Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Part I: Florida's foundations
 Part II: The building of a...
 Appendix I: Florida investments...
 Appendix II: List of commercial...
 Appendix III: Florida association...
 Appendix IV: Florida daily...
 Appendix V: National banks...

Title: Florida in the making
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089000/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida in the making
Physical Description: xix, 351 p. : illus., maps, plates, port. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stockbridge, Frank Parker, 1870-1940
Perry, John Holliday
Publisher: de Bower Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: New York N.Y. Jacksonville Fla
Publication Date: c1925
Copyright Date: 1925
Subject: Florida   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Frank Parker Stockbridge and John Holliday Perry, with a foreword by the governor of Florida.
General Note: Maps on lining-papers.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089000
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 00478498
lccn - 25025224

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
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    Part I: Florida's foundations
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    Part II: The building of a commonwealth
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    Appendix I: Florida investments analyzed
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    Appendix II: List of commercial organization in Florida
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    Appendix III: Florida association of real estate boards
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    Appendix IV: Florida daily newspapers
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    Appendix V: National banks in Florida
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Full Text






* 6* .6.
. . . . .

.6 6


Copyright, 1926, by



All rights in this work are specifically reserved by the
owner of the copyright, including the right of transla-
tion into foreign languages, including the Scandinavian.


* *. . .



Manufactured complete by
United States of America



Foreword . . . . . . . vii
By Hon. John W. Martin, Governor of Florida
Publishers' Preface . . . . . ix
Introduction . . . . ... xiii



I. History Repeats Itself . . .
II. Where and What is Florida? . .
III. Florida's Natural Resources . ..
IV. Florida's Agricultural Opportunities .:
V. The Staple Crops of Florida . .
VI. Florida's Grove and Orchard Crops
VII. Florida's Cattle, Dairy and Poultry
Farms . . . .
VIII. The Bonanza Crops of Florida . .
IX. Florida's Industrial Opportunities
X. Florida's Railroads, Steamships and
XI. Florida's Political and Educational
Systems . . . . .
XII. Florida's Business Organizations .





XIII. Florida's Three Great Cities . 183
XIV. The Florida East Coast . . .. .202
XV. The Florida Everglades . . .. 225

9 703f




XVI. The Florida Midlands . . . 289
XVII. The Florida West Coast . . .. 257
XVIII. Pensacola and West Florida . 274
XIX. Florida Values and the Florida "Boom" 286

I. Florida Investments Analyzed . 300
II. Commercial Organizations in Florida 317
III. Real Estate Boards in Florida . . 332
IV. Florida Newspapers . . . 336
V. List of Florida Banks . .. . 339
Index .......... .. 346


By the Governor of Florida
THE authors of "Florida in the Making" have done
more than merely write a book. They have per-
formed a public service, the value of which cannot
be over estimated.
In placing before the world the first comprehensive
presentation of all of the facts about Florida, they have
rendered a service not alone to the State of Florida but
to the people of the rest of the United States, who are
eager to learn the truth about our great Commonwealth.
Florida is truly, as the authors of this book put it, a
pioneer State. Oldest of all in its history, it is the
youngest of all in its development. But as the facts of
Florida's unmatchable climate, its unrivalled agricultural
and horticultural possibilities and its limitless oppor-
tunities in commerce and industry become known of all
men, it cannot fail to become one of the richest, most
populous and influential in the whole family of common-
wealths which make up our Nation. The sun of Florida's
destiny has arisen, and only the malicious and the
short-sighted contend or believe that it will ever set.
Marvellous as is the wonder-story of Florida's recent
achievements, these are but heralds of the dawn.
No one can read "Florida in the Making" without being
convinced that all which has yet been done in Florida
is but a beginning toward what is to come. The authors
have done well in going below the surface of events and
in placing significant emphasis upon the natural resources

of the State and the rewards which they hold for those
who will develop them. Agriculture and Industry are
the foundations upon which great commonwealths are
builded, and none ever had a broader, surer and sounder
foundation upon which to build than has Florida.
Great men, inspired by the vision of Florida's future
and fired with the pioneer spirit that has built America,
are creating an earthly Paradise along these golden
shores, around these sparkling lakes, upon these rolling
hills. The tale of their achievements deserves the im-
perishable record which this book gives it. It is a record
calculated to inspire still other thousands and tens of
thousands to seek in Florida like opportunities for the
expression of their creative impulses.
Florida, still a pioneer State, is still a land of oppor-
tunity, and if "Florida in the Making" did nothing more
than to make those opportunities apparent to those who
are prepared to seize them its authors would for that
alone deserve the thanks of the great Commonwealth of
which I have the honor to be Governor, and in the name
of which I tender to them my sincere congratulations
upon their monumental work.
Tallahassee, Florida,
November 10, 1925.



IN presenting "Florida in the Making" it seems ap-
propriate to introduce the authors, and to explain
the genesis of this book.
Mr. Perry is a publisher, banker, lawyer and large
land owner whose operations in Florida and many other
States in recent years aggregate several millions of
dollars. Besides being the President and controlling
owner of the American Press Association, the American
Press, the Publishers' Autocaster Service and the John
H. Perry Publications of New York, and of the Reading
(Pa.) Times, he owns and directs the Jacksonville Jour-
nal, the Pensacola News and the Pensacola Journal, and
is a director of a number of banks, Trust and Mortgage
Companies in Florida and elsewhere. His intimate knowl-
edge of Florida extends over several years and his rela-
tions with the leading interests in every part of the State
have been such as to give him a broad view of general
conditions and an accurate conception of the realities
underlying the surface of events.
Mr. Stockbridge is the author of several books and
has had a journalistic experience covering important
newspapers and magazines in New York and elsewhere.
Essentially a reporter, he has contributed articles and
stories for many years to such magazines as World's
Work, Atlantic Monthly, Harper's, Current History,
McClure's, Cosmopolitan, Saturday Evening Post, Col-
lier's, Country Gentleman and a score more, writing
articles from personal investigation on economic, agri-
cultural, social, political and scientific topics. He spent
the winter of 1924 with his family in Florida, travel-

ling extensively through the regions most frequented by
tourists and observing to the best of his ability the
economic conditions reflected in the superficial activities
of the season.
At the invitation of Governor John W. Martin, Mr.
Stockbridge attended the All Florida Development Con-
ference, held at West Palm Beach on March 26, 1925,
where two hundred representative men from every section
of Florida planned and began to put into effect a pro-
gram calculated to unify their efforts to stabilize the
economic foundations of the Commonwealth and to pro-
mote a wider knowledge of the sound realities underlying
the speculative furor of the time.
Mr. Perry was also in attendance at this conference.
and had with him a letter from Dr. Albert Shaw, Editor
of the American Review of Reviews, asking him to sug-
gest somebody qualified to write a comprehensive article
on Florida for an early issue of that magazine. Mr.
Perry recommended Mr. Stockbridge, and the result was
an article, "Florida, the Pioneer State," which, appear-
ing in the May, 1925, issue of Review of Reviews,
attracted nation-wide attention and much favorable com-
This was followed by a request from Dr. Shaw for
a second article published in the November Review of
Reviews, in the preparation of which Mr. Stockbridge
and Mr. Perry conferred frequently. The impossibility
of telling the whole story of Florida as a commonwealth
in the making, in a single article or, indeed, within the
limits of an entire issue of a magazine, became apparent
to both of them. Both felt, moreover, that it was a story
which needed to be told. Out of this feeling, at Mr.
Perry's suggestion, this book was born.
Through his Florida operations and connections, Mr.
Perry had assembled a vast amount of accurate informa-
tion, which Mr. Stockbridge supplemented by a personal

tour of the State in the summer of 1925, as the guest of
the State Chamber of Commerce. He travelled by auto-
mobile over three thousand miles and by train and boat at
least a thousand miles more, within the limits of Florida.
He visited every section, penetrating into regions which
the tourist never sees, meeting and talking with the men
and women who are demonstrating, through their own
activities, the potential wealth of Florida's soil and cli-
mate and seeing with his own eyes the tangible evidences
of that wealth. The results of his observation as set
down in this book have been checked up, for accuracy,
by Mr. Dudley V. Haddock, assistant to the President of
the Florida State Chamber of Commerce.
The resulting work is, the publishers believe, the first
and only comprehensive book dealing with the develop-
ment of Florida in its more vital and important phases.
At the same time, the authors have not overlooked the
manifestations which have been the immediate cause of
turning the eyes of the world toward Florida, but have
analyzed them and presented them in their true per-
We believe that "Florida in the Making" merits Gov-
ernor Martin's characterization of it as a "monumental"


OO much has been said and written about specu-
lative fortunes made in Florida real estate trans-
actions; not enough has been said about the
underlying values upon which the rising prices of Florida
lands are based.
This book is an effort to look behind superficial and
temporary manifestations to the eternal foundations upon
which the Commonwealth of Florida rests and must build,
will build and is building.
"Are economic conditions in Florida really sound and
stable?" is the question asked by conservative people who
distrust any and all speculative activity. Yet the very
existence of speculative activity implies the existence of
underlying values. One might as well ask whether the
Stock Exchange rests upon a sound and stable base.
Speculation in stocks would cease were there no values be-
hind the shares traded in.
Unintelligent investment in stocks or in real estate is
pure gambling, and those who indulge in it have even
less of a chance to win than the avowed gambler who
plays the other man's game at Monte Carlo. Intelligent
investment is based upon an examination of real value.
Millions who traded in the shares of the United States
Steel Corporation in its early days did so unintelligently,
without knowledge of or even belief in the underlying
soundness of the enterprise, and at the recession of every
advance sold out in panic, believing that the bottom had
dropped out of the steel merger. Intelligent thousands,
looking behind the market fluctuations to the property
itself, bought and held on and did not permit tempo-

rary changes in market quotations to frighten them.
They reaped their reward, and so, in the belief of the
authors of this book, will intelligent investors in Florida
reap theirs. To say to the prospective investor, "Buy
anything offered in Florida" would be giving advice as
foolish and unsound as if one were to say, "Buy anything
listed on the Stock Exchange." But whereas it is com-
paratively easy, requiring the expenditure of only a
moderate amount of time and money, for the prospective
investor in stocks to inform himself of the relative values
and probable earnings of the various corporations whose
shares are dealt in in the stock market, and so to form
an intelligent judgment on which to base his investments,
it has not been so easy nor so inexpensive to survey the
Florida field and determine, in the light of cold reason,
which of the innumerable opportunities presents the es-
sential elements of sound investment.
It is the belief of the authors that nobody who has
bought Florida real estate from responsible vendors at
prevailing prices will lose in the long run. On the con-
trary, even prices which are criticized in conservative
quarters as being too high, represent, we believe, but a
fair and modest discount of the future.
That there have been ill-advised purchases, made in the
expectation of profits faster than profits can be realized,
is undeniable. But that there has been any material or
wide-spread misrepresentation of underlying values is
definitely not true. Some have bought without realizing
that they were doing what the earlier buyers of United
States Steel Common did, buying future earning power
rather than immediate convertible value. There have
been some instances-a very few, all things considered-
of misrepresentation.
Wherever an active market exists for any commodity,
whether stocks, oil, grain or real estate, there is bound
to be unintelligent speculation, over-optimism, a per-

centage of deliberate fraud. Human nature is so consti-
tuted that credulity and hope are frequently mistaken
for knowledge and foresight. To the great mass of un-
discriminating humanity there is little that can be offered
in the way of advice, and it is doubtful whether even
sympathy is not wasted upon it.
This book, then, is addressed to intelligent investors,
seeking to learn for themselves something of Florida's
underlying values, looking for guidance in discriminating
between sound and unsound investments in Florida prop-
erty, willing to take some pains to inquire and investigate
before investing. To those the authors confidently say:
There are greater and better investment opportunities
in Florida than have yet been realized. (This is written
in the closing months of 1925.)
The activity in Florida land, viewed as a whole, is not
a "boom" in the sense that prices generally have been
inflated beyond actual present values. On the contrary,
most Florida property has been sold too cheaply!
The underlying stability of Florida, based upon its
undeveloped resources, is unshakable and immensely
greater than even the people of Florida themselves yet
There is the soundest basis for these opinions in the
history of Florida's past growth, especially in recent
years. When the United States paid Spain a trifle less
than fifteen cents an acre for the whole of Florida the
conservatives of that day regarded it as a bad bargain
for Uncle Sam! To-day the land purchased in 1821 for
five million dollars is worth, at the extremely conservative
average valuation of one hundred fifty dollars an acre,
more than $5,250,000,000.
What has multiplied the value of Florida land so
miraculously? Leaving all other considerations aside, the
fact that a million and more tourists visit the state every
year, of whom a large percentage become permanent

settlers in Florida and a still larger percentage buy and
build winter homes there. In the winter of 1924-25 the
estimated total of tourists in Florida was 1,283,000; the
average expenditure per capital not far short of one thou-
sand dollars. There is a billion and a quarter of wealth
brought into the state in a single year from this source
alone, and the outlook for the current season is that the
volume of tourist traffic will be at least doubled. That
would put close to three billion dollars of fresh capital
into circulation in Florida. Is it to be doubted that
values will increase?
Florida sold land in 1880, when the State had a bare
quarter of a million population, for twenty-five cents an
acre. To-day, with a population of a million and a
quarter, bidders eagerly flock to the State's weekly
auctions of precisely the same sort of land, in exactly the
same locations, and bid as high as seven hundred dollars
an acre for it! What will it be worth when the population
of Florida has again multiplied by five?
The authors would regret it keenly should any reader,
relying solely upon their assertions, plunge blindly into
any Florida speculation without taking pains to ascertain
for himself all the facts about his proposed investment.
There is but one safe rule to follow, the rule that is
emphasized by organizations concerned with the develop-
ment of Florida along orderly, honorable lines, such as
the Florida State Chamber of Commerce, the numerous
local and county Chambers of Commerce, Real Estate
Boards and Banks. That rule, formulated into a
phrase, is:
"Investigate before you invest!"
First hand, personal inspection is not always possible,
nor, unless one is thoroughly familiar with Florida prop-
erties and conditions generally, does it always result in
a satisfactory judgment. More than one opportunity to
make a highly desirable investment in Florida has been

lost because the prospective buyer waited to make his
decision until he could see the property and make inquiries
on the ground.
The investor in Florida owes it to himself, however,
either to inquire in responsible quarters as to the financial
standing and reputation of the individual or institution
offering the property for sale, or to intrust his dealings
to a thoroughly responsible agent or broker. Any bank
or business organization in the state will cheerfully ad-
vise as to the standing of such agents or dealers, and a
list of such organizations is included in the Appendix
to this volume.
One reason why even many of those who visit Florida
and see for themselves frequently find it difficult to form
a sound judgment of present and probable future values,
is the immense area covered by the state. Larger than
New York, Massachusetts and Rhode Island together, its
expanse is so vast that only a trifling percentage of the
annual influx of tourists ever see more than a very small
part of it, and few realize the immensity, either of its
territory or of its opportunities. The authors, therefore,
have attempted to present a picture of the whole of
Florida, believing that only by viewing the state "in the
large" is it possible to form an accurate judgment as to
the actual or relative values of any part of it.
Another serious obstacle to a correct appraisal of
Florida values by the newcomer or the person who has
never visited the state is the absence of external standards
whereby to measure and appraise its present activities
and its possibilities. The simple, plain truth about
Florida and most of the phases of its development and
opportunities sounds like exaggeration in the ears of
those unfamiliar with the unique conditions which obtain
At a meeting of Florida advertising men, trying to
formulate a program for presenting the facts about the

state to the outside world, a few years ago, suggestion
after suggestion was rejected because it was felt that
the contemplated statement, though true, would not be
accepted as truth. Finally one of the group summed up
the matter in a phrase which has become historic:
"Gentlemen," he said, "the truth about Florida is a
That is precisely what an unvarnished recital of the
facts about Florida seems to a world which has no stand-
ards whereby to gauge them. 'Florida is unique; its
climate, its soil and the products of the soil, its geog-
raphy and topography, its birds, beasts, and fishes, its
trees and flowers) are outside of the experience of the
people of the rest of the United States.
Even more amazing and unbelievable to those who
have no personal contact with what is going on in Florida
are the developments which are making cities grow where
nothing was, plowing gold from the wasteland, threading
the unbroken wilderness with railroads and highways, re-
molding coast-lines) lifting islands from the depths and
crowning them with Aladdin palaces. These are marvels
from the fairy books. Such things have never happened
within the ken of most of us. It is little wonder that we
doubt their reality. Even seeing, in Florida, is not
always believing.
The principal value of this book, its authors hope,
is to serve as a gauge by which to measure Florida and
Florida values, Florida's opportunities and Florida's
future. Exceptional pains have been taken to make no
statements which can be successfully challenged. Espe-
cial effort has been made to interpret Florida in terms
which will make it understandable to the rest of the
world. Without pretending to omniscience, the authors
believe that here is presented a broader, more compre-
hensive picture of the real Florida than has heretofore
been made generally accessible.



While it is to the growing volume of tourist traffic
that Florida looks in the first instance for its future
growth, as it has in the past-as California looked so
successfully-thoughtful citizens of Florida are looking
beyond the seasonal visitor toward the ultimate occupa-
tion of every one of the state's twenty-two million till-
able acres by permanent settlers, winning from the land
a comfortable living in health and happiness and multi-
plying the wealth of the state thereby many times more
rapidly even than it has multiplied in the last few years.
They are looking beyond, these thoughtful men, to a
vision of the great industrial centers which are bound
to come into being as population increases and the needs
and the man-power of the state multiply.
Florida is what it is because men of vision have found
therein opportunities for the expression of their creative
instincts, to go pioneering in the fashion of their Ameri-
can forebears. They have builded greatly, splendidly,
but their work has only just begun. There is not yet
room prepared for all those who seek health and pleasure
along the far-flung coast-line, around the myriad lakes,
amid the rolling hills. Still less has the land been made
ready for the clamoring host of those who seek a liveli-
hood from Florida's fertile acres.
For every far-seeing pioneer who has thus far carved
his monument and his fortune from the soil of Florida
there are a thousand equal or greater opportunities still
open for men of vision, initiative and courage. For every
settler who has found peaceful contentment, health and
freedom from the economic pressure of the crowded older
commonwealths there is still opportunity for hundreds
upon hundreds more to do likewise. And this book, is,
in part, an effort to point out, broadly, the directions in
which those opportunities lie.
New York, January 1, 1926


T HE first great rush to Florida began four hundred
years ago. The attention of the civilized world,
in the first decades of the sixteenth century, was
focused upon the peninsula which separates the Gulf of
Mexico from the Atlantic Ocean. Then, for four cen-
turies, Florida attracted but casual and occasional in-
terest from the rest of the world.
To-day, as every one knows, the eyes of all America
and of a considerable part of Europe are turned
Floridaward. The feet (or, more accurately, the steering
wheels) of a considerable proportion of the owners of
those eyes, are also directed toward the southeast corner
of the United States.
What happened four hundred years ago to send
pioneers overseas to Florida? What is happening now
to make the peninsula the Mecca of millions? Millions
of people, millions of dollars are migrating from northern
climes to a land which, for nearly four hundred years
after the first white man came to America, lay almost un-
inhabited and generally regarded as uninhabitable.
The expeditions to Florida in the sixteenth century
were part of one of the great, significant movements of
peoples that, taken together, make history. A new world
had been discovered, and adventurous men flocked to it
in search of-what? Wealth, freedom from the restraints

of the old civihzation, excitement, novelty, all the things
that make adventurous men go adventuring. The lure
of the exotic has always sufficed to lift youth out of its
old environments and transport it across perilous moun-
tains, over stormy seas.
The migration to Florida to-day is another such great
movement of peoples, unparalleled in our generation.
Here is history in the making, the drama of a world
movement being enacted before our eyes. It is not dif-
ficult for the imaginative observer to feel himself in the
unique situation of having a front-row seat at a new
What do they seek, this horde of emigrants trekking to
Florida as their pioneer forefathers trekked over the
Alleghenies and across the Great Plains? (For it is
precisely the same type of migration, with the motor
Florida to-day.) What is there that men so eagerly
They seek in Florida to-day precisely what the Span-
iards sought four hundred years ago-health and wealth.
The essential difference between these quests, four cen-
turies apart, is that that of the Spaniards failed of its
objects, while that of to-day has found them. Otherwise
the story of the Florida ventures of Ponce de Leon, Pam-
filo de Narvaez, Hernando de Soto and the rest reads
amazingly like a story of modern adventures. Human
nature does not change.
What white man first saw Florida will never be known.
Cantino's map of 1502 shows land evidently intended to
represent the peninsula, but the earliest record is of the
expedition of Ponce de Leon, Governor of Porto Ric6
and shipmate of Columbus on his second voyage, who in
1513 obtained a royal grant to discover and colonize the
"Island of Bimini," where, it was asserted in Indian tra-
dition, there flowed a magical fountain, the waters of

which had the miraculous power of restoring old men
to youth. De Leon, at fifty-three, felt himself already
old. Other adventurers had sought gold in America; he
was the first to seek health.
On Easter Sunday (Pascua del Florida) of 1513,
March 3, his expedition landed near the mouth of the
St. Johns River, and he named the land after the holy
day, Florida. He found no fountain of youth, but after
an exploration of both coasts decided that he had found
an immense island. He returned to Spain and obtained an
addition to his royal grant; now he was authorized
to colonize not only the mythical Bimini, but this new
land of Florida, of which he was named Adelantado, or
president. And in 1521 he again landed in Florida,
engaged in a fight with the natives, retired to his ship
and sailed to Cuba, where he soon died, at sixty-one, dis-
appointed of his quest for the Fountain of Youth.
Meantime Diego Miruelo, in 1516, had sailed along the
west coast of Florida, and his men, like those of de
Leon, brought back to greedy Spanish ears tales of gold
to be found in the new land. Small nuggets had, indeed,
been exchanged by the natives for Spanish goods. There
must be more where those came from, for had not Pizarro
and Cortez found gold in Peru and Mexico? So, in 1527,
Pamfilo de Narvaez set out from San Lucar de Borro-
meda and in April, 1528, landed on the shore of Clear-
water Bay, with four hundred men and eighty horses.
He proceeded northward into the continent, but met with
so many difficulties and discouragements that he returned
to the coast, in the vicinity of St. Marks, in July. There
he built five boats or rafts and in September began a
coasting voyage toward Mexico. Two of these vessels
went down in a storm near the mouth of the Mississippi.
Narvaez and all on board were drowned. The others
landed and perished on the Texas coast, all but four.
To the story of one of these four survivors, Alvar

Nufiez, nicknamed "Cabeza de Vaca" or "Calf-head,"
treasurer and historian of the Narvaez expedition, was
due the first great Florida rush from Europe. Nuflez
and his three companions wandered for eight years in
Texas and New Mexico, part of the time held as prisoners
by the Indians, and finally reached Culiacan, on the Gulf
of California, in 1536.
Returning to Spain, Nufiez told such a colorful story
of the wonders and the wealth of the strange lands
through which he and his three companions had wan-
dered as to fire the imagination of all who heard it.
Careful to keep his written narrative, which has been
preserved, within the bounds of fact, he told a marvellous
tale to all who would listen, with a result which has been
set down so graphically by one of the listeners, who con-
cealed his identity under the nom de plume of "A Gentle-
man of Elvas," that it is worth quotation here:
"Captain Soto was a son of a squire of Xeres of Ba-
dajos. He went into the Spanish Indies, when Peter
Arias of Avila was Governor of the West Indies. And
there he was without anything else of his own, save his
sword and target. And for his good qualities and valor,
Peter Arias made him Captain of a troop of horsemen,
and by his commandment he went with Fernando Pizarro
to the conquest of Peru, where (as many persons of credit
reported, which were there present), as well at the taking
of Atabalipa, Lord of Peru, as at the assault of the
City of Cusco, and in all other places where they found
resistance, wheresoever he was present he passed all other
captains and principal persons. For which cause, besides
his part of the treasure of Atabalipa, he had a good
share; whereby in time he gathered a hundred and four-
score thousand ducats together, with that which fell to
his part; which he brought into Spain; whereof the Em-
peror borrowed a certain part, which he repaid again
with sixty thousand rials of plate in the rent of the silks

of Granada, and all the rest was delivered him in the
contractation house of Seville. He took servants, to wit:
a steward, a gentleman usher, pages, a gentleman of the
horse, a chamberlain, lackeys, and all other officers that
the house of a noble may require. From Seville he went
to the Court, and in the Court there accompanied him
John Danusco of Seville, and Louis Moscoso D'Alvarado,
Nurno de Touar, and John Rodrigues Lobillo. Except
John Danusco, all the rest came with him from Peru;
and every one of them brought fourteen or fifteen thou-
sand ducats; all of them went well and costly apparelled.
And although Soto of his own nature was not liberal,
yet because that was the first time that he was to show
himself in Court he spent frankly, and went accompanied
with those which I have named, and with his servants, and
with many others which resorted unto him. He married
with Donna Isabella de Bobadilla, daughter of Peter
Arias of Avila, Earl of Punno en Rostro. The Emperor
made him Governor of the Isle of Cuba and Adelantado,
or President, of Florida, with a title of Marquis of cer-
tain part of the land he should conquer.
"When Don Ferdinando had obtained the government,
there came a gentleman from the Indies to the Court,
named Cabeza de Vaca, which had been with the Gov-
ernor, Pamfilo de Narvaez, which died in Florida, who
reported that Narvaez was cast away at sea with all
the company that went with him. And how he with four
more escaped and landed in Nueva Espagfia. Also he
brought a relation in writing, of that which he had seen
in Florida; which said in some places: In such a place
I have seen this; and the rest which here I saw I leave
to confer of between his Majesty and myself. Generally
he reported the misery of the country, and the troubles
which he passed; and he told some of his kinsfolk, which
were desirous to go into the Indies, and urged him very
much to tell them whether he had seen any rich country

in Florida, that he might not tell them, because he and
another, whose name was Orantee (who remained in
Nueva Espagfia with purpose to return into Florida; for
which intent he came into Spain to beg the government
thereof of the Emperor) had sworn not to discover some
of these things which they had seen, because no man
should prevent them in begging the same. And he in-
formed them that it was the richest country in the world.
"Don Ferdinando de Soto was very anxious to have
him with him, and made him a favorable offer; but after
they were agreed, because Soto gave him not a sum of
money which he demanded to buy a ship, they broke off
again. Baltasar de Gallegos and Christopher de Spin-
dola, the kinsmen of Cabeza de Vaca, told him, that for
that which he had imparted to them, they were resolved
to pass with Soto into Florida, and therefore they prayed
him to advise them what they were best to do. Cabeza
de Vaca told them, that the cause why he went not with
Soto, was because he hoped to beg another government,
and that he was loth to go under the command of
another; and that he came to beg the conquest of Florida.
But seeing Don Ferdinando de Soto had gotten it al-
ready, for his oath's sake he might tell them nothing of
that whi:.h they would know; but he counseled them to
sell their goods and go with him, and that in doing so
they would do well.
"As soon as he had opportunity he spoke with the
Emperor, and related unto him whatsoever he had passed
and seen and came to understand. Of this relation, made
by word of mouth to the Emperor, the Marquis of As-
torga had notice, and forthwith determined to send with
Don Ferdinando de Soto his brother, Don Antonio
Osorio; and with him two kinsmen of his prepared them-
selves, to wit: Francis Osorio and Gracia Osorio. Don
Antonio dispossessed himself of sixty thousand rials of
rent which he held by the church; and Francis Osorio of

a town of vassals which he had in the country de Campos.
And they made their rendezvous with the Adelantado in
"The like did Nuiiez de Touar and Luis de Moscoso
and John Rodrigues Lobillo, each of whom had brought
from Peru fourteen or fifteen thousand ducats. Luis
de Moscoso carried with him two brethren; there went
also Don Carlos, which had married the Governor's niece,
and took her with him. From Badajos there went Peter
Calderan and three kinsmen of the Adelantado, to wit:
Arias Tinoco, Alfonso Romo and Diego Tinoco. And as
Luis de Moscoso passed through Elvas, Andrew de Vas-
concelas spake with him and requested him to speak to
Don Ferdinando de Soto concerning him, and delivered
him certain warrants which he had received from the
Marquis of Villa Real, wherein he gave him the Captain-
ship of Ceuta in Barbarie, that he might show them unto
him. And the Adelantado saw them; and was informed
who he was, and wrote unto him that he would favor
him in all things, and by all means, and would give him a
charge of men in Florida. And from Elvas went Andrew
de Vasconcelos and Fernan Pegado, Antonio Martinez
Segurado, Men Roiz Pereira, Juan Cordero, Stephen Pe-
gado, Benedict Fernandez, and Alvaro Fernandez. And
out of Salamanca and Jaen and Valencia and Albu-
querque, and from all parts of Spain, many people of
noble birth assembled at Seville, insomuch that in Saint
Lucar many men of good account, which had sold their
goods, remained behind for want of shipping, whereas
for other known and rich countries they are wont to want
men; and this fell out by occasion of that which Cabeza
de Vaca told the Emperor, and informed such persons
as he had conference with touching the state of that
country. Soto made him great offers, and being agreed
to go with him (as I have said before) because he would
not give him money to pay for ship which he had bought,

they broke off, and he went for Governor to the River
of Plate. His kinsmen, Christopher de Spindola and
Baltasar de Gallegos, went with Soto. Baltasar de
Gallegos sold houses and vineyards, and rent corn, and
ninety ranks of olive trees in the Xarafe of Seville. He
had the office of Alcalde Mayor, and took his wife with
him. And there went also many other persons of account
with the President.
"The Adelantado departed from Seville to Saint Lucar
with all the people which were to go with him. And he
commanded a muster to be made, at which the Portuguese
showed themselves armed in very bright armor, and the
Castilians very gallant with silk upon silk, with many
pinkings and cuts. The Governor, because these braveries
in such action did not like him, commanded that they
should muster another day, and everyone should come
forth with his armor; at which the Portuguese came as
at the first, armed with very good armor. The Governor
placed them in order near unto the standard, which the
ensign bearer carried. The Castilians, for most part, did
wear very bad and rusty shirts of mail and all of the
headpieces and steel caps and very bad lances. Some
of them sought to come among the Portuguese. So those
passed and were counted and enrolled which Soto liked
and accepted of, and did accompany him to Florida;
which were in all six hundred men. He had already
bought seven ships, and had all necessary provision
aboard them. He appointed captains, and delivered to
every one his ship and gave them a roll what people
every one should carry with them.
"In the year of our Lord 1538, in the month of April,
the Adelantado delivered his ships to the captains which
were to go in them; and took for himself a new ship, and
good of sail, and gave another to Andrew de Vascon-
celas, in which the Portuguese went; he went over the
bar of San Lucar on Sunday, being Saint Lazarus day,

in the morning and month of the year aforesaid, with
great joy, commanding his trumpets to be sounded, and
many shots of the ordinance to be discharged."
How little human nature changes! The same thing is
happening with respect to Florida to-day. Men are sell-
ing all their possessions, closing up their affairs else-
where, to hurry to Florida in search of what Ponce de
Leon and Fernando de Soto sought-health and wealth.
The important difference is that they are finding these
things which the Spaniards failed to find.
De Soto's expedition landed in Tampa Bay, marched
northward across the Suwannee River to a rendezvous at
Pensacola, and on to the Mississippi, without finding
the gold they sought. Their leader died on the banks of
the great river, and that was the end of the first great
Florida rush.
Twenty years later, in 1559, Tristan de Luna at-
tempted to establish a Spanish colony at Pensacola, but
abandoned the effort in 1561. Then, in 1562, Jean
Ribaut with a band of French Huguenots, fleeing from
persecution, made a landing on Anastasia Island, at St.
Augustine, explored the coast as far north as the mouth
of the St. Johns, and claimed the country for France.
It was Jean Ribaut who first made the Florida climate
known to the rest of the world. Europe was skeptical
when Ribaut wrote back to France:
"This is the fairest, fruitfullest, pleasantest land of all
the world."
Ribaut's colony, however, made its permanent base on
an island near what is now Beaufort, S. C. Two years
later another group of Huguenots, under the leadership
of Ren6 de Laudonneire, reached Florida and established
Fort Caroline, at the mouth of the St. Johns. This
colony did not prosper, and they were about to return
to France when, on August 28, 1565, Ribaut with three

hundred new arrivals from France entered the harbor.
On the same day the Spaniard, Pedro Men6ndez de
Avilds landed an expedition in the Bay of St. Augustine.
His force descended upon Fort Caroline on September
20, and put to death almost the entire garrison. "We
destroyed them, not as Frenchmen but as Huguenots,"
said Men6ndez, according to the generally accepted his-
tories. That other motives besides religious ones lay be-
hind the massacre is doubtless true, just as other than re-
ligious motives prompted the persecution of Quakers and
Baptists by the New England Puritans. Ribaut's ships,
attempting to escape, were wrecked near Matanzas Inlet,
at south end of Anastasia Island. He surrendered, with
most of his followers, to Menendez, and all were executed.
The tragedy of Fort Caroline was the beginning of a
tale of bloody conquest and reprisals. Menendez under-
took to plant the Spanish flag firmly in Florida, and es-
tablished, at St. Augustine, the first settlement in what
is now the United States that has endured to the present
time. He explored the Atlantic coast from Cape Florida
to St. Helena, and in 1567 returned to Spain, after
establishing forts at Avista, Guale, St. Helena and San
Mateo, the last on the site of the ill-fated Fort Caroline.
The news of the massacre of the French colony caused
no commotion in Paris, but a friend of Ribaut's, Domo-
nique de Gourges, vowed vengeance against the Spaniards.
He assembled an expedition with three ships, the destina-
tion of which was kept secret, even from its personnel,
until they were near the Florida coast. De Gourges
sought the aid of the Indians, under Chief Saturiba, and
with their assistance captured Fort San Mateo in the
spring of 1568. He hanged the Spanish prisoners, as
their leader had hanged the French garrison, and on a
tablet of pine carved an inscription which was a para-
phrase of Menendez's own:

r [..ur.



TIhe hiterime

Fort Marion.

Fort Marion, east view, St. Augustine, Fla.

Left-"La Fontana," George L. Mesher,
residence, Palm ~Beach.

...... .......1 111 : ;11 I

"I do this not as unto Spaniards, but as to traitors,
robbers and murderers."
Unable to attack St. Augustine, de Gourges returned
to France, and there was peace on the Florida coast until
1586, when the English made their first descent upon the
shores of America. Sir Francis Drake's expedition, oper-
ating from a base on Anastasia Island, almost destroyed
St. Augustine, but withdrew at last, leaving the Spaniards
in full possession. Then, for more than a hundred years,
Florida drops out of the picture of world events except
for a single attack on St Augustine, in 1665, by the
English under the command of Captain John Davis.
By 1696 the Spanish had planted small colonies at
divers points in Florida and in that year founded Pen-
sacola, as a post in their chain of westward-spreading
fortifications. The great national highway starting at
St. Augustine and crossing the continent to San Diego,
the Old Spanish Trail, follows closely the route of the
Spanish military road which connected their forts with
each other.
By the end of the seventeenth century the English col-
onies in Georgia and the Carolinas were chafing under
constant friction with the Spaniards to the south of
them and, in 1702, England and Spain being at war, an
English force from South Carolina captured St. Augus-
tine and besieged the fort. Unable to reduce the forti-
fication, the English burned the town and withdrew.
Spain retaliated by joining with the French in 1706 to
send an expedition against Charleston, which failed; the
Carolinians came back with invasions of Middle Florida
in 1708 and again in 1722. This sort of border warfare
kept up until 1748 when, after English expeditions
against St. Augustine and Spanish sallies against Savan-
nah had failed, a treaty of peace was signed between
Spain and England. While this sort of fighting had been
going on on the East Coast, France had taken Pensacola

from the Spaniards in 1719, and held it until 1723.
By the treaty of Paris of 1763, Florida became an
English colony, in exchange for Havana. The English
set up two provinces, West Florida, extending from
the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola rivers to the Mis-
sissippi, and East Florida, comprising the rest of the
territory. Active colonization was begun when Andrew
Turnbull brought one thousand five hundred men and
women from Minorca, the little island in the Mediter-
ranean, to start indigo plantations at New Smyrna.
Roads were laid out and more than $580,000 was spent
by the British government in internal improvements in
the course of three years, with the result that when the
American Revolution began the Florida colonists for the
most part remained loyal to Great Britain.
In 1776 the Minorcans revolted against the conditions
of labor imposed upon them by Turnbull's management
and many were removed to St. Augustine, where the
colonial authorities took them under their protection.
In St. Augustine and vicinity to-day many of the finest
old families are descendants of these Minorcan pioneers,
and throughout Florida one finds descendants of the
Spanish settlers of the earlier days.
Florida's part in the Revolution consisted chiefly of
cooperation with a British fleet from New York in the
seizure of Savannah; but in 1779, Spain having again
declared war on Great Britain, Don Bernardo de Galvez,
the Spanish Governor of Louisiana, for whom Galveston
was named, seized most of the English forts in West
Florida and in 1781 captured Pensacola.
By the treaty of Paris of 1783, which acknowledged the
independence of the American colonies of Great Britain,
Florida, not having joined the revolutionists, was ceded
to Spain. Many of the English colonists, distressed at
the failure of the mother country to stipulate in the
treaty for guarantees of religious liberty, left the colony


and settled in Georgia and the Carolinas, preferring
citizenship in the new nation which the successful revolu-
tionists had set up to being subjects of Spain.
By a treaty in 1795 between the United States and
Spain, the northern boundary of Florida was fixed as
it now stands. Then, in the course of trading between
Spain and France, the Spanish territories in North
America, known as Louisiana, came into the possession
of France and in 1803 the United States bought Louisi-
ana from Napoleon Bonaparte for fifteen million dollars.
There was a certain vagueness, however, about the terri-
tories thus purchased. Clearly Louisiana did not include
East Florida, but did it include West Florida?
The people of West Florida, greatly concerned lest
Bonaparte should seize their country, and failing to
establish their right to be considered a part of the United
States, held a convention at Buhler's Plains on July 17,
1810, and formulated plans for a more effective govern-
ment. The Spanish Government refused to accept their
plan, so, at a second convention, on September 26, they
formally declared their independence of Spain and peti-
tioned for admission to the Union.
President Madison, on the theory that West Florida
had been included in the Louisiana Purchase, issued a
proclamation on October 27, 1810, declaring it to be
under the jurisdiction of the United States and annexing
the region lying west of Pensacola to Louisiana and
East Florida remained in Spain's undisputed posses-
sion until, the second war with Great Britain being
.imminent, the United States asked Spain to permit the
occupation of East Florida to prevent the British from
seizing it. The request was refused, and an American
expedition occupied Fernandina, an act which was after-
wards repudiated by the Government at Washington. In
1814 the British entered Pensacola Bay, at the request

of Spain, and garrisoned the forts. General Andrew
Jackson led an expedition which captured Pensacola, one
of the last acts of the war of 1812.
For several years thereafter there was desultory war-
fare between the British, occupying parts of West Flor-
ida under an agreement with Spain, and the American
settlers 'on both sides of the Georgia boundaries. The
British built a fort on the Apalachicola River and from
it organized expeditions of Negroes and Indians against
the American settlements. Finally, in 1818, when the
Government at Washington became convinced that the
Spanish were inciting the Seminoles against the Ameri-
cans, General Jackson was again sent to Pensacola, which
he captured, after a march through West Florida. Spain,
despairing of holding the country, by a treaty ratified
in 1821, ceded all Florida, East and West, to the United
States, for five million dollars.
This, the first great sale of Florida real estate, was
at the rate of fourteen and a quarter cents an acre!
The change of flags was effected at St. Augustine on
July 10, 1821, and at Pensacola eleven days later. Gen-
eral Jackson was appointed Governor and the American-
ization of Florida may be said to have begun on that
Formal territorial government was established in 1822
with William P. Duval, for whom Duval county (Jack-
sonville) was named, as Governor. The first recognition
of the union of East and West Florida into a single
territory was signalled by the meeting of the legislative
council at St. Augustine on March 30, 1823.
In September, 1823, a treaty was made with the Semi-
nole Indians at Moultrie, near St. Augustine, by which
they agreed to send some of their chiefs to the west to
report on the country with a view to removing there.
The chiefs who had been sent to the west were induced
to sign a treaty agreeing to emigrate, without reporting

to their people, and the attempt to enforce this agree-
ment brought on the Seminole War. In 1834 the officer
in command at Fort King, near Ocala, notified the Indian
agent that the chiefs refused to emigrate.
The Seminole War may be said to have begun in 1835
with the murder of General Thompson at Fort King, and
the massacre of Major Dade's command near the present
line of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, a short distance
southwest of what is now the town of Bushnell, in Sumter
County. Of the many skirmishes and battles which took
place during that period there is neither space nor need
to tell. During this war occurred the battle of Alachua
Savanna, December 19, 1835; the battle of Micanopy,
December 20, 1835; the massacre of General Thompson's
party by Osceola, December 28, 1835; the massacre of
Major Dade's command, December 28, 1835; the battle
of Withlacoochee, December 31, 1835; the second battle
of Micanopy, January 9, 1836; the battle of Wetumpka
the same day; the battle of Dunlawton, January 8, 1836;
the second battle of Withlacoochee, February 29, 1836;
the third battle of Micanopy, June 9, 1836; the battle of
Wahoo Swamps, November 18, 19 and 21, 1836; the
battle of Harcheelustee, January 7, 1837, and the battle
of Lake Monroe, February 8, 1837.
A treaty with the Seminoles was concluded at Camp
Dade on March 6, 1837. Osceola and seventy-one pris-
oners were captured by General Jessup in October, 1837.
The battle of Okeechobee was fought December 25, 1837;
that of the Wacassassa River the next day; the one at
Jupiter Creek, January 15, 1838; and that of Jupiter
Inlet, January 24, 1838. Osceola's death occurred at
Fort Moultrie, January 30, 1838. The battle of Chacka-
chatta took place June 2, 1840, and that of Wakahoota,
September 6, 1840. In December, 1840, General Har-
ney's expedition to the Everglades occurred. The last
battle of the war-that of Pilaklikaha-was fought

April 19, 1842, and the war declared ended on the four-
teenth of August following.
To-day fewer than a thousand Indians remain in Flor-
ida. They are the descendants of those who betook
themselves to the saw-grass hammocks of the Everglades,
out of reach of white men, when the rest of their race was
deported to what is now Oklahoma. Precisely how many
there are is a matter of doubt. The state census of 1915
enumerated only 129; that of 1925 records 516, with a
foot-note that those figures are not regarded as accurate.
Whatever their number, they are paying in poverty for
the refusal of their ancestors to accompany the rest of
the tribe to Oklahoma, where, as the Creek Nation, the
Indians from Florida are reckoned the wealthiest people
in the world, through the discovery of oil on lands al-
lotted to them by the Government at the time of their
The Seminoles are not the original natives of Florida.
The Indians whom the early Spanish and French expe-
ditions found in possession of the land were of an entirely
different race, similar in language, customs and appear-
ance to the Aztecs of Yucatan, and possessed of a high
degree of culture. They were conquered and almost ex-
terminated in the middle of the eighteenth century by the
Creeks, who came down to Florida from the Mississippi
Valley country, and adopted the name of Seminoles.
Florida was admitted to statehood on March 3, 1845,
under the same Act of Congress that created the new
state of Iowa out of the Northwest Territory, in pur-
suance of the policy of attempting to preserve the equi-
librium between North and South, even then trembling
under the slavery question.
In 1856, the Federal Government ceded to Florida all
of the lands under water, of which it had become the
owner under the treaty of purchase from Spain.
In 1861, Florida, like the rest of the Southern states,

seceded from the Union, and it was not until the end of
the Reconstruction period, in 1876, that its modern de-
velopment and progress may be said to have begun. It
was not, indeed, until 1880, when Governor William D.
Bloxham rehabilitated the state's finances by selling four
million acres of state-owned land, mainly in the country
bordering Lake Okeechobee, to Hamilton Disston and a
syndicate of Philadelphia capitalists, for twenty-five
cents an acre, that Florida was economically able to ap-
proach the problem of developing and settling its thirty-
five million acres of almost unoccupied land; for in that
year the population of Florida was but 269,493, an aver-
age of only five inhabitants to the square mile! Most
of the population was centered in North and West
Florida; below the latitude of St. Augustine, on the
East Coast, and Tampa on the West, there were but a
few small and scattering settlements and enormous areas
of totally unexplored country. The million dollars thus
raised paid the state's debt and gave it funds with which
to develop.
Without an understanding of this troubled history of
Florida it is impossible to realize why this land, "the fair-
est, fruitfullest, pleasantest of all the world," as Jean
Ribaut so truthfully described it in 1562, remained so
long undeveloped. And there were other things that had
to be done, other discoveries that had to be made, before
Florida could get into its stride toward its manifest
The lure of Florida's climate, the luxuriant produc-
tivity of its soil, the paradise which it presented to the
hunter and fisherman, had begun to attract settlers and
visitors from the North a hundred years ago. It was
not, however, until men of vision backed by great finan-
cial resources saw the possibilities of the land and yielded
to the urge to conquer the wilderness and make it accessi-
ble that the real development of Florida began. To the

memories of Henry M. Flagler, the builder of the Florida
East Coast Railroad, and Henry B. Plant, who pushed
the Atlantic Coast Line into Tampa and opened up the
West Coast, Florida owes an eternal debt of gratitude.
Others might, and in time others would, have opened up
the shores of Florida settlement, beyond doubt; the fact
remains that these men did it. And they have had
worthy successors, building greatly on the foundations
which they laid.
Another element which must not be overlooked in any
consideration of the causes that have contributed to the
upbuilding of the Florida of to-day is the march of sci-
ence and invention in many different lines. To the work
of the pioneers in experimental medicine who first dis-
covered the causes of yellow fever and malaria and how
to prevent them, is due the removal of the last obstacle
to the permanent settlement of the state. To the in-
vention of the automobile and the development, which the
motor car fathered, of the era of good roads in America,
Florida owes a huge share of its present unparalleled
prosperity and activity.
Florida, in short, has always been where and what it
is. Its climate has not changed since Ponce de Leon first
set foot upon its shores. Its soil is no more productive
now than then. Its hills and lakes, its keys and wide-
spread beaches, its tropical verdure and its life-giving
sunshine are no different in their essentials than they were
before the white man came.
The history of the Florida of to-day, then, is the his-
tory of what the modern pioneers who have made it in-
habitable and accessible have done and how they have
done it. The history of the present world-wide interest
in Florida is the story of only a few years. The greatest
development has come since 1920. It is too soon to try
to write the history of these latest years, except as that
is revealed in telling the story of what Florida is to-day.


ANY attempt to judge Florida intelligently, whether
from the viewpoint of the tourist, the prospective
settler or the investor, must be based upon certain
little understood facts about the State. Two points con-
cerning which much confusion exists, even among visitors
to Florida, are its location and its size.
Few realize, for example, that the eastern edge of
Florida is farther west than the western boundary of
New York, or that the western shore of Lake Michigan
is farther east than the western boundary of Florida.
Chicago lies directly north of Pensacola; the meridian
of Cincinnati runs through Tampa; an aviator flying
directly south from Buffalo would skirt the coast of
Florida a few miles out in the Atlantic, east of Miami.
All of Florida is farther west than the west coast of
South America or the Panama Canal. Because the maps
of the United States show Florida at the southeast corner,
it is difficult to realize how far west it lies with refer-
ence to the rest of the country.
So, too, it is not easy to visualize the position of
Florida between the Equator and the North Pole. It
will help, to remember that the northern edge of Florida
is much farther south than the southern edge of Califor-
nia, hundreds of miles farther south than any part of
Europe. An east-and-west line around the earth, passing
through Fernandina and Pensacola, in the north of Flor-
ida, would cross the Atlantic below Bermuda and the
Madeira Islands, cut across North Africa three hundred

miles south of Algiers, cross upper Egypt at Cairo, strike
across the Indian Peninsula to China, where it would
run just south of Shanghai, and thence across the Pacific
to Mexico and Texas, passing a little north of Gal-
veston and New Orleans. All of Florida lies more than
seven hundred miles farther south than Rome or Con-
stantinople. The southern tip of Florida is in almost
the same latitude as the Hawaiian Islands and Canton,
Florida is a big state. As good a way as any to make
the size of Florida clear is to compare some of the dis-
tances between points within the state, with distances in
other parts of the United States.
From Jacksonville to Key West, by railroad, the dis-
tance is 522 miles, and north of Jacksonville there are
still forty miles or so of Florida. There is no other
state east of the Mississippi, and only a few west, in
which one can travel five hundred miles continuously in
one direction without crossing the state boundary. From
Chicago to Kansas City is only 451 miles; the distance
from Kansas City to Indianapolis is three miles less than
that between Key West and Jacksonville. Every one who
has travelled from Boston to Baltimore realizes that it is
a long trip, but it is more than one hundred miles shorter
than the north and south trip from one end of Florida
to the other. It is almost as far between these two
Florida points as it is from Washington, D. C., to Port-
land, Maine; farther than it is from Washington to
Charleston, S. C., and fifty miles farther than from San
Francisco to Los Angeles.
East and West, from Jacksonville to Pensacola, is 369
miles, to which another twenty-five miles must be added
to give the entire width of the state. East and west, one
travels from Chicago to Cleveland over a shorter route.
Even across the peninsula of Florida, from Jacksonville
to Tampa, is more than a two-hundred mile journey,

Florida. is big enough to contain the states of Maine,
New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut and Rhode
Island without crowding. It is larger than Michigan,
Wisconsin or Iowa; larger than New York and Massa-
chusetts together. Georgia is the only state east of the
Mississippi which is larger than Florida. In square miles,
the figures are 58,666; in acres, approximately 35,000,-
000. And of this area, 3,805 square miles are lakes and
rivers. We think of Maine as the state of ten thousand
lakes; there are 30,000 lakes in Florida, where the fresh-
water area is 700 square miles greater than that of
Maine. Only Minnesota, of all the states, has a larger
area of lakes and rivers.
This great State of Florida has a coast-line double that
of any other state. According to the United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey, the coasts of Florida-Atlantic,
Gulf and Islands-measure 2,276 miles from Fernandina
around to Pensacola. California's entire coast line,
measured in the same way, is but 1,190 miles; the entire
length of the Pacific Coast, from Mexico to Canada, is
several hundred miles less.
What is contained within this great boundary line of
Florida? What is the nature of the land which makes
up this immense area?
Topographically, Florida is one of the most diversi-
fied of all the states. It is lacking in snow-capped moun-
tains, such as the visitor to California sees; it is lacking
also in the arid deserts which make up so large a part
of the California landscape. It contains every other
topographical feature to be found anywhere in America
-rolling hills and lovely valleys, placid lakes and rushing
rivers, low-lying plains and forest-covered uplands. The
visitor to Florida in search of scenery can find, except for
the extremes in both directions, almost anything he pre-
fers. From the hundreds of miles of wide sandy beaches
to the other hundreds of miles of the coast line where

the wooded hills end abruptly in high bluffs at the water's
edge; from mangrove swamps and palmetto jungles to
pine-clad ridges and hardwood groves; from regions al-
most tropical in their verdure and atmosphere to other
regions which resemble, in their topography, climate and
vegetation, sections of Virginia, Kentucky, or even of
Pennsylvania or New England.
In general, the northern and western part of Florida is
hilly or rolling country, while the southern and south-
easterly sections are low-lying and level. There are many
exceptions to this, as to all generalizations. North and
south, through the peninsula, from the Georgia line down
almost to Lake Okeechobee, there runs a range of hills,
some of which are among the highest spots in the state;
in West Florida, moreover, there are many broad, level
The Appalachian range of mountains tapers down to
the sea in West Florida. The foot-hills of the Appa-
lachian range give to all of the country west of the
Suwannee River a diversified aspect which is suggestive of
the hill country of Connecticut and Massachusetts, with
wide valleys lying between long ranges of hills.
The highest spot above sea level in Florida is a point
still in dispute. There are perhaps fifty elevations above
three hundred feet, and the claim is made that a spot near
Round Lake, in Bay County, with an elevation said to be
413 feet, is the highest point in the State.
The lowest parts of Florida lie south and southwest
of Lake Okeechobee. Except on the coasts, where the
shores extend out under the water, none of Florida lies
below sea level, as some parts of California do. There is
a huge expanse of several million acres, however, in South-
ern Florida, which is uniformly so nearly down to sea
level that the problem of draining it and making it avail-
able for agricultural development and settlement is one
which has engaged the attention of the State and taxed

the ingenuity of engineers for twenty years. That the
problem is on its way to solution and, except in the very
lowest parts of this Everglade country, has already been
solved, is unquestionable. How this has been done and
is being done is told in detail in another chapter.
The greater part of Florida's area lies between these
two extremes of altitude. From eight or ten feet up to
fifty or sixty feet elevation, is the typical Florida scene,
sloping down gradually in most parts of the coast-line
to broad, sandy beaches. The characteristic soil of much
of Florida is sand. The Florida sand, however, is not
the pulverized granite and other volcanic rocks of the
northern United States, but is largely composed of the
powdered skeletons of coral insects and other marine
animals. There are other sands in Florida, but this is
the fine, glittering, white sand which packs into a firm,
solid mass, sufficiently settled to serve as the foundation
for large structures, yet sufficiently porous to drain away
the heaviest rainfall in a few minutes. Under the sand
is the coral rock, in the south, and three great limestone
basins in the north.
The drainage of water from the hills of Florida to the
sea is through several principal river systems. The most
important of these is the beautiful St. Johns River, with
its tributaries, which flows through a chain of lakes, al-
most two hundred miles northward, east of the center
line of the state, to Jacksonville, where it empties into
the Atlantic. Another chain of the central lakes drains
into the Kissimmee River, which flows southward into
Lake Okeechobee.
Lake Okeechobee, which is the largest body of fresh
water, except Lake Michigan, lying within the borders of
the United States, has no natural outlet. Its annual
overflow, until reclamation measures were resorted to,
kept the low country surrounding it in an almost per-
petual state of flood. Part of this overflow is now taken

care of by a canal which connects the lake with the
Caloosahatchee River, which flows into the Gulf of Mexico
on the west; the rest of it will be taken care of by the St.
Lucie drainage canal, leading to the Atlantic Ocean at
Stuart. These and eight other smaller canals intended
chiefly to drain the excess of rainfall from the Everglades
themselves, have already lowered the level of Lake Okee-
chobee. It formerly was twenty-one feet above sea level,
but is now only about sixteen feet.
No other river system of first importance rises in
Florida. Numerous small rivers, like the Hillsboro and
the Withlacoochee, drain small areas directly into the
ocean or Gulf. The Suwannee River, famous in song and
romance, rises in Georgia and crosses the State of Florida.
It roughly serves as the dividing line between what is
generally called West Florida, and the eastern section
of the State. The Apalachicola River drains an im-
portant watershed, very little of which, however, lies in
Florida. The Apalachicola is formed by the conjunc-
tion of the Chatahoochee and the Flint Rivers. The
Chatahoochee is navigable for three hundred miles as far
north as Columbus, Ga., while the Flint River originates
near Atlanta; they come together just inside the Florida
line to form the Apalachicola. Further west, the Chocta-
whatchee and the Escambia Rivers, rising in Alabama,
cross Florida on their way to the Gulf and make drainage
valleys for the hill country of West Florida.
The visitor to Florida sees and hears of other bodies
of waters called rivers, which are in reality not rivers
at all, but arms of the sea, corresponding to what in
England and New England are termed "creeks." These
are tidal inlets, separated from the ocean by islands or
long, sandy peninsulas. The Matanzas River, for ex-
ample, lies on the ocean side of St. Augustine. It is the
inlet or sound formed by Anastasia Island, which lies
opposite the city of St. Augustine. Further south; the

Halifax River is the name given to a similar long, narrow,
tidal creek of salt water, which separates the mainland
from the long peninsula upon which are located the com-
munities of Ormond Beach, Sea Breeze and Daytona
Beach. The most famous of these tidal rivers is the
Indian River, which stretches nearly one hundred and fifty
miles along the east coast of Florida, from Mosquito
Inlet to Jupiter Inlet. Lying between the Indian River
and the Atlantic, is a series of islands, the largest of
which, Merritts Island, is famous for the fine quality of
the oranges grown there. Indian River oranges, from
Merritts Island and the adjacent mainland, are regarded
by connoisseurs, both in and out of Florida, as the finest
of the state's citrus fruits. Farther south, the creek
which separates the Palm Beach Peninsula from the main-
land is known as Lake Worth.
This nomenclature does not apply on the Gulf Coast
of Florida, where the similar creeks are known as "bays"
or "sounds." There are only a few sections of either
coast where the mainland comes down to the open sea.
Fully seven-eighths of the entire coast line is protected
from storms and tidal encroachments by these sandy for-
mations, variously called "islands" or "keys."
The famous beaches of Florida are on these islands
or peninsulas. On the east coast, the slope of the land
is so gradual that, at many points, the outgoing tide
leaves exposed a beach of hard sand, so flat that it seems
perfectly level. The fine, white sand, under the pounding
of the waves, is packed so firmly as to make a perfect
roadway for automobiles, and on these broad, straight
stretches it is no uncommon sight to see hundreds, even
thousands of motor cars, speeding along at the water's
edge, between tides, their tires leaving only faint tracks
in the smooth sand. There. is'%dcl~r' :orty-mile stretch
from the mouth of the S-.J9hins Ri'\r, oppositee Jack-
sonville, to a poi .-oposlite St. Augustine; 'so:..p fct is
*:', '. ":.'."-'3
.:: : ;.. i i" .i... .: -" .'.
i i *.. < .:'.** .* **'. :

this roadway that the upper part of it has been desig-
nated a county highway. Long before there were any
roads in Florida, travel between the ancient settlement
of St. Augustine and the forts at the mouth of the St.
John's was easy because of this natural roadway. The
ocean beach of Anastasia Island, opposite St. Augustine,
is also a splendid motor highway at low tide; and farther
south, the thirty-mile stretch of beach from Ormond to
Daytona was the scene, in the early days of the automo-
bile, of the fastest motor racing in the world. The records
made on the Ormond-Daytona Beach and the Florida
Beaches at Jacksonville have never been equalled on any
other track. Further south, the Continental Shelf slopes
more abruptly into the ocean, and the beaches are not
only narrower, but, because of their steep slope, the sand
does not pack so hard. At almost any point around the
Florida coast, however, one can drive his car on the beach
in safety.
These outlying islands extend south and west from the
Florida mainland in a chain of keys, over which the rail-
road runs to a terminus at Key West, where there is one
of the natural deep water harbors in Florida, and, in
many respects, the best. The chain of keys extends
nearly one hundred miles beyond Key West, into the
Gulf, to the Dry Tortugas, a group of barren rocks
standing alone.
With all of its islands, sounds, bays and tidal rivers,
there are only a few harbors on the coasts of Florida
capable of accommodating ocean-going craft of deep
draft. That of Fernandina is easily the best on the
Atlantic Coast of the State, but its value was overlooked
by the early settlers, the railroads passed it by, and less
accessible ports have taken the place which might have
been Fernandina'&...- The. .St John's River furnishes a
harbor pf whirh 'Jacksdjvill' : 'the port, some sixteen
mileS:up t'heriver from the sea:'.'- y rans of rock jetties

m.'. e ." . .. .
A A w

Above-Automobile visitors at Daytona Beach.

Right-Daytona Beach at night.

Start of automobile race at Daytona Beach.

An automobile contestant, "caught in the waves."

Above-Wheel chairs and bicycles play a prominent part
in life at Palm Beach.
ML AM w .-,-A

Above-Hollywood's Beach Casino.

"St. Stephens in the grove," Episcopal church,
.. .. near Jaksonville.

Aerial view of Lake Mabel, site of Hollywood's
$15,000,000 harbor.

built out into the ocean, and dredging, a thirty-foot chan-
nel from the Atlantic to Jacksonville is maintained. Only
small coastwise vessels can enter the harbor of St. Augus-
tine. There is no other port into which craft drawing
more water than a small yacht or a fishing boat can enter
until one reaches Palm Beach. Here the Government
has cut an inlet from the ocean to Lake Worth, giving
access to piers and docks at West Palm Beach, an, form-
ing a harbor which, when dredging operations are com-
pleted, will permit the entrance of cargo and passenger
Miami has an excellent natural harbor in Biscayne
Bay, which only requires dredging to accommodate ships
of any tonnage. Ocean-going freighters and the smaller
coastwise passenger craft now enter Miami Harbor with-
out difficulty, and eventually it is not to be doubted that
the largest ships will be able to make this a. port of call.
A few miles north of Miami, at Hollywood, an inlet
is being dredged from the Atlantic to a deep bay known
as Lake Mabel, where a harbor with terminal facilities is
planned to serve both Hollywood and Fort Lauderdale.
Reference has already been made to the harbor of Key
West, most important of all in Florida in volume of im-
port and export traffic. Proceeding up the Gulf Coast,
the next inlet into which vessels of considerable size can
enter is the Caloosahatchee River, navigable for craft
drawing not more than twelve feet of water, up to the
piers at Fort Myers. Just north, Charlotte Harbor gives
access for similar craft as far as the port of Punta
The only deep-water harbor on the west coast of the
peninsula is Tampa Bay, which is deep enough for any
craft smaller than the great trans-Altantic liners to
enter freely at all times, a fact which has given Tampa
its position of commercial importance, while Pensacola
has a fine natural deep-water harbor.

There are four excellent natural harbors on the Gulf
coast of West Florida, only one of them, however, hav-
ing yet been developed to appreciable commercial im-
portance. Pensacola Bay is the port for numerous ships
engaged in the South American and Mediterranean trade.
Apalachicola Bay is another excellent and well-protected
harbor, though not so easily available to larger ships.
Choctawhatchee Bay is readily entered by craft drawing
up to eighteen feet or so. St. Andrews Bay, on the other
hand, is one of the finest natural harbors in all Florida,
for it has a natural inlet, completely sheltered, wide and
deep enough for the largest craft afloat to enter at all
tides, and the landlocked waters of the bay itself are
from thirty to two hundred feet deep, with the shores
rising so abruptly that ocean-going craft can tie up
almost at the banks.
While every point along the coasts of Florida is ac-
cessible by boat, few places other than those mentioned
can be reached by vessels drawing more than five or six
feet of water. That is deep enough, however, for the
general run of yachts, houseboats and fishing boats which
comprise the bulk of the fleet which dots the waters of
Florida. Three feet is nearer the average draft of these
The system of inland waterways along the Atlantic
coast, and the improvements which have been made within
the State of Florida, make it possible for small boats to
navigate safely from Boston to Miami and below, to
cross the Florida peninsula and to traverse a consider-
able part of the Gulf coast, as well as much of the in-
terior of the state. Improvements, projected or under
way, will eventually make it possible for the smallest boat
to travel from Pensacola clear around Florida to Fernan-
dina, to navigate every river and pass through the beau-
tiful central country from one lake to the next, without
delay or difficulty. More than five thousand yachts enter

Florida every year by way of the inland waterway system,
coming in through Cumberland Sound to Fernandina in
the extreme northeast corner of the state, thence by canal
to and across the St. John's River, and so to the tidal
rivers and lakes by way of St. Augustine and the Matan-
zas River, the Halifax River, the Indian River and Lake
Worth and the connecting canals, to Miami and Bis-
cayne Bay. From West Palm Beach, the yachtsman can
go through a canal to Lake Okeechobee and across, by
way of the Caloosahatchee River, to Fort Myers, and
then up the Gulf coast through perfectly landlocked and
protected waters as far as Tarpon Springs. Or he can
go up the St. Johns into the very heart of Florida, up the
Oklawaha, or on southward through Leesburg, whence a
canal system now in process of construction will enable
a boat to penetrate through to the Kissimmee River, and
so into Lake Okeechobee from the north. A coastal canal
for small craft connecting the sounds and bays of the
way from Pensacola to Tampa Bay is also under con-
One of the essential things which Florida does not lack
is water. The average annual rainfall is 57 inches. Cali-
fornia's is 22 inches. California has to dig canals and
ditches to get water on to the land; Florida's ditching
problem is one of getting water off the land. It is this
heavy annual rainfall, distributed fairly evenly over eight
months of the year, which lies at the basis of Florida's
great agricultural productivity, which is discussed in de-
tail in other chapters. And the fact that the rainy
season in Florida is over by November, and does not be-
gin again until April, is one of the important factors
which has made Florida so popular as a winter resort.
The climate of Florida is not alone attributable to its
geographical location, for there are many other spots
lying in the same latitude which have a much less favor-
able climate. Were it not for the shape of Florida, almost

an island, lying between the warm waters of the Gulf of
Mexico and the tempering expanse of the Atlantic, it is
not to be doubted that the climate of Florida, instead of
being the most delightful in the world, would be almost
unbearable. To Florida's insular situation is attribu-
table its ample rainfall; to this situation also it is in-
debted for the fact that even in the warmest summer
weather there is always a sea breeze, which may be felt
anywhere and everywhere. And it is to the presence of
the vast, shallow basin of the Gulf of Mexico that Florida
owes the mildness of its winter climate.
The waters of the Gulf, warmed by the tropical sun,
flow eastward through the Straits of Florida, between Key
West and Cuba, at a speed of between three and four
miles an hour. Meeting the cold waters of the Atlantic,
this broad current, the Gulf Stream, turns northward
and flows almost straight north for a thousand miles,
until it is diverted eastward, first by the cold waters
pouring into the Atlantic from the Hudson River and the
Gulf of Maine, and then by the cold Arctic current,
sweeping down between Greenland and Labrador. The
Gulf Stream then travels across the Atlantic to bathe
London in fogs, and make northern Europe, in the lati-
tude of Hudson Bay, habitable for civilized humanity. It
is this gigantic ocean river of warm water that laves the
shores of Ireland, and gives it the verdure from which it
derives the name of the Emerald Isle. It is not a far-
fetched comparison to conceive of the Gulf Stream as the
circulating element of a great terrestrial steam-heating
plant, of which the Gulf of Mexico is the boiler; Florida,
snuggling up to this vast reservoir of heat on one side,
and bathed on the other by the warm stream which flows
from it, has been thus favored by nature with a climate
in which the extremes of heat and cold are both unknown,
where the summer sunshine is always tempered by cool-

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Turpentine still at Okahumpka.

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A Marion County lime mine.


A sugar factory at Canal Point.

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Power house, American Agricultural Chemical
Company, at Pierce.

F -I


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ing breezes and refreshing rains, and where the snows
and chills of northern winters are unknown.
No pretense is made by the authors to present a scien-
tific treatise upon Florida's geography, topography and
climate, but the effort is merely to indicate some of the
less familiar facts which must be understood if the reader
is to have a clear comprehension of Florida as a whole.
Those who are interested in pursuing further any of the
subjects touched upon in this chapter are referred to the
excellent treatises published by the Florida State De-
partment of Agriculture at Tallahassee, to the official
reports of the United States Weather Bureau at Wash-
ington, and to maps of Florida published by the United
States Post Office Department, the United States Geologi-
cal Survey, the United States Coast and Geodetic Sur-
vey, and the Florida Bureau of Highways.

WE have told how Florida came into being as a
part of the United States, where and how large
it is, and something of its shape, coasts and
waterways. Before proceeding to the consideration of
what man has done upon the surface of Florida, let us
see what raw materials and resources Nature provided
there for man's use.
The northern part of Florida, when the white man
came, was thickly forested. Pines predominated and they
still are the predominant tree over all of that section.
No exact figures are available of the extent of the forests
of long-leaf southern pine still standing in the State. In
the aggregate, they run into millions of acres. Out of the
whole area of Florida, some 35,000,000 acres, less than
two million acres were under cultivation at the time of
the last agricultural census, in 1924. It is probably no
exaggeration to say that fully one-third of the remaining
acreage of the State, or practically 11,000,000 acres, an
area larger than the entire state of Maryland, is still cov-
ered with standing pine timber.
This pine has been and still is the greatest of all
Florida's natural-growth resources. The annual output
of lumber in the State, chiefly yellow pine, is above
$30,000,000. Almost as important are naval stores, a
by-product of the pine forests.
One cannot travel anywhere in the northern two-thirds
of Florida without passing through these forests of pine.
On every hand, one sees the trees which have been cupped
for turpentine. The resinous sap of the pine tree is ex-

tracted by chipping off the bark in narrow strips, be-
ginning a few inches above the ground, and exposing a
larger face of the sapwood from time to time as the
operation goes on. Cups of metal or earthenware are
placed at the lower end of these incisions and the gummy
sap flows into them. The operation of turpentining is
an interesting one about which the casual visitor to Flor-
ida sees and hears little, except as his attention is directed
toward the scarified trees near the roadsides. Hundreds
of thousands of trees will be tapped in this fashion to
provide gum (known as "dip" or "crop," depending upon
the method of its removal from the tree) for a single tur-
pentine still. A single "crop" of cups numbers 10,000,
so that when a turpentine operator speaks of having ten
crops under operation, it means that he has 100,000 pine
trees tapped for turpentine.
The turpentine stills themselves are located in the
depths of the pine forests; only here and there does the
passer-by come within sight of one of these crude struc-
tures, redolent of the spicy aroma of the pine. The cups
are emptied into barrels by crews of men who travel the
forest continuously, and as the barrels are filled they are
collected by wagons and hauled to the still. A turpen-
tine still operates on precisely the same principle as a
still for making alcohol from grain. Indeed, it is a jocose
saying in Florida that the prohibition agents have not
yet learned to tell the difference between a turpentine
still and a whiskey still. The crude gum, as it comes
from the forest, is emptied into a huge boiler, from which
a spiral pipe leads to the vat in which the turpentine is
to be collected. As the gummy matter is brought to the
boiling point the turpentine is given off in the form of
steam or vapor and passes through the coiled pipe. A
stream of cold water flowing around the coils condenses
the vapor, which drips into the vat as pure spirits of
turpentine. The twigs, bark and dirt which rise to the

surface of the boiling mass are skimmed off, and the re-
maining liquid is drawn off into barrels, in which it
speedily solidifies into resin.
These-resin and turpentine-are the products com-
mercially known as naval stores, from their original use
in the building and repairing of ships, for which purpose
they are now little used. Turpentine finds it chief mar-
ket among the manufacturers of paints and varnishes,
while resin is used in the manufacture of hard soaps, of
paper, of a hundred commodities of daily use. The value
of Florida's output of naval stores is approximately
$20,000,000 a year. There are already a few plants which
produce both turpentine and pine tar and several medici-
nal and industrial oils by distilling the stumps of pine
trees which have been cut for their lumber, and utilizing
also for this purpose branches, saplings too small for
lumber, and other refuse of the pine lumber industry.
The Florida pine is so full of resin, especially its roots
and the lower portions of the trunk, that it bursts into
flame at the touch of a match. This characteristic gives
it the local name of lightwoodd." It is also sometimes
called fatwoodd," and sometimes "fat lightwood." The
facility with which a fire can be kindled on the hearth by
the aid of a few slivers of lightwood pine is a never-ending
source of amazement to the visitor from the North. A
single lightwood knot will blaze so fiercely and so hotly
as to warm up a good-sized room in an incredibly short
space of time. It would be natural to suppose that timber
of this highly inflammable character would create a ter-
rific hazard of forest fires. Curiously, however, not only
do the growing pines seem to resist fire, but they are not
killed by it as are the dryer pines of the North. Forest
fires occur frequently; no one can travel much about
Florida without seeing the blackened trunks of trees which
show where the flames have swept through the woods. But
the trees are still standing; moreover, they are again

green at the top. Most of them will survive and become
lumber in due time. This resistance to fire is locally at-
tributed to the high percentage of moisture in the soil,
and the fact that hardly a day passes anywhere in
Florida without a quenching rain, at least throughout
most of the year.
The pine tree, then, must be placed first among Flor-\
ida's natural resources. That it will disappear in time)
is hardly to be doubted. The pine forests will vanish
under the pressure of settlement and the demand for farms
and homes, on the one hand, and under the increasing
lumbering operations of the saw-mills on the other. Thare,
are saw-mills all over Florida. Some of them are among /
the la rg-e d-be t-qipped in the world; many are
small, portable mills which follow the receding pines as
they consume them. Every highway is crossed at fre-
quent intervals by the tracks of a logging railroad owned
and operated by some lumber company to haul logs to
its mill. Occasionally the traveller about the State comes
upon the ruins of a burned saw-mill, often with the
wrecks of several of the little logging locomotives visible
among the debris. A saw-mill fire is a spectacular thing,
but every smudge of black smoke floating into the Florida
sky does not mean a catastrophe; most of the mills burn
their sawdust piles to get rid of them. Occasionally a
turpentine still catches fire, and the blaze which goes up
then is one of the most gorgeous and at the same time
one of the most awe-inspiring exhibitions imaginable.
How long it will be before the pine forests are denuded
no one can estimate. It is hardly likely that any compre-
hensive plan of reforestation will be generally adopted.
It takes thirty-five years for the long-leaf pine to grow to
a size which makes it profitable to saw it into lumber.
Thirty-five years is too long a time to make the financing
of a pine crop a bankable proposition, unless some way
can be found to obtain a revenue from the trees while

they are still in process of growth to lumber maturity.
For the purpose of experimenting with ways and means
of making reforestation profitable, the United States For-
est Service, in 1910, established the Florida National
Forest, consisting of two units of about half a million
acres in all. The smaller unit, the Ocala Forest, lies in
the middle of the Florida peninsula; the larger unit is in
the Counties of Walton, Okaloosa and Santa Rosa, in
the extreme western part of the state. In the fifteen
years since it was established, the Government foresters
have developed and introduced methods of extracting tur-
pentine over a long period of years, without impairing
either the growth of the trees or their ultimate usefulness
for lumber. Formerly trees were turpentined for only
five or six years before they were regarded as worthless
for further turpentining operations; now it has been
proved commercially practicable and profitable to carry
on turpentining operations on the same trees for thirty-
five years, beginning when they are five or six years old.
General recognition and adoption of government turpen-
tining methods by owners of timber lands would undoubt-
edly result in the preservation of the remaining pine for-
ests for an indefinite period, but the growing demand
for land for residential and agricultural development pur-
poses is rapidly increasing values to the point where the
profit from turpentining will not represent an adequate
return upon the capital value of the land. When this
point has been reached, who can blame the owner if he
sells the timber to the saw-mill, and pockets his profits on
the sale of his land?
There are pines of one kind or another all over Florida.
Somewhere around the middle of the state, the long-leaf
pines begin to thin out, and the Caribbean pine begins
to appear, extending southward in scattered groves clear
to the tip of the peninsula. It is a beautiful tree. Its
trunk rises vertically and smoothly to a height, often,

of a hundred feet before branching into a feathery mass
of slender limbs and light green needles.
Next to the pine, Florida's most important tree is the
cy ress, the tre chghgrows with its feet ijnthe water.
cypress tree is unique in that its base is like a
pyramid, the lower part of the trunk thickening rapidly
as it nears the ground, giving the impression that the
tree is being braced against the onslaught of the ele-
ments. There is hardly a lake or a river bottom in Flor-
ida around and along which the cypress trees cannot be
found. Some of them are giants of the forest, with trunks
several feet in diameter. Cypress lumber, sawed from
these trees, not only has a peculiarly enduring quality,
but is easy to work and lends itself, with its beautiful
grain, to attractive finishes for trim. There are many
cypress saw-mills in Florida, some of them among the
largest in the world. Even to the casual eye, it is easy
to distinguish a cypress mill from a pine mill in passing.
If there are great piles of lumber stacked in every direc-
tion, it is a cypress mill. Pine lumber is either shipped
green, or quickly seasoned by drying in kilns. There is
never any great accumulation of finished lumber found
around a pine mill. Cypress lumber, on the other hand,
must be air seasoned. From two to five years is none
too long for cypress lumber to stand in the open air
before it is fit for use in building construction. At Perry
there is a cypress mill whose lumber piles would extend
nearly twenty miles, if they were placed end to end; at
Palatka, on the St. Johns, the largest cypress mill in
Florida has an even larger supply of lumber sawed and
piled, seasoning against its ultimate sale.
The cypress will probably vanish before the last of
the pine has gone, because it takes from seventy-five to
two hundred years for a cypress tree to grow large
enough to make it worth while to convert into lumber.
Besides the soft woods, pine and cypress, there is a

comparatively small amount of hardwood lumber in
Florida. The red gum and black gum trees are found
in the northern hills, though not in the profusion with
which they grow in Georgia and the Carolinas. These
are useful furniture woods and utilization for this pur-
pose in Florida is increasing.
For many years, in the days of wooden ships, Florida
live-oak timbers were in great demand by northern ship-
builders. The live-oak and its cousin, the water oak,
between which two the casual passer-by finds it hard to
distinguish, grow everywhere in Florida. They grow in
the lowlands and they grow on the hilltops. They are
beautiful trees, whether standing alone or in the great
groves in which they are most frequently found. The
Spanish moss, which hangs in long, gray filaments and
clusters from everything in Florida upon which its spores
can find lodgment, even telegraph wires, prefers the oaks.
There are few more interesting and, to the outsider, novel
scenes in Florida than a grove of live-oaks festooned in
their drapery of Spanish moss. One such grove, of sev-
eral hundred acres, on the banks of the lovely and roman-
tic Suwannee River, in what is known as the Old Town
Hammock, is worth any effort on the part of the tourist,
just to see what the primeval forest of Florida looks
like. Under these very trees, many of them at least five
hundred years old, and some probably much older, the
aboriginal Aztec-like inhabitants of Florida perhaps built
their villages and held their councils; here in this grove
the Seminole Creeks who drove out the aborigines must
frequently have camped after a hunting or fishing expedi-
tion; in the shade of these giants the Spanish explorers,
perhaps DeSoto himself, stopped for rest and refreshment.
To list the other varieties of trees found in the Florida
forests would occupy too much space. The magnolia,
flowering into fragrant beauty not long after the turn
of the year, grows in wild profusion throughout the State.

i-mr.tr fB-r rh--putci

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A fourmaster taking on a carg(
at Tampa.

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Freight warehouse typical view at Miami.


Shipping tomatoes from Miami.

Ship building is a big industry
at Jacksonville.

Turpentine operation
near Stuart.


One occasionally finds the northern hickory, and many
other varieties of hardwood. The wild orange, plum and
rhododendron are also native to the northern hills. And
all through Florida, in the sandy lowlands, there is the
There are several varieties of palmetto, and numerous
palms, native to Florida. The scrub palmetto, which
grows close to the ground, is the principal underbrush
which has to be cleared in the process of development of
lands in the southern part of the state. The cabbage pal-
metto, sometimes also called the cabbage palm, is rather
an ornamental tree, and is frequently transplanted from
the forests to serve as decorative verdure for the streets
of a town or a subdivision. It has the disadvantage, how-
ever, that the broad bases of its leaves, at their junction
with the trunk, form a cup which holds water after a
rain and provides an ideal and almost inaccessible breed-
ing place for mosquitoes. The sago palm is also indige-
nous to Florida. It is from the tender central pith of
this tree that the delicacy known as "heart of palm,"
highly prized as a salad dish, is obtained.
Greatest of all the Florida palms, both in size and
beauty, is the royal palm, native to the extreme south,
where the finest specimens are preserved in Royal Palm
Park. With its gray, tapering trunk, as smooth as if it
had been cast in concrete, and not unlike a concrete post
at a distance, from which springs the green top, feather-
ing out into long, arching fronds, the royal palm is the
most highly prized of all for decorative planting. It
can be transplanted even when fully mature with success,
and as high as $2,500 is not infrequently paid for a
single royal palm tree twenty or twenty-five years old and
from fifty to seventy-five feet high.
Many of the palms seen everywhere in Florida are not
native, but are the descendants of imported stock. The
Washingtonian palm, regarded by some as even more

beautiful than the royal palm, was brought to Florida
from Africa. The date palm, frequently seen in use as a
shade tree, is also of African origin.
SThere are coconut palms everywhere, so many that
even Floridians often think of them as a native tree.
These coconut palms, however, owe their introduction
into the state to one of the earliest attempts to commer-
cialize the Florida climate. Some fifty years ago two
men from New Jersey, their imagination fired by the re-
ports they had heard of the huge profits realized from
coconut groves in the East Indies, acquired several tracts
of land along the east coast of Florida, from what is now
Palm Beach down to the peninsula north of Biscayne
Bay which is now Miami Beach. They paid but a few
cents an acre for the land, chartered a schooner and
brought from the Island of Trinidad 334,000 coco-
nuts, which they planted all along the shore line of
Florida. For various reasons, among them being the
scarcity of labor, their coconut venture did not prove
profitable, and ultimately the lands which they had ac-
quired passed out of their hands and are now the sites
upon which some of the most beautiful and costly develop-
ments in Florida have been built. The coconut trees of
Florida have all or practically all sprung from this stock.
The mangrove tree, common along the southern coasts
of Florida and on the low-lying keys, grows in thick,
almost impenetrable thickets, and is one of the most dif-
ficult obstacles in the way of developing the low grounds
in which it grows. The mangrove must have its roots in
salt water to thrive. The roots grow into each other in
a tangled mass which defies human ingenuity to uproot.
The problem has been solved, however, by the compara-
tively simple means of cutting off the mangrove trunks
a foot or two above the surface, and then pumping five or
six feet of sand on top of them, filling and raising the
land and effectually killing off the mangroves.

Commercially, the value of Florida's forests is practi-
cally limited to the pines, the more rapidly vanishing
cypress, and the comparatively small amounts of gum-
wood and other hardwoods. The Florida Forestry Asso-
ciation, of Jacksonville, has published a valuable booklet,
"Forest Trees of Florida," for those who are interested.
Next in importance among the State's natural resources
are its minerals, and the chiefest of these is phosphate.
Phosphate, though classed as a mineral, owes its value
to the fossilized bones of pre-historic sea animals, which
were deposited upon the bed of the ocean when the Florida
peninsula was still under water, countless geologic ages
ago. In all probability the entire bed of all the oceans
in the world is lined with the fossil remains of extinct
sea animals. In Florida these deposits are so thick in
spots as to suggest a pre-historic graveyard.
All that remains of these vanished creatures is the phos-
phorus which constitutes so large a proportion of all
animal matter. The bones themselves have long van-
ished, although here and there in the process of phosphate
mining, remains of huge skeletons are unearthed. The
mineral portions have become petrified and the rock
thus formed is impregnated with phosphorus, which is
one of the three essential elements in the manufacture of
fertilizers for agricultural purposes, the other two being
potash and nitrogren. The phosphate mines of Florida,
therefore, are owned and operated by the great agricul-
tural chemical companies, engaged in the manufacture
of fertilizers. They lie chiefly to the west of the center of
the state, stretching from south of Bartow to north of
Ocala, with a few scattered deposits elsewhere; while the
earlier phosphate operations were confined to the rock
formations in the Ocala district the present output is
chiefly of pebble phosphate from the Bartow region.
Phosphate mining is done nowadays largely by the
"hydraulic" method. After the surface layer of earth,


which may be from ten to fifty feet thick, has been
stripped off, the phosphate deposit is dislodged by means
of water-jets at high pressure, which wash the pebble or
rock to pits from which it is easily removed mechanically.
Some of the phosphate mines go down to a depth of more
than a hundred feet.
In order to reduce the phosphate to its most valuable
commercial form it requires treatment with sulphuric
acid, the resulting product being known as acid phos-
phate. There are one or two very small plants in Florida
where this acid treatment of the phosphate rock is car-
ried on. Most of the phosphate rock mined in Florida
is shipped by rail to the nearest seaport, most of it going
to Tampa, where it is loaded on ships and sent to the
fertilizer plants on the northern seaboard of the United
States, or even to Europe, for the acid treatment, after
which the acid phosphate is shipped back to Florida.
To the outside observer this seems to be an economic
waste, in view of the fact that so large a proportion of
the market for the finished product lies in Florida and
the adjacent southern states. The world's largest de-
posits of sulphur, from which the sulphuric acid used in
the manufacture of acid phosphate is most readily de-
rived, lie only a short distance across the Gulf of Mexico,
in Louisiana. The only explanation which those familiar
with the phosphate situation in Florida are able to put
forward as to why the Florida phosphate and the Louisi-
ana sulphur are not most economically combined at some
Florida seaport, is that Florida's phosphate output is not
controlled by or operated in the interest of Florida, but
is in the hands of Northern corporations whose interest
in Florida is a minor one.
Florida's output of phosphate rock has reached as high
as $19,000,000 in annual value. At present, it is running
at a lower rate. Some of the phosphate mines are shut
down, and others are only in partial operation.

Europe furnishes one of the principal markets for phos-
phate, and there have recently been discovered in Morocco
much larger beds of phosphate, located closer to the Euro-
pean market and with an abundant supply of cheap labor
available for mining operations. So valuable are these
Morocco deposits that it has been stated that one of the
issues which brought on the Riff war in North Africa was
the question of the ownership of the phosphate mines.
Florida still has more than 200,000,000 tons of phos-
phate rock in reserve, all of which will eventually be
Second in importance among the mineral resources of
Florida is fuller's earth, of which there are considerable
deposits in Manatee County near Ellenton, and near
Quincy, in Gadsden County, in the western part of the
state. Fuller's earth is a white clay having, among other
qualities, the remarkable and unique property of clarify-
ing oils which are filtered through it. It is obtained by
surface mining and hauled to a mill at Quincy, which is
the source of practically all the fuller's earth used in
America, although some of this product is imported from
Europe. Here it is treated in huge oil-fired furnaces at
a temperature of 3,000 degrees, extracting every trace of
moisture, then pulverized to various degrees of fineness
and packed in bags for shipment all over the world. Its
principal commercial use is in the production of lubricat-
ing oils. Crude petroleum poured through a filter of
fuller's earth loses its suspended impurities and coloring
matter and comes out the clear, light-colored fluid which
the motorist purchases by the quart. The annual output
of fuller's earth has a value of between $1,500,000 and
Another important mineral product of Florida is
kaolin. This is a white clay used in the manufacture of
pottery and for other purposes. There are important de-
posits of it around St. Andrews Bay in West Florida, and

elsewhere. Little, if anything, has yet been done in the
way of local utilization of these kaolin deposits, the raw
materials being shipped north for manufacturing.
Another and extremely interesting mineral product is
Titanium oxide. This is found on the Atlantic beaches
of northern Florida in the form of deposits of black sand.
It is mined and shipped to paint manufacturers. Its
function in the manufacture of paint is to give white lead
its pure white color. The Florida deposits already dis-
covered are said to be the largest and most valuable in
the world of this rare mineral. It was first mined here
during the war, when this substance was one of the neces-
sary ingredients for the manufacture of the poison gas
used in chemical warfare and the foreign supply had been
cut off.
Still another rare mineral product of Florida is
/ diatomite, or infusorial earth, also known by its German
name of kieselguhr. During the world war diatomite was
in great demand as an insulating lining material for sub-
marines, and investigations made in Lake County, in
1918, proved that the deposits there of this substance
were finer in quality than those known to exist anywhere
else. The world's chief supply of diatomite up to that
time came from Chile, California, Algeria, and from an
island off the west coast of Scotland.
Diatomite is formed by the decomposition of the skele-
tons, shells or bony overcoats of minute organisms which
scientists call diatoms. The minuteness of the diatom is
portrayed by the fact that a 1,200 multiple glass is re-
quired to make them visible. To form a one-inch cube
more than 2,000,000 diatoms would have to be heaped to-
gether. Scientists say that the Lake County deposits
date back into antiquity more than 100,000 years before
the dawn of modern times.
Diatomite is a material with a hundred uses. It resists
the transmission of heat and cold, and is equally valuable

for sound insulation. It is absolutely indestructible by
fire. It is used in the manufacture of rubber goods, tires,
gutta percha, phonograph records, explosives, dynamite,
insulating felt, fireproof paint, common glass, porcelain,
pottery, statuary, insulators, filtering material, grinding
and pumice stone, tooth powders, dental cream, face pow-
der, safety matches, fireworks, calico print, for polishing
glass and lenses and for refining sugar and syrup.
This wide range of uses may be introductory to poten-
tial industries in Central Florida. About fifteen tons of
diatomite a day is being produced at Clermont.
Northern and Central Florida have numerous outcrop-
pings o~ T mestone, both in its pure form, and in the form
of cement rock. Very little development of the lime rock
industry has as yet been undertaken in Florida. One
company in Levy County is engaged in limestone pro-
duction on a commercial scale, and there are small quar-
ries from which a low grade of limestone is mined for
road construction in several other parts of the state.
In most parts, however, Florida is entirely without any-
thing which can be called rock except by courtesy. On
the northern east coast there are deposits of a con-
glomerate stone, composed largely of minute sea shells
and known as coquina, which was used by the early Span-
ish and English settlers for some of their buildings. In
the Miami region, a thin layer of soft rock, of coral
origin, known as "ojus," underlies much of the back coun-
try. This ojus rock is also occasionally used for build-
ing where an ornamental surface rather than strength is
Commercially, the most important animal resources of
Florida are its fish, both the fresh-water and salt-water
varieties. The profusion of fish life in the rivers, lakes
and bays of Florida, and in the adjacent waters of the
Atlantic and the Gulf is beyond estimation. Florida fish
stories are almost unbelievable to one who has not wit-

nessed some of the prodigious hauls which are a matter of
course to the Floridian fisherman.
One of the most important commercial fisheries of
Florida is at Okeechobee, on the northern shore of the
Great fresh-water lake of that name. The waters of Lake
Okeechobee yield an enormous annual output of large-
mouthed black bass, catfish and a dozen minor varieties
of edible fish, which are packed and iced at Okeechobee
and shipped by the carload to the markets of the upper
Mississippi Valley. Black bass are so plentiful in the
fresh waters of Florida that there is as yet no apparent
need of restricting their capture to the rod and line of
the sportsman. In the matter of an hour or two in almost
any lake in Florida, the angler can capture a dozen
or more bass weighing up to ten or twelve pounds each.
The salt-water fisheries of Florida, are, naturally, of
very much greater commercial importance. There is a
fishing fleet of sorts sailing out from almost every port
in Florida; those which make their headquarters at Key
West, Punta Gorda, Mayport, Cedar Key, and Apa-
lachicola are among the largest. The total revenue from
the fisheries amounts to the impressive amount of $15,-
000,000 a year. This includes the oyster industry,
which centers in Apalachicola.
Not to be overlooked in any consideration of Florida's
marine resources are the sponge beds of the Gulf of Mex-
ico. Two sponge fleets owned and operated entirely by
Greeks who have brought with them from the Mediter-
ranean the tradition of thousands of years of sponge
fisheries, operate in the waters of the Gulf. One fleet has
Key West as its home port; the other and larger makes
its headquarters at Tarpon Springs, where the largest
and most important sponge market in the United States
is maintained.
Of the land animals native to Florida, there are none
which are to be counted as resources. The amphibious

alligator has, it is true, a definite commercial value be-
cause of the demand for alligator leather, but the 'gators
have been so relentlessly hunted that they are close to
extermination and the alligator hide industry no longer
figures as an important factor in Florida's commerce,
although alligators are bred for their skins at "farms" at
St. Augustine, Jacksonville and elsewhere, being marketed
when they reach "pocket-book size," "suit-case size" and
so on.
The wild "razor-back" hogs which every traveller over
Florida roads encounters, and the wild horses which may
be seen occasionally in the prairie regions, are not in-
digenous to Florida, but are descended from horses and
swine brought by the early Spanish explorers. Their
economic value, moreover, is practically nil. The mule is
a much more useful animal in Florida than the horse,
and the razor-back, while durable, is not considered highly
edible by epicures.
From the point of view of the sportsman Florida still
contains a variety of interesting animal life. Deer are
plentiful in the forest regions. There are wildcats, equal
in size and ferocity to the wildest of the cat tribe found
anywhere in the eastern United States; in many of the
dense hammocks bears may be found, and in some of the
wilder and more unsettled regions the panther survives.
The bird life of Florida is profuse and varied. To the
outsider, perhaps the most interesting, because unfamiliar,
birds are the mocking bird, the pelican, the flamingo and
the white heron. Considered as natural resources, how-
ever, they are in the same class with the scenery and the
climate-of intangible yet very real value.
For when all is said and done, Florida's greatest nat-
ural resouce of all is its climate.
It is to its climate that t owes its attractiveness to
the winter vacationists; it is to its climate that it owes
the productivity of its soil


THE greatest of all Florida's resources is the fer-
tility of its agricultural lands. Every intelligent
investor in Florida property realizes that the value
of his investment is in a large measure based upon the
development of the State's agricultural resources.
No one has better summed up the agricultural situa-
tion of Florida than the Honorable Cary A. Hardee,
former Governor of the State, who says:
"No other state equals Florida in the variety, fer-
tility, and productivity of her soils and in no other sec-
tion of the United States can land be found that will
produce so abundantly two or three crops a year with so
little labor, nor can there be found anywhere land that
will produce, with careful, industrious and intelligent
cultivation, crops of a net value of from $200 to $1,000
per acre, that can still be bought at from $50 to $200
per acre,
"Agriculture has always been and will continue to be
the chief support of civizilation. Florida, with her two
hundred and fifty different varieties of crops, fruits and
vegetables, all of which grow well, is first of all an agri-
cultural state. No other state equals her in this re-
spect. Her citrus fruit crop last year consisting, as it
did, of more than 21,000,000 boxes, sold for enough to
repay what the United States paid Spain for the whole
territory which she purchased, four times over, leaving
a considerable margin to spare.

"There were also shipped from the State during that
year 100,000 carloads of other fruits and vegetables, in-
cluding cabbage, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, straw-
berries, pineapples and celery. It is said that Florida
produces more potatoes than Maine and more celery than
"In one year Florida's 50,000 farmers put into the
market $80,000,000 of crops from less than 2,000,000
acres of land and kept on hand stock cattle worth
$25,000,000, horses and mules worth $14,000,000, hogs
worth $6,000,000, milk cows worth $2,500,000, and thor-
oughbred cattle worth approximately $2,000,000.
"She has produced 17,000,000 bushels of corn in one
year, 5,000,000 bushels of peanuts, 2,000,000 bushels of
velvet beans, 3,500,000 gallons of syrup and 4,000,000
pounds of tobacco. These agricultural products were
grown on 2,000,000 acres and she has 20,000,000 more
acres of the same type of soil undeveloped, about 4,000,-
000 acres of which lie in the far-famed Everglades, which
consists of a muck deposit varying in thickness from two
to eighteen feet deep. Most of this tract is below the
27th parallel, and is nearly half as large as the state of
"Is a low percentage of failures among farmers an
index to a state's progress and prosperity? In 1923 the
percentage of bankruptcies among farmers in Florida
was 13.4 per cent below the average in the United States.
"Florida, with her 20,000,000 acres of yet untouched
fertile soil, her abundant rainfall, her 2,200 miles of sea-
coast, her rapidly growing cities, splendid schools and
public libraries, her health-giving and restoring climate,
her low death rate, her abundant game supply, her bath-
ing beaches and golf links, her railroad facilities and thou-
sands of miles of hard-surface roads, offers unexcelled
attractions and opportunities to the farmer, the stock
raiser, the dairyman, the homeseeker and the capitalist.

And these and many others are flocking to the State in
ever-increasing numbers.
"He would be reckless, indeed, who would undertake to
place a limit to her developments in any direction either
in the immediate or more distant future."
That the agricultural possibilities of Florida are be-
ginning to be realized is indicated by the interesting fact
that is the only state which shows in the census reports
an increase in its agricultural population. In every other
state of the union, the movement of population is away
from the farms and to the cities, The agricultural popu-
lation of Florida increased fourteen per cent in the five
years from 1920 to 1925.
According to the United States Department of Agri-
culture, the average value of the farm products of
Florida per acre is $109.76, as compared with $12.22
in Iowa, $12.48 in Illinois, and $13.36 in Ohio. These
are average values for the entire acreage qualified as
"farm land," some 4,000,000 acres. Less than half
of these farm lands, however, are actually under culti-
vation and from the same source, the figures and average
gross returns of various crops in Florida per acre are
given as follows:
Strawberries, $488; potatoes, $302; cucumbers, $305;
peppers, $400; lettuce, $533; egg-plant, $362; cabbage,
$262. Taking the lower figure of $109.76 as a basis
and computing the land value in the customary manner
of ten times the annual crop value, this would give a val-
uation of above $1,000 for every acre of Florida farm
land. That is the basis upon which farm lands are sold
throughout the great agricultural regions of the Middle
West, but in Florida farm land prices seldom reach as
high a figure as the possible or probable one-year yield.
There are still more than 20,000,000 acres of land to be
cleared, rendered accessible and developed for agricul-
tural purposes in Florida. There are hundreds of thou-

sands of acres of accessible, cleared or practically cleared
land obtainable at from $35 to $50 an acre. There are
tens of thousands of acres which have been cleared,
drained, fenced, plowed and prepared for the first crop,
which are obtainable by the settler at from $100 to $500
an acre.
The State of Florida still owns a million and a quarter
acres of the land which it received from the United States
Government at the beginning of its career as a State.
The United States held title to 20,415,076 acres of
swamp land and overflowed land, which it transferred to
railroad and canal companies and individuals. More than
9,000,000 acres were granted to railroads as an induce-
ment to them to build their lines through Florida. Four
million acres were sold in one transaction, in 1880, to
Hamilton Disston and associates, of Philadelphia, for
twenty-five cents an acre. These lands, drained and re-
claimed, have become among the most valuable agricul-
tural lands in the world. And yet, even at the low price
of one hundred dollars an acre what an enormous profit
they represent to the original purchasers at twenty-five
cents an acre!
The state is coSperating with the other owners of some
five million acres in the Everglades drainage district to
make these lands available for agriculture, and as fast
as these state lands are reclaimed they are sold at auc-
tion by the Governor and his cabinet, sitting at Talla-
hassee as the Internal Improvement Board. There can
be no better criterion of the actual value of these re-
claimed lands than the prices obtained at these weekly
auctions held by the State. It was the privilege of one
of the authors of this book to sit between the Governor
and the Commissioner of Agriculture on August 11, 1925,
and to record the prices at which the State agricultural
lands, offered that day, were sold.
Twenty or thirty bidders competed with each other to

buy thirty-four parcels, varying in size from 141/- to 640
acres each. The lowest price obtained was $150 an acre
for 320 acres; six tracts of from 160 to 640 acres sold
for $151 per acre. But none of the rest brought less
than $200, many of the tracts were sold for more than
$300 an acre, and several of them went above $600, one
tract of 320 acres bringing the State $685 an acre.
These were agricultural lands, and the bidders were
either farmers or developers of farm land anticipating
the re-sale of these tracts in small units for truck-farm-
ing purposes. They were not newcomers, ignorant of
actual values; on the contrary they were the men prob-
ably most familiar with the real value of Florida land,
and they competed eagerly to pay those prices for land
which differs in no essential respect from many of the
millions of acres still available for agricultural pur-
poses in the southern part of the Florida peninsula.
It must not be supposed that all Florida land is of
equal value for farm purposes nor that every acre will
yield crops as high as the $109 average value quoted by
the United States Department of Agriculture. To reach
that average there were added in the high yields and the
low. There is a great deal of land in Florida, as there
is in any area of similar size, which is of little apparent
agricultural value. Probably the proportion of such
land is far lower than it is in the mountainous, rocky or
desert states of the North and West. All Florida en-
joys the benefit of the beneficent Florida climate and sun-
shine and of the abundant rainfall.
' Most agricultural production in Florida calls for the
use of fertilizer in liberal quantities. That is true of
intensive agricultural production everywhere. Only a few
of the great staple crops are grown to-day without add-
ing to the soil the elements which the crops take from it.
In the days of bonanza wheat farming in the Northwest,
and in the early days of the Corn Belt, crop rotation and

fertilization played no part. That was not farming-
it was mining the soil, leaving it exhausted and useless
for those who came after them. Florida discourages, and
properly so, that kind of farming, which is in no proper
sense of the word farming at all. Yet the native fertility
of much of Florida's soil is so great that only a minimum
amount of the essential fertilizing elements needs to be
replaced from year to year; while the money returned
from the great bonanza and staple crops is so large
that even what would be regarded elsewhere as a very
heavy investment in fertilizer is a trifling expense com-
pared with the money which it earns.
It seems necessary here, however, to sound a note of
warning. Let no reader imagine that there has been
discovered in Florida a magic method of obtaining gold
from the soil without first putting labor and intelligence
into the soil. No man can get a living from the soil
anywhere in the world without work.
To the man who has a genuine love for the soil, a
taste for its cultivation, sufficient industry and applica-
tion to give his undivided attention to making the soil
produce for him, agriculture in Florida can yield him a
larger income than he can obtain anywhere else in the
United States, and enable him to live under pleasanter
and more healthful conditions than he is likely to find
anywhere else.
Many men have succeeded as farmers in Florida with
little or no capital. They are men who would have suc-
ceeded anywhere else under the same conditions. Many
men have failed in Florida, even though fairly well capi-
talized. They are the men who would have failed any-
where else. Success and failure are personal attributes, in
the last analysis. Let two examples illustrate.
At Bonifay, in Holmes County, a banker told one of
the authors the story of a farmer from Missouri who had
come into the neighborhood a year earlier, and had tried

farming without success. That very day the banker's
wife had put up a lunch for this farmer's family, to feed
them while on their way back to Missouri, "broke" and
"The only thing the matter with that man, was that
he had the habit of failure," said the banker. "He had
everything in his favor, but while every other farmer in
this vicinity made money he lost his."
The other example was not many miles away, as dis-
tances go in Florida. Joe H. Scales, a banker at Perry,
in Taylor County, saw two mule teams, driven by strang-
ers, stop in the street near his bank in 1923. A man who
was clearly a farmer was driving one team of mules at-
tached to a farm wagon, while a boy of eighteen, appar-
ently his son, drove the other. The farmer's wife and
four other children were distributed between the two
wagons, which were loaded with household goods, farm
implements and the provisions.
"The man told me that he had sold out everything he
had in Arkansas and had driven to Florida to look for
a place to settle," said Mr. Scales. "I questioned him and
found that, besides his mules and equipment, he had only
two hundred dollars. He was going on into South Florida
to try to find a chance to farm with that capital. I
suggested that he would better rent a farm for a year
until he had learned how things were done in Florida.
That appealed to him as a good idea, and he asked me
to help him find a farm which he could rent with an
option of purchase. I got him located near Perry. Be-
fore his income began to come in from the farm he came
to the bank and borrowed another two hundred dollars,
giving a chattel mortgage on his mules for security.
That was two years ago. He now owns free and clear
the forty-acre farm which he originally rented, has money
in the bank and is one of the most respected citizens of
the community. That man is a real farmer, who would

make a success anywhere, and that is the kind of farmers
Florida is looking for. They can make a big success in
Florida and make it quicker than they can anywhere
In general, it is unwise for any one not familiar,
through experience, with agricultural conditions in Flor-
ida to undertake any kind of agricultural operation with-
out having capital enough to make the necessary pay-
ments on his land, clear and ditch and cultivate it, plant
his first crop, construct the necessary buildings, and live
for six months or more while waiting for a money return
from his labor. While many men have gone to Florida
and succeeded on insigriicant capital, the failures in
Florida have been almost uniformly due to lack of suf-
ficient capital, combined with insufficient knowledge of
local methods of crop production and marketing.
It is safe to say that the man with five thousand dollars
of capital or credit has a vastly better chance of success
than the man who can command only half of that amount,
everything else being equal. Five thousand dollars is
generally regarded in Florida as ample capital with which
to engage in truck farming as a livelihood, or to go into
the growing of citrus or other tree crops as a side line.
Capital requirements for dairy and poultry farming
vary according to the scale of the operation, and are
about the same in Florida as anywhere else. Florida
farm land is usually sold on the basis of from a quarter
to a third in cash, and the balance in payments over two
or three years. There is little long-term mortgage money
as yet available in Florida. The Federal Farm Loan
Banks, however, lend on long-term, low-rate mortgages,
on improved and developed farm lands in Florida, up to
a valuation of fifty per cent of the land and improvements.
In general, the best place to start raising a particular
crop is in the district where that crop is already being
raised successfully. Not only are soil conditions likely

to be better for that particular crop, but marketing and
shipping facilities are certain to be better. In most of
the centers where specialized crops are grown the growers
have established cooperative shippmg and marketing
agencies. It is to these centers, in any event, that the
buyers come first to look for their specialized products.
The newcomer, moreover, has the advantage of mixing
with the more experienced growers of his own specialty
and the opportunity of observing and learning from their
methods, which he would not have were he to isolate
It is quite probable that the great agricultural devel-
opment of Florida will come about much as the great
residential and resort development of the State has been
brought about, through the development of large agri-
cultural tracts, involving the investment of considerable
capital, and their resale to the small farmer or grower
under conditions which insure him the best chance of
More and more, investors with large amounts of capi-
tal are beginning to put their money and their energies
into the development of Florida farm lands. For many
years the citrus fruit groves of Florida have been de-
veloped in large tracts and sold in small units, after de-
velopment, to individual owners and settlers. This method
has its advantages to the individual purchaser, as well
as providing a profitable opportunity for the investor.
It is only very recently, however, that this plan of the
wholesale development of agricultural property and its
resale at retail, fully developed and ready for the in-
dividual farmer, gardener, or horticulturist to settle
down upon, has been extended to other than the slow-
growing fruit and nut crops.
One of the most encouraging signs of the times in the
development of Florida is the interest now being shown
by investment capital in such agricultural developments

as those of Ringling and White, near Pensacola, the Pot-
ter-Palmer estate near Sarasota, the A. L. Mathews prop-
erties near West Palm Beach, the great Clewiston de-
velopment south of Lake Okeechobee, Fort Pierce Farms,
or the Florida-Gadsden County Farms, to mention at
random but a few of these large-scale agricultural oper-
ations. I/
The principles and policy of all of these developments
are substantially alike. A large tract of land, perhaps
ten thousand acres, perhaps as large as one hundred thou-
sand acres, is purchased, cleared, ditched and drained,
fenced and plowed. Roads and canals are run through it,
dividing it up into tracts of from five to forty acres each.
A town site is laid out, railroad connections are estab-
lished, warehouses are built, and the land is offered for
sale, at a price which yields a fair profit to the pro-
moters above the cost of their improvements, to indi-
vidual buyers who find everything ready for there to go
ahead with their building and farming operations. VAgri-
cultural and horticultural experts are provided to give
them expert advice as to what to plant, how to cultivate
it, when and how to harvest and to market it. Most of
these developments have their own marketing organiza-
tion to serve their colonists. Some of them even have
courses of lectures in the North for the buyers of their
land, to prepare them for the conditions they will meet
when they finally come to Florida.
There is no better way for the average man who wishes
to engage in any kind of agriculture in Florida than to
buy his land in one or another of these big developments,
first assuring himself, which he can readily do by inquir-
ing from bankers or Chambers of Commerce, that the
land is good land for the purpose for which it is sold, that
the price per acre is a fair one for such land similarly
situated, that the development is adequately capitalized,
honestly promoted and intelligently managed.

The best of the large-scale agricultural developments in
Florida impose certain restrictions upon the sale of their
land, and the tendency is growing, and is encouraged by
every one who has the best interests of Florida at heart,
to restrict the sale of agricultural land to those who are
able to demonstrate experience and capacity for agricul-
tural operations and who have sufficient capital to erect
their homes, stock and equip their little farms, and sub-
sist for a considerable period, besides paying for their
land. That is the type of settler who will always do best
in Florida, and of whom Florida can never have too
The man from the North going into Florida to engage
in farming will find almost all conditions different from
those to which he has been accustomed. He will find some
things more expensive, many items less expensive. He
can build a house without a cellar, for cellars are almost
unknown in Florida, which makes for economy in home
building. The problem of heating his house is a minor
one. He will find electric current as cheap and probably
cheaper than he has found it in the North. He will pay
a little more for his gasoline, but his taxes will be less.
Fencing is cheaper than in most Northern farming com-
munities and so is pine lumber. Plumbing supplies and
hardware will cost him a little more than he has been
accustomed to paying. His annual clothing bill for him-
self and family will be very much less; in Southern Florida
he will never feel the need of wool for clothing or for
If he is to employ labor in his farming operations, he
will find Negro help available in limited quantity, at low
wages compared with what Northern farm hands receive.
He will find horses of little use and will have to learn
either to handle a mule or do his plowing and cultivation
with tractors.
He will find good schools for his children, wherever in

Florida field of
tobacco in the

In- FI. I I .m t v I..r%%h h
Hod ,fao, hucmr

Beans and egg plant to be followed by tomatoes, Sneads A field of romaine at
Island, Manatee County. Palmetto.

St. -ei e rsbg..
St. Peteriburg.

irt staple cotton, tree trorm Ioll wee,
grown at DeLand.

Florida he settles, for the Florida school system is one
of the best and most liberally supported anywhere in the
United States. He will have more leisure from his farm
work than it was ever possible for him to take in the
North, and better fishing, hunting and outdoor sports
generally than he enjoyed in Minnesota or Vermont. He
can work his land twelve months in the year and get
rich; or he can work three months in the year and make
a better living than he made in the North for a year's
For the individual farmer, for the capitalist with the
creative vision who seeks the opportunity to-day to do
constructive work at a certain profit to himself, agricul-
ture in Florida offers greater opportunities than are to
be found elsewhere in the whole world.
It is only within a comparatively short time that the
greatest agricultural value of Florida land has been
really discovered. This value is the possibility of grow-
ing every kind of garden produce at a season of the year
when no other part of the United States is producing
green vegetables, and so getting the top prices in the
great markets of the North. Now that it has been dem-
onstrated that every section of Florida will produce some
crop or group of crops which can be marketed at a large
profit, the development of agricultural lands on a large
scale and by modern methods has became as important a
field for investment as the development of town sites and
resort subdivisions has been heretofore.
Few think of Florida as an agricultural state, except
as to a limited number of specialties, and even those, ex-
cept for orange and grapefruit, are usually overlooked
by the casual observer who thinks of Florida only in
terms of the pleasure-seeking winter visitor. But one
of the amazing things about Florida is that, although
less than two million acres of its whole vast area is as
yet under cultivation, its revenue from agricultural prod-

ucts of all kinds is greater than that obtained from all of
its other resources combined. Barely a tenth of the
state's area has even been set apart, fenced, or otherwise
reclaimed from the forest into farms. Less than half of
this farm acreage is under cultivation. For every acre
that has so far been made productive, there are still
ten acres of identical or equally fertile soil awaiting
In other words, after eliminating every acre of land in
Florida which is not definitely known to be good agri-
cultural land, there remain some twenty-two million
acres, capable, in proper hands and under adequate de-
velopment, of as high yields as any that have as yet been
put to the plow.
To the question of what Florida agricultural lands
produce, it is as impossible to generalize as it is to gen-
eralize about the topography of the State. In general,
it may be said that everything except the northern small
grains and apples can be grown somewhere in Florida,
but there is no single agricultural product which can be
grown equally well everywhere in Florida, and most prod-
ucts can be grown successfully or at all only in certain
sections of the State.
When one speaks of the agricultural possibilities of
Florida, therefore, he must be prepared to particularize;
and the prospective investor in Florida agricultural prop-
erty should make it his business to know what particular
kind of farm activity has been proved must successful
in the particular section of the State in which he pro-
poses to invest.
The State of Florida, under the direction of its Com-
missioner of Agriculture at Tallahassee, compiles and
publishes for distribution to every inquirer who will take
the pains to write for them, a number of extremely val-
uable books and documents on Florida agriculture in
general, as well as specific details about particular kinds

of crops and about the agricultural possibilities of every
county in the State. Any one who is interested in ob-
taining such information in detail can do so by asking
the State Commissioner of Agriculture for the books en-
titled "Florida's Resources and Inducements," "Handbook
for Florida Growers and Shippers," and the two booklets
which describe every county in detail, entitled "North
Florida" and "South Florida." These are furnished with-
out charge to all interested, and by studying them it is
possible to arrive at accurate conclusions regarding the
agricultural prospects in any part of the State, or to
learn where a good crop may be most productively and
profitably grown.
It is necessary in considering agriculture anywhere to
deal with its four chief sub-divisions separately. These
are staple crops, perishable crops, livestock, and tree or
orchard crops. Each of these is considered in a separate
To sum up briefly the State's agricultural situation, it
may be said that Florida's greatest needs to-day are one
Burbank and one million "dirt farmers."


LORIDA'S staple crops include corn, cotton, to-
bacco, peanuts, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes,
sugar cane and a considerable variety of crops uti-
lized for domestic consumption for the feeding of live
stock either in the green state or as hay. The production
of wheat, oats and the other small grains is negligible.
Corn, of which the annual production is above six
million bushels, is grown largely for domestic consump-
tion; that is, it does not figure as corn in the statistics
of farm income, but in its converted form of beef, pork
or poultry. Corn, in short, occupies about the same sit-
uation in Florida in the economic scale of things as it
does in the Corn Belt states, where the corn grower usually
finds it less profitable to sell his corn than to feed it to
his live stock.
Peanuts are, so far, the most important of the other
staple crops, by which is meant agricultural products
which need not be consumed immediately on the heels of
picking or harvesting, but which can be shipped, stored
and handled over a considerable period of time without
artificial refrigeration or other heavy expenses. These
are crops which are grown or harvested wholesale, as it
were, and marketed in bulk.
The importance of the peanut crop is not apparent to
those whose contact with peanuts is confined to the street
vendor. The value of the peanut is in the fact that it
yields one of the highest grades of edible vegetable oils,
at a comparatively low cost. Peanut oil ranks next to
olive oil in palatability and food value; indeed, much of

the so-called olive oil on the market is adulterated with
peanut oil, while many connoisseurs frankly prefer the
flavor of peanut oil to that of the imported olive oil.
Because of the high oil content, peanuts make an
excellent feed for fattening live stock, taking the place in
the South, to a large extent, of the corn with which the
Northern farmer fattens his cattle and swine for market.
Practically all of Florida's peanut crop (which amounted
in 1924, the last year for which statistics are available,
to 2,337,752 bushels, valued at $2,583,031), was sold
either for stock-feeding purposes or to oil mills.
The principal production of peanuts in Florida, here-
tofore, has been in the older settled sections of the State,
in the north and west, where diversified farming has long
been practiced. The peanut, however, is now being grown
on a larger scale than ever, in the southern part of the
Florida peninsula.
\The peanut development in Palm Beach County is an
excellent example of an opportunity realized for capital
investment in agricultural development on a large scale in
Florida. The Brown Paper Company, whose pulp and
paper mills are located in the state of Maine, was seeking
a market for the hydrogen gas which is a by-product of
the manufacture of chemical wood pulp. Hydrogen has
several important uses in industry, the most important
being that of hardening and clarifying animal and vege-
table oils. All of the lard substitutes now so commonly
used are manufactured from liquid vegetable oils which,
when treated with hydrogen, become semi-solid and are at
the same time purified. Similarly, many kinds of soap
are made from vegetable and animal oils which have
been solidified by hydrogenation.
The Brown Paper Company, after a careful survey of
the field, decided that the best way to provide a con-
tinuing and stable market for the hydrogen which was
being produced at their pulp mills, without cost to them,

was to go into the business of manufacturing a cooking
fat from peanut oil. After experiments had demonstrated
the commercial feasibility of this plan, they looked about
for a source of peanut oil upon which they could depend
for a continuing and economical supply, and which was
near enough to the Atlantic seaboard to take full advan-
tage of low-cost water transportation. Finding no such
source of peanuts or peanut oil ready to hand, since the
peanut production in the South is in small and scattered
tracts, they decided to embark upon the business of rais-
ing their own peanuts and extracting the oil themselves.
The scale upon which they are operating is indicated
by the fact that their initial purchase of land for peanut
cultivation was one hundred thousand acres. This land
is in Palm Beach County, adjacent to the Palm Beach
Canal, leading from Lake Okeechobee to Lake Worth.
The diking, clearing and ditching of this land, to prepare
it for peanut cultivation, was begun in the summer of
1925. At the same time, land was purchased in West
Palm Beach, on the shore of Lake Worth, where a port
terminal is under construction at which deep-water craft
will be able to load cargoes upon the completion of the
Government's Palm Beach Inlet, in 1926. Upon this
land the paper company is building the plant where the
hydrogen, brought by water from Maine in pressure
tanks, will be combined with the peanut oil from the near-
by plantation, to make a cooking fat for national distri-
bution under a Florida brand, competing with the product
of the corn-belt hog. The oil will be expressed in mills
on the plantation and floated to the hydrogenating plant
in tanks on barges, along the drainage canal.
With the completion of this development the peanut
will occupy a still higher place than it already does in
the economic scale of Florida's agricultural products.
Moreover, the industry established upon this agricultural
foundation is a perfect example of the general type of

industries for which Florida offers the greatest oppor-
tunities to-day.
Next to peanuts in economic importance among the
field crops of Florida stands the Irish potato. The story
of the Irish potato development in Florida is one of hun-
dreds of examples which the State furnishes of doing what
the experts have said was impossible. As recently as 1912,
agricultural authorities had agreed that Irish potatoes
could never become a commercially profitable crop in
Florida. The standard book on potato culture, by
Eugene Grubb, grades the Florida potato lowest of all
in the economic and quality scales. Yet to-day Florida
grows and ships more than 1,500,000 bushels of Irish
potatoes annually to the northern markets, where they
are eagerly bought at high prices,
Only about 16,000 acres in all is so far under potato
cultivation in Florida, the average yield being about one
hundred bushels to the acre, yielding a return to the
farmer, above the cost of production, of from $100 to
$150 per acre. The high price of Florida potatoes is
due to the fact that they come into the Northern markets
as new potatoes at a season when there is little or no
competition from other markets. The earliest shipments
are from the Okeechobee section, where the potato harvest
begins in February and continues through April. The
chief potato-growing center of Florida, however, is in the
counties of St. Johns, Flagler and Volusia, in the north-
east section of the State. This is the famous Hastings
potato district, whose chief shipping points are Bunnell,
Hastings, Elkton, Federal Point, East Palatka, and the
appropriately named station of Spuds. Potatoes are
shipped from the Hastings district beginning about the
third week of March, and continuing to the first of June.
Following the Hastings potato crop into the Northern
markets, there are considerable shipments of potatoes
from Holmes and Santa Rosa Counties, in West Florida.

VWhile not all of the soil of Florida is adapted to potato
culture, there is no section of the State in which early
potatoes cannot be grown successfully, and yields that
have been obtained in some of the best sections, from
three hundred to five hundred bushels to the acre, equal
or exceed the highest yields recorded in the great potato
district of northern Maine. Maine potato farmers, from
Aroostook County, have in some instances gone into po-
tato culture in Florida also, completing their operations
in Florida in the spring, long before Maine's potato-
planting season has begun, then harvesting and marketing
their Maine crop before returning to Florida to plant
their winter potatoes again.
This plan, of carrying on farming operations through-
out the year, in the North in summer, and in Florida in
the winter, is becoming more and more general as North-
ern farmers learn the possibilities of the Florida soils
and the delights of Florida's winter climate.
In the southern sections of Florida and to some extent
in the north, the potato grower's activities do not cease
nor his profits end with the harvesting and shipping of
his potato crop. There is no agricultural land in Florida
that will not yield two crops a year easily, while most of
it gives three crops and sometimes four. In other words,
Florida has a year-round growing season, and the ten-
dency is all in the direction of getting the largest possible
annual yield out of the land, to make it earn the highest
possible return. When reference is made to a net return
of, say, $150 an acre from potatoes, it must not be un-
derstood that that is all the revenue the owner obtains
in a season from his land. He may, and in almost every
instance does, follow his potatoes with another crop, per-
haps of string beans or some other kind of garden truck
which can be grown rapidly and marketed readily, and he
may follow these with a fall crop of something else before
the time comes around to plant potatoes again.

One of the reasons why it is difficult for the Northern
farmer to appreciate Florida farm-land values, is that
elsewhere farm values are based upon one crop a year.
Two crops must always be considered as a minimum in
Florida. And there is still plenty of land-20,000,000
acres of it-that will grow two, three or four crops a
year, which can be bought for from $30 to $100 an acre,
depending upon its location with reference to transporta-
tion routes!
According to the last published agricultural census of
Florida, for the year 1924, there were 16,000 acres under
cultivation in sugar cane in Florida in that year. The
production of this cane was nearly two million gallons of
syrup, worth around one dollar a gallon. The average
person thinks of sugar cane only in terms of the refined
sugar. Every part of Florida grows sugar cane, but up
to the beginning of 1926 the amount of sugar produced
in Florida has been negligible. Especially in the older
settled sections of the State, patches and fields of cane
seem to be a part of almost every farm. A large propor-
tion of the farmers have their own syrup mills for grind-
ing the cane and boiling the juice down to syrup, just as
the farmers along the Canadian border produce maple
syrup, each from his own "sugar bush." But while the
maple syrup is easily reduced to maple sugar, most of
the cane syrup heretofore produced in Florida will not
crystallize into sugar. It is a staple, merchantable com-
modity as syrup, either in its pure form or commercially
mixed with corn syrup, which also does not produce sugar.
In view of these facts, it may sound paradoxical to
speak of Florida as the greatest potential source of sugar
in the United States, if not in the world. Yet the greatest
sugar experts in the world are staking millions of dollars
upon their belief that this is precisely Florida's destiny.
Several years ago, a group of Louisiana sugar plant-
ers, dissatisfied with the economic situation of the sugar

industry in Louisiana, whose product competes with the
sugar from Hawaii directly and is only protected against
the competition of Cuba and Java by the tariff wall, made
some tentative investigations into the possibilities of the
reclaimed lands of the Florida Everglades for sugar pro-
duction. What they discovered was encouraging. They
found soil which produced cane profusely, and found that
this cane contained a high percentage of sugar. They
found other soil, apparently precisely like the first, which
would grow cane, but which produced a syrup which could
not be crystallized into sugar. These soils often ran
into each other, separated only by a ditch or an imag-
inary line, upon one side of which sugar could be pro-
duced and upon the other side of which cane would grow
profusely, but would not make sugar.
The situation was one that called for expert study, in-
vestigation, experiment, and analysis of the soil over a
period of years. So, at the instigation of Louisiana sugar
interests, the United States Government established a
sugar experiment station at Canal Point, on the shore
of Lake Okeechobee, where the drainage canal to West
Palm Beach connects with the lake. Here for several
years intensive experiments have been conducted by ex-
perts of the United States Department of Agriculture.
More than 2,000 varieties of sugar cane have been the
subject of experiment. Tests have been made of the soil
in many large tracts of land. The soil elements which
produce sucrose, the substance without which the cane
syrup will not crystallize into sugar, have been identified,
and something more than one hundred thousand acres, in
various tracts and sections, has already been certified by
the Government experts as good sugar land That there
are many hundreds of thousands of such acres, in the
five million acres which comprise the Everglades drainage
district, is quite probable.
According to the Government experts, a minimum of

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