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 Introduction
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 Publications on frogs














Title: Bullfrog farming and frogging in Florida.
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Title: Bullfrog farming and frogging in Florida.
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Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture,
Publication Date: 1936
Copyright Date: 1936
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Index
        Page 1
    Reference
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
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    Publications on frogs
        Page 81
Full Text



Bulletin No. 56 New Series January, 1936



BULLFROG FARMING

AND FROGGING
IN FLORIDA


State of Florida
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee


-----------

















BULLFROG FARMING AND FROGGING


INDEX


Biology of the Family of Ranid.ae . .
Butchering Bullfrogs . . . .
Catching Wild Frogs . . . .
Description of Common Bullfrog . .
Description of the Southern Bullfrog . .
Economic Value of Frogs . . . .
Establishing a Frog Farm in Florida . .
First Operation in Butchering (Illustration)
Frog Culture ...........
Frog Industry in France . . . .
History of Bullfrogs in Japan . . .
Introduction . . . .
Publications on Frogs . . . .
Recipes for Preparing Frog Meat . .
Removing Spawn (Illustration) . . .
Shipping Live Frogs . . . .
Spawn of Common Bullfrog (Illustration) .
Statement of F. B. Cramer, Sr. . . .
Stocking Ponds . . . . .
Stuffing Frogs with Dressing (Illustration).
Tadpole of Common Bullfrog (Illustration).
Trapping Fiddler Crabs (Ilustration) . .
Utilization of Frogs . . . ..
Young Bullfrog (Ilustration) . . .


Page
. . 45 52
. . 79
. . 41 44
. . 7-14
. . 5- 6
. . 15-17
. . 18-27
. . 78
. . . 28-33
. . 55-58
. . 52-55
. 3- 4
S. InsideBackCover
. . 59 74
. . 26
. . 74-80
. . 22
. 35-41
. . 33
. . 15
. . 12
. . 37
. . 34
. . 14


















REFERENCES
This Bulletin, "Bullfrog Farming anl Fd ,--iir, in
the State of Florida," is issued by the Department
of Agriculture in the hope that it may prove of value
to those interested in the subject. The material
herein has been taken from various Encyclopedias
and publications, and we give full credit to all those
sources and are very grateful for their co-operation
in -iiIpp iing the information. Among those we desire
to mention: U. S. Department of Fisheries, Wash-
ington, 1). C.; Southern Biological Supply Co., New
Orleans; Louisiana State Department of Conserva-
tion, Baton Rouge; Southern Industries, Inc., Tam-
pa; American Frog Canning Co., New Orleans: Flor-
ida Frog Farms Corporation, Highland City, Fla.










INTRODUCTION
Perhaps no industry in the State of Florida makes a
stronger appeal to the imagination than the raising of Frogs
for the large markets, where there appears to be an ever in-
creasing demand for fresh, carefully selected and properly
graded Frog Meat.
Like all other wild life in the United States, the wild frogs
have been so persistently hunted that the supply has dimin-
ished to a point of extinction in a great many sections.
In an effort to meet the ever increasing demand in the face
of a diminishing supply, insufficient care by some shippers has
been given to proper grading, theri. th ng, and preparation for
shipment. As a result frog legs have lost favor in some mar-
kets. By far the greatest percentage of the frog meats going
to market have been those caught by frog hunters and con-
siderable time frequently lapses between the time the frog is
caught and its arrival at point of consumption.
No more succulent dish, no greater delicacy is obtainable
than fresh frog legs appetizingly cooked and garnished. How-
ever, the best chef in the world cannot restore that tender,
sweet, delicate flavor. natural to fresh frog legs, to dried-out.
tough, tasteless frog meat. No one questions the difference
between fresh and storage eggs. The difference between fresh.
tender frog meat and the stale product is more pronounced to
the epicurean.
The diminishing supply of wild frogs and the absolute
necessity of scientific handling of them for the market indi-
cates clearly that the future supply of frog meat must lie
obtained from Frog Farms or Ranches that have been carefully
planned, well managed, and above all, sufficiently financed.
Otherwise the producer of frog meat for the market is headed
for many disappointments.
It has been said that no industry in Florida has better
prospects for permanency and profit than a good Frog Farml
or Ranch but, to reiterate, it is not a simlle business to engage
in. On the other hand it is not a very difficult business to
establish if the ordinary business fundamentals that make for
success in other endeavors are adhered to in this most unusual
and potentially profitable industry.
Florida is perhaps one of the best possible locations for
establishing a Frog Farm or Ranch as tie exceptional climate
assures a growing season of twelve months. Experience has
shown that Bullfrogs, the most desirable frogs to raise, start
to breed as early as the first week in March and continue to
spawn up to late in tie year in Florida. Sonm of the most








4 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

successful frog ranches in the United States, we are told, are
those located in Florida. One was established in the middle
of 1932 and has continued to expand every year since then.
In the last pages of this bulletin we have incorporated a
statement by the President of this corporation which may
prove valuable to any one contemplating entering this indus-
try, which seems to offer good opportunities to those prepared
to be guided by the experience of those now in the business.
We want to call the reader's attention to the illustrations
in the center of this bulletin. These photos of the Florida Frog
Farms Corporation, Highland City, Florida, will give the pros-
pective frog farmer a good idea of how ponds should be con-
structed to afford the maximum amount of shore line, or feed-
ing grounds.
The marketing of Bullfrogs from Florida at present divides
itself into two industries: that of catching or gigging wild
frogs, known as Frogging, and the domestic breeding of suit-
able stock under proper and scientific conditions for later
butchering, grading and shipping during the seasons when the
demand is such as to bring the best prices. It is interesting
to note that the Frog Farmer is often referred to as a Frog
Rancher, and the Frog Farm is sometimes called a Frog
Ranch.
Of paramount importance in the building of a profitable,
domestic frog business is the selection of proper varieties, the
correct grading as to size and quality, scientific butchering,
and meticulous care in preparing the frog meat for shipment.
Frog legs must arrive at point of destination in the very best
condition possible. To attain this desideratum proper atten-
tion to all of these important factors must be given. Frog
legs must appear appetizing on arrival and they also must
retain their natural flavor, and when eaten please the palate.
These things have been emphasized for they mean everything
in the achievement of success in this unusual industry.
Industries closely allied with bullfrog farming are the rais-
ing and selling of breeding stock, and the production of tadpoles
for stocking new frog farms. The canning of frog meat and
similar products is a young industry that should show consid-
erable growth as the public becomes better acquainted with
these products. Tanning of frog skins, which are used in the
manufacture of women's shoes. purses. key-cases and other nov-
elties also opens up a new and novel industry.











Bullfrog Farming and Frogging

in Florida

DESCRIPTION OF THE TWO MOST POPULAR FROGS
FOR SHIPMENT FROM FLORIDA
In the firm conviction that the more information we have
concerning the characteristics and habits of the Bullfrog, the
greater will be the degree of success to the sincerely interested
Bullfrog Farmer, we have included the following chapters:

THE SOUTHERN BULLFROG
(Rana grylio Stejneger)
The Southern Bullfrog, or Rana grylio, is found from Flor-
ida to Mississippi. They are native to the ponds, lakes and
marshes near Pensacola, Kissimmee, Ozona. Okeechobee, Moore
Haven, Belle Glade, Arcadia, Ocala, Wauchula and other places
in Florida.
COLOR: The head and shoulders of the Southern Bullfrog
are generally a vivid green color. The posterior regions are
olive green with irregular black spots. The entire frog may
sometimes be wholly of an olive green or a dark brown color
of a rich hue. The ears are usually orange-brown with the
center showing green. Four bands of bright orange-brown
alternating with black bands of olive green are to be seen in
the middle and posterior sections of the back. These bands
run longitudinally. The legs are marked by small black spots.
The underparts of the body are light in color and without
spots, except in the posterior section. The male can be easily
distinguished by its throat of bright yellow. The undersurfaces
of the legs generally are mottled and have a pattern of black
and yellow.
SIZE: The large frogs attain a length of four to five inches.
The head of the frog is long, about two-fifths of the total
length. The legs are of medium length; the distance to the
heel equalling the length of the frog from near the eye.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The skin is smooth on the head but
will be found somewhat rougher on the upper parts of the
body. Upon close examination the skin will be found to be
finely pitted. The head has pointed outlines. The eyes of this
species are greatly elevated and very large, being placed close
together. The ears of the male differ from those of the female;
they are about twice the diameter of the eyes while the ears







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


of the female are about equal to the diameter of tile eyes, or
slightly larger. The nostrils on both sexes are prominent and
located near together. There is a fold of skin over the ears
which extends to the shoulders. In the middle of the back
will be found a groove running from the head to the posterior
region. The strong muscles in the arms and legs give these
frogs their exceptional leaping powers. The lingers of the
hands are long; the feet are broad anlihave large webs extend-
ing the full length to the ends of the toes, except the fourth
toe. The webs are relatively longer thaii tlie toes correspond-
ing.
According to existing records this frog was discovered in
1900, near Bay St. Louis, il Mississippi. There was some
doubt as to its classificalion and it was not accepted as a dis-
tinct species until some time laier. Specimens caught near
Kissinmmee, Florida, furnisheil further knowledge concerning
this linia yrylio and it was definitely established as a hereto-
fore unklnovwn species. Its most unusual and distinctive croak-
ing. which has been likened to tlie gruntingl of pigs led to its
discovery and fiial classification. 1Is voice, when croaking,
differs entirely from tihe more familiar bass call of the Common
J in lll i', -'.'.
STh'l- Southlerln Bullfrog, likewise, is very different in ap-
I'.;,I ;i' i from tlhe Conll ion IBllfrog. It does not resemble
ii in -1ape, body proportions, or in coloring. The long, nar-
row, pointed head with the large eyes, set close together, are
features not duplicated in the h'mna c(atcdbiawn,:, or C'ommon
Bullfrog. There is likewise a difference in the ratio of the
lengths of head and body; in the longer toes: and in the skin
which is finely pitted. HI'am yrjli'i has brilliant coloring. The
blended shades of green, yellow and brown are very pleasing
to study, all showing a metallic lustre that adds to thle beauty
of its coloring. This species indicates color changing charac-
teristics, almost Chameleon-like in their ability to change
color. At times they are brilliant, then dull, light then dark,
green or brown. There may also be a vivid green noticed, at
times, on the breast.
This frog is wary and ever alert to move out of the way of
harm. It is not often seen unless you are carefully looking
for it. It seems to prefer deep water, down among thie pond-
lilies or other water vegetation native to the lakes, ponds or
marshes in Florida. It does not leap often. When it becomes
frightened its tendency is to dive to the bottom and hide in
the sowt mud or among the plants.
Raia grylio is closely related to Rana rcirgatipes; the shape,
body proportions, coloring. skin texture, sizes of eyes and ears,
andi its acquatic habits are similar.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 7

THE COMMON BULLFROG
(Rana catesbiana Shaw)
The Common Bullfrog is native to many sections of the
United States, ranging from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico,
east of the Rocky Mountains. When introduced in sections
west of the Rocky Mountains it has thrived equally as well.


Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Male Common Bullfrog


COLOR: These frogs are found in light or dark shades of
green or greenish brown. Some appear to be black, they are so
dark in color. The back and sides are usually plain colored
with dark spots, although they are also found without spots.
The spots may be distinct or connected. The arms and legs
are spotted or they may be barred with dark coloring. The
under-parts are white, spotted and mottled with dark coloring
which on some is obscure while on others it is very distinct.
The throat of the male is generally yellow. The iris has been
found to be either reddish-brown or of a golden color.
SIZE: This is a large frog. Both the male and the female
often reach a length of seven to eight inches. The legs to the
heels are not as long as the combined lengths of head and body.
Both of the leg joints are about the same length.







8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The head and body are broad and
fiat. The ears of the male are much larger than the eyes, about
twice the size, and in this respect they differ from the ears of
the female which are but slightly larger than the eyes. A fold
of tough skin extends from a point behind the eyes to the region
of the arms, curving around the ears. The toes have a broad
web, with no free joints, except the last joint of the fourth toes.
In Florida this species does not hibernate on domestic Frog
Farms. This is a most distinct advantage to the Florida Frog
Farmer. In northern sections, where they hibernate, they are
late in leaving their hibernation. Individual frogs may some-
times be seen in protected places, but in the northern states
it is usually late in May or early in June before they become
active, or are seen among the plant life where they make their
homes.
They seem to prefer large ponds or lakes where they can
find both deep and shallow water, where the shore-line is well
screened by low hanging trees and other plant life. They par-
ticularly like the shelter of pickerel-weeds, arrowhead, water-
lilies and similar plants. The roots and stemIs and under the
leaves are favorite feeding places. In these places will be
found crawfishes, certain kinds of waler-beetles, bugs, snails,
shrimps, the larve of dragon-flies and May-flies and other insect
life, all of which form part of the frog's food.
The Common Bullfrog confines its hunting to the body of
water which it inhabits, differing in this respect from other
species of frogs. The Bullfrog is likewise more aquatic than
the other frogs of North America.
Although the Common Bullfrog remains, as a rule, close
to its habitation there are times when they will be found leap-
ing along some country road or lane, perhaps due to the fact
that they are migrating from one pond to another. When
leaping they will cover about three to three and one-half feet,
although they can leap five or six feet without difficulty. The
tracks of a Bullfrog when seen in the sand show that the front
feet "toe in" when leaping, or when sitting. The Common
Bullfrog is the largest frog found in the United States.
Frog farmers in Florida, after several years of experience,
firmly believe that a great deal can be accomplished through
selection in breeding and also in cross-breeding just as has
been accomplished in other live stock. There is every reason
to believe this desired result will be achieved and without
doubt the Florida Frog Farmer will have some very interest-
ing information on this subject within the next few years.
Faster growth and more uniform quality can also, no doubt,
be obtained through scientific feeding. The mention of these







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 9

two possibilities indicate most interesting and profitable ex-
periences for the Florida Frog Farmer.
A young frog of this species raised in a laboratory grew to
over four inches in length in a little over a year. This growth
may be increased through scientific feeding just as has been
accomplished in the United States Fish Hatcheries where
Trout are raised for later distribution in the streams.
The most important phase in frog growth is in the growth
of the tadpole. Undoubtedly this tadpole growth can be aug-
mented by proper feeding. In this connection, however, the
temperature of the water must be taken into consideration for
if the tadpole pools are too shallow and the water too warm
the transformation from the tadpole to the frog will be too
rapid and the resultant frog will be small. Retardation of
transformation together with scientific feeding to produce a
large tadpole will in turn produce a large frog and this means
considerable difference in income.
Size, however, does not indicate the age of a Bullfrog; as
has been said, its-arly life, or the life of the tadpole, will
ttetermine its size. A frog one year old may be no longer than
two inches.
The Bullfrog can easily be distinguished from other frogs.
Its broad, flat head, its squat, flat body set it apart from other
frogs. Then, the other characteristics already mentioned differ
from other species. The coloring has a wide variation, not only
according to the sex of the frog but individuals of the same sex
will show a decided difference in color. Its ability to change
color is no doubt another of Nature's secrets which enables the
frog to have some protection against its many enemies.
The general coloring of the upper parts is dull olive-green
interspersed with irregular spots of dusky brown. If a frog
is exposed to bright light in the warm Florida air the skin
may sometimes change to a spotless yellow-green, beautiful in
color, and very light in tone. A Common Bullfrog that has
just emerged or been removed from mud, or his place of con-
cealment in deep water, will be so dark colored as to appear
to be almost black. Experiments show that light has much
to do with these color changes, when the temperature and
moisture conditions remain unchanged.
The female of the Common Bullfrog is usually more brown
and spotted, and the male is more nearly plain green. The
underparts of both are white, with clear or indistinct mottlings
of brown. The male has a bright yellow throat, but the throat
of the female is a smudgy white, mottled with a shade of brown.
The foregoing description applies to the Bullfrogs found in
other sections of the United States and to a certain degree to
the Common Bullfrog native to Florida. There is, however,







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


this difference. The Florida Bullfrog is more likely to be
spotted, and the male does not have a bright yellow throat.
There are probably several distinct varieties of this species of
frogs in the different localities of North America. It is cer-
tain that there are differences in coloring, and measurements


Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Female Common Bullfrog

in the Bullfrogs found in Minnesota and Wisconsin, from those
found in the northeastern states and both of these varieties
will differ from the Bullfrogs native to Florida, although they
are all of the same species.
The Common Bullfrog is a powerful swimmer. Its great
strength in either leaping or swimming is due to the length of
its hind legs, which may measure from seven to ten inches
long, and the muscular construction of these leaping members
of their bodies. When the Bullfrog dives its eyes are closed,
the eyes receding in their sockets. In this manner the eyes are
kept out of danger, but it becomes necessary for the eyes to
be opened to inform the frog of its location and the nearness
of any lurking enemy; hence, the Bullfrog with swift move-
ment will swim a short distance, stop or slacken its speed,
open its eyes, and then, perhaps, make another swift plunge in
some other direction or until a satisfactory place of conceal-


10







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA


ment has been reached, he will continue in his swimming
flight. The observation of the movements of both frogs and
toads make an interesting study. Frogs and toads are alike
in the location of their ears. They have no outer ears to
impede them while swimming.
Bullfrogs do not use their lungs in breathing under water;
their nostrils are kept closed. The moist skin of the frog is
like a great gill covering the entire body. This enables the
frog to live under water for months and it is not infrequent
for frogs to spend months at a time in the mud at the bottom
of the lake or pond. Perhaps you have read of specimens of
this family of vertebrates being found in limestone formations
and brought back to normal life movement.
The call of the Bullfrog has been likened by some to the
roar of a distant bull, however, close attention will prove it is
more musical in tone. In addition to the croak of the Bull-
frog it gives a call of distress which jars the sensibilities of
anyone hearing it. It is almost human in quality and will be
heard when a frog has been seized by an owl or a hawk, or even
when it has been caught and picked up by human hands.
The Bullfrog is much inclined to solitary habits except dur-
ing the breeding season.
Under proper conditions the tadpoles do not develop into
frogs during the first season. Giant Bullfrog tadpoles may be
found every month of the year. The months of June and July
generally witness the transformation of the tadpoles. Many
tadpoles in early July have hind legs.
The size of tadpoles growing under proper conditions will
be found surprisingly large. They may measure from six to
seven inches with tails sometimes four inches long. Tadpoles
are soft and slippery and have little means of defending them-
selves. They are dependent almost entirely on flight and con-
cealment. Fortunately for them they are well provided for
Concealment and with their broad fins located on their long
tails, together with their strong muscles, they are capable of
fast movement.
The marbled, speckled brown color of their moist skins
make them practically invisible on the muddy bottom, or when
concealed among the brown stems or leaves in the water where
Bullfrogs breed.
The movements of tadpoles when swimming are such as
tend to stir up the mud from the bottom and this serves to
obscure their movements and enables them to dart in another
direction if necessary for protection. The mouths of tadpoles
are small, and the fleshy lips are supplied with rows of very
small teeth. The broad lower lip is ruffled. These features of








12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

the mouth and lips assist the tadploe in determining the nature
of substances when feeding.
Between the lips of the tadpole's mouth will be found a
small horny beak, not unlike the beak of a small bird. This
beak has strong upper and lower jaws which are thin and sharp
at the edges.
The construction of the mouth is such that tadpoles have
no difficulty in eating the small ends of leaves and stems or in
eating the minute green and brown plants found in the bottom
of the pond. With this mouth construction they can also eat


















Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Common Bullfrog Tadpole

small animal life. The Bullfrog tadpole will eat any food avail-
able, in fact, they are valuable scavangers in any pond. They
will cat dead fish, dead tadpoles and also other dead animal
matter, and in this manner they assist very materially in mak-
ing the lake or pond a safer place for the other living crea-
tures that have their habitation in the same place.
An opening known as the breathing aperture will be found
on the left side of the tadpole. On each side of the throat,
placed in similar position to that of fishes' gills, will be found
internal gills through which the tadpole breathes. These gills
are concealed by an outside fold of skin growing back from the
sides of the head. There are three sets of these internal gills
on each side of the head. They are somewhat like fine, soft
feathers. There are also three openings or gill-slits in the tad-
pole's throat. Water constantly passes through the nostrils
and mouth into the gill-slits and out at the breathing aperture.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 13

Nature has endowed the tadpole with the power to repro-
duce its tail. should some hungry enemy bite it off. The large
diving-beetles are some of the many enemies of the tadpole, and
many a tadpole has either succumbed or lost its tail to the
attack of these bottles. These beetles must be removed from
any pond where tadpoles are being raised.
During the period of transformation many changes in the
tadpole occur. When the development of the tadpole into a
frog becomes noticeable the transformation is rapid. Within
a short time the mouth has become much wider and it is kept
opening and closing in biea thing. The rudimentary tongue is
becoming visible, and the horny beak has been absorbed. From
this period until tle tinal stages of transformation the tadpole
does not eat.
Within a few days tlie arms become visible through the skin
and as the tadpole moves these members, the skin is punc-
tured, and after a few hours the left arm and then the right
arml make their appearance. The arms are growing simul-
taneonsly with the legs, buit being concealed within the gill-
chambers they are not visible. At this period of growth the
tadpole breathes with difficulty. The left arm has blocked
tile breathing aperture and also the air passages, alnd the lungs
have not begun to function. Water taken into tile nostrils and
the mouth must be expelled through the mouth until the gills
are absorbed and the lungs are operating. For several days
the tadpole will make frequent trips to the tol of the water
to expell a bubble of impure air and take in fresh air.
Tadpoles at this stage of growth are white on the under side
of the body; tile under side of the legs are yellow.
The dark tail is being absorbed into the body, the skin
covering of the tail remains unbroken, and recedes with the tail
into the body. Through the action of the white blood corpuscles
the particles forming the tail are carried into the body of the
tadpole in the form of food for the tadpole-frog organism and
it can be truly stated that the tadpole does "eat its own tail."
Decided changes in coloring occur in the tadpole as it takes
on the appearance of the frog.
The membrane forming the ears is not long in appearing.
But the young frog at this period is rarely seen. It spends
most of its daylight hours in places of concealment under the
water, coming out only at night to feed.
During the first sunnmer the young frog feeds on all sorts
of insects, but within a few months it has learned to catch and
devour small fish and other live life of the pond.
About twelve months of additional growth show that our
young Bullfrog has learned to croak and, if a male, the size of
his ears have increased to about twice the size of his eyes. If







14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

he has developed from a normal, healthy tadpole he will be
perhaps about five inches long. The young Bullfrog is ever
alert and ready to feed on anything that comes within his
reach, from dragon flies to small birds. Large Bullfrogs have
been seen to attempt the swallowing of wounded Kingfishers.
Many four-footed animals are as fond of frogs as they are
of fish but they find them more difficult to catch. Regardless
of how carefully they approach, how stealthily and quietly
they near the frog sitting on the bank, on a tree root or the




















Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Young Common Bullfrog with Only Stub of Tail Remaining

end of a log, as a rule when the enemy lifts his paw after a
futile attempt to catch the frog, he finds it filled with mud
and leaves and the frog has quickly dived to a place of con-
cealment at the bottom of the water.
Herons or cranes are adept at catching Bullfrogs or any
species of frogs in- the water, for frogs have not learned to
hide all of their bodies when diving into the mud. An uncon-
cealed leg or the lower part of the body is amply sufficient for
the water-birds in locating the almost hidden frog.
One of the very most destructive enemies to frog life either
in their wild haunts or on domesticated Frog Farms are
snakes. Snakes blend so perfectly with their surroundings and
move with such stealth that they are upon and have seized the
frog before he is aware of their presence.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 15

ECONOMIC VALUE OF FROGS
The value of bullfrogs as a food is now thoroughly recog-
nized throughout the country, and the growth of the industry,
in the last few years, attests the importance of the demand for
the giant bullfrogs which here reach such perfection. It is a
pleasant substitute for meat. No article of diet is more sought
for, or more relished as a food by a diversity of animals from


Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Chef Stuffing Frogs with Dressing

fish to man. The meat is white, delicate, not unlike chicken,
and when fried in butter, or prepared "a la Maryland" with
cream gravy, is delicious. "Frog saute" is another pleasing
dish very generally served in New Orleans, and other southern
cities. In the better restaurants of Chicago, Cleveland, Pitts-
burgh, Philadelphia, and Boston, frog legs "a la Newberg' com-
mand a fancy price.







16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

There is a tradition that only the hind legs are to be eaten,
but if the frog is large enough to pay for dressing, the trunk
and shoulders are just as desirable as the legs.
The smaller species of frogs, as well as the toads and tree
frogs, are valuable because of their economic importance to
agriculture, and every means should be taken to increase their
numbers.


Courtesy Southern Industries, Inc., Tampa, Fla.
Tanned Bullfrog Skin 8" Long By 9" In Circumference

Farmers should be encouraged to construct artificial lakes
and ponds in the neighborhood of their truck farms for the
breeding of frogs, especially the smaller species, R. clamitans
and particularly sphenocephala, and for use as fish ponds.
The two smaller species of frogs, as well as the native toads,
and tree frogs, are very prolific and would soon become very
abundant. After laying their eggs they leave the water, and
during the entire summer, when insect pests are at their height,






BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA


these amphibians scatter through the vegetable patches and
devour the insects that take such a heavy toll of planted vege-
tation. During the winter the frogs again retire to the ponds
for their winter sleep, to reappear at the time the insects are
ready for their annual spring onslaught on the tender garden
truck. It is an established fact that if the army of frogs and
toads is sufficiently large the insects will never become overly
abundant, as they will be consumed as fast as they appear in
the spring, and before they have a chance to multiply.
The skins of frogs are used for glue, and for making a kind
of leather suitable for binding small books, and for the lining
of purses, etc., but little use seems to be made of the millions
of skins of frogs annually killed. One large frog skin is said
to make three ounces of the finest glue, which is used to repair
crockery, and the like. Even the small frogs of Japan furnish
leather for a variety of uses, while here the larger skins of our
frogs are thrown away.
The unrestricted hunting of the frogs threaten their prac-
tical extiiietion, where there is an abundance, and shipping
facilities are at hand. Already a marked decrease is noted in
N'ew York, Chicago, and other centers; prices have advanced
accordingly.
We are indebted to a large Louisiana packer for the follow-
ing information concerning the marketing angle of the indus-
try:
"Frogs begin coming in to us by February first, the height
of the season being reached during April and May.
"Frog shippers have purchasing agents in all small towns
who buy directly from the catchers. A large portion of the
natives are engaged in the industry during the spring months.
It is quite common for a frog catcher to gather, weather per-
mitting, as many as one hundred frogs within three or four
hours, at night.
"We ship about half of the season's catch to the northeast-
ern States, while the balance is equally divided between the
middle west and the Pacific coast. Cleveland, Chicago, Cin-
cinnati, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles are the best markets.
"The catcher is paid from .$1.00 to $3.00 per dozen for live
frogs, depending on the size and the market conditions.
"The dressed frogs bring from $3.00 per dozen, to as high
as $4.50 per dozen for the 'jumbo' size, during the winter
months, when the supply is scarce.
"The frogs are dressed, the heads removed and the carcasses
are heavily iced and shipped by fast express to the different
markets. About 400,000 frogs are shipped from here in a
season."






18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

RAISING BULLFROGS DOMESTICALLY
Anyone attempting to raise bullfrogs in Florida is warned
against counting the returns before they are earned. Too fre-
quently those entering upon a new industry are carried away
with enthusiasm and they fail to take into consideration the
laborious steps that lead to success in most any business under-
taking. There will be mistakes, obstacles, loss of money, handi-
caps and all the other things common to business enterprises,
but as has been previously stated the possibilities seem good
for the thoughtful and careful domestic frog farmer.

ESTABLISHING A FROG FARM IN FLORIDA
Bullfrog farming or wild frogging are fascinating enter-
prises. In Florida, bullfrog farming is in its infancy. The
gigging or catching of wild frogs in the ponds, marshes and
near the lakes in various parts of Florida has been carried on
somewhat extensively and the marketing of the product has
brought additional income to those farmers who have found
the time to hunt bullfrogs in their native surroundings.
Before land is purchased for a frog farm, or any invest-
ment is ,n.i.. tl',.ie must be a careful survey of the markets,
the cost ,.1 Ih-. la; ., the availability of proper water supply,-
either na ri mi. .'t *Iltained artificially through pumps or wind-
mills,- th.:.- j]ilin .f the water, the cost of good hlir.i.liti tin,'k,
the facilities for marketing, proper equipment for the care of
the stock in their various stages of growth, knowledge of the
best food to supply tle tadpoles and the young frogs, knowl-
edge of the right kind of fences to be built, arrangements for
sufficient guards to keel) the land clear of hawks, owls, water-
birds and other enemies, and last, but by no means least, there
must be sufficient capital in reserve to carry the business on
properly until the profit from shipments is assured.
If the start is made with an acre of ground (although a
larger area is preferable), there should be ample water supply,
and while a shallow pond is desirable, a somewhat deeper pond
is better for some purposes. In Florida, frogs do not hibernate
long, and if the pond is too shallow where the tadpoles are
kept they will mature too rapidly from the tadpole stage to
that of the young frog. due to the warm temperature of the
water. The result will be small tadpoles and in turn dwarfed
frogs. It takes large tadpoles to make large frogs. The large
frog legs bring the greatest returns.
Preparing For Raising Frogs
This is a very important consideration in the establishment
of a Frog Farm and any piece of land intended for a Frog
Farm must be cleared entirely of any and all snakes and then







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 19

after the ponds are established there must be tight fences
placed entirely around the ponds. The acceptable construc-
tion of these fences is to creosote the ends of the boards, sink
them.,from two and one-half feet to three feet into the ground
and then to nail a continuous piece of galvanized iron of light
guage entirely around the fence, laying it on top of the fence
so that about six or eight inches will extend on each side of
the top of the fence. This will keep out cats and other enemies.
In other words this galvanized iron should be about 12 to 16
inches wide.




















Courtesy Southern Industries, Inc., Tampa, Fla.
Bullfrog Pens or Ponds

Do not use wire fencing; the frogs will injure their noses
trying to escape. Do not make angles in the outer fences; .se
curXes
In laying out a frog farm, if there is to be but one pond,
it must be divided into at least four distinctly separate ponds.
This is accomplished by building two fences at right angles to
each other in the center of the pond. These fences should be
tightly fitted together and cypress boards are best for this
purpose, as previously stated.
If land can be obtained near a lake the preparation of the
land for the frog farm is somewhat simplified. The land can
be cleaned of all snakes. The fences can then be put in place,
the proper plants placed around the edges of the pond and
then the water pumped into the farm from the nearby lake.







20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Wherever frogs are there will be the animal life that feed upon
them and they will wield destruction unless you fence them
out.
Old frogs must be kept separate from young frogs and both
young and old frogs must be kept from the tadpoles. Frogs
are cannibalistic and unless they are kept in different ponds
the frog farmer will face a depleted crop for his efforts.


I. c/ijgg^.- ..' ^.
Courtesy Florida Frog Farms Corp., Highland City, Fla.
Removing Spawn From Breeding Pen


The following method is usually followed in separating
tadpoles and young frogs from the breeders:
Every morning the breeding pond is carefully examined for
spawn during the spawning season. Each spawn is removed
to the tadpole ponds. A very satisfactory method for remov-
ing the spawn is to use shallow pans. The pan is brought up
under the spawn, and the spawn is imlnediately carried to the
tadpole ponds, where the eggs should hatch within a few days.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 21

The tadpoles are kept in these ponds until they have passed
the stage of transformation. New spawn should not be placed
with old tadpoles, for the tadpoles will eat the eggs. If the
pond is large enough to hold several spawns it is all right to put
spawns of the same age in the same pond. Remember, there
cones a time in a tadpole's life when he will begin to eat ani-
nal matter.
Before the tadpoles have emerged into young frogs they
should be removed to another pond similar to that in which the
larger frogs are kept but they should not be placed with those
frogs which are larger. Young frogs should be separated ac-
cording to age. One-year-old frogs should be kept from those
of two years of age, and these two-year-old frogs should be
separated from the largest frogs. It is a very good plan to
place all of the breeding stock in a separate pond and keep
them there until they have become too old to breed profitably
when they should be butchered.
As the frog farm expands and the number of frog inhabi-
tants increase provision must be made for additional ponds.
It is a good plan to always have one or two reserve ponds
either completed or ready for early use.
Supposing the season's hatch is 100,000 tadpoles, from ten
spawns; these tadpoles would remain in the ponds until the
next seasons spawn when they should be seined and moved to
the pond they will occupy until they are used later, either for
breeding or are butchered for marketing. As these tadpoles
grow there must always be new ponds to receive the older
tadpoles.
There seems to be a difference of opinion as to the correct
sizes these ponds should be.
We quote verbatim, excerpts from published reports on this
phase of frog farming in the succeeding pages of this bulletin.
There is one advantage in having the water shallow as it
makes seining easier.
At different places in the pond, and particularly around the
shore line, there should be plants that grow well in the district,
and if the tadpoles are kept in small ponds in the nature of
ditches there must be sufficient covering to furnish shade for
the tadpoles. As has been previously stated, these ponds must
not be too shallow and should run north and south. Retarda-
tion of transformation assures larger tadpoles.
In reading these suggestions there will be found repetitions
but they are made for the purpose of impressing them on the
reader's thought.
Frogs are shy and wary. They like to hide. A frog pond
must provide places of concealment.







22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

While the young frog feeds on insects almost exclusively, it
isn't long before he has taken on the habits of his older cousin
and he will eat young fish, birds, etc., as has been already
stated.
The erecting of short posts on which are stretched wires
permits the placing of electric lamps which can be turned on
after dark. These lights serve to draw the insect life from the
nearby trees and shrubs and to the uninitiated there will be a
surprise when they first turn on these lights and quietly watch
the frogs congregate under them to feed.


Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Common Bullfrog Spawn


Mr. Cramer, at the head of the well equipped frog farm
near Tampa, Florida, has found that frogs are particularly
fond of fiddler crabs. An interesting statement by Mr. Cramer
will be found in the back part of this bulletin.
In purchasing breeding stock be sure to obtain the best.
It is advisable to secure breeding stock from some success-
ful raiser. Rana catesbiana is considered the most successful
breed. Lamar Warren, of Palatka, who is a bullfrog enthusiast,
has bought breeders from Louisiana. Mature cultivated frogs
weigh as much as five pounds each in some cases, and they may
cost from $3 to $15 a pair--male and female. A wild mature







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA


frog seldom ever weighs more than two pounds. Cultivated
breeds probably will be as large at two years of age as wild
ones are at four years.
Good frogs cannot be obtained from poor breeding stock.
The variety known as Rana catesbiana, previously described, is
the most desirable for breeders, according to the frog farmers
who have been interviewed. Frog farmers have produced
domestic bullfrogs that have weighed more than five pounds
each.
We refer you again to Mr. Cramer's statement as to the
prices obtainable. We were impressed with his statement that
he has a waiting market for selected frog legs at $1.00 per
pound and that from two pair of legs to five pair of the largest
will make a pound. Of course this price per pound is not all
profit by any means.
When the spawn is deposited on the top of the water by the
breeders it should be carefully removed to the hatching ponds
to protect the tadpoles. Spawn will contain as many as 30,000
eggs, but all of the eggs do not produce tadpoles. Shortly after
the spawn is removed, the eggs will hatch and it is not unusual
to find over 10,000 tadpoles as an average from the removed
spawn.
Enemies of the Ranidae Family
The most destructive enemy of the eggs is the common black
swamp leech, which pierces the egg capsule and sucks the
entire contents. Sometimes the whole egg mass is attacked by
leeches, and every egg destroyed.
Among the many enemies of the tadpoles are, predacious
insects, crayfish and small alligators. Their greatest enemy
is drought, and undoubtedly millions of them perish whenever
the swamps go dry.
Surprising it is that they can exist and produce enough to
overcome these enemies, when one considers that millions of
pounds of this edible food is consumed each year.
Bullfrogs are said to live to the age of 25 to 30 years, but
the marketing age should be from two to three years, depend-
ing on their size, and which can be controlled by careful atten-
tion to the tadpoles.
Frogs should not be butchered until they are at least two
years old. Most frogs will probably be marketed before they
reach the breeding stage. This important feature of the busi-
ness more properly should be left to the farmer who should
know the breeding stock he prefers to keep. Good breeders
may be kept many years.
The feeding problem seems to be the easiest to solv,.4 o-
viding you have natural surroundings to breed insect life, but
raising frogs in captivity will undoubtedly teach the frog








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


farmer many things about feeding that are at present unknown.
A proper feed for the tadpole given at regular intervals to aug-
ment his regular supply of food, to be found in the tadpole
ponds, may bring about some very beneficial results.
The frog is well equipped to catch insects. Their tongues
are forked and covered with a sticky substance. They move
their tongues with lightning-like rapidity.
The building of accessory ponds for producing food for the
frogs is recommended. In these ponds can be produced green-


Courtesy Southern Industries, Inc., Tampa, Fla.
Building Dike Around Outside of Pond


frogs, crawfish, and top minnows. Top minnows have a special
value as they feed on the larve of mosquitoes and if you raise
sufficient of top minnows you can keep your ponds in a more
desirable condition for frequent inspection. There are a num-
ber of varieties of top minnows and full information can be
obtained as to the most desirable to raise from the Florida
State Fish and Game Commission, Tallahassee.
There should also be a quantity of submerged water plants
cultivated, for it is on these plants that a great deal of natural
food is found by the frogs. These plants can be transplanted
to the various ponds until the desired growth is attained. The
accessory ponds should be kept in continuous cultivation and
remember that water plants, to get the best results, need cul-
tivating just the same as land plants.


24







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA


To incorporate all the details relative to the culture of
frogs for marketing would make necessary the publishing of a
book instead of a bulletin. We, accordingly, refer those who
are sincerely interested to read the list of publications given
in the back of this bulletin and then go to your library and
read them or better still, buy those which you think best for
your purpose and keep them near at hand for future reference.
Also keep careful and accurate records of every phase of your
frog farm operations and some day you will not only find them
very valuable but you will also be able to exchange experi-
ences with other frog farmers.
Various authorities advise having at least one square foot
of water surface for each frog during the summer, although
this area can be reduced if you have slowly running water.
The water should have a complete change made-about twice
each week. In a properly balanced pond, where the frogs are

















Courtesy Florida Frog Farms Corp., Highland City, Fla.
A Good Illustration of the Proper Way to Provide Ample Shore Line

not too crowded a change of water may not be found to be
necessary.
In building artificial ponds for frog culture there should be
a series of levees and ditches, each about six to eight feet wide,
with the levees rising some distance above the water. Authori-
ties recommend four or five feet of shore line to each frog to
supply the proper amount of feeding area and inlets, small
peninsulas, and islands are recommended to increase the shore
line.
The bulletins issued by the United States Department of
Fisheries, and the Southern Biological Supply Co. contain fur-







26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

their interesting information, and several quotations are from
these bulletins.
Especially interesting and instructive on this subject is a
bulletin issued by Southern Biological Supply Co., Inc., of New
Orleans, La. (Author, Percy Viosca, Jr.) Even though it
means some repetition, the following is quoted from it:
"The bullfrog is a shoreline creature and every effort should
be made to increase the length of the shoreline. For growing
or adult frogs, a number of small ponds is better than a large
one, and elongated ponds or even a series of parallel ditches
provide a greater shoreline than a round pond. While with



-G














Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Ponds on The American Frog Canning Co. Frog Farm

frogs, the number that can be maintained in a given area is
proportional to the length of the shoreline, the tadpoles, on
the other hand, require more water, and the number that can
be reared is proportional to the pond area. . .
"Breeding ponds should cover an area of about 10,000 square
feet for 12 pairs of frogs. Mating is promiscuous, and usually
takes place during the late spring or early summer. The eggs
are laid while the frogs are clasping and if normal should float
in a sheet at the surface of the water. The bullfrog egg mass
covers from five to ten square feet. The eggs hatch usually
within three days.
"A pond of 10,000 square feet will produce on an average
about 10,000 full-sized tadpoles in one to two years, depending
upon the climate and the amount of organic food in the water.
The water should contain submerged water plants in the deep-







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA


est places for purifying and oxygenating the water and arrow-
heads or cattails for shade near the banks. These plants also
serve as food for the tadpoles and for the organisms upon
which the frogs feed. Abundant shade, especially along the
banks, is necessary, hence sloping banks, shaded by overhang-
ing cypress, willow, buttonbush, flags (Iris), etc., are desirable.
A cypress or tupelo brake can be made into an ideal frog farm,
provided it can be drained periodically to remove game fish
and other enemies before the eggs are laid.
"Since the adult frogs will feed upon tadpoles or young
frogs, they should be removed some time after the eggs have
hatched, but not sooner, unless it can be done without dis-
turbing the egg masses. It is usually a good plan to remove
them after the breeding season, one to three months after the
first eggs are laid, or after the males cease bellowing alto-
gether. Another good plan is to breed the frogs in smaller
areas or incubator pens, using the tadpoles to stock larger







1~9a~FunFM-4~---I.i;;
IUIN











Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Growing Pens American Frog Canning Co. Frog Farm
ponds free from adult or growing frogs. Water lilies are ex-
cellent in such incubator pens, as the frogs like to spawn
amongst them, but the tadpoles grow best amongst the other
types of plants mentioned above.
"Bullfrogs spend the greater part of the summer on the
banks at the edge of the water, from which position they can
jump at the moving organisms upon which they prey. They
will eat only living organisms, which they swallow whole.
The largest bullfrogs prefer insects, fish and crayfish measur-
ing from one to three inches long, and seldom leap at anything







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


under one-half inch. As they cannot stand dry heat, their
habits are chiefly nocturnal, especially during summer.
"The best rule to follow is to imitate a natural swamp, pond
or marsh lagoon in which bullfrogs are known to thrive, keep
game fish, snakes and other enemies out, and propagate and
encourage food forms such as crayfish, greenfrogs, surface min-
nows, water bugs, tadpoles, etc. Keep the different sizes
separated, as a frog can swallow anything that will fit in its


Courtesy Southern Industries, Inc., Tampa, Fla.
An Ideal Breed.ing Pond


mouth. Provide both shade and sun, pure water and wide
sloping banks. A windmill or pump can be used to maintain
a constant level in the field, similar to rice culture. Provide
snake and vermin-proof fences."


FROG CULTURE AND THE FROG INDUSTRY
(U. S. Department of Fisheries, March, 1933)
FROG FARMING.-The Bureau of Fisheries has never engaged
in frog culture and can offer little first hand information on
the subject; neither has it nor any other branch of the Govern-
ment ever distributed or sold frogs, tadpoles or frog eggs.
Within the past fifteen years the bureau has received thous-
ands of inquiries concerning frog raising, but to the present
time it has heard of only about three persons or institutions







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 29

claiming any degree of success, so far as intensive frog culture
is concerned.
SMost of the so-called frog farms, and those which are least
expensive and which require the least labor, are simply natural
marshy areas or ponds adapted as to food supply and environ-
ment to the needs of frogs. In such areas the frogs, left to
themselves, will thrive and multiply, but better results may be
obtained by following some of the suggestions for increasing
the shore-line, made in Mr. Viosca's article on "Principles of
Frog Culture," cited farther on, and from which much of the
following information on culture and pond construction is
taken. The pamphlets on "Practical Frog Raising," by Benja-
mun M. Ruffner, contains information on frog culture based
on Mr. Ruffner's own experiments.
Any pond or swampy area may be stocked with adult frogs;
or eggs may be collected for stocking purposes. In stocking
waters with adults better results may, perhaps, be obtained by
introducing the frogs into their new quarters in late summer
and fall in order that they may become accustomed to their
surroundings before the egg-laying season which usually begins
in April in the Gulf States and in May or June farther north.
It reaches its height in May and June in the south and in July
*in the north. In California certain species begin breeding in
January and February. Smaller species might be hatched ad-
vantageously to serve as food for the larger edible varieties,
but the cannibalistic habit which this suggests dictates a segre-
gation of the commercial species according to size to prevent
their eating one another.
Ample shore line is important, but a large pond is not
essential. The larger the pond, the less shore-line in propor-
tion to area and comparatively fewer frogs can be accommo-
dated. To increase the shore-line, therefore, and to make it as
irregular as possible, it has been suggested that finger-like bays
be dug, using the earth so obtained to make long peninsulas;
also, that round, irregular islands may be made, or horeshoe-
shaped units, or long narrow ponds, according to the natural
accommodation of the land to the purpose.
In many sections of the South rice fields offer a locale suited
to frog farming, and it has been suggested that the raising of
muskrats and frogs might be combined to advantage. Wil-
lows and other shade trees should be planted along the banks
and the water should not be deeper than is necessary to protect
frogs and tadpoles from heat in summer and from freezing in
winter; the depth would vary according to climatic conditions.
Much shallow water two to six inches deep is essential as the
small animals the frogs consume as food thrive best there and
the frogs catch them more easily in shallow water. If suf-













Tadpole Pond With Shaded Shore Line


I


Courtesy







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 31

ficient shade is provided, 12 to 18 inches of water is deep
enough in the southern section of the United States.
In any area designed for frog raising, game fish, such as
black bass, pikes, and pickerel, and snakes, snapping turtles,
cats and foxes, and other enemies should be excluded, while
encouragement should be given to minnows, crayfish, most
water bugs and smaller species of frogs.
ARTIFICIAL FEEDI.NG.-The problem of providing sufficient
live food for frogs after they have reached the adult stage and
when kept in small bodies of water, must be solved before in-
tensive frog farming can be counted on as a successful venture,
for frogs after transformation from the tadpole form undergo
great change in regard to the selection of their food. Larval
frogs or tadpoles will thrive on any soft vegetable or animal
matter, boiled potatoes, refuse meats, decayed or fresh chicken
dressings, while in the adult form or as soon as the legs are
fully developed and the tail absorbed, and the young frog is
able to perch on a leaf or on a shady bank, he refuses such food
and begins an intensive search for small insects. As he in-
creases in size he snaps at increasingly larger forms of animal
life, until in full adult size he will take anything from an
insect to a 3-inch fish or a young turtle.
On account of their peculiar feeding habit adult frogs can
not be supplied with a lot of dead fish or raw meat, vegetable
refuse, and the like, but must have living food, or food in mo-
tion. The Japanese, who for some years have been experiment-
ing in intensive frog culture, have devised a method of giving
motion to the grubs, or pupae, of the silk worm, after they have
been killed by boiling and the silk unwound from the cocoon.
The dead grubs are placed in long, shallow, wooden trays con-
taining about half an inch of water and anchored close to
shore; the trays are kept in motion by means of a small water
motor which gives the pupae a rolling motion back and forth,
and the frogs devour them greedily as long as this motion is
maintained. Live food also is placed in these trays--quan-
tities of minnows, young goldfish, crayfish or other small ani-
mals easily obtainable, for the frogs are unable to catch the
fish in the deeper water of the pond. Small cracks are left in
the trays for the water to seep in, and each tray is braced be-
tween a raft of four substantial logs and arranged so that it
will float while holding about half an inch of water. The frogs
like to perch on these logs, which at the same time prevent the
minows from escaping.
Two-hundred-watt non-frosted mazda lamps will attract
many June beetles and medium sized moths. Arc lights will
attract even larger insects, sometimes in very large quantities.
Flowers and willows should be planted, for various forms of







32 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

insects are attracted by them. Aquatic plants supply food and
harborage for crayfish and tadpoles, and act as oxygenators,
and such vegetation as sagittaria is most valuable. Submerged
plants such as Potonogcton natans and P. pusillus are valu-
able in the deeper areas.
SPAwsNIsG.-The bullfrog begins laying eggs in the Gulf
States in April and farther north in May or June. The eggs
float in a thin sheet at the surface of the water amongst brush
or vegetation, and a batch from one female covers about iYr
-square feet and contains from 10,000 to 25,000 eggs. The size
of the eggo mass is sufficient criterion for the identification of
bullfrog eggs; the eggs of the greili frog seldom cover an area
of more than a square foot. For stocking purposes the follow-
ing eggs should be rejected: All that are laid singly or in
small clusters (tree frogs), or in strings (toads), and all in
which the egg mass as a whole is velvety black (leopard frogs).
The eggs should be carefully transferred, without breaking the
masses, to buckets of water and deposited about the edges of
the water to be stocked. A fine-meshed net may be used in
handling them. The eggs hatch without care in from four days
to three weeks, varying with the temperature.
DISEASEs.-As a rule frogs in a state of nature are not sub-
ject to any serious diseases but under crowded conditions in
laboratories and small pools they may develop an infection
known as "red leg." The only remedies that can be suggested
are to remove the infected individuals immediately and, if pos-
sible. drain the ponds and let them remain dry for a few days.
A publication on this infection by Emerson and Norris ap-
peared in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol. 7, 1905,
pp. 33-58.
The tadpoles breathe by means of gills and are dependent
on the oxygen contained in the water; like fishes they will
develop diseases when weakened by depletion of the oxygen
supply whether from fouling of the water or other causes.
I)uring the transformation stage a large number of indi-
viduals die. due chiefly to improper feeding and overcrowding.
Much of the success in raising bullfrogs depends entirely upon
the attention and food given to the tadpoles during the long
period of tadpole life.
A knowledge of the habits of the frog is very necessary in
order to successfully cultivate and propagate them domesti-
cally.
EDIBLE SPECIES.-In the eastern United States the edible
species are the common bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana; the green
frog, R. cla.mitans; the southern bullfrog, R. grylio; leopard
frog, R. pipiens; southern leopard frog, R. sphenocephala, and







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA


the pickerel frog, R. palustris. In the western States are found
the yellow-legged frog, R. boylii; the western frog, R. pretio a,
and the western bullfrog, R. aurora.

STOCKING THE PONDS
The cornmowL bullfrog is the largest North American species,
reaching a length of eight inches measured front tip of nose to
end of backbone. It is sometimes referred to as the "Giant
bullfrog," and ".Jumbo." or "Mammnoth Jumbo." ln stocking
ponds with breeders the sexes should be nearly equal in nuni-
er, as the males usually pair with but one female during a
season.
The yrecc frog reaches a length of three and one-half to four
inches; it ranges front the Gulf of Mexico to Hudson Bay;
found in practically all of eastern North America.
The southicru bullfrog grows to a length of five to six inches
and is known from Florida and some of the other southern
States.
The leopard frog, three and three-fourths to four inches;
range, Sierra Nevada Mountains eastward and front the ex-
trenme north to Mexico.
Pickerel frog, length three to three and one-half inches;
found front the central plains to the Atlantic seaboard and
from the Gulf of Mexico to Hudson Bay.
Yellow-1, ', i1 frog, length two and one-half to three and one-
half inches; occurs in California. It has been less used for
food because of its skin secretions.
Western froy, length three to four inches; extends front
Nevada and northern California throughout Oregon and Wash-
ington to Alberta and east into Montana, Wyoming and Utah.
Western bullfrog, length three to four inches, extending
from Puget Sound to lower California.
Commercial Frog Industry of the United States
In tracing the history of the frog industry it is found that
in 1900 the greater part of the country's frog supply was con-
tributed by California, Missouri, New York, Arkansas, Minne-
sota. Illinois. Maryland, Ohio, Indiana and Virginia.
In 1908 the total production of frogs in the United States
amounted to 250,000 pounds valued to the fishermen at $42,000.
The 13 states furnishing these were Missouri, Minnesota,
Louisiana, Arkansas, Illinois, Wisconsin, North Carolina, Ten-
nessee, Ohio, Virginia, Iowa, Delaware, and Maryland, in the
order of their importance.
The market for frogs is almost entirely dependent upon
natural supply, as the business of private culture has not
reached a position of any importance so far. The natural sup-







34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ply, however, as already shown, has increased from 250,000
pounds, valued to the fishermen at .$42,000, in 1908, to 986,737
pounds, valued at $144.527. in 1931. This output was furnished
by three States, viz, Louisiana, Florida, and Tennessee.
PROTECTIVE IRE(ULATIONs.-The several States make their
own fishery regulations. The Federal Government has no jur-
isdiction over such matters.
Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Min-
nesota, Nebraska, New York, North Dakota, IPennsylvania,
South 1)akota, WTashington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin,
have passed laws regulating the taking of frogs.
Copies of the State fish and game laws may be obtained
from State fishery authorities; a list of these authorities may
be obtained from the Bureau of Fisheries on request.
SuirrlI'N FROGS FOR MAlRKET.-From the region of New
Orleans most bullfrogs are shipped to market "dressed," which
means that the heads are cut off and the entrails removed, and
the skin left on. It is believed that a slight musky taste, some-
tin.-1 discernible in frogs dressed in this manner, is due to the
alhI II ilon of skin excretions. The best tasting frogs are those
Irn'II n lhich the skin has been removed in tihe butchering process,
iii tii may necessitate the packing of individual meats in
wa xe;i paper as a sanitary measm and to prevent contact with
the ice and consequent wetting aln disfiguration. It is prob-
able that better prices from discriminating people might be
obtained for frogs dressed and shipped in this manner.
THE FOOD VALUE OF FROG LE(s.-In "Food Products," by
H. C. Sherman. published by MacMillan Co., New York, 1924,
it is stated that "As compared with such products as beef, veal,
chicken, and lish, frog legs compare favorable in food value. A
Iharlir'i-i itic of frog meat is that it has very little fat or car-
bohydrates, which is probably the source of its delicious flavor.
The greatest appeal which frog meat makes is due to its deli-
cacy and palatability, which places it in the first rank of eli-
culrean luxuries."
Utilization
Further information will be found in the succeeding pages
of this bulletin which it will be well to study.
Frog meats are being canned and successfully marketed.
The skins of frogs are being tanned and converted into a good
grade of leather for the use in making fancy shoes for ladies
and other articles.
Photographs and information that has been possible to col-
lect have been incorporated in this bulletin.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 35















f "

























Just North of Tampa, Florida
"Wild frogs are rapidly becoming extinct. Fifteen states
have already enacted laws protecting them from the ruthless
slaughter by bands of hunters. Because of the inadequate sup-
ply, prices on the leading markets are quoted at from 65c to
$1.25 per pound for frog legs properly prepared and packed in
,40 to 100 pound iced containers. Meanwhile the nation-wide
demand for frog meat in various forms is increasing. Knowl-







36 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

edge of this situation prompted a scientific study and research
of the frog raising industry, particularly as adapted to Flor-
ida, where we are favored with a twelve months 'frog-growing'
season, free from the long periods of hibernation, and where
an equable climate assures an abundance of various foods not
available in other states.
"Having become convinced of the commercial possibilities
of this new industry we carried on extensive experiments for
several months within a space limited to an area of about two
acres. Our growth was rapid, so that early in 1934 we obtain-
ed a new location with a combined land and water acreage of
about 60 acres, and more than -*:'.'. 11.n was expended in the
construction of new ponds, fences, dikes and modern equip-
ment to care for the annual increase.
"In this new environment we have thousands of contented
frogs protected fronu their natural enemies, and abundantly
supplied with a frog diet of minnows, crawfish, fiddler crabs,
etc.
"The demand for frog legs became so great and the prices
so high that many a Floridan during the past few years be-
gaI hIunting frogs in almost every section of the Florida Ever-
glud1.-. At one time it was estimated that the daily income
from wild frogs was $500 at Lake Okeechobee and $400 at
Wauchula.
"On our frog ranch the frogs lead a most protected life.
They do not have to dodge alligators, large fish and the many
other enemies found in the lakes and swamps.
"To Mrs. Frank Cramer, Sr. we are indebted for a discovery
which has aided very materially in supplying food for the
frogs we are raising. We refer to fiddler crabs, which we trap
by the thousands by means of special equipment. An accom-
panying photograph illustrates how we obtain these crabs.
We have liberated so many of these fiddler crabs on our ranch
that they are now quite at home in their new environment
near the ponds. We expect in time to raise a large quantity
of these crabs right on our own ranch, however, they are most
plentiful on the beaches in Hillsborough County and within
a short distance of our ranch.
/"We estimate the cost of raising a bullfrog to market size
at less than four cents, and we anticipate reducing our produc-
tion price to less than two and one-half cents.
"We ship principally frog legs as we have but two markets
that ask for the bodies with the legs, namely: Kansas City and
St. Louis.
"Eventually we expect to prepare the front legs (or arms)
and the saddles for canning. In fact, we could sell every
pound we could produce at this time to the cannery in








BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 37


Courtesy Southern Industries, Inc., Tampa, Fla.
Trapping Fiddler Crabs for Later Feeding to the Frogs Being Raised
on the Southern Industries Frog Ranch
The above illustration shows two solid metal fences that have been placed on
the beach to trap fiddler crabs. One of these fences leads down to the water; the
other is at right angles to it. In the center, where the two fences join, will be
seen a narrow runway. As the tide comes in, the fiddler crabs begin to look for
higher land and the only opening being the narrow runway they naturally start
climbing up the slightly elevated floor of the runway and when they reach the out-
side end of the runway they drop into tubs which are kept waiting to catch them.
When one tub is full another takes its place. The crabs are then taken to the
farm and liberated near the ponds and furnish feed for the frogs when they leave
the water to come out on shore in search of food.

Louisiana that specializes in canning frog legs and frog meat.
"The entrails and other parts which cannot be used are cut
up or ground for feeding to the tadpoles.
"The small legs which we ship average from eight pair to
-twelve pair to the pound; the large legs average from two pair
to four pair of legs to the pound.
"On our ranch we have at present 1,086 pair of breeders
which have brought us an average of 10,000 tadpoles to each
spawn.
"We are developing another department to our industry
through the tanning of the frog skins. We refer you to the
illustration shown herein giving the size of the skin after tan-
S ning. These tanned frog skins are being converted into leather
that already has found a good market for making ladies' shoes,
belts, purses, key rings, the covering of artificial bait for fish-







38 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ing and other novelties. In making artificial plugs for fishing
the skin of a small frog is put on the wooden base while the
skin is wet and after drying it has shrunken so tightly that it
cannot be removed without difficulty.
"We collect our spawn in specially wire netted boxes and
remove them to the tadpole ponds. Within three days this
spawn will hatch. After ten days we feed oatmeal and ground
liver to the tadpoles. Our record of hatching was 21,840 tad-
poles from one spawn.
"We have found that we can control the sex of our frogs


Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Some Two and a Half Year Old Common Bullfrogs For Marketing
by scientifically feeding the tadpoles. According to current
statistics gathered from various authorities on frog culture
and from experimental research work conducted by our own
/ staff of field men, sex determination in tadpoles is credited
particularly to the influences due to scientific feeding. The
tadpole is unsexed, and the sex of the frog depends on outside
conditions affecting the tadpole.
"In the wild stage the proportions of female and male are
57 and 43, respectively. Production on a commercial scale in
captivity where the tadpoles are supplied with ground meat
scraps brought the female percentage to 78. With the feeding







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 39

of ground fish food the percentage of females increased to 81
per hundred. When the especially nutritious frog scraps were
fed we produced 92 females to every eight males.
"Each pair of frogs will spawn from ten to twenty-eighty
thousand eggs at each mating. One spawn per year is com-
mon but in the tropics and the semi-tropics, two spawns are
nit unusual. The spawn is a mass of eggs which float on the
water for a few days. The spawn has a shiny, slimey, black
appearance. The top of each egg is black and the bottom is
white. In the spring, when the water has reached a tempera-
ture of seventy degrees, the frogs start spawning and will con-
tinue until the heat of the summer begins to wane. In Florida
the season begins in March and extends through to "November,
providing the weather has remained normally warm. The
time for hatching is likewise controlled by the temperature of
the water.
CHART
(Prepared By F. B. CRAMER, SR.)
Showing Annual Percentage Spawn Production of
GIANT BULLFROG BREEDERS
Covering a Period of 10 Years


ox






?-q
(V
IS

9.1




E--4
Pia,
C
0^


1 SI YR"

~I V'rYp..l



L -61 W.

6'"Yri.

7'"YA.
8tHYR.

I a I 9ThYa.l


75 o
66 a/4

91367J

100 y





751.

66;.%5/


Courtesy Southern Industries, Inc., Tampa, Fla.

"We have prepared a chart showing the length of time that
bullfrogs will breed. It is not until the fifth year that they
reach their 100 percent capacity, and which continues for two
years. Prior to the fifth year there is a gradual increase, be-







40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ginning with.G6 2/3 percent, and after the sixth year there is
a gradual decrease until the frog stops breeding. During the
ten-year period of production it is possible for each pair of
frogs to produce over one hundred thousand tadpoles.
"Frogs will start to breed at the age of three and one-half
to four years. However, frog ranchers in Florida state that


Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
A Comparison Between the Young Lady and the Bull-
frogs She Is Holding Illustrates the Size of the
Common Bullfrog


bullfrogs will start spawning at the age of about two years,
and, according to the chart herein illustrated, will breed profit-
ably for ten years. It is the opinion of those now engaged in
domestically raising frogs in Florida, that after ten years of
breeding these frogs should be butchered for marketing.
"It is suggested that small ponds separate from the main
ponds be built and perhaps carefully screened and partially


ZInof-







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 41

shaded and a careful study and check made and a complete
record kept of the few pairs of frogs to be kept in these ponds,
for no doubt much additional valuable information will be
obtained by this close observation.
"The meat of the bullfrog is darker than that of other
frogs, but when cooked it cannot be distinguished from any
other variety of frog meat. Those who have never eaten fresh,
tender frog legs, properly prepared, have a real treat in store.
















Frog hunters in the Wauchula vicinity. Note the head lights, also frog-carry-
ing sack (with draw string) on hip of man at reader's right. Gigs or spears are
attached at lower ends of the canes carried by the men.

Frog legs have a flavor very similar to the breast of a chicken,
but many folks think frog legs are much more tasty and diges-
tible.
"The dimensions of the tanned skin shown in the illustra-
tion herein is eight inches in length and nine inches in circum-
ference. The live weight of the frog from which this skin was
taken was one pound. Frog skins running from 5 x 6 and up-
wards have an attractive commercial value.

FROGGING OR CATCHING WILD BULLFROGS
Interest has mounted high in several vicinities of Florida
in catching wild frogs for market. Wauchula, in Hardee
County, has won for itself no little publicity because of the
thousands of pounds of frogs caught and shipped by persons
engaged in the business in that county. From June 23 to
October 14. 1931, shipments from Wauchula totaled 29,000
pounds. This was an average of almost 2,000 pounds a week.
As a wild bullfrog seldom weighs more than 2 pounds, even
the pessimistic must admit that is a lot of frogs.







42 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Moore Haven, Okeechobee, Belle Glade, Arcadia, Ocala and
Palatka are a few other communities in the state where wild
frogging has attracted attention and been engaged in. In most
instances the work has been done by farmers who are not
especially busy during summer months. The enterprise has
merely afforded them an opportunity to pick up a little extra
money. What seems to be the record catch for one night is
held by a hunter from near Fort Green, near Wauchula. It






S ""




I




Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
A Model Butchering and Packing Shed

was 168 pounds. In four nights four men, also near Wau-
chula, brought in 1,600 pounds of frogs.
Frogging is done by searchlight, as the gorgeously luminous
eyes of the bullfrog easily give away its location in the (lark.
The light also blinds it, making it easy for the hunter to gig
it or strike it with a contraption much like a fly swatter. The
swatter has the advantage of merely stunning the frog so it
may be caught alive, but it is awkward to use among brush
and weeds. The gig or speak seems to be most practical. A
skilled hunter gigs the frog in its webbed feet, and thus only
slightly injures it. Wounding in the body or legs is to be
avoided. Shooting, besides being expensive, is dangerous, in
that too often the frog is killed and its body torn up. An
accompanying illustration shows hunters equipped with search-
lights and gigs.
At the end of a hunt the catch is taken to a central location,
usually a shipping point, where the frogs are dressed and
packed in ice for shipment. Hunting is done at night, and







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA


frog buyers usually cover their territory daily, gathering up
the previous night's catches and hauling them to the dressing
shed.
The frog farmer has not only meat markets to rely upon,
but he may derive income from sale of breeders and tadpoles.
Tadpoles have been known to sell for as much as 10 cents each
to persons who raised them to frogs for meat purposes.
Recently the Florida State Marketing Bureau issued a let-
ter to frog shippers and catchers, in which suggestions for
dressing and shipping are offered. It was written more per-
ticularly for the shipper of wild frogs. In part this letter
follows:
"There is a good demand in most of the larger markets for
frogs: juniboes. 10 to 12 pounds per dozen; medium, 8 to 91/2
pounds per dozen; small frogs. 51 to 71 T pounds per dozen;
baby frogs, :,.' to 5 pounds per dozen. Frogs averaging less
than 3/. pounds per dozen are not wanted and, of course, the
best demand is for the junbioes and niediums. Dealers com-
plain that some shippers send frogs weighing no more than 1




















Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
A Shipment of Dressed Frogs

ounce which, of course, are worthless and a total loss to the
shipper. As frogs are sold by the piece or dozen, they should
be graded and run uniform in size. Extra large, medium and
small frogs should not be mixed to make the average weight,
for juinboes or mediums, for instance, but classified accord-


43







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


ing to the weight requirements of the different grades to which
they belong.
"The trade usually requires that frogs be dressed as fol-
lows: Head chopped off, skin and legs left on, with entrails
and all refuse matter drawn out. Frogs should not be broken
and the bellies should not be cut down through the shanks as
it is only necessary to cut far enough down to properly remove
the entrails. In packing, frogs should be packed with the belly
(or the opening made to remove the entrails) down, in order
that the water will not 'cup up' in the frog or sour it in transit.
"Frogs packed in barrels or boxes should be heavily iced;
layers of ice on bottom, in center and top of barrel. If shipped
in boxes, they should be heavily paper lined with plenty of ice
in bottom, center and top of the container.
"The Florida State Marketing Bureau will supply a list of
reputable dealers who are in the market for frogs of uniform
size and weight, properly prepared, packed and shipped. Any
one contemplating frog marketing should thoroughly famil-
iarize himself with the requirements of the trade in lhe differ-
ent markets before shipping."

VARIOUS WAYS TO MAKE LARGER PROFITS
Many (persons contact regular customers and supply them
with a dozen frogs every week or so. Others advertise in local
newspapers to get the benefit of the "party trade." Frog legs
are in great demand as the main course in refreshments served
at private parties and banquets.
Roadhouses are another source of big profit, as they can
afford to pay high prices for frogs. Hotels and restaurants
pay good prices also. There is a market right in your vicinity
for all the frogs you raise, if you just advertise and educate
the people to the food value and good taste of the giant bull-
frog.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 45



BIOLOGY
THE FAMILY OF RANIDAE



Life History of Frogs I General)

These amphibians, from the Greek meaning "both" and
"life," begin their existence in the water, and their later
development enables them to be at home on land or in water.
The general form of the body, the shape of the head, the
long hind legs adapted to jumping, and the webbed toes for
swimming, are practically the same in all frogs. Some modi-
fications occur, in order to fit feature to function or environ-
ment, as the discs on the end of the tree frogs' toes, and their
power of changing color to harmonize with the surface upon
which they are resting.
The adult frog has several peculiarities which set him apart
from other vertebrates. At times he literally breathes through
his skin, and it is done in this manner:
The lungs are hollow sacs that lie back of the stomach.
The oxygen of the air passes both through the skin and the
lungs into the blood of the frog, and the carbon dioxide is
thrown off through the skin and the lungs, also. The frog
is furnished with large blood vessels close to the skin, especial-
ly along the back. These blood vessels send many fine branches
into the skin. This explains how frogs breathe through their
skins.
When the frog remains under the water a long time,
especially in winter, all the oxygen enters the blood through
the skin. In fact, what air does enter the lungs is SWAL-
LOWED into them instead of being breathed into them, and
it has been proven that even with the lungs shut off, a frog
can get enough oxygen to maintain life under certain condi-
tions, among them being, that the temperature is low and that
the frog remains relatively quiet.
The mouth of the frog is large, and short lips cover the
short teeth in the edge of the upper jaw. The tongue is curi-
ously formed, having two fleshy horns at the back end, and is
attached at the front end to the floor of the mouth. The frog
can throw its sticky tongue over the tip of the lower jaw,
and use the forked end to catch insects which are then car-
ried to the back of the month. Two groups of little curved























Courtesy Florida Frog Farms Corp., Highland City, Fla.
Island Construction to Increase Shore Line in Breeding Pond


Frog Farms Corp., Highland City, Fla.
A Good View of Peninsulas and Covered Island to Add Feeding Space For Breeders






















Courtesy Florida Frog Farms Corp., Highland City, Fla.
Growing Pond With Levees and Ditches, Some of Which Are Covered With Spanish Moss Laid on Framework


Courtesy Florida Frog Farms Corp., Highland City, Fla.
Growing Pond With Alternate Levees and Ditches or Ponds








48 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

teeth on the roof of the mouth aid in preventing the escape of
the prey.
The food is swallowed whole, for the mouth is large, and
the tube connecting it with the stomach can be stretched, so
that a comparatively large animal can be swallowed.

Reproduction
The fundamental process of reproduction in the frog fam-
ily is the same as in all other animals, but there is introduced
the tadpole stage which makes the reproduction of the amphi-
bians different from that of any vertebrates.
The male frog has a pair of spermaries, one attached to
the front end of each kidney. Eacl spermary is yellow, and
the sperms escape through the kidneys. In the female the
eggs are in the ovary, and break through their walls and enter
the oviducts. As the eggs pass down through the oviduct, they
are coated with a jelly-like substance, that swells in the water
and protects the eggs. At the anterior end of each kidney in
both sexes is an irregular mass. the fat body, in which is
stored the energy that the frog uses as it begins to grow eggs
or sperms in the early spring, before there is plenty of food.

Classification
Frogs in general belong to a class of vertebrate animals
called Batrachia; this group, including frogs, toads, salaman-
ders, and newts, is of particular interest, because it marks
the transition from aquatic 1o terrestrial life in the group of
vertebrates. All the true frogs of America belong to the
genius Rana, of the family of anuidae, the most specialized
of all the Salicitia.
The Ranidtuc family is quite an old one. It is quite possi-
ble that they settled in the State as soon as it was at all habit-
able after land appeared above the surface of the shallow
waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

Hibernation
Bullfrogs. like some other animals, have a low internal
body temperature. They can stand a water temperature near
freezing for prolonged periods, and during cold weather sleep
in the mud in the bottom of the swamps and ponds. From the
first cold days of winter till the first warm days of February,
they are rarely seen. Hibernation is governed entirely by tem-
perature, however, and during prolonged periods of warm
weather they may be observed in mid-winter, disappearing
again as the weather turns cold.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 49

Breeding Habits
Early spring is the season when the frogs emerge in large
numbers from hibernating. They rarely start their bellowing
until late March, and mating usually begins about the middle
of April, and continues during May. When warm weather sets
in they are particularly active at night, their avoidance of
sunlight keeping them under cover during the day.
In April the large bullfrogs are ready to lay their eggs,
but no matter how warm it is their calls are seldom heard
until after the first heavy spring rains, which may occur dur-
ing the latter part of March, or early in April. The first male
frogs to find a suitable breeding spot (usually a deep sec-
tion of the swamp) begin to call, and within a few days a
thousand or more may gather and sing in one deafening
chorus.
Egg-laying begins immediately after the females, attracted
by the call of the males, find the breeding place, and large
masses of many thousands of eggs are laid by each. During
the egg-laying time the male embraces the female, but the eggs
are fertilized in the water, and are left to hatch by the heat
of the sun. It is not improbable that eggs may be laid on
successive occasions, as laying is controlled by wet weather
and the condition of the swamp, and not by temperature; at
any rate. egg-laying is extended over longer or shorter periods
according to the conditions of moisture, though most of the
eggs are laid in April. The egg-laying habits of R. grylio have
not yet been observed, but it appears to take place at about
the same time as that of R. catesbiatla. However, the final
transformation takes place in May when the tadpole is about
a year old, as was the habit with the preceding species.
The eggs are surrounded by a jelly-like substance that holds
them together. As the eggs are being laid by the female frog,
the male frog spreads a large number of sperm cells over the
whole mass. These sperm cells make their way through the
soft jelly, and one of them must enter each egg, or else it will
not be fertile.
As soon as the sperm cell enters the egg, it begins to change
from a solid, pointed body into a round nucleus, which is so
much like the nucleus already in the egg cell that none but
experts in the study can tell which came from the sperm cell
and which from the egg cell. These two nuclei come in con-
tact and unite, leaving but one nucleus in the egg. This last
change is fertilization, which stimulates the division of the
embryo into formations of the various life systems and organs
of the tadpole.








50 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Metamorphosis
As soon as the young tadpole hatches, which is in a few
days, it attaches itself to plants, and lives for the first few
days upon the food-yolk within its own body; the mouth forms,
and horny jaws develop. Then the tadpole feeds upon minute
plants, and becomes dependent upon its own skill to get food
and escape its enemies.
For a time the tadpole breathes through its gills, two sets
being used. The first ones are on the outside of the body, and
last only two or three days, when the internal gills form in
the throat and the tadpole breathes much like a fish.
While these external changes are going on, there are many
complicated internal changes taking place; internal gills are
disappearing, and lungs. nerves, blood vessels, and muscles are
being formed to give the new legs life and action. The internal
lungs take the place of the gills in the throat before the legs
are fully grown, and such tadpoles must rise to the surface to
breathe air.
Different species take different times for their metamor-
phosis into frogs. The tadpoles of the leopard become small
frogs in a single summer. Those of the bullfrog transform
into frogs in the fall of the year; others transform the fol-
lowing spring when about one year old. The green frog
requires two seasons to complete its development, and these
tadpoles hibernate in the mud during the cold season.
Young
The exact time that it takes a frog to reach the adult stage
in this climate is not yet fully determined, but from field ob-
servation it is not more than three years. It seems to be able
to spawn at about four years. This naturally depends upon
the food supply, and even during the first year the frogs vary
considerably in size.
Adults
The bullfrog appears lo reach maturity in about four years
and probably spawns for several successive years. During the
breeding season the adults gather together in colonies, but
by May or June the chorus begins to disband and the indi-
viduals scatter over a large territory in search of food. Until
the first chilly days of fall the bellow of the common bullfrog
and the hog-like grunt of the lake frog, can be heard, although
not in the same intensity as during the breeding season.
Size is not a fair criterion of the age of a bullfrog or even
its identity. Variation in size is remarkable, and is dependent
on the size of the tadpole at the time of the metamorphosis
and on an abundance or lack of food thereafter. It is to be







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 51

understood that tadpoles have a tendency to transform in
periods of drouth regardless of age or size, and the young frog
is small or large at the beginning of its new life accordingly.
Because of their color-miniicry and power to change their
color to suit surroundings, many bullfrogs are able to escape
their enemies by laying flat, as they are usually marked to
resemble the shadows cast by the sun or moon shining through
tihe trees. This, of course, does not aid them in entirely escap-
ing their hunters at night as their eyes are visible. They have
other instincts which are of a distinct advantage, however;
the sudden splash of one frog puts all others within sound on
the alert, and if one escapes the others will dive for safety
also. Furthermore, if a frog is caught or handled roughly it
will utter a scream, and thus put all other frogs in the neigh-
borhood on close watch for an enemy, and makes them dif-
ficult to catch. Still another social instinct puts frogs on the
lookout for enemies. If many frogs are singing together in a
chorus and one is caught, the stopping of its voice is a warin-
ing of danger, and not another cry is heard from a single mem-
ber of the colony until the danger has apparently passed.
In studying the frog it has been noticed that in places
where frog hunting is carried on extensively, that by summer
large specimens are difficult to obtain. It has also been found
that where small sizes are caught during the summer practi-
cally no large frogs are to be found the following spring and
tile collector must seek new hunting grounds. This sort of
hunting, consequently, almost exterminates tile species in those
localities, as there are no eggs laid to start the growth of
future generations, or if a few solitary pairs do escape, the
few thousand tadpoles which develop are scarcely enough to
satisfy their natural enemiies which have not diminished in
numbers.
There are three grades of marketable frogs--Jumbo, medi-
um. and small. Prices shot up startlingly during tle World
War, with disastrous effect on the species. The market origi-
nally took only Jumbo and the next larger grades. At that
time no R. grylio were sold. When the large frogs became
scarce the smaller sizes were marketed, and at the peak of the
high cost of living tie extinction of the species seemed threat-
ened. This marketing of the smaller grades opened new terri-
tory, however, and new hunters appeared in new fields and
these caught only the larger individuals. This extension of
territory ruined the market for small frogs. and many dealers
began to discourage the taking of immature specimens.
The following table gives the living weights and those of
the dressed meat of a series of male bullfrogs:








52 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Length of
head and Weight of Increase of Weight of
body living frog weight dressed meat
Inches Ounces Ounces Ounces
5%1 8/ 51/
6 10% 2 61/2
61 13 21/ 8
7 17 4 11
With the females in the breeding season, owing to the
weight of the eggs, the living weights of a similar series would
be relatively higher, but this does not affect the prices paid, as
bullfrogs are not sold by weight.
An important fact clearly brought out by this table is that
with a uniform increase in the length of a frog there is a pro-
gressive increase in the weight, which manifests itself in the
dressed meat.
In conclusion, it may be stated that the regulations of the
frog industry, consisting almost entirely of two species of bull-
frogs, and the statistics on hand, although perhaps incomplete
have shown that the frog industry is much larger than might
have been expected.
'. Tih following figures show the yield in pounds in Louisiana
and tlie value thereof over average years:
Pounds Value
1926 44,457 $ 6,668.00
1927 837,735 125,661.00
1928 715,540 107,331.00
1929 984,971 147,746.00
1930 1,044,036 261,009.00
1931 1.856,354 464,089.00
1932 1,206,355 301,589.00
1933 1,817,450 276,618.00
The following has been compiled from Bulletin issued by The Department of
Conservation of the State of Louisiana:

HISTORY OF BULLFROGS IN JAPAN
From a newspaper clipping we learn something of the his-
tory of Louisiana frogs in Japan as follows:
"Millions of Louisiana bullfrogs are croaking in Japan to-
day. Frog legs are served at all the leading Japanese restau-
rants, and frog raising in the Orient is becoming an increas-
ingly popular industry.
"Six years ago Louisiana shipped 5,000 bullfrogs to Japan.
Conflicting reports regarding the fate of these original 'croak-
ers' came to the Department of Conservation from time to time,
but no authentic information could be obtained.








BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 53

"Last week, however, a Japanese farmer and fish culturist
of Kobe remained over in the city to consult a local biologist
on the possibilities of raising frogs in South America, and he
brought news of the frog consignment. 3Mr. Uchida was on his
way to Buenos Aires, where he hoped to start a frog farm.


Live Bullfrogs Have Been Shipped To Many Parts of
The World

Two hundred frogs of the Louisiana shipment were purchased
by him, and he has followed with great interest the develop-
ment of the frog industry in his country.
"Of the original 5,000 that left Louisiana, he said only 1,000
survived the ocean voyage. These were sold for breeding pur-
poses at prices ranging from $50.00 to $100.00 per pair. So
well did they become acclimated to their new home, and to
such an extent did their progeny increase, he explained, that







54 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

bullfrogs in Japan are now selling for as low as 50 cents a
pair.
'Before the frogs had been in my country a year,' Mr.
Uchida recalled, 'the market price smashed to .$5.00 per pair.
By the end of 1927 the frog culturists had to get together to
control the prices in order to protect themselves. But by de-
grees they lost control, and now frogs are very cheap.'
"The small green frog native to Japan, he explained, offered
but little prospect as food, but with the advent of the Louisiana
bullfrog, frog legs have become a national dish in the Land
of Flowers.
'My people have developed an insatiable desire for frog
legs,' the Oriental farmer explained in precise English. 'They
never seem to get enough of them. That is why, perhaps, there
are now more than 2,400 families engaged in the business.'
"At first, he said, the people didn't know how to raise them,
and they increased and began to run wild over the country-
side.
"'The Japanese are very superstitious,' declared Mr.
Uchida, 'so when they would hear a Louisiana frog croaking
at night, not being accustomed to the sound, they would think
it was a ghost. Thousands would gather around in awed
silence to listen to the weird sound.
"'I remember one very funny incident,' lie recalled with
the traditional bland Oriental smile. 'There was a pond near
Kobe, from which each night queer sounds came. The ignorant
country people, thinking it was a ghost decided to break the
spell. Armed with crude weapons of defense and religious
symbols, they surrounded the pond. No amount of persuasion,
religious or otherwise, could induce the ghost to come forth.
Finally it was decided to drain the water off. This was done
with great and strenuous effort and when all the water was
removed the people were surprised to find only a big Louisiana
frog sitting complacently in the very middle of the pond.'
"By degrees, however, the farmers of Japan began to raise
frogs scientifically. The nlethod employed was entirely differ-
ent from that used in this country. In the United States
frogs are given a large pond area. In the Orient, where labor
is cheaper than land, they are raised in crowded pens where
they are fed vast quantities of mashed potatoes, grasshoppers,
boiling of fish skeletons, and fly larvae.
"In spite of the fact that all frog books say it takes two
years to raise a bullfrog from the egg to the young frog stage,
and that the record held in this country by a biologist was
five months, Mr. Uchida declared that he personally raised
frogs in three months' time.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 55

"This quick development is due, he believes, to their method
of intensive rearing.
'The breeding space is so limited,' he said, 'that nature
takes care of itself, and on account of the crowded condition
allows the frogs to emerge rapidly from the tadpole stage.
"'I have seen from 1,000 to 2,000 frogs reared in a space
6 feet by 6 feet. At first we feed them larvae,' Mr. Uchida de-
clared, 'which we obtain in the following manner: dead fish
are piled in bamboo baskets, and the frogs are placed under the
baskets. The flies lay eggs on them, these eggs are trans-
formed to larvae, then to grubs. They drop from the baskets
to the ground. As they fall to the ground the frogs eat them.
'When the frogs grow a little larger, they are fed small
fish instead of larvae. The farmers of Northern Japan feed
them crawfish.
'At the suggestion from one of your biologists, I tried
feeding them land crabs and was delighted with the results.'
'Primarily, however, Mr. Uchida is interested in the
common bullfrog.'
'They are not only the largest frogs in the world,' he said,
'but they make the best frog legs. and are the easiest to raise.'"


THE FROG INDUSTRY IN FRANCE
This short account, of the "Frog Industry in France," cover-
ing the domestic raisinin of the small green frog, offers some
in tcresting comparisons:
General Conditions of Breeding and Maintenance
The free frog* exists abundantly throughout France
wherever there are marshes, ponds, or sedgy margins of rivers
or bays that contain fresh or slightly brackish water. It feeds
on worms, the larvae of aquatic insects, small mollusks, flies,
insects of various species, and especially the spawn and small
fry of fish, which renders it an enemy of pisciculture and
expose it to the wrath of fishermen. It is an outlaw, for which
the law provides no protection outside of privately owned
water.
The supply of frogs for the markets of Paris comes mainly
from the marshes and stagnant waters in the neighborhood of
Montmorency, Vincennes, and Boulogne, but they are also
brought from the districts of the Vendees and the Landes in
southwestern France, and also from Lorraine.
Most of the frogs sold in Paris are caught wild, but the
demand is so constant that during recent years some effort has
This is a small frog.








56 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

been made at various points to propagate and fatten them by
more or less artificial means. -4
The process is exceedingly simple. The best outfit for frog
raising is one or more shallow ponds or reservoirs, filled with
grasses and other aquatic plants and so situated that the
water can be partially drawn off so as to facilitate the labor
of catching. Old disused quarries and excavations along rail-
ways and other constructions, are sometimes used for this pur-
pose. If, as is frequently the case, the pond already abounds
in frogs, they are simply protected and left a year or two to
propagate. If food does not prove abundant the owner throws
in living earthwarms, for the frog is a carnivorous animal and
prefers his food, whether worms, larvae, or insects, fresh and
in a normal living condition.
Hatching and Growing
If no frogs exist in the water they are planted either living,
or in form of eggs, which hatch as the water becomes warm in
April and May. The green-frog spawns during early spring,
the female depositing from 600 to 1.000 eggs. surrounded with
the gelatinous substance which holds them together. With no
further care from the parent the eggs hatch at the end of a
week or 10 days. according to the temperature of the water.
Each egg produces a tadpole (tetard), which is at first like
a fish with a long flexible tail, and respires by means of gills.
Subsequently the hinder, then the forward, legs appear, the
tail shrinks and disappears, and the creature develops into a
frog with the lungs and respiratory apparatus of a batrachian
reptile, capable of torpid hibernation.
The hatching and transformation takes place within a
period of about four months, and the frogs hatched in April
or May, although not fully grown until the following year. is
ready for market by the end of October.
Method of Catching and Marketing
Securing the frogs depends on various conditions and some-
what upon the temperament of the catcher. If he is a sports-
man he will prefer to take them by fishing with a hook baited
with a bit of red cloth, or with a "bob" of the same material.
The frog is exceedingly voracious and when cautiously ap-
proached will rush at the hook or "bob," swallowing the latter
and holding it until he can be drawn into a net. Another
method is to fish at night with a bull's-eye lantern, the light
of which distracts the frogs so that they may be readily taken
with a scoop net or even with the hand.
If the fisher is a market man, intent only upon meat, he
will probably use a seine or other form of dragnet, or, if possi-







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA


ble, draw off the water in his pond until it is reduced to a
shallow pool into which he can wade and scoop up the frogs
with a net or basket.
The main seasons for catching frogs are during the spawn-
ing period in the spring-which is wasteful, improvident, and
yields mainly frogs in poor condition-and the late summer
and autumn, when they are at their best. Dealers collect them
at this season and keep them in reservoirs, so that the market
can be supplied throughout the year.
Frogs are brought to the Paris market both living and dead.
and are sold at the great "Halles" or central market to retail
dealers and to customers. The flesh of those killed and dressed
where they are caught is whiter and more valuable than those
brought in alive and killed after a period of continement under
more or less abnormal conditions. This has the effect of giv-
ing the flesh a pinkish hue. which reduces its value, so that
dealers try to counteract the dark tint by soaking in milk or
by some other process, which is a secret of the trade and not
easily ascertained.
Frogs are sensitive to cold. and when transported alive in
winter must be kept secure from frost. When they are to be
brought to market dead they are usually killed at the place of
origin. the hind legs and part of the backbone cut off, skinned.
and strung by dozens on a wooden stick or skewer, and the
bunch thus prepared becomes a commercial unit and can be
transported. kept in refrigerators, and sold like fresh meat or
fish. These bunches or "sticks" are retailed in the Paris mar-
kets at prices which vary according to season, state of supply,
and especially the size and condition of the legs. from 20 to
30 cents per stick or dozen for small to 50 to 60 cents per stick
for large and well-fattened ones. When subsequently sold at
retail provision store, a profit of about 30 percent is added to
the above open-narket prices.
Some General Considerations
Among the advantages of frog farming is the fact that it
enables persons of limited means to utilize marshes and ponds
which are too shallow and warm for fish culture and practi-
cally useless for any other purpose, and produce, on a colm-
paratively small area, a large amount of valuable food material
for which there is always on eager market.
Frogs of all sizes have a multitude of enemies, and one of
the important problems in their propagation is to protect them,
as far as may be, from the hawks,. owls, storks, rats, fish,
snakes, and other voracious creatures which constantly prey
upon them. A sufficient depth of water from which fish are
excluded, a thick growth of grass, reeds, or other aquatic
plants to afford adequate cover, and a constant warfare


57









58 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

against marauding creatures are among the essential require-
ments of successful frog farming in this country.
The principal excuse for frog fishing during the spawning
season in spring is that they are then sluggish and easy to
catch, but the practice is destructive and wasteful, and should
be prohibited by law wherever frog farming aspires to the
rank of an intelligent industry.
Protection and Propagation
M. Larbaletrier, in the Daily Consular and Trade Reports,
No. 3446, April 3, 1909, p. 1-7i suggests the following method
for raising frogs for the market:
On account of its natural enemies, as well as its use as an
article of food, the frog, in spite of its fecundity, is said to be
decreasing of late years in France, and for this reason the sub-
ject of breeding has become of importance. This, moreover,
is a matter of extreme simplicity, and could be made more
productive where facilities for sale exist. It admits, further-
more, of the utilization of sheets of water which otherwise
would be absolutely unproductive. In fact, when the waters
of poPls reach a temperature in the neighborhood of 77 degrees
F. the majority of species of fish are liable to die. This mor-
tality even applies to the "carassin" (a species of carp), which
is the Ibet fish to place in waters of this description. Such a
condition, on the contrary, facilitates the raising of frogs.
If the ponds which one has chosen for the raising of frogs
already contain this animal, the thing is much simplified. They
only require protection the increasing if possible of the
'growth of water herbs, protecting the frogs against their
natural enemies, which are numerous, among them being the
duck, the heron, the stork, the pike, and above all the adder.
This latter is most destructive. Although the frog is edible in
its first year of growth, in commencing a breeding pond a closed
time of at least two years should be allowed. If there are no
frogs in the water chosen, frogs for breeding purposes or eggs
should be placed therein, which should be taken from a pond
resembling as much as possible the nature of the one which
has been chosen. All ponds are not equally fruitful in frogs,
those situated in the midst of woods containing usually little
food. A pond well placed in the midst of a cultivated field is
the best for the production of these animals, and it must be
remembered that they are a great friend to the agriculturist
in their destruction in insects. In this the red-brown frog is
the more effective, and for this reason in certain parts of Bel-
gium it is stated that the killing of frogs is prohibited by law.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 59

FAMOUS WAYS TO SERVE GIANT FROGS
By BROEL
Courtesy American Frog Canning Co., New Orleans, La., Copyright, 1934.

Frog legs have always ranked first among the most exclu-
sive of food delicacies.
Most persons found themselves forced to "dine out" when
an appetite for frog legs was felt as the meat is so rare, few
recipes were ever published.
We, therefore, proudly dedicate the largest and most com-
plete number of original frog recipes ever published to those


Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Canned Frog Legs Prepared According To Recipe By Broel

who like to enjoy the best foods in the privacy of their own
homes.
The recipes, like our products, are absolutely original.
Therefore, preserve them and you will enjoy many rare treats.
Giant Frog Gumbo
3 lbs. frog meat 1 large green pepper, minced
3/ lbs. smoked ham chopped 1 bay leaf
fine 1 sprig parsley
7 large ripe tomatoes, 3 tablespoons of butter
skinned and chopped 3 quarts boiling water
% cup minced onion 6 cloves
2 cans diced okra with liquor Salt and pepper to taste
1/ pod red pepper,
seeds removed









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Heat the butter in a kettle, add the frog meat, ham and okra.
Brown well but do not scorch. Then add all other ingredients and
cook slowly until mixture is well flavored and thick as desired. Serve
hot. You may use canned or fresh frog meat; if canned, is used, use
entire contents of can. If raw, be sure it is cooked with the ham
before serving.
Fried Frog Legs
Take a can of frog legs or two frogs. If fresh meat is used par-
boil it for twenty minutes on a brisk fire. Then dust the meat in
corn meal or flour and fry in deep butter or fat. The canned meat
may simply be dusted in the corn meal and fried.

Giant Frog Sandwich Spread
1 pound giant frog meat, 5 tablespoons of butter
minced fine through a % teaspoonful salt
food chopper %4 teaspoonful black pepper
1 1 cups condensed milk
(not evaporated)
Mince the frog meat through the food, chopper, cooked. Blend
with the condensed milk, add butter, salt, pepper and then add %
pound cream cheese, a pinch of paprika and beat until smooth. Heat
on fire until mixture all becomes smooth, then cool. Keep in covered
jars, serve on crackers and between toasted bread.

Fricassee of Giant Bullfrog
Disjoin the frog in pieces, put into sauce pan with just enough
boiling water to cover; salt and pepper to taste, add teaspoonful of
onion juice. Boil slowly until tender and, seasoning mixed, add a
little water from time to time to replace that which boils away. If
using canned frog, use entire can, thicken with one teaspoonful of
corn starch with equal parts of cold water, mix slowly in very small
stream. Then add one tablespoon minced parsley, serve with border
of hot cooked rice. You may use dumplings if you wish, rolled out
thin and thoroughly cooked without much stirring to keep whole.

French Fried Giant Frog and Soup Colbert
Separate pieces of giant bullfrog either fresh or canned. If
fresh, wash and dry enough frog to weigh 2 pounds, or three when
dressed. Place in kettle with enough salted water to taste, boil till
tender with just enough water to cover frog, then remove frog and
cool thoroughly, dry the surface, dip each piece into butter, and drop
into hot fat, heated to 375 degrees F., or hot enough to brown a
piece of bread by the time you can count 50. Fry until golden brown.
For canned frog, heat can in hot water until hot, open can, remove
contents to a pan, then remove pieces of frog and dry and fry as
above, saving the stock of both, of either style you have, for giant
frog Soup Colbert. To 5 cups of well seasoned giant bullfrog stock,
add, enough water, if necessary, to make 5 cups, add 2 tablespoons of
butter, 1 tablespoon of brown sugar, 1 can of diced cooked asparagus
stock, and all blend, 1 tablespoon corn starch with equal amount of
water and add to stock. Then bring the soup to a good boil on slow
fire. Remove kettle back off fire, put the soup in plates, and into
each serving put a carefully poached egg. Dust with a little minced
parsley or paprika and serve with the main course. It will probably








BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 61

take two cans of giant bullfrog to get the 5 cups of stock. You may
figure in the stock off of the asparagus as part of the 5 cups of neces-
sary stock.
Giant Bullfrog Cream Broth


4 cups American giant
bullfrog stock
1/2 cup condensed milk
(not evaporated)
2 tablespoons butter


Salt and pepper and
mace to season
1 tablespoon cornstarch
1 tablespoon cold water


Combine the American bullfrog stock, condensed milk, blend
well, bring to boiling point, add cornstarch, add butter and other
seasoning, and serve. French fry the frog meat and serve.

Deviled Giant Bullfrog Meat


3 Ibs. giant bullfrog meat
6 tablespoons butter
1 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon apple vinegar


1 teaspoon tomato catsup
1 teaspoon worcester sauce
1 cup cracker crumbs,
ground fine


Place bullfrog meat on a greased broiler and broil for 7 minutes,
on each side, then place in a heated meat pan, mix 4 tablespoons of
butter with the salt, vinegar, catsup, and worcester sauce, and, spread
over the giant bullfrogs. Melt the rest of the butter and stir the
cracker crumbs around in it. Spread the buttered crumbs over the
giant bullfrogs and bake in a moderate oven, 350 degrees F., or until
the giant bullfrogs are tender and the crumbs are browned. This
gives a crusty, rich surface. If using canned frog meat, only use
enough salt to taste on frog meat.

American Giant Bullfrog Cocktail
Dice cold cooked giant bullfrog meat, fresh or canned. Season
with a marinade, made of:


12 teaspoon salt
2 %/2 tablespoons salad, oil


1 tablespoon worcester sauce


Chill and put into cocktail glasses and cover with cocktail dress-
ing, made thus:
The amount to be made depends on the number of cocktails
required and the size of the glasses. Make the quantity you
need, using the following proportions:
3 tablespoons tomato catsup 1 tablespoon worcester sauce
Blend thoroughly and chill before using. This may be varied by
using in addition a little chili sauce, lemon juice, horseradish, chop-
ped celery, or finely minced, parsley. Set glasses on crisp lettuce leaf
when serving.

American Giant Bullfrog Pie (Country Style)


3 lbs. American giant
bullfrog meat, in pieces
1 recipe for biscuits
1 tablespoon finely chopped
parsley


4 tablespoons grated raw
carrot
1 tablespoon cornstarch









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Cover the bullfrog meat with water, if using canned frog use
the contents of the can, cook slowly until tender. Remove bones,
thicken gravy with cornstarch and water equal parts, season well,
place in baking dish, cover with following crust. Make biscuit dough.
Use water instead of milk, adding minced parsley and carrots to dry
mixture. Roll out % inch thick, cut in small squares, place on top
of mixture in baking dish, bake in real hot oven about 475 degrees
F., about 18 minutes.
Giant Bullfrog Mince Meat (For Pies)
2 lbs. giant bullfrog meat, 1 nutmeg
run through food chopper Y teaspoon ground mace
1 lb. chopped suet 2 oranges
4 lbs. tart apples 2 lemons
6 cups sugar 1 lb. citron
3 Ibs. currants 1 tablespoon salt
2 lbs. raisins
Stew bullfrog meat in a small quantity of water, cool and run
through food chopper, add beef suet, chopped fine, and apples, peal-
ed, cored, and chopped fine, then sugar, currants, raisins, spices,
oranges, lemons, minced citron, and salt. Mix thoroughly, cook one
hour. Pack in jars, seal jars and store in a cool dry place. It's best
to use one-pint jars.
Giant Bullfrogs Jellied
Mix 2 cups finely chopped 1 tablespoon onion juice
giant bullfrog meat with Dash of ground mace and
1/ cup chopped, green salt, as required
pepper
Soak 1 tablespoon of gelatine in 1 tablespoon cold water for 5
minutes and dissolve in 1 cup boiling water, add 2 tablespoons lemon
juice, 1 tablespoon of worcester sauce, line the bottom of a mould
with 8 slices of hard boiled egg and fill the mould with the giant
bullfrog mixture, pour the jelly over all. Chill, turn out on real crisp
lettuce leaves and serve with any desired dressing.
Giant Bullfrog Club House Sandwich
To each person allow 3 slices of white bread, nicely toasted,
trimmed, and buttered and kept hot. Spread first piece with may-
onnaise on this lay shredded giant bullfrog meat seasoned and hot,
add a little shredded lettuce and more mayonnaise and on it lay some
thinly sliced raw tomatoes and 3 slices of broiled lean bacon, add
more shredded lettuce and mayonnaise. Top with the third piece of
buttered trimmed toast, cut across the corner to form triangle and
serve.
Giant Bullfrog Croquettes
3 tablespoons butter %a teaspoon paprika
2 tablespoons flour % teaspoon pepper
1 cup light cream 1 tablespoon parsley
1 teaspoon salt 2 cups chopped cooked giant
1 teaspoon worcestershire bullfrog meat
sauce 2 eggs
1 teaspoon tomato catsup
Melt butter, add flour and cold thin cream slowly, stirring until
smooth and creamy, add seasoning and parsley, boil 4 minutes, add
cooked giant bullfrog meat. Mix well and pour out on platter to







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA


cool. When cool enough to handle, take a large spoon of the mix-
ture in floured hands, shape into croquettes, put into cold place until
firm. Roll in finely crushed cracker crumbs. Then in egg, beaten
with 2 tablespoons of cold milk, then in cracker crumbs. Then fry
in deep hot fat at 385 degrees F., until golden brown.
Giant Bullfrog Meat With Dumplings
2 Ibs. giant bullfrog meat Flour
3 tablespoons butter 4 teaspoons baking powder
2 sliced onions 1 tablespoon worcestershire
Milk sauce
Z bay leaf 1 teaspoon tomato catsup
Salt
Have the giant bullfrog cut in pieces, put into a kettle and al-
most cover with boiling water, add the onions, 1 teaspoon salt and
bay leaf and 3 tablespoons butter, cover and simmer until the bull-
frog is tender, (if frog was raw). Mix 2 cups of flour with baking
powder and sift, stir in enough milk to make a paste, stiff enough
to hold its shape (about a cup) drop the dumpling paste by spoon-
fuls on top of the bullfrog meat, cover and cook from one-half to
three-quarters hour. When the dumplings are thoroughly cooked,
lift them out with a skimmer, lay around the edge of the platter
and keep hot. Skim out the pieces of bullfrog meat and place in the
middle of the platter. If gravy is not thick from the dumplings, mix
flour and water and stir in very slowly in a thin stream into the boil-
ing liquid, using enough only to make it the desired thickness. Let
simmer, then add the worcester sauce and tomato catsup and stir
well. Strain a little of the gravy over the meat on the platter and
serve the rest in a gravy boat. If using canned frog, use contents
of can and it is only necessary to simmer meat on slow fire until
dumplings are thoroughly cooked.
Grilled Giant Bullfrog Sandwich
Allow two slices of bread or a large split biscuit for each sand-
wich. Toast one slice on both sides, butter, and serve as a garnish,
toast the second slice on one side. Then butter the untoasted side.
Then cover with a layer of shredded, giant bullfrog meat, season it
to taste with salt, pepper, and worcester sauce; on the shredded
giant bullfrog, lay a slice of cream or Switzerland cheese and across
this, two short strips of broiled bacon, grilled under the gas until
the bacon is crisp and a sprinkle of tomato catsup, or if you desire,
use mayonnaise dressing instead of catsup.
Barbecued Giant Bullfrog Sandwiches
Between two slices of any kind of bread you like, or large split
biscuit, nicely toasted, and trimmed of hard edge, lay shredded hot
giant bullfrog meat. This meat should be broiled over hot coals,
covered with butter while cooking, then, shredded, if not possible,
use the hot cooked meat fried in butter, after shredding, and plac-
ing on the toast spread with barbecue sauce, made as follows:
2 tablespoons butter 1 cup stock, off of canned
2 tablespoons apple vinegar frog (if fresh, use stock
1 tablespoon lemon juice of meat or vegetables)
1 cup finely minced celery 2 tablespoons salt
1 medium minced onion 1 teaspoon black pepper
1 tablespoon finely minced 1 cup tomato catsup
garlic 3 tablespoons worcester sauce
2 tablespoons dark molasses 1 tablespoon pulverized sage









64 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Fry the minced onion and garlic in the butter. Add the other
ingredients, cover and simmer for one hour. This sauce will keep for
a long time, placed in a jar and sealed and heated over when wanting
to use.
Giant Bullfrog Dressing


1 cup giant bullfrog meat,
ground fine
4 tablespoons butter
1 onion minced


2 tablespoons minced parsley
1 cup fine bread, crumbs
1 tablespoon worcester sauce
1 tablespoon tomato catsup


Cook the giant bullfrog meat and the minced onion and butter
in a frying pan for five minutes, stirring with a fork so that all parts
touch the pan. Add the bread crumbs and parsley and cook five
minutes more, take from the fire and stir in the worcester sauce and
tomato catsup. Use for any lean meat or poultry.


Giant Bullfrog Meat
1 cup giant bullfrog meat
diced
1 egg well beaten
1/3 cup chopped not meats


and Rice (Chinese Style)
4 tablespoons minced onion
1/3 cup boiled rice
3 tablespoons butter
1 tablespoon tomato catsup


Add. the diced frog meat to the egg, nuts, and onion, and com-
bine with the rice. Season to taste with salt, tomato catsup, and fry
slowly in the butter, turning the mixture occasionally, pressing it
into omelet shape and let brown on both sides. Serve hot.

Giant Bullfrog Chop Suey (Chinese Style)
1 % lbs. giant bullfrog meat 6 tablespoons butter
1 2 tablespoons cornstarch 1 cup grated carrots
2 cups coarsely diced celery 1 can bean sprouts (pint can)
3 medium size onions, sliced Salt and pepper to taste
1 tablespoon brown sugar 1 tablespoon worcester sauce
1 cup sliced mushrooms 1 tablespoon tomato catsup
Cut the giant bullfrog in small cubes, dust with the salt, pepper,
and cornstarch, and brown in the butter, add all the ingredients,
except the worcester sauce and tomato catsup. Cook until meat and
vegetables are tender by half covering with boiling water. Simmer
on medium fire, then add the catsup and worcester sauce. Serve in
soup bowls over steamed cooked rice in bottom of bowls. If using
canned frog, use contents of can, cook only until vegetables are
tender.
Jellied Giant Bullfrog Creamed Salad


Y cup mayonnaise
/2 cup whipped cream
%4 tablespoon lemon juice
2 tablespoons gelatine
2 tablespoons cold water


1 V cups cooked minced frog
meat
1/3 cup minced celery
1/3 cup minced olives, stuffed,
minced, real fine


Combine the gelatine and cold water. Let stand for five minutes.
Set the dish in hot water until gelatine melts, add to the mayonnaise,
fold, in the cream and add the remaining ingredients, transfer to
small molds, rubbed with butter and chill for several hours; arrange
individually for service, turn out each mold on a large slice of
tomato. Top each mold with a stuffed olive, garnish with lettuce with
a little mayonnaise over the top of salad.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 65


Giant Bullfrog Salad


2 cups bullfrog meat, cut into
small cubes (cooked)
1 cup finely cut celery
1/ teaspoon salt


% teaspoon pepper
2 hard boiled eggs
1 cup mayonnaise dressing
6 olives


Mix the cubed giant bullfrog meat with celery and the season-
ing and one egg cut into small pieces, marinate with little fresh
dressing and let stand in cold place one hour. Serve on cold crisp
lettuce leaves and spread over top with mayonnaise. Garnish with
stuffed olives and remaining egg, cut into slices. Dust with paprika.

Dominant Mayonnaise Dressing for Giant Frogs


1 cup lemon juice
1 cup melted butter
1 1/3 cups cream
2 egg yolks (unbeaten)
1 teaspoon salt


2 tablespoons grated onion
1 tablespoon dry mustard
1 package (3 oz.) pure
cream cheese


Melt the cream cheese with the butter, pour into a half-gallon
jar, add all the other ingredients in the order as listed, fasten top on
jar tightly and shake vigorously, until the mixture blends perfectly.
Place jar with contents in refrigerator, it will thicken nicely. Serve
on recipes of giant bullfrog meat, calling for mayonnaise dressing.

Giant Bullfrog Luncheon With Tomatoes


2 cups caned, tomatoes
1/ cup cream
2 cup whole milk (fresh)
1 cup diced giant bullfrog
meat cooked


1 cup diced toast
1 teaspoon salt
/4 teaspoon black pepper
cup grated Swiss cheese


Heat tomatoes to the boiling point. Add /s cup of cream and %
cup of whole fresh milk. Blend well, add all other ingredients, except
the grated Swiss cheese. Cover tightly about 3 minutes, pour into
serving dish. Sprinkle top of mixture with grated cheese. Serve at
once.
Giant Bullfrog Luncheon With Corn


% cup pure cream
1 tablespoon melted butter
1 cup diced cooked giant
bullfrog meat
1 cups canned corn
14 cup chopped green pepper


2 tablespoons chopped
pimento
1 tablespoon chopped onion
1 teaspoon salt
2 eggs (well beaten)


Combine all ingredients in the order as listed. Have eggs well
beaten. Pour into buttered baking dish and bake 25 minutes in a
moderate oven, 350 degrees F., and serve hot. If you use canned
frog, drain part of the stock off of the corn and use entire contents
of stock off of the canned giant bullfrogs' meat.

Escalloped Giant Bullfrog With Celery and Potatoes
2 cups canned, or cooked 1 tablespoon cornstarch
giant bullfrog 1 tablespoon cold water
1 cup canned celery or cooked 3 cups well seasoned
1 tablespoons butter mashed potatoes








66 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Blend the cornstarch and water, add it and the butter to the
bullfrog meat. Use the potatoes to line a casserole or baking dish.
Pour the thickened bullfrog meat and celery into the potato lined
dish and bake in a quick oven about 375 degrees or 400 degrees F.,
just long enough to thoroughly heat and to slightly brown the sur-
face of the potatoes.
Giant Bullfrog a la King
3 cups cubed giant bullfrog meat 1 cup whole fresh milk
1 cup cubed mushrooms 3 egg yolks
1 tablespoon minced pimento 1 level teaspoon salt
4 tablespoons butter 14 teaspoon paprika
3 tablespoons cornstarch Buttered toast or buttered
1 cup cream boiled rice
Make a sauce by melting the butter, adding the cornstarch
blended with equal parts of water. Add the cream and whole milk
and seasonings. Stir in the bullfrog meat, mushrooms, and pimen-


:11 1


Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Frog A la Queen; A Broel Recipe
toes. Slightly beat the egg yolks and stir in a little hot mixture to
this, add eggs, cook for a moment, stirring constantly. Serve on the
toast or rice.
Giant Bullfrog Pot Pie
2 lbs. disjointed cooked %/ teaspoon salt
bullfrog meat 1 teaspoon baking powder
1 2 cups stock off of canned 3 tablespoons butter
frog meat 1/3 cup milk
1 V cups flour







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA


Turn the bullfrog meat into a shallow sauce pan with the stock,
bring slowly to a boil, sift together flour, salt, and baking powder.
Rub in the butter and moisten as for biscuit with the milk. Roll out
to fit in sauce pan, lay it over the bullfrog meat, cover closely and
simmer for 25 minutes. Cut the crust into pieces. Arrange the bull-
frog meat on a platter and lay the crust over it. Serve. If desired,
you may add 1 cup of canned green peas or 1 cup of canned cooked
celery to the bullfrog meat when cooking.

Minced Giant Bullfrog Savory Sandwiches
3 cups minced giant bull- 3 teaspoons mixed mustard
frog meat 1/2 cup chow chow
Mayonnaise
Slices of buttered, toast. Blend the minced giant bullfrog meat,
mustard, and chow chow, working them thoroughly together to form
a paste. If desired, the chow chow may be passed through a food
chopper with the frog meat. Spread the buttered toast with mayon-
naise then cover with the bullfrog mixture. Cover with more toast
buttered and cut diagonally across in two sections. Serve.

Hot Giant Bullfrog Sandwiches With Newberg Sauce
5 tablespoons butter 3 egg yolks
1 cup cooked and diced giant 1/z teaspoon salt
bullfrog meat 1 cup fresh cream
3 tablespoons sherry flavoring 2 teaspoons worcester sauce
Melt 2 tablespoons of butter in frying pan and heat in it the
bullfrog meat, diced. Then make the sauce, melt the rest of the
butter, add the salt and sherry flavoring, then the cream and heat
to boiling point. Beat the egg yolks in a bowl, pour into them part
of the hot sauce, stirring constantly. Then pour it back into the
sauce pan and cook for about 2 minutes in double boiler, stirring
constantly. Add worcester sauce and remove from the fire. Have
ready for each sandwich nicely toasted bread with hard edges trim-
med and. buttered. Spread the hot diced bullfrog meat over one
slice. Top with the second and pour the Newberg sauce over all.
Serve immediately.

Giant Bullfrog Meat (Russian Sandwich)
Butter a thin slice of nicely toasted bread, hard edges trimmed;
spread with minced stuffed olives, then spread this with shredded
giant bullfrog meat, then with mayonnaise. Then take the second
slice of buttered toast and spread with pure cream cheese, sprinkle
with worcestershire sauce, press the two slices together, cut in tri-
angles. These are nice with cocktails or at a bridge party, picnic, etc.

Giant Bullfrog Short Cakes
1 recipe for biscuits 1 cup minced mushrooms
1 cup shredded giant bull-
frog meat
Make biscuit dough, roll out half-inch thick, cut with large bis-
cuit cutter, bake in hot oven, 475 degrees F., about 12 minutes. Split
while hot, butter, fill with hot creamed giant bullfrog meat, shredded
and creamed minced mushrooms, one on the other. Serve hot.









68 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Giant Bullfrog Sandwich Loaf
Trim the crusts of whole loaf of small size sandwich bread, trim
the crusts thinly and slice lengthwise (4 slices, even). Place bottom
slice on a platter, spread, with butter and then cover with minced
giant bullfrog meat, then cover frog meat over with mayonnaise.
Place another slice of bread on the frog meat, butter and spread with
one package (3 oz.) of cream cheese, mixed with two tablespoons of
minced pineapple. Place third slice of bread on top of this, butter,
cover with crisp lettuce, spread with Russian dressing, made with
mayonnaise and chili sauce, place fourth slice of bread on top. Cover
entire loaf with softened cream cheese. This gives appearance of
cake frosting. Set in cool place for one hour or more. Before serv-
ing, cut crosswise in slices to serve.

Giant Bullfrog Pineapple Salad
Shred one can of giant bullfrog meat. Add:
1 cup diced pineapple 1/3 cup grated carrots
% cup diced celery
Blend with mayonnaise dressing and serve on crisp lettuce leaves.'

Creamed Giant Bullfrog and Mushrooms
1 can giant bullfrog meat, 1 can chopped mushrooms
shredded 1 tablespoon chopped
1 pint thick white sauce, pimentoes
seasoned
Mix ingredients, heat thoroughly and serve on hot crisp buttered
toast.
Giant Bullfrog Omelet
Make an omelet of three eggs and 3 tablespoons of milk, a dash
of salt and pepper. Cook in a smooth frying pan until ready to roll.
Then spread with 1/3 cup shredded giant bullfrog meat (shredded
very fine) and mix with it a little seasoned thick white sauce. Roll
and serve hot. Oil skillet with butter when frying omelet.

Stuffed Egg With Giant Bullfrog
Boil six eggs hard boiled, cut off slices of top and bottom. Re-
move yolks and stand on crisp lettuce leaves, fill with the following
stuffing:
1 cup finely shredded giant 2 tablespoons minced stuffed
frog meat, mince olives
Yolks of eggs 1 tablespoon minced celery
Mayonnaise
To mix, blend thoroughly, stuff eggs, then garnish with mayon-
naise and paprika.

Baked Apples Stuffed With Giant Frog Meat
Wash and core six red apples, scoop pulp from centers, and cook
until thick with 1 tablespoon melted butter. Add one can of giant
bullfrog meat, shredded and blend well. Stuff apples, garnish tops
with buttered bread crumbs and bake until apples are tender in
medium oven. Serve hot.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 69

Stuffed Baked Tomatoes With Giant Bullfrogs
Peel six tomatoes, cut slices from stem end, remove pulp, add
one can of giant bullfrog meat, shredded fine. Flavor with salt and
paprika to taste. Add two-thirds cup of grated cheese. Blend, well,
cut rounds of bread one inch thick. Make hole one and one-half inch
in diameter in center of bread, place bread in baking dish, place the
stuffed tomatoes in the hole in bread and dot bread and tomatoes
with butter. Bake until tomatoes are soft, serve hot, sprinkled with
chopped buttered parsley.



S%,.















Courtesy American Frcg Canning Co.
Picking Off Frog Meat for "Frog a la Queen"

Giant Bullfrog Meat With Asparagus
Drain and shred one can of giant bullfrog meat, add %2 cup
chopped pimentoes, 1%/2 tablespoons of melted butter, 2 cups of
mashed potatoes, liquid of one can of asparagus tips. All the giant
bullfrog liquid from the can and seasoning. Blend well, heat, and
add 1 cup of chopped asparagus tips and. 1 cup of chopped canned
mushrooms. Mold in a buttered ring, cook, brown in a medium hot
oven. Serve with green peas in the center of mold, hot.
Giant Bullfrog Au Gratin
3/% cup cream 1 cup chopped cooked canned
1 cup stock from canned giant bullfrog meat
giant bullfrog meat 2 tablespoons butter
1 small slice onion minced 2 eggs, well beaten
1 stalk celery minced 1 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons cornstarch 1/3 teaspoon paprika
Combine cream and giant bullfrog stock. Heat onion and celery
in the creamy stock, melt butter, add 2 tablespoons water to corn-
starch and blend, add to butter. Then add creamy stock, cook, and
stir, until creamy. Then add eggs, well beaten. Then the season-









70 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ings, then the giant bullfrog meat. Blend, pour into well buttered
baking dish and bake 25 minutes in a moderate oven, 350 degrees F.
Giant Bullfrog Legs Italian


6 large size giant bullfrog legs
2 cups canned or fresh
mushrooms
2 tablespoons apple vinegar
1% cups water
4 cloves
Few grains mace
% teaspoon salt


3 tablespoons butter
1 teaspoon brown sugar
1 tablespoon cornstarch,
blended with 1 tablespoon
cold water
1% cup canned tomato
1 tablespoon lemon juice


Broil the giant bullfrog legs with one tablespoon of the butter,
if raw; if canned, heat can, remove from can, drain on brown paper.
In the meantime, cook the mushrooms five minutes in the vinegar
and water with the cloves, mace and salt, then slice the mushrooms
and put in a sauce pan with the butter and brown sugar (2 table-
spoons butter) and cook for five minutes, add the blended cornstarch
and then the tomato, lemon juice and season to taste with salt and
pepper. Put the giant bullfrog legs on a platter, pour the sauce over
and serve with steam cooked rice.

Giant Bullfrog Paprikosh


1 medium size onion, minced
2 tablespoons butter
Dash paprika
2 lbs. giant bullfrog meat


1 cup broth
Salt to taste
1 tablespoon cornstarch
1 tablespoon cold water
% cup thin cream


Mince onions fine. Sear with butter and paprika until slightly
browned, add giant bullfrog meat, (disjointed), 1/3 of the broth.
Stew for 12 minutes, occasionally more bullfrog broth, so that the
frog meat does not burn. Continue cooking until frog meat is real
tender. Salt to taste. Blend cornstarch and water, add to gravy
slowly, stir. Cook slowly for five minutes and add cream. Remove
bullfrog meat from sauce, in which it has been cooking and put in
warm place. Strain and mash sauce so none of the onion remains in
the strainer. Then serve giant bullfrog covered with the hot sauce.
If using canned frog, use contents of can for the 1 cup of broth.
Don't cook the canned frog as much as the fresh frog. The idea is
to get the substance to make the cream sauce.


Giant Bullfrog Maryland


6 large size giant bullfrog
legs
3 tablespoons cornstarch
1 1/ teaspoons salt
% teaspoon black pepper


/2 cup butter
1 pint white sauce
1 recipe giant bullfrog
croquettes (made as per
recipe No. 11)


Note: (The croquettes will call for one can of bullfrog meat in
addition to the six frog legs, above in this recipe).
Dust the 6 bullfrog legs with salt, pepper, and cornstarch. Then
heat the butter in a frying pan real hot and quickly brown the giant
bullfrog legs in it. Reduce the heat, cover closely, and cook gently
until tender; for serving arrange in middle of platter with giant bull-








BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 71

frog croquettes around the edge. Garnish with white celery tips
made from hearts of celery and pass white sauce in gravy boat. Make
this sauce like this: Use drippings in pan which the frog legs were
browned in and add to them 2 tablespoons of cornstarch, teaspoon
salt, and a few grains of black pepper and 1 pint of thin cream
(fresh). Cook until thick, stirring constantly.
Brown Sauce or Gravy for Giant Bullfrog Meat
1 tablespoon butter, in which 1 cup stock from canned
bullfrog meat was cooked giant bullfrog
1 tablespoon flour Salt and pepper to taste
Brown the butter in sauce pan, add flour and brown. Add bull-
frog stock and stir until thick. Season to taste and simmer 5 minutes.
Cheese Sauce
Add 1/2 cup of grated cheese to cream sauce and stir in double
boiler until cheese is well blended. Add 1 teaspoon of worcester
sauce. Stir and serve with giant bullfrog meat.
Brazilian Sauce
1 cup tomatoes 2 cup minced celery
1 green pepper, minced 1 tablespoon butter
1 tablespoon minced onion 1 tablespoon worcester sauce
1 teaspoon salt
Mix all the ingredients except the worcester sauce and simmer
until all the vegetables are tender, add. a little stock off of canned
giant bullfrog and stir from time to time. Add the worcester sauce
and stir just before serving. This is good on any recipe served with
giant bullfrog meat.
Butter Sauce
Three parts of melted butter and one part of worcester sauce.
Prepare it in any way you like by the addition of such flavoring as
wine flavoring, onion juice, tomato juice or minced parsley. Serve
with most any recipe of giant bullfrog meat.
Bullfrog Meat With Deviled Ham Sandwich
Cover one slice of nicely toasted bread with deviled ham, cover
with cold, diced giant bullfrog meat, then some shredded crisp lettuce
hearts, then with some thick mayonnaise dressing. Then cover with
a slice of buttered toast. All toast should be trimmed after toasting.
Hot Diced Giant Bullfrog Meat (Canned) and Deviled Ham
2 parts deviled ham Nicely toasted bread,
1 part butter trimmed
Diced giant bullfrog
canned meat
Cream the deviled ham and butter together and spread on the
toast somewhat thick, cover with diced giant bullfrog meat, then
cover with another slice of toast, arrange on platter. Garnish with
cranberry or currant jelly. Pass hot bullfrog gravy with the sand-
wiches on the table, made like this:
1 tablespoon butter, melted 1 cup stock from canned
1 tablespoon flour giant bullfrog
Salt and pepper to taste









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Brown the butter in sauce pan, add flour and brown. Add giant
bullfrog stock and stir until thick and simmer five minutes. Place in
gravy boat and serve hot.

Giant Bullfrog Meat, Currant Jelly and Cottage Cheese
2 parts giant bullfrog meat, 2 parts cottage cheese
cooked, minced Crisp lettuce leaf hearts,
Salt and pepper shredded,
Worcester sauce Slices of nicely toasted
1 part butter bread, trimmed
2 parts currant jelly
Cream the seasoned giant bullfrog meat and butter together and
spread on a slice of the toast, then place a layer of currant jelly,
then a layer of cottage cheese, then some of the shredded lettuce.
Place on top of slice of buttered toast, cut triangle, and serve.

Giant Bullfrog Three Layer Sandwich
1 green pepper Deviled ham
1 onion 1 can giant bullfrog meat
Mayonnaise Slices of buttered toast
Cream cheese
Chop onion and pepper very fine and. season with a little salt
and pepper. Mix with enough mayonnaise to spread one slice of the
toast with onion and pepper mixture. Take the second slice of toast,
spread on one side with cream cheese and on the other side with
deviled ham. Place on top of onion and pepper mixture with the
cream cheese side up. Then spread on top of cheese a layer of chop-
ped giant bullfrog meat spread a little mayonnaise and cover with
the third, slice of buttered toast, cut triangular shape and serve.

Giant Bullfrog Charlotte
3 tablespoons melted butter 1 cake (3 oz.) cream cheese,
3 egg yolks melted
1 % tablespoons flour Salt and nutmeg to taste
Blend these ingredients and cream well. Add % cup cream and
mix well, then add the stiff whites of eggs, mix lightly. Dice 1 cup
of nicely toasted bread, dice 1 cup of giant bullfrog meat from
canned bullfrog. Heat the stock from the canned bullfrog. Soak
the diced toast and diced giant bullfrog in the heated frog stock for
5 minutes, then lay out the diced bullfrog and diced toast in a deep
buttered baking dish, pour over the toast and frog the creamed mix-
ture and bake in a moderate oven, about 25 minutes. Serve hot.

Giant Bullfrog Fondue
Grate % lb. of Switzerland cheese and melt on fire with 1 table-
spoon butter. Beat 2 eggs with 1 cup cream, salt to taste, and add
to cheese mixture, stirring constantly, then add 1 ] cup of chopped
giant bullfrog cooked meat and mix well. Let simmer on fire 5
minutes or until mixture is thick and serve on toast. You may gar-
nish with slices of hard boiled eggs.








BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 73


Giant Bullfrog Meat June Salad


1 pint diced giant bullfrog
meat, cooked
8 tablespoons mayonnaise
6 hard boiled eggs
1 level teaspoon salt
%s teaspoon pepper

SECOND PART
6 cold boiled potatoes
1 teaspoon prepared mustard
3 tablespoons mayonnaise
Crisp lettuce leaves
1 tablespoon vinegar
1 level teaspoon salt
/s teaspoon pepper


1 teaspoon paprika
3 slices toasted bread
1 medium green pepper,
chopped fine
2 hard boiled eggs,
chopped real fine


2 tablespoons sugar
/2 onion
Stuffed olives
2 tomatoes, sliced
1 cucumber, pealed
and sliced


Now place two lettuce leaves on a dinner plate; over to one side
of the dinner plate, lay some of the diced, giant frog meat and spread
over it part or two-thirds of the mayonnaise or in the center of the
frog meat, cut the 6 hard boiled eggs in two lengthwise. Remove the
yolks and mix with the one-third that's left of the mayonnaise. Salt
and pepper to taste. When creamy, form into small balls and replace
in the egg whites. Then garnish with paprika. Cut the toasted bread
in narrow strips half-inch wide. Put 2 deviled eggs beside the diced
giant bullfrog meat with a strip of toast between the giant bullfrog
meat and, eggs.
SECOND PART
Then make a salad of the potatoes; dice them, and mix them
with the mustard, mayonnaise, vinegar, salt, pepper, sugar, onion,
green minced pepper, and the two chopped eggs you have left from
Part 1. Now blend carefully, using sufficient mayonnaise to moisten
well. Now arrange a generous helping of the salad on the lettuce
leaf opposite the giant bullfrog meat with another strip of toast
between the eggs and the salad, now take your sliced tomatoes and
cucumbers and place these next to the potato salad with a strip of
toast between potato salad and the tomatoes and. cucumbers and be-
tween the tomatoes, cucumbers, and the giant bullfrog meat. Now
garnish the plate with mayonnaise and paprika and place the stuffed
olives in the center and serve real cold.

French Toasted Giant Bullfrog Meat, Special


3 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons chopped
green pepper
2 cups canned tomatoes,
well drained
%1 cup stock from canned
giant bullfrog meat


2 cups ground giant
bullfrog meat
1 egg, slightly beaten
1 level teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon prepared mustard
French toast special


Now heat the butter, add. the chopped green pepper and cook
until soft, add the 1/2 cup of giant bullfrog stock from can. Blend
well and simmer 10 minutes. Now add the 2 cups of ground giant
bullfrog meat and beaten eggs, salt, and mustard. Mix lightly and
cook until mixture thickens, pour over prepared French toast special;
made thus:










74 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Spread slices of bread with butter and then with deviled ham.
Put slices together in two's and dip them into mixture of egg and
milk (2 eggs to 1 cup of milk) and then saute the doubled slices in
butter, until brown on both sides, then take one slice of bread or one
for each double sandwich you intend making and dip them in mix-
ture of egg and milk and, then saute them in butter until brown on
both sides. Now place your double slices of French toast special on



















Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Packing Frog Legs In Cans

a platter and pour over them part of your giant bullfrog mixture,
then place the single slices of French toast over this poured mixture,
then pour the rest of the giant bullfrog mixture over the third slice
of French toast and serve hot.
SHIPPING LIVE FROGS
When shipping live frogs, the gig is not to be used. If any
frog is injured, or in any other way imperfect, it is best to kill
and dress it rather than ship it, as it would die in transit.
Most markets want their frogs delivered alive, so the frog
raiser would do better if he used the ect or hand method of
catching altogether.
Holding Frogs For Shipment
You should not catch the frogs until you are ready to ship
them. Frogs that are closely confined will soon lose their
fresh appearance and get weak from lack of food. This is
especially true in warm weather. In cold weather, frogs can
be held over for several days, without much harm, but it is
poor policy to catch frogs unless you are ready to ship them
right away.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 75

The Slaughter "Pit"
In Europe, and occasionally in this country, frog shippers
Suse a deep hole in the ground, near the place where the frogs
are killed and dressed. The pit is sometimes 10 feet deep.
This pit is called the holdingn" pit or "slaughter hole."
On a farmn where most of ite shipments are dressed, it is well
to have some ready to kill and dress, at any time, so by con-
structing a pit, the frogs can be dumped into it, while await-
ing the killing and dressing operations. This pit is usually
about ten feet in diameter.
If water is allowed in thlie pit. it must he clean l out often,
otherwise it will hecoime foul smelling. The natural moisture
in the soil will be enough for the frogs, if not hehll too long.
Water is lnot Ilecessay.
./ The principal value (of this pit is the constant temperature,
'and the natural moisture, which keep the frogs in a fresh
condition. Thie low temperature keeps the frogs from requir-
Sing little, if any. food.
The top of the pit should be kept covered. In winter, frogs
caln be kept in this pit. while geltiing enough ready for sliip-
Ilment, as the depth of the pit is enough to Inpevent freezing.

Frogs Must Be Caught In Dark of Moon
Ill order to save patience, time and labor. confine your
catching activities to tlhe nights that are darkest. (et acquaint-
ed with the moon changes and be prepared to ship frogs when
they are easiest to catch.

Controlled Water Supply Advantageous
In most large ponds. the water level can be lowered or
'raised at will. It depends on local conditions, but normally,
ai low water mark permits easier catching. It was mentioned
before that shallow water allows the frogs to catch food easier
and you will usually find most frogs near the best feeding
1 grounds, after dark.
Boxes For Shipping Live Frogs
SIIIlris'IN FROGS ArIu.-.-In shipping frogs alive for stocking
or other purposes, they should be packed in shallow crates or
boxes, in which they should occupy not more than 50 percent
of the floor space. Free circulation of the air is necessary, and
damp leaves or moss in moderate quantity should be spread
over the floor of tile crate alnd kept moist throughout the jour-
ney. Dealers who supply frogs for breeding purposes use well-
poaddd. shallow crates. A piece of burlap, or other soft
material, may be tacked in the crate, tightly stretched, about
two inches below the wooden top), to prevent injuries to the








76 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

frogs as they jump and strike against the top. In winter live
frogs should be protected from freezing. As frogs take only
living or moving food they can not be fed when being held for
shipment. They can survive a considerable time without food
in cold weather, but in warm weather, their time of greatest
activity, they can not be kept for more than a few days with-
out detriment.
Never ship imperfect frogs alive. It always spoils the qual-
ity of your entire shipment. At the same time, don't try to dress


Courtesy American rrog Uanning uo.
Type of Box For Shipping Live Frogs


a poor quality frog and get a big price for it. If a frog isn't
good quality, you should not expect to receive much for it.
Ship live frogs as soon after catching as possible. If getting
good prices, you will find it worth your time to insert a craw-
fish, or tadpole in each frog's mouth, before shipping, to give
it added strength for the journey. Always feed a skinny frog
anyway, but turn the weaker frogs loose into the ponds again
to fatten up.
If you are catching frogs one night and shipping them the
next morning, you can keep them in the burlap sacks over
night and until ready for boxing. Be sure to dampen the







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA 77

/ sacks, to keep the frogs fresh. DO NOT KEEP MORE THAN
S TWO DOZEN IN A SACK FOR ANY LENGTH OF TIME.
Breeding frogs are shipped in special boxes to provide pro-
Stection from scratches and bruises.
The following shows t lV'-- 4W ce in shipping boxes for
breeders and for ordina table fro Note that there are two
partitions. One side hollsT s and the other the females.
Top of box is covered with slates, 2" wide and 1/4" apart.
The one in center is not nailed until frogs are all in the box.
Type of Box
To date, a cheap, thin, wood box has proven the best con-
tainer for shipping live frogs. Experiments are under way to
permit frog shipments to be made in combinations of burlap,
wire and other material, but have not been completed at this
time.
SIZEs: Thirty inches long, IS inches wide and 6 inches high
(inside measurements).
LMATERIAr: Ends and middle partition %" stock.
Sides and bottom ,/%" stock.
<, Top slats 1/" stock.
This size box will safely carry from six to eight pairs of
breeders.
The sides and ends of this box are raised and extended so
when ice is placed on top of box in summer, it will not slide
off. Examine the box in which your breeders arrive, to get an
actual view of this shipping box.
The ends of the top slats are not nailed to the end pieces.
Instead. there is a groove, on both end pieces, for the slats to
fit in, therefore nailed only at the middle section.
The purpose of this box is to carry frogs alive, with mini-
mum amount of weight from the box itself. The box must be
strong, and not weakened by water or dampness.
MATERIALS: End pieces (including center partition) 1"
stock. Slats are about 21/4" wide. Sides, ends and bottom
3/16" stock. Slats are 21" wide.
When sides, bottom and top are nailed on end center pieces,
always allow a 1/4" crack between one slat and another. This
will provide ventilation, eliminate weight and save material.
.,) This box has no raised edges as ice is not always used on
ive frogs shipped for table use. You may use ice, if you pre-
fer, if shipping in hot weather over a long distance.
Packing The Frogs
BREEDERS: Bullfrog breeders are placed carefully in the
box, the females on one side, and the males on the other. After









78 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

all frogs are in the box, spread a covering of water moss,
water weeds, or plain long bladed grass over them. The water
vegetation is best because it holds water better. Put plenty
of covering over the frogs. but do not.pack them tightly; the
packing should be loose. Make sure that all frogs are covered,
and that they are not piled up in one corner.


Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
First Operation In Butchering Bullfrogs


TABLE FROGS: 'lace the frogs in the box until the bottom
is covered. Then spread the same covering over them as with
the breeders. In cool weather, you can put more frogs in the
box than in summer.
Special Notice
When packing frogs, have the packing material "DAMP,"
but not wet. Do not pour water over the frogs until the
expressman has billed them. Otherwise, you will be paying
express charges on a lot of water.
Take the "LIVE FROG" stencil and apply it on top of the
box, as well as on the sides.
IN SUMMER: Use the "KEEP ICE ON THIS BOX" sten-
cil and apply it directly under the "LIVE FROGS" printing
on top of the box.







BULLFROG FARMING IN FLORIDA


IN WINTER: Use the "POUR WATER IN BOX TWICE
. DAILY." Apply in same manner as the "ice" stencil.

Labeling
Get three (3) stencils as follows:
"LIVE FROGS"
"POUR WATER IN BOX TWICE DAILY"
"KEEP ICE ON TOP OF THIS BOX."
Butchering
KILIG: The quickest way to kill frogs is to pierce their
heads with a sharp instrument, such as a nail: then quickly
cutting the head off. To do this quickly simply drive a large
nail through the edge of your killing board, then bend up
straight.
Grab a frog by its hind legs with your left hand and bring
its head down swiftly on the nail, which pierces it. Then hold


Courtesy American Frog Canning Co.
Slaughtering Frogs


the legs tight while you make a downward stroke to cut its
head off with a sharp knife, held in the right hand.
Throw the headless frog in a tub of water, remove the head
from the nail with an upward push of the dull edge of the
knife, and you are ready for another one.
There are two methods of shipping dressed frogs. Some
markets want them with skins on, while others want them
skinned.








80 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

When skins are left on, you simply place the frogs in
bundles of one dozen each and place directly in a barrel of ice.
Frogs and ice are in layers.
Frogs with skins on are shipped in bunches of one dozen
each packed in ice.
Frogs without skins are shipped in cans with ice around
the can.
SIn either case, it is understood the entrails are removed.
When skins are left on, the hand is inserted into the neck of
the frog and everything pulled out. Or, the frog can be cut
down the belly side, which makes it easier to get at the entrails.
The skin is always removed first, in fully dressed frogs.
SThe fingers are inserted between the skin and the meat, around
i the shoulders, to loosen it. Then it is pulled off the frog just
like a sack. You do not cut the skin as it strips off the frog
whole.
Frogs should be washed in pure cold water to remove all
blood and blood clots before packing.

Addressing
Use crayon for putting name and address of person or com-
pany on box. Ordinary paper shipping bags get wet and come
off. Crayon is unaffected by water.
If shipping to one company or individual mostly, you would
save time and labor by getting a stencil made of his name and
address.
Be sure to label address correctly to avoid delay in ship-
ment.
TELEPHONE IU. MBERS: Always ascertain if your customer
has a telephone number. If so, be sure to mark it plainly on
the box. It will save from two hours to two days in getting
the frogs delivered.
Young ADDRESS: Get a stencil of your name and address
and apply it on the side or end of box.

DEALERS IN FROGS FOR STOCKING PURPOSES, ETC.
Henry Boney..................................Wauchula, Fla.
Florida Frog Farms Corp.......Highland City, Fla.
J. E. Harp.................. ..............W auchula, Fla.
Jumbo Bullfrog Corp.....................Longwood, Fla.
Gene Plowden ...................................W auchula, Fla.
Southern Industries, Inc......................Tampa, Fla.
The Department of Agriculture can assume no responsi-
bility in furnishing the foregoing addresses.





l-; ;u







PUBLICATIONS ON FROGS



Cochran, Doris M.-Our Friend, the Frog. In National Geographic
Magazine, May, 1932. (The article gives information, life his-
tory, etc., with a number of colored illustrations. Published by
National Geographic Society, 16th and M Streets, Washington,
D. C.
Dickerson, Mary C.-The Frog Book. (Gives information on habits
and life histories of frogs and toads of the northwestern States).
Illus. $5.00. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page & Co. 1906.
r-Herriman, M. W.-Commercial Frog Raising. 52 pages. Published,
1933, by the West Coast Frog Industries, No. Hollywood., Cali-
fornia. $2.00.
II\'....li. Wm. E.--Fish Culture in Ponds and other inland waters.
I (This little book contains a chapter embodying the results of the
experiments in frog culture referred to above). New York,
Sturgis & Walton Co., 1913. Price $1.00.
Munz, P. A.--A study of the food and habits of the Ithacan species
of Anura during transformation. In Pomona College Journal
of Entomology and Zoology, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1920.
r uffner, Benjamin M.-Practical Frog Raising. 80 pages. Publish-
ed January, 1933, by the Southern Frog Farms, Jennings, La.
$1.50. (Gives a summary of experiments made in frog culture,
L with suggestions for practical work in pond construction, etc.)
Storer, Tracy I.-The Eastern Bullfrog in California. In California
Fish and Game, Oct., 1922, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 219-224. (Pub-
lished by Board of Fish and Game Commissioners, San Fran-
cisco).
iosca, Percy, Jr.--Principles of Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) cul-
ture. 8 pages. This, or a paper now in press, giving an account
of Mr. Viosca's frog cultural experiments, may be obtained at a
very reasonable price from The Southern Biological Supply Co.,
Inc., 517 Decatur Street, New Orleans, La.)
' a/Warren, Lamar, 106 Charlotte Street, St. Augustine, Florida, has
recently published a book dealing with frog farming vocation.
Wright, A. H.-Frogs. Their natural history and utilization. Ap-
pendix VI, Report U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, 1919. 44 pages,
illus. B. F. Doc. 888. OUT OF PRINT.
Note: Purchase Government publications direct from Supt. of
Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.


THE TRIBUNE PRESS, INC.. TAMPAOi,




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