferns ..................... .

G singer ......................
G inger-lily ..................
Japanese snake's beard.......
IL iriope .....................
M orea ......................
Pampas grass ...............
Sansevieria ..................
Selaginella ..................
Slipper plant ................
Spanish bayonet .............
Tradescantia ................



Name Page
Aspidistra .................. 68
Begonia ..................... 68
Beloperone .................. 68
Coontie ..................... 74
Ferns ................ .... 77

'anme Page
Japanese snake's beard....... 81
L iriope ...................... 81
Selagii ella .................. 85
V erbena .................... 89


A spidistra ..................
Begonia .. ...............
Beloperone ..................
B lue flag ....................
Coontie .....................
F erns .......................
G inger ......................

Ginger-lil ..................
Japanese snake's Ieard ......
L iriope .....................
Sansevieria ..................
Selaginella ..................
Tradescantia ................
V iolet ......................


F erns ....................... 77
Japanese snake's heard ...... 81
L iriope ..................... 81

Selaginella .................. 85
V erbena .................... 89
V iolet ...................... 90


Blue flag ....................
Cyperus ....................
D ay lily .....................
F erns .......................
G inger ......................

G inger-lily ..................
Japanese snake's beard .......
I.irlope .....................
Selaginella ..................


A ngelonia ...................
Blanket flower ...............
Chrysanthenum .............
D ay lily .....................
False dragonhead ............
G inger-lily ..................

Shasta daisy ................
Stokes' aster ................
Transvaal daisy ............
V erlena ....................
V iolet .......................

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