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Title: Florida mangoes
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Title: Florida mangoes
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Scott, John M.
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture,
Publication Date: 1941
Copyright Date: 1941
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Full Text

'Bulletin No. 20

Florida Mangoes


Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner

Prepared and Published in Co-operation with the College of
Agriculture, University of Florida,

L *7J

Mma- I@IqM

New Series

August, 1941

Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture .. Tallahassee

MANGOES have been grown in Florida for a gooa
many years. Their value and importance as a fruit
crop, however, have not been recognized by as many
growers as the crop deserves. Mangoes, it is true, cannot
be grown in all parts of Florida, but in the southern part
of the state and in protected areas where frost is seldom
seen they grow and produce excellent fruit.
The problem today is to produce a better quality of fruit
and at the same time secure varieties that are prolific
bearers. Considerable progress has been made on both
of these problems during the past twenty years. Individual
growers and research men are continuing their efforts along
these lines and it is to be expected that the long desired
mango variety will soon reward their endeavors.
This bulletin is not a technical discussion of mango cul-
ture, but rather a compilation of results of various growers
who have had years of experience in growing mangoes.
We express our thanks to all those who have so kindly
furnished the information that has made this bulletin
possible.-J. M. S.

Prepared and Published in Co-operation vith the College of
Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville
F OR MANY YEARS the United States Department of
Agriculture has been searching the face of the earth
for useful and ornamental plants to experiment with
and if possible, adapt to our uses for profit and pleasure.
Among the thousands of plants introduced is the mango
(Mangifera indica Linn), which comes to Florida from
India and the Malay Peninsula.
The history of this plant is very interesting. It has been
known and cultivated in its natural habitat from time im-
memorial-from away back before history began. It has
been written about, sung about and worshipped.
The mango is a fruit for which some people must acquire
a taste, but with many others it is enjoyed from the first.
Its composition would indicate a high dietetic value. The
brightly colored fruit of some varieties makes it very at-
tractive to the eye, and the great majority of the highly
colored varieties are very desirable so far as eating quali-
ties are concerned.
In discussing "How to Go About It," there are a few
don'tt" that must be kept in mind, but so few of them that
they are mentioned first:
1. Don't attempt to grow mangoes where the tempera-
ture goes much below freezing, unless you are fully pre-
pared to protect them.
2. Don't forget that the mango is a dry climate plant;
too much moisture or humidity favors fungous diseases on
both plant and fruit.
3. Don't think that because mangoes will grow in almost
any kind of soil they will not respond to intelligent attention.
The mango tree is an evergreen. Seedlings planted in
rich fertile soil grow to immense size, often in the tropics
reaching a spread of 100 to 125 feet, although they are
quite old before they grow so large. Trees a hundred years
old are not uncommon in the tropics. The seedling trees
grow to a larger size than do budded trees. (See Fig. 1.)

Fig. 1. Row of seedling mangoes about 20 years old. These trees are about 30 feet high. Photo taken in February, 1929.


Since the mango is a tropical tree, it is adapted only to
the southern part of Florida. At the present time mangoes
are grown successfully on areas near the coast as far north
as Merritt's Island on the East Coast, and as far north on
the West Coast as Bradenton and portions of Pinellas Coun-
ty. There are areas in the interior of the state where they
may be grown successfully if care is taken in selecting
locations that are free from frosts or nearly so.
One grower tells us that he has had "close to eighty
different named mangoes, many of them from far-off India,
some of them from Cochin-China, others from South Amer-
ica, and still others from the Philippines. Many of them
have died, while others have grown into beautiful trees,
but have produced no fruit. Some, on the other hand,
have produced fruit of fine outward appearance but inter-
nally repulsive with spots of canker-like growth, apparent-
ly due to some mysterious physiological disturbances. A
few of these plants have grown into fine trees which pro-
duce magnificent fruit. Upon these few fine sorts we should
concentrate, pushing them for all they are worth, and grow-
ing seedlings from them with the hope of securing varieties
better adapted to Florida conditions.
"The plan is to bring about a combination of fine color,
good size, and fine eating qualities. We graft alternate
rows of our seedlings with scions from these finest trees.
The bees and other insects you will notice flying about at
blooming time scatter the pollen, mixing things up, just as
nature has planned it; the fruit comes; the seeds are plant-
ed; and, lo and behold, we have something different. For
instance, blight anthracnosee) as you probably know, is a
fungus disease which devastates and destroys; it spots and
kills the leaves and mars the beautiful fruit with unsightly
blotches. Many of the finer sorts of mangoes are suscep-
tible to this blighting process, while a few of them are very
much less so; in fact, one of them which we have been
watching for some time appears to be practically immune.
But this fruit lacks the high color which is so attractive to
the consumer. To carry out the general plan, highly col-
ored fruits are grafted in alternating rows with fruits not
so attractive to the eye, but fine in every other way. This
gives these plants a fair chance to 'cross-pollinate.' Some-


F r n h B y sdn ef R .r .O
Fi. re o igt s ramr eelig;lftRapuy.Pot tke i ebuay,199


times we graft two or three of these fine sorts on the same
tree. The result of this work, in the case we have in mind,
is several trees with fruit of fine character, one in particular,
which, on account of the fine quality and loveliness of its
fruit, has been named 'Sunset.' This tree thus far has proven
prolific and fairly free from blight-and it comes pretty
near being a 'Florida Tree.' Another crop or so will tell
the story."
From the foregoing reference to cross-pollination, it need
not be inferred that interplanting of varieties is necessary to
secure pollination and fruiting. The researches of Popenoe
on this subject proved that for all practical purposes the
mango flower is self-fertile, although insect agency is neces-
sary to transfer pollen from another to stigma. This fact of
self-fertility is a distinct advantage, since once a variety has
been decided on as best suited to a particular locality, this
variety may be planted in solid blocks, as the Haden is now
largely planted in Florida.
One grower advises that the "difference between the
seedling mango and the East Indian and other fine grafted
varieties is a matter of refinement. Some seedling fruits are
of fine flavor but fibrous. In some of the poorer seedlings the
fiber is very objectionable. In the very poorest sorts the tur-
pentine flavor is an added objection. The finest of the seed-
lings have very little fiber and are of fine flavor. They weigh
as much as a pound or more, with a large seed, many of
them beautifully colored. Right in our dooryard is a tree of
this kind, one of our money makers. It is over forty feet
high, with a spread of about fifty feet in diameter. The
writer planted the seed from which it has grown. It is an
impressive sight, and particularly interesting due to the fact
that it has produced occasional crops of sixty bushels and
over of fruit which were sold for a dollar and a half per
bushel, net."
Probably there are upwards of a hundred named man-
goes, most of them uninteresting from the commercial or
utility standpoint in Florida. A brief classification that
might suit Florida would be: Poor, Good, Better, and Best.
Under the "Poor" heading would be the yellow, stringy
things with the flavor of turpentine. The "Good" class
would be made up of the ordinary seedlings, fine of flavor
but fiibrous. The "Better" ones would be the finest seedlings,
with very little fiber; and the "Best" would mean the fine




Fig. 3. Itamaraca (Brazil). Grafted.


: i;.


fiberless grafted or budded fruit-the fruit which no one
yet has succeeded in adequately describing. The aim of the
enthusiast should be to bring about fruit trees of fine char-
acter, which can be depended upon for generous crops, and
which are, as nearly as possible, immune from disease.
These conditions have been partially realized in the Haden
variety of Florida origin, but we need more of these adapted
varieties of local origin.
MULGOBA, for instance, the very finest of mangoes, is a
shy bearer and subject to the disfigurements of blight. The
same, to a more or less degree, may be said of most of the
other introduced varieties, as practically all of them seem
unable to thrive under Florida conditions. The varieties
that we have tried out and which seem to be more or less
satisfactory are Haden, Cambodiana, Faizan, Gola, Bennett
Alphonse, Fajri-long, Itamaraca and Rajpury. Other varie-
ties of merit sometimes grown in Florida include Paheri,
Amini, Carabao, Cecil, Sandersha, and Brooks.
CAMBODIANA, with its greenish yellow skin and com-
parative freedom from blight, and Haden, with its wonder-
ful color and fruit quality, seem to be the two most promis-
ing varieties. A fruit that combined the Haden color with
the Cambodiana's resistance to disease and wonderful tex-
ture and flavor would rank close to perfection. The Cambo-
diana comes from the Malay peninsula, where it is said the
climate is much the same as the humid climate of Florida.
The Haden is a Florida seedling of Mulgoba, very highly
colored, prolific, and of fine quality.
Seedling mangoes have been the money makers for local
consumption, and will continue to be so until we can pro-
duce the finer fruits in such quantities as to makethem prof-
itable at a low price. Twenty-five to seventy-five and over
cents apiece is too much. The need is "more fruit."
To develop and hold a profitable market in the 'large
population centers, however, it will be necessary to furnish
a standard product. This means the use of budded varieties,
keeping the seedlings at home. To prolong the shipping
season, and lessen the marketing risk, two or more varieties
will probably be desirable, maturing their crops at slightly
different periods.


Fig. 5. Haden variety three years after grafting on seedling.

Remember that mangoes are a dry climate plant. They
do not relish being soaked with water-just enough to keep
the ground moist, not wet.
All the mango asks is room, plenty of dry weather, par-
ticularly at blooming time, and a moderate winter tempera-
ture with little or no frost. Damage from cold depends large-


ly upon the condition of the tree. It makes no stipulation
as to the quality of the soil, for it will grow almost any-
where that it is not too wet or too cold. We have seen
some of the finest mango trees on white sand twelve to
fourteen feet to the water table.
Humus will improve nearly all soils and all plants will
respond to the addition of humus to the soil. It will be found
advisable to turn under some good legume cover crop on
the land previous to planting mangoes.

The seeds should be planted soon after they have been
removed from the fruit, and before long you will have grow-
ing mango plants eager to serve your purpose. Some of the
plants will show a single stem (Monembryonic) ; others may
send up several shoots from the one seed (Polyembryonic).
The single stemmed plants may be left as they are. Care-
fully lift the multiple stemmed plants and you will see that
the seed is a twisted lot of subdivisions, each with a stem
and a root. These subdivisions may be separated and re-
planted, but it must be done so as not to injure the roots
and stems.
The mango is similar to many other plants in that it does
not, as a rule, reproduce "true to name." Its polyembryonic
seeds, however, are said to often prove an exception to this
rule; at any rate they are deserving of special attention,
particularly if the seed is from a fine fruit.
But you may say, these plants are all of them seedlings
and of doubtful character. Right you are; but they are, most
of them, strong healthy plants with fine root systems-just
the kind which may be counted upon to make wonderful
trees later on if you are interested in developing new and
superior varieties. It is the later treatment of these seed-
ling trees that is most interesting and absorbing.
Many of these seedling trees will bear fruit in from three
to five years, a few of them sooner than that, with the
chance that some of them will give you something new in
the mango line, prolific, with fruit of good size and shape,
of fine eating qualities, and an appearance that will catch
the eye of the consumer. Such trees should be watched care-
fully, and, if they persist in such good deeds, scions should


Fig. 6. West Indian Seedling (Cuba) about 20 years old; showing size of
trunk of tree.

r% i 7




Fig. 7. Same tree as Fig. 6, showing spread of top.

be taken from them for grafting on other trees of less
desirable character.
As soon as the plants are well rooted and making good
growth, say about the size of a pencil, they may be transfer-
red to their permanent location, or put in boxes for shipment
or other treatment, or they may be left in the rows about
18 inches apart to grow until needed. Transplanting is often
done in June just before the rainy season sets in.
The above is a brief outline of the seed bed route. In doing
one's own propagation, however, the grower quoted above
prefers to, as far as possible, plant the mango seeds at the
permanent location to start with, say two or three seeds
at each planting. Planting in this way we may have two or


three plants at each location to select from, all but the best
plant to be removed as may be required.

We believe in care in transplanting. The ground is laid
off to suit one's fancy, with tree locations not less than fif-
teen feet apart, say twenty by twenty, with much more
room provided for the seedlings which grow to be very
large trees. Stakes should be driven at each location, which
is prepared for the tree by digging a hole some time before
planting. A wire with a loop at each end is used to mark
the holes, one loop over the stake, the handle of the shovel
through the other loop. A circle four feet in diameter is
described and a hole of that size is dug two feet deep, the
stake left standing in the center. The excavated dirt is piled
evenly around the edges of the hole. The hole should be
left open as long as it is convenient, meanwhile putting in
it a couple of sacks or so of dead mango leaves or other
trash that will rot quickly. Later on two or three handfuls
of fertilizer are spread over the dirt at the edge of the hole
and all of it chopped into the hole with a hoe, getting into
the hole as much of the sweet surface soil as possible, the
workman standing in the hole to tramp it down. In a few
weeks the location is ready for the plant.
Plenty of water should be used when setting the plant,
not for the plant itself necessarily, but to compact the soil
to the plant. Scratch the ground around the tree occasion-
ally and cover it with mulching. Cultivate the middles if
you want to, but not too close to the tree for fear of disturb-
ing the fine fibrous roots. If you have rabbits, protect with
chicken wire, for rabbits like young mango plants; if it is
gophers (land turtles) drop a little "cyanogas" in the
burrow and cover it.

If the above program seems too long, you can hurry
things up a bit by grafting all of your seedlings as soon as
they are of sufficient size to such varieties as you may select.
If the grafts fail the tree is not necessarily destroyed; the
grafting may be repeated or the tree allowed to continue
as a seedling.
Of course, the quickest way to fruit production is to buy
your trees from a responsible nurseryman. He will outfit

Fig. 8. Cambodiana (Cochin China) variety grafted about 41 years a-o. Courtesy D. G. A. Kelbert.


you with the best varieties, guaranteed to be in the best
possible condition.
The grafting of the mango trees can be done at almost
any time. The best results seem to come from work of this
kind done just after the tree has perfected a flush of new
growth. The new leaves of the mango are red, or reddish
brown, "non-actinic," a way nature has of protecting the
freshly sprouted leaves from the fierce rays of the sun.
When these new leaves turn green, the time is about right
for grafting-the tree has perfected the new growth for
which it has been storing forces for some time, and is be-
ginning to get things lined up for a new "flush." Grafts and
buds are less liable to be flooded by sap pressure at this
time than later, when the new flush is being pushed out.
Budding the mango is rather difficult when the bark of
the tree has thickened, but it is all right with very young
growth. Inarching is practiced by nurserymen with satis-
factory results, but it appears to be rather expensive. The
Morris paraffin method of slot grafting for topworking old
trees is about the best and was described at a State Horti-
cultural Society meeting several years ago about as follows:
"The tools needed are a keen edged knife with a large
handle; a chisel or gouge, about half an inch; some kind
of a heater to keep the paraffin melted and in condition
to use; a small brush for painting the paraffin, camels hair
preferred; wire brads for nailing; raffia or twine for tying.
"Scions are cut of any size, we have used them with suc-
cess a half inch or over in thickness. Budwood that is too
soft to withstand rough handling is discarded. The scions,
as soon as they are cut from the parent tree, are tipped
with warm paraffin on all cut surfaces and kept moist with
a cloth or sphagnum dampened with water or, better still,
a very weak solution of copper sulphate.
"Pick out your scions a few days before you need to use
them, leaving them on the tree. Trim off their leaves, leav-
ing about an inch of each petiole. Pretty soon these stubs
will drop off-the wound healed. They are then in fine
shape to be cut from the tree and used.
"The grafts may be inserted close to the ground, so that
they may be protected in case of chilly weather, or, as we
prefer them, at the base of the first large branches if the
tree is a large one, the point being to balance as quickly
as possible a large root area with a proportionate area of
top growth.

Fig. 9. Cambodiana (Cochin China) variety, showing graft about 4% years ago.


"If you wish to be very particular about your work, brush
the spot selected for the graft with a weak solution of cop-
per sulphate and remove the surplus moisture.
"With the chisel or gouge make a glancing cut of about
two inches long down through the bark to the wood. Make
a cross cut at the lower end of this first cut and remove
the chip. This leaves a vertical niche, exposing at its lower
end the wood beneath the bark, with a flat shelf, so to
speak, at the lower end, the niche being just about the
right size for the upper part of the graft to rest in. As soon
as this niche is cut, paint it with the warm paraffin.
"Prepare the graft with as many buds on it as you want.
One bud is enough if you can get it placed without damage
from hough handling. We prefer two buds, but if the graft
is terminal, with several buds too close to be separated,
we use them just as they are.
"Cut the lower end of the graft on the long side of the
wedge already cut on the corner of the little shelf at the
bottom of the niche you have cut in the tree and, with a
knife or a chisel, make two clean cuts through the bark
down from the shelf about as long as the long side of the
wedge on your graft, gently lift the upper end of this tongue
or bark and slip in the graft with the lond side of the
wedge next the tree, press the flap of bark firmly against
the graft to make sure that it is up tight against the wood
of the tree, nail it fast with a three-quarter inch nineteen
or twenty wire brad at the upper end of the bark flap and
through the center graft itself. Paint the graft and all cut
places with the melted paraffin, tested first on your finger
to see that it is not too hot.
"Successful 'catches' will come in proportion to one's
ability to place the cambium layer of the graft in contact
with the cambium layer of the tree. The paraffin shuts
out air and outside moisture and, being translucent, per-
mits the passage of beneficial light rays.
"Leave the nails; don't try to pull them out-they will
rust off and disappear. As the grafts grow, be sure to sup-
port them with stakes, either stuck in the ground or nailed
to the tree. Lop off parts of the tree so as to even things up
and to throw the strength of the tree into the graft, and
finally, when you think it about time, trim off the tree close
to the graft so that the wound may readily heal over. Now,
all of this stuff is good for one tree, or for one thousand
trees. It is not guaranteed perfect, but it has made possi-
ble some wonderful things."


Fig. 10. Close up showing bloom panicles of mango.


Mangoes are fertilized pretty much the same as citrus,
generally inorganic mixtures, though once in a while they
get a taste of organic stuff. It does not seem to do them
any harm.
A fertilizer containing 4 to 6' percent ammonia, 6 to 8
percent available phosphoric acid, and 6 to 8 percent potash
will, under average conditions, give good results. The
amount to apply per tree will depend largely on the size
of the tree and its ability to produce fruit. A large tree
with a good crop of fruit will require much more fertilizer
than will a smaller tree with a small crop of fruit. An ap-
plication of from 15 to 20 pounds per tree up to 30 to 40
pounds per tree, applied in two or three applications per
year, should be sufficient.
While no experimental work has been conducted to de-
termine the value of the cover crops in a mango grove, it
is reasonable to suppose that the same advantages would
result with this class of fruit trees as with many others.
Leguminous cover crops are recommended for mango groves
in Hawaii and India. The best legume cover crops for Flor-
ida are velvet beans, cowpeas, beggarweed, and crotalaria,
as all of these do well in the sandy loam soils. (See Bul. 15,
New Series, Soil Improving Crops for Florida, State Dept.
of Agriculture.)
It is advisable to grow a legume crop in the grove until
the trees become large enough to shade the ground so much
that the cover crop will not grow satisfactorily. In growing
a crop between the rows of trees, care must be taken so as
not to injure the trees or root system. Space enough must
always be left between the tree rows and the legume crop
so that there will be no danger of injury to the trees.
The cultivation of the mango grove is very much the same
as for other fruit trees. When the trees are small, it is
necessary to see that weeds and grass do not grow up close
to the trees and in this way take both moisture and fertilizer
that belongs to the tree. Mulching is also desirable. But
regardless of what cultivation is done, the root system
must not be injured.



Fig. 11. Mulgoba Mango. Courtesy U. S. D. A.



Fig. 12. Sandersha Mango. Courtesy U. S. D. A.


The time of ripening of the mango will depend upon the
variety, the locality where grown, and the time of blooming.
Sometimes the early bloom is lost from rainy weather and
the only fruit secured is the result of a later secondary
bloom, a peculiar and fortunate habit of the mango tree.
The earliest ripe fruit may be obtained in April or May,
while later maturing varieties ripen anywhere from June
or July until September or October.
Quoting again from one correspondent:
"Fruit buyers come to us with their trucks loaded with
boxes. They pick the seedling fruit with long bamboo poles
with a hook at the end. The fruit is pulled off green and
hard so that rough handling does not injure it. The pickers
select the best on the tree, leaving the less mature fruit for
subsequent pickings. The fruit is nailed up, without wraps,
in tomato crates, and paid for in cash.
"The fine grafted fruit is handled more carefully. Each
fruit is picked with a small, wire rimmed muslin pocket or
bag fastened to the end of a stout picking pole. Bruising
the fruit is avoided. It is sold without wraps in four-quart
tomato baskets at a dollar the basket, six to ten fruits to
the basket. The larger fruit, weighing up to two and a half
pounds or so, sells at special prices. With such demand for
this fruit, right at our doors, there is no occasion to make
many shipments, except to fill special orders."
There are several localities in the state, however, that
ship fruit to outside markets. Where shipments to distant
markets are made, it is necessary that the fruit be carefully
picked and packed so that bruises will not result, or decay
is apt to set in. Several kinds of containers are in use, some
of them with a compartment for ice. Refrigeration is neces-
sary for shipments of fruit that are ripe or almost ripe.
The most troublesome factor in the fruit growing business
is the selling of the product; that is, selling it so as to leave
a fair share of its value for the producer. Viewed from this
standpoint, the mango has so far made a satisfactory show-
ing. There seems to be no end to the demand for it; and,
due to the fact that the area in which it can be produced
is limited, it will probably hold its own as a profit maker
for some time to come.


Fig. 13. Carabao Mango, Philippine type. Courtesy U. S. D. A.


In addition to eating mangoes as fresh fruit, which is the
real way to use them, they may be prepared in many ways,
some of which are given below. The following brief recipes
have been adapted from various sources, but all have been
tried in Florida and found useful.
Mango Jelly.-For jelly-making, the green fruit (before
it softens) is preferred. Peel and slice the pulp from the
seed. Cook until tender and strain. To each cup of boiling
juice add a cup of sugar and boil till jelly forms when the
juice is dropped from a spoon.
Mango Marmalade.-Use ripe fruit. Peel, and put into a
pan with water enough to half cover. The pulp may or may
not be cut from the seed (the latter makes a smoother mar-
malade). When tender, rub through a granite colander.
Add a cup of sugar to each quart of the pulp, and boil
thirty minutes. Seal at once.
Mango Preserves.-Select the fruit just showing color.
Peel and cut in sections. In making the syrup, allow, for
each pound of sliced fruit, one pound of granulated sugar
and a teacupful of water. Boil the sugar and water together
till it drops heavily from the spoon. Pour over the fruit,
and let stand till cold. Drain off the liquid, and boil down
as before. When the syrup is quite thick, put in the fruit,
boil hard for twenty minutes. Seal at once.
Tests have proved the Mulgoba to be one of the best for
Mango Sweet Pickle.-Select small ripe mangoes. Peel
and place in a stone jar, covering with a syrup made by
boiling equal parts of sugar and vinegar; with sufficient
whole cloves, allspice and cinnamon to produce the desired
flavor. When cold, drain, reheat the liquid and pour over
the fruit. Repeat several times. The last time place the fruit
in the boiling syrup, and when well heated put in wide-
mouthed jars and seal at once. The continued draining off of
the liquid and reheating cooks the fruit without breaking it.
Mango Chutney.-Take a quart of green mangoes, peel
and cut into half-inch cubes. Chop together one onion, six
sweet peppers, and six hot peppers, add a tablespoonful
of salt. Let this stand an hour and drain (discarding the
liquid). Heat to boiling a half pint of grapefruit or lime

*Bulletin 127. Florida Experiment Station.


Fig. 14 Haden Mango. Courtesy G. B. Cellon.


juice with a half pint of vinegar and a half pint of brown
sugar. Add a half pound of raisins, a tablespoonful of white
mustard seed, the prepared mangoes, onion, and peppers.
Boil all for about thirty minutes. Put in jars and seal at once.
All chutneys are better after standing for several weeks.
Fried Mangoes.-Peel and cut in sections. Fry in butter
or drippings, sprinkle with salt and sugar, and serve hot.
Mango Ice-Cream.-Use plain ice-cream custard made
by any favorite recipe as a basis. To each quart, add one
pint of ripe mango pulp and freeze.
Mango Sundae.-Have the fruit well iced. Cut in halves
and remove the seed. Fill the cavity with ice cream (plain
vanilla is best), and serve at once.
Information on the diseases and insect pests of mangoes
may be secured from the Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville, Fla., and the United States Department of Ag-
riculture, Washington, D. C. The literature given below
will also be of value to those who wish to go more deeply
into the subject of mango culture.
1. Farmers' Bulletin No. 542, "Pollination of the Mango,"
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
2. Farmers' Bulletin No. 52, "Anthracnose of the Mango
in Florida," U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C.
3. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1257, "Insects Injurious to the
Mango," U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C.
4. Station Bulletin No. 127, "Mangoes in Florida," Flor-
ida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida.
5. "Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits," by
Wilson Popenoe, published by The Macmillan Company.






Fig. 15. Gola Mango.

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