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 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
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 Appendix














Title: Tung oil industry in Florida
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Title: Tung oil industry in Florida
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Creator: Hadsell, Duane W.
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture,
Publication Date: 1959
Copyright Date: 1959
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Preface
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Main
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Appendix
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text

R-September 1959


Tung Oil Industry

In Florida


By DUANE W. HADSELL


STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner
Tallahassee


.alletin No. 11





R-September 1959


Tung Oil Industry

In Florida






By DUANE W. HADSELL









STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner
Tallahassee


Bulletin No. 11






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


PREFACE



This bulletin presents an outline of the Tung
Industry in Florida and related factors affecting
it. The data covers orchard location, establish-
ment, culture, operation, fertilization, insects and
diseases, harvesting, marketing, costs, returns
and profits with a discussion of market sup-
ply and demand, competition and stability of the
industry.

The author, Mr. D. W. Hadsell (B.S.A. Cor-
nell), was formerly connected with the largest
tung grove development in Florida; with the
U. S. Department of Agriculture as Investigator
in Marketing and Food Products Inspection; with
the Federal Land Bank as Land Bank Appraiser;
and is a member of the American Society of
Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers. He is at
present a chemist with the Florida Department
of Agriculture.
-NATHAN MAYO
State Commissioner of Agriculture




COVER SHOT: This beautiful shot of the tung blos-
soms in color was made possible through the courtesy
of Charles J. Belden, photographer in St. Petersburg.






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA 3


CONTENTS


PREFACE .
WHAT IS TUNG .
WHERE GROWN .
SITES .
SOILS FOR TUNG .
TOPOGRAPHY .
LAND PREPARATION .
PLANTING PLANS .
PLANTING STOCK .
PLANTING THE ORCHARD. .
TRAINING AND PRUNING TUNG. .
CULTIVATION AND COVER CROPS .
FERTILIZATION .
FERTILIZER RATES AND RECOMMENDATIONS .


FERTILIZERS .
FERTILIZATION AND COVER CROPS .
INSECTS AND DISEASES .
HARVESTING THE CROP .
THE MARKET SUPPLY AND DEMAND.
SUBSTITUTES AND SYNTHETICS .
DRYING OILS AND SYNTHETICS .
TUNG AND THE DRYING-OIL OUTLOOK
TUNG OIL MARKET .
MARKETING THE CROP .
TABLES AND STATISTICS .
PRODUCTION .
ORCHARD COSTS AND RETURNS .
ORCHARD PROFITS .
STABILITY OF TUNG INDUSTRY .
APPENDIX .


Page
2
4
4
5
6
6
6
7
8
8
8
10
12
13


15
. 17
. 18
. 18
19
21
. 22
. 23
. 24
. 24
25
. 28
29
. 30
. 30
. 33






4 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


TUNG-IN A NUT SHELL
By D. W. HADSELL

What Is Tung
Tung, a tree grown commercially in China for 40 centuries,
was first planted in Tallahassee, Florida, in 1906 and now
covers an area of some 40,000 acres in this state. The tree
bears fruits containing nut-like seeds from which Tung Oil, the
world's finest quick-drying paint oil, is extracted in six modern
tung mills in Florida. It is now well established in Southern
States industry, with a production of 42 million pounds of tung
oil in 1958, with estimated 12,800,000 pounds in Florida. This
oil was processed from an estimated 40,000 tons of tung nuts
in this state.
With a mature spread and height of over 35 feet, large
dark-green heart-shaped leaves, a showy pinkish-white bloom
coming out ahead of the April foliage it matures its crop in
the Fall, which is harvested mostly by hand-pickup after dry-
ing for a few weeks on the ground. These fruits called "tung
nuts" are then sacked and placed in tree crotches or drying
sheds to further dry down to 12 or 15 percent moisture before
they are sold or hauled to the mill for oil extraction.
Duing the past half century in Florida, Tung has become
adapted, improved, and its culture highly perfected. Its pro-
duction per acre has been more than doubled, and the oil con-
tent of the nuts materially increased. Unfavorable factors of
production have been determined and controlled and entry
into this industry today can be profitable, and stable under
good management, with a probable period of 30 to 40 years
profitable returns.

Where Grown
The adapted Tung Belt is a strip of high rolling land, 50 to
100 miles in width, stretching from eastern Texas to the At-
lantic Coast of Florida. Productive tung is possible only in a
favorable climatic range. An optimum of about 50 to 55 inches
of annual rainfall, uniformly warm days and night during the
growing season, a dormant period or chilling requirement,
of from 350 to 400 hours per season at 45 degrees or lower,
averaging 5 to 15 days below freezing during the Winter--
these conditions most favorable for tung production may be
best found in the Florida Tung Belt. (1, 2, 11) The leading
areas of tung growing in Florida in order of crop volume pro-






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA 5

duced, are the following counties: Jefferson, Leon, Jackson,
Alachua, Walton, Levy, Bradford, Calhoun and Gadsden. Only
the uplands in these counties are adapted to tung and in
general stretch from East to West along the northern halves
of the counties. (15, 16, 17)


A snowfall of tung blossoms.


Sites
Good sites for tung orchards are available in these coun-
ties, conveniently located in respect to highways, utilities,
railroads, shopping centers and populated with available
and experienced labor. Tung mills are in operation in this
area at Altha, Capps, Compass Lake, Gainesville, Lloyd and
Monticello, Florida, to buy and adequately handle the tung
crop. Such sites with suitable soil and terrain may be selected
as ... old farms with more or less improvements and cleared
land for orchard planting or as virgin land commonly in
second-growth timber, some of it marketable as pulpwood and






6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

logs. The best sites and soils have been selling for around
100 dollars and up an acre, more or less, and may be in tracts
with an additional 40 percent of pasture, timber, and swamp
land of lower value.

Soils for Tung
The proper choice of an adapted soil and topography is a
vital prerequisite for successful tung production. A deep sandy
soil is very undesirable, being subject to leaching and drought
losses and requiring heavier and costly fertilization. Low, flat
land should never be planted to tung, being subject to poor
drainage and heavy frosts. The best soil types-the Ruston,
Red Bay, Orangeburg, Norfolk, Magnolia, Marlboro, Green-
ville, Faceville, Tifton and Carnegie Soil Series-are in gen-
eral well-drained upland soils with relatively sandy surface
and sub-surface; and with a sandy-clay loam to
sandy clay, friable and uniformly-colored red or yellow
sub-soil. These soils are deeply permeable to root growth,
well-drained and relatively high in their base exchange or
absorption capacity for fertilizer, plant food and moisture. A
heavy humus content in such soils is the most effective natural
factor, assuring heavy crop production. Appendix References
(1, 2, 4, 11, 13, 18).

Topography
Frost damage to the early Spring bloom and late Fall im-
mature growth is the greatest hazard to crop production in
thrifty orchards. Suitable topography with high sloping
land from which cold frosty air, being heavier, runs off down
the slope into adequate bottom areas, basins, or drainage runs
... provides good air drainage ... the best protection against
frost damage. Such topography also assures good soil drainage
and aeration, both necessary for thrifty growth and heavy
production. Tung is intolerant of wet feet and poor soil
aeration.

Land Preparation
Woodland should be thoroughly cleared, all stumps, brush,
and trash removed. Cleared land, or old-field land, is then
thoroughly plowed and disced. All orchards on the desirable
hilly sites, with slopes of 3 per cent or over, should be terraced
to control erosion and root damage. Well-built terraces are
necessary to conduct excess surface-water around the slopes at
a surveyed decline, into adequate carefully-designed sodded






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA


outlets extending down into the bottom lands or swamps. This
terrace system may be laid out by the county Conservation
Authorities. Tree rows are planted on the terrace tops with
intervening rows laid out between the terraces, paralleling the
upper terrace when the terraces are converging and the
lower terrace when they are diverging. Tree rows should be
35 to 50 feet distant from surrounding fences, roadways, or
woodland.


Tung blossoms.


Planting Plans
Planting rates vary from 60 to 145 trees per acre generally.
Most commonly, 60 to 70 trees per acre called "wide planting"
... or 100 to 145 trees per acre called "close planting" systems,
are being employed. Close planting tends to produce greater





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


crop volume and annual returns during the first 8 to 10 years,
but at the expense of economy and production in later years
. due to tree crowding and smaller tree structure as the
trees get older. Wide planting costs less per acre produces
an orchard of larger trees more valuable per acre in later
years and allows for more pasturage, cover cropping, and
convenience in tillage and harvest operations. In either system,
tree rows should be wide, from 30 to 35 feet apart to provide
adequate cultural, transport and harvest space.

Planting Stock
The most approved planting stock is the one year old seed-
ling nursery tree grown from the seed of one of the "progeny-
tested" parent trees certified by the U. S. Field Laboratory
for Tung Investigations, at Bogalusa, Louisiana (1, 11). These
trees come true to varietal characteristics to a very high
degree. A list of persons supplying such trees or seed may be
requested from the Laboratory, care of Dr. George F. Potter,
in charge. This type of tree has been selling for about 15 cents
apiece, and its purchase saves the grower one year's time
in growing nursery stock himself. In the nursery all off-type
trees are culled out, thus providing much better selection of
first class trees than is possible under the old field spot-
planting system formerly employed. This type of planting
stock has proven the most profitable and productive, the
fruits having a higher oil content, and the tree having the
best characteristics.

Planting the Orchard
Nursery trees as soon as dug or purchased, should be
planted immediately, or heeled-in before roots dry out and
die. January, February, or early March is the best period for
planting tung. The root system should be trimmed to about
one foot long and a foot wide, and tree holes dug at the
marking stakes large enough to take the tree roots without
crowding. Trees are set at about the same depth as in the
nursery. The soil should be well worked in around the roots
to eliminate all air pockets. Water poured in the tree holes
while planting is effective in preventing air-pockets and
subsequent tree loss, and in promoting early vigorous growth.

Training and Pruning Tung
Normally a tung tree under favorable fertility and climatic
conditions will grow, during the first year, a well-branched






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA


head with branches well-spaced at wide angles between the
branches and trunk, and with the central leader larger than
the lateral branches. This type of tree development assures
strength of tree structure, and high resistance to splits and
breaks.
A nursery tree of the preferred low-headed varieties is
best pruned back to 8 or 10 inches height when planted. When
growth starts all buds are rubbed off except the strongest and
best-placed sprout, preferably two inches or more below the
top of the stump, to encourage a vigorous first year's growth
and favorable branching. Branching does not occur until the
tree under favorable growing conditions reaches an inherent


A tree loaded with tung nuts.
branching height. If the tree fails to reach that height and
does not branch during the first year, it will develop a whorl
of branches from the terminal bud at the beginning of the
second year. Such structures, known as "Cartwheel Trees"
are weak and likely to break or split under heavy crops or
high wind. These trees must be cut back at the beginning






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


of the second year to a height of 16 or 18 inches, allowing all
branches that come out from the trunk to grow and form
what is known as a vase-form head. The vase-form head with
branches at more acute angles than the natural head, bears
well but is more subject to breakage in later years. Progeny-
selected varieties which are inherently low-heading are pref-
erable, usually coming into bearing earlier. Such varieties
may be obtained from listed sources. (Page 8). Nursery
trees of high heading varieties may be pruned to about 16
inches at planting time, and if they are good strong trees
with a caliper of 5/ inches or more, they will develop well-
branched vase-formed heads. After the first year's pruning
to train the tree is completed, very little if any more, is
needed. (1)

Cultivation and Cover Crops
The tung tree is a rather heavy feeder and has a shallow
fibrous-root feeding system. To do its best it requires an
abundant and continuous supply of plant food, moisture,
humus and soil aeration during its warm weather growing
season. To maintain the soil supply of organic matter and
soil fertility, leguminous cover crops are grown and turned
under. And to eliminate grass and weed competition intoler-
able to tung, soil cultivation is carried on.
In the newly-planted and young orchard while the shaded
area under the trees is limited to narrow strips, Summer
cover crops of Crotelaria, Beggarweed, Indigo, Cow Peas, and
others may be grown in the middles. Later as the tree canopies
widen out Winter cover crops are better adapted, including the
Lupines, Crimson Clover, Hairy Vetch, Austrian Peas and
others. Blue Lupines have been used extensively with excellent
soil fertility results. The re-seeding strain of Crimson Clover
is showing promise as a valuable fertility builder, and in addi-
tion furnishes several months of late Winter or early Spring
grazing for cattle after harvest pickup of the nuts is com-
pleted. During the first three or four years, cover crop compe-
tition right in the tree rows can be as damaging to the trees
as weeds or grass. Consequently eight or ten strip-cultivations,
six to eight feet along each side of the tree row, are carried
on at a shallow depth during the Spring and Summer to
completely control all weeds and grass, the cover crops
being seeded in the middles. By the first of September or
thereabouts the cover crop is chopped or disced under, .
with the exception of a narrow strip which may be left in
the middles for re-seeding purposes. This in turn is disced
under after seed eruption in early Fall.






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA


In older bearing groves Winter cover crops are seeded
about October first in the tree-row centers and disced under
the following April or May. Then native vegetation protect-
ing the soil against erosion, takes over until late August when
the orchard is again well-disced to clean up the soil surface
for the fall of tung nuts in September, and for the growth
of the seeded or volunteer leguminous cover crop in October.
Both young and old groves require one or two hand-hoeings
per season to eliminate briars and weeds growing close to the
tree trunks, interfering with harvest pick-up, and sapping
young tree growth.
While clean cultivation of the tree rows accompanied by
cover cropping in the middles as above described, has been
the most common cultural practice, sod culture has also
been successfully employed under certain conditions. It is not

Y -lI


Closeup of the tung nuts.






12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

successful with young non-bearing trees which must have fre-
quent cultivation to offset weed and grass competition. In
bearing orchards with large trees the soil surface is more or
less completely shaded, greatly reducing the growth of weeds
and grass, and limiting the effective growth of cover crops to
those that may be grown during the Winter when the tung
tree loses it foliage. The grass that does grow in the middles
during the warm growing season, is controlled by several
mowings during the season. One or two cultivations may be
employed to work in the fertilizer, and fertilization may be
a little heavier under a modified sod-culture system.

Fertilization
Most soils in the Tung Belt are inherently low in fertility
and available plantfood, and will not support a profitable tung
enterprise without fertilization. Well-adapted fertilization ac-
complishes the following objectives:
1st -It aids during the first year in growing a normal
height of head, and in producing an optimum
number and distribution of the main lateral
branches of the tree;
2nd-It promotes a good growth of tree during the
first four to six years after planting, thus estab-
lishing a strong framework of branches and a
large bearing surface as early as possible;
3rd-In bearing trees it assures a vigorous annual
growth of new shoots and terminals upon which
the next season's crop is born;
4th-It supplies the necessary food elements to grow
and mature the crop, while simultaneously grow-
ing new bearing wood for the next season's crop;
5th-It raises and maintains the fertility and produc-
tive power of the soil through plantfood accumu-
lation and cover crop production and incorpora-
tion.
The amount and proportion of the "primary" plantfood
elements (N-P-K) applied as fertilizer in Florida tung
orchards, varies considerably according to the soil type and
fertility, and the orchard condition. In general for a 100
tree-per-acre planting, the following analyses and amounts
of the primary elements are commonly applied annually as
mixed fertilizer, as further detailed in Farmers Bulletin
No. 2031 by Dr. George F. Potter and Dr. Harley L. Crane.






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA 13


Inside look at a tung nut.


Fertilizer Rates and Recommendations

FERTILIZER ANALYSIS
Year Phosphoric Pounds Pounds
of Nitrogen Acid Potash per per
Growth N PO, KO Tree Acre

1 6 6% 6% 1 lb. 100 lbs.
2 6 6 6 2 200
3 10 5 10 3 300
4 10 5 10 4 400
5 10 5 10 5 500
6 10 5 12 6 600
7 10 5 12 8 800
8 10 5 12 10 1000
9-and on 10 5 12 121/2 1250





14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The above table lists a general recommendation for the
fertilization with primary elements N-P-K, of a tung orchard
planted 100 trees per acre. For example, 3 year old trees
would receive annually 3 pounds per tree of a fertilizer an-
alyzing 10% Nitrogen, 5% Phosphoric Acid, and 10% Potash,
or 300 pounds of this mixture per acre. If planted 70 trees per
acre, the poundages are increased after the third year, to
6, 8, 12, 14, 16 and 18 pounds up to the ninth year, and
thereafter remain constant, both plantings then getting ap-
proximately the same amount per acre.
In addition to the above amounts and analyses of N-P-K,
from 2 to 4 ounces of Zinc Sulphate are commonly applied
per tree, annually for the first four years, either in the
fertilizer mixture or as separate applications on deficient soil
areas or trees. Some of the tung areas have other plantfood
deficiencies which are corrected with applications of Man-
ganese Sulphate, Copper Sulphate, and Magnesium Sulphate.
The need for such corrections is determined by soil analysis,

ple~ssi~srs8~.sa~a~s~. 8e, np .


Workmen gathering nuts which dried on the ground.






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA


leaf-tissue analysis, and visual deficiency symptoms observed
in the tree foliage and growth; and by oil analysis of the
fruits. Potash deficiency is most prevalent in some of the
best heavier clay-type tung soils in Jefferson, Leon and
nearby areas, while Magnesium deficiency is most serious
in the lighter, sandier soils where it is commonly applied
regularly in the fertilizer mixture at half the rate for potash.
Zinc deficiency is likely to be prevalent in all the tung areas,
and its shortage if not corrected as above detailed, will result
in a physiological derangement of the tree which prevents
normal growth and fruiting and makes the tree very sensitive
to frost damage.
In general, these deficiencies are most prevalent in the
deep sands and light and eroded soils. All of them can be and
must be corrected for successful tung production. The ex-
perience needed to recognize and control these "physiological
diseases" can be readily acquired with the assistance of exist-
ing advisory sources listed in the Appendix (1, 4, 2, 10, 11,
13). Supplementary applications of these "secondary ele-
ments" will probably be required from time to time throughout
the life of the orchard.
Fertilizer is applied by hand to the newly planted trees, in
a circle some 16 inches in radius, about the time the new
growth starts out, and is hoed in. On bearing groves fertilizer
is applied in February or early March before blooming time
and is broadcast beneath the trees and a little outside the
branch extension. On the larger acreages this is done with
fertilizer distributors.
If a deficiency of potash, or some other plantfood element,
appears in the Spring growth, it has been found effective to
make a supplementary application containing such elements
to offset the shortage and correct the tree condition. Supple-
mentary applications of about half the regular dose, contain-
ing potash, magnesium, and/or nitrogen according to the
deficiency evidenced, are both curative and productive of
tree vigor, thriftiness and health.

Fertilizers
The foregoing Table on page 13 (extracted from Farmer's
Bul. 2031) is an average of the approximate fertilizer re-
quirements of tung trees under specified conditions. The
10-5-12 analysis for a 9 year old tree means that in one ton
of fertilizer, 10% or 200 pounds is Nitrogen (N) ; 5% or 100
pounds is Phosphoric Acid (P205) ; and 12% or 240 pounds
is Potash (KO2). The ratio of these nutrients or plantfoods
is thus 2-1-2.4, The same ratio would be supplied by an






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


analysis of 4-2-4.8, or 8-4-11.2, The ratio represents
the calculated proportion of nutrients supplied by the ferti-
lizer, and estimated as the tree requirements. The proper
ratio of nutrients supplied the tree is of great importance,
just as is the ratio of fats, starches and sugars-to proteins,
for people. Any analysis with the same ratio can supply the
tree with its nutrient requirement. However, the higher the
analysis (10-5-12 instead of 4-2-2.48), the lower is the cost
per "unit" (unit is 1% of a ton, or 20 pounds), as the mixing,
bagging, tagging and overhead costs of manufacture are about
the same per bag of fertilizer. Also the costs of handling,
hauling and distribution per tree or per acre, are reduced with
"high-analysis" fertilizers, as less 10-5-12 is needed to supply
200 pounds of nitrogen than it would require using a 4-2-4.8.
The amounts of fertilizer given in the above table repre-
sent the approximate average requirements of specified tree
plantings, and inferentially, the average production resulting
therefrom. Poorly, lightly, or insufficiently fertilized orchards
normally produce crops tending to be small in quantity, lower
in oil content, and unprofitable. Heavy applications, other
conditions being favorable, can produce very large crops of
high quality. Poor soil, deficient in plantfood, can produce
a first year's growth of 3 feet or less; rich, fertile soil with
a high percentage of plantfood can produce a growth of 8
feet or more. Bearing groves have ranged all the way from
less than one ton per acre nut production, to over 4 tons per
acre-the heaviest crops being the result of both superior
planting stock and management, and of well-adapted generous
fertilization. The grower's investment in a well-adapted form-
ula and adequate quantity of fertilizer, is the most effective
factor in production economy, and the cheapest factor of
profitable cropping.
Where it can be economically accomplished (short return
haul, and profitable deal with the nut-buyer or mill) it is
advantageous to return to the orchard soil, both the Tung
Meal (residue after mill has extracted the oil) and the Tung
Hulls (shucks). The Tung Meal may be applied separately or
used as an ingredient in the fertilizer applied. The Hulls are
spread evenly over the soil area. When these by-products are
returned to the tung soil, the farming system is theoretically
Non-Depleting, as very small quantities of the plantfood ele-
ments are removed in the oil which is made up largely of
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen derived from air and water.
This system returns to the soil the organic matter of both the
tung crop and the covercrop. Organic matter is the most
effective factor in Soil Base Exchange Capacity-the most
significant factor of potential high fertility.






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA


Closeup of gathering tung nuts.


Fertilization and Cover Crops
To grow cover crops most successfully, lime and fertilizer
are generally needed. Tung soils are usually too acid for best
growth (pH 4.7 to 5.3) and Dolomite, a magnesium limestone,
is commonly applied up to half a ton per acre on the lighter
soils, to one ton per acre on the heavier clay-type soils,
the objective being to gradually bring the soil pH to between
5.7 and 6.3, with a pH of 6.00 being about optimum. At this
range the soil plantfood and fertilizer nutrients are generally
most available for cover crop and tree assimilation.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


From 200 to 250 pounds of 20 percent superphosphate,
plus 50 pounds of muriate of potash per acre applied in the
middles, should support the growth of a near-maximum crop
of leguminous cover crop (1, p. 33). Such cover crops of le-
gumes producing possibly ten tons or more of green-manure
per seeded-acre, add greatly to the fertility of the orchard
soil, frequently adding the equivalent of 600 to 700 pounds of
nitrate of soda per acre, in the nitrogen the legume root-
nodules obtain from the air. The nitrogen gathered, and the
potash, phosphoric acid, magnesium, calcium, and other sec-
ondary elements with which the cover crop is fertilized .
are assimilated and built into the tissue of the cover crop,
thus protected against leaching and soil fixation losses. Later
as the crop decays in the soil, these elements are in the best
condition for assimilation by the tung tree. This productive
result is completed by discing-under the cover crop, or by using
it as a heavy mulch around the young trees, deep enough to
prevent weed growth.
Adapted fertilization combined with heavy leguminous
green-manuring are the two most fundamental requirements,
and the most effective factors of heavy production from well-
established tung orchards. Terracing and soil conservation
measures are essential to protect and maintain an established
and productive soil fertility.

Insects and Diseases
Damage to the tung orchard or crop from pests and dis-
eases is of very little commercial importance. Occasionally
grasshoppers, weevils, and some scales attack trees or crops,
and infrequently thread-blight, nut and root rots and cankers
infect some trees. None of these diseases or insect pests are
of common occurrence, or likely to produce serious loss. Con-
trols have been worked out on most of them. (1) (11)

Harvesting the Crop
The tung crop starts to mature and fall to the ground
about the 5th of September and continues to fall into early
November. The fruits are allowed to lie on the prepared and
cleanly-cultivated ground to dry for several weeks until the
moisture has decreased from about 60 percent to around 30
percent. Harvest hands then pick up the crop by hand into
bushel baskets and are paid piecework rates. The "tung nuts"
are then sacked and placed in tree crotches to dry further, or
hauled to specially constructed slatted aerated drying sheds.
Finally, when dried down to between 12 and 15 percent






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA


moisture, the crop is hauled (frequently in the miller's truck)
to the mill for oil extraction. It is a definite advantage to
the grower to get his crop as dry as possible before selling
it, thus realizing more profit by the increase in oil percentage
and the decrease in weight and hauling cost. (12) Tung mills
are equipped with drying units to remove the excess moisture
which the grower may fail to remove.

The Market Supply and Demand
Previous to 1932 the United States imported 100 percent of
her domestic consumption of tung oil from China, averaging
some 120 million pounds of oil per year. In 1932 we produced


Drying tung nuts in the trees.


our first plantation grown domestic tung oil, which was ex-
tracted in the first tung oil mill in America at Gainesville,
Florida. Since then the industry has steadily expanded,
covering some 150,000 acres of orchards in the six Gulf Coast






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


. /


Unloading tung nuts at crushing plant.

States today. Eleven tung mills, including six Florida mills,
buy and process the crop into tung oil, stored for sale in
bonded tanks at the mills. There has always been a market and


II


rrS~Z2






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA


sale for any amount of tung oil we have produced in this
country. (10)
The production of tung nuts and milled tung oil from our
orchards has expanded proportionately from 14 million
pounds of oil in 1951, to 40 million in 1953, and 151/2 million
in 1954 (the crop damaged this year by frost, to 42 million in
1958. During these same years the production of tung oil
in China ran from 200 million pounds in 1951, down to 154
million pounds in 1954, none of this Chinese oil being
exported to the United States since 1952 owing to communist
control. Production in Argentina during these years ran from
29 million pounds to 281/2 million pounds, averaging 26 million
pounds annually. Some of this has been imported into the
United States. (6)
Previous to World War II, our domestic consumption of
tung oil used by industry in the manufacture of all drying-
oil products, was around 100 million pounds per year, and
was derived mostly from China. During the war it fell to an
average of about 33 million pounds annually. After the war
a stored surplus of Chinese oil arrived in this country, and our
consumption jumped to an average of 112 million pounds
annually. The outbreak of hostilities in Korea and Red China
again interrupted the export of Chinese oil. We received 11
million pounds from China in 1951, 8 million in 1952 .
and none since. As a result of these interruptions in our im-
ports from China, our government during World War II
promoted vast research in the effort to find or produce sub-
stitutes for tung oil, urgently needed for protective coverings
for war equipment and materials. Many were perfected and
proved to be effective. (14)

Substitutes and Synthetics
In relation to the drying-up of our former source of
supply of tung oil in China, and to the fact that our domestic
orchard production was insufficient to supply our normal
consumption, Dr. H. L. Crane of the U. S. Bureau of Plant
Industry stated, "This condition caused a vast amount of
research to be done on ways of making such protective coat-
ings without the use of tung oil, so that at present (June 1950)
there are many oils that can be used to replace or be substi-
tuted for tung oil. Among these are dehydrated castor oil,
oiticica oil, perilla oil, and heat-treated mixtures of other
vegetable drying oils; also synthetics such aPs the alkyds,
phenol formaldehyde resins, and distilled oils of high iodine
number, as well as spirit-soluble compounds, cellulose, and
other materials. Many of these materials are now being widely






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


used in industry. In future years many of them as well as
some new materials are likely to be used even though tung
oil is available in large quantities. It is the opinion of many


Tung oil filter press.


that tung oil will be in large demand in the future provided
that the supply is uniform and the price is competitive and
fairly stable in comparison with other drying oils." (6)

Drying Oils and Synthetics
Along the lines of Dr. Crane's prediction, these altered oils
and synthetic substitutes for tung have been tried out and
adopted by industry for many specialized purposes, and have
supplied some of the market demand formerly supplied by
tung oil. In fact, the consumption of tung oil used in all
drying-oil products, dropped to 65 million pounds in 1951,
to 51 million pounds in 1952 and 1953, and to 50 million
pounds of tung oil each year since. apparently a new


'V






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA


level of Normal Domestic Consumption in this country.
Tung oil ranks fourth amongst all drying-oils used in
domestic industry in 1954, linseed oil being first con-
stituting 50 percent of all these oils used; soybean second with
21 percent utilization; Tall oil third with about 10 per-
cent; and tung oil fourth with 4.8 percent of the total
drying-oils utilized in U. S. Industry. For ten years up to
1940, tung constituted 15.3 percent of all drying-oils used
here in industry; from 1941 through 1946 its use dropped to
2.7 percent during the World War II when Chinese oil was
not obtainable. Right after the War from 1947 through 1950
with a stored-surplus importation from China, its use jumped
to 101/2 percent of all drying-oils. And finally, as synthetic
coverages were perfected and adopted, from 1951 through
1954, tung oil use dropped to 5 percent of the total drying-
oils used in our industry. (6)
The amount of all drying-oils used in industry in 1954
totalled 1 billion, 45 million pounds, in which is included 50
million pounds of tung oil,-our present normal consumption.
The average amount of all drying oils used in domestic manu-
facture per gallon of drying-oil products in 1935 to 1939, was
2.2 pounds of oil per gallon. In recent years this proportion has
dropped to about 1.45 pounds per gallon. A considerable part
of this reduction has been replaced by the synthetics now being
used in the protective coatings field, including the vinyl resins,
phenol formaldehyde resins, silicone alkyd resins, water-
thinned latex, styrenated alkyds, acrylic resins, and others. (6)

Tung and the Drying-Oil Outlook
Much of the foregoing and subsequent data herein was
obtained from the publication "The Fats and Oils Situation"
issue of January 1959, published by the Agricultural Market-
ing Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C. which the reader is invited to consult for much more
detailed information.
Into this vast reservoir of demand for protective coatings,
the synthetics have made their entry, largely as the result of
the much greater research into the development of the non-
agricultural materials for use in protective coatings. The use
of drying oils has increased only about 25 percent in the
last two decades, while the production of paints, varnishes
and lacquers has nearly doubled. Synthetics and chemically-
altered linseed, soybean and tall oil, have at least temporarily
filled the gap in the demand for, and supply of drying oils,
initially caused by shortages in production, and import of
tung oil. (6)


23






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Tung oil has consistently topped the field among natural
drying oils in quality and price. In the above research report
it is stated that "There is reason to hope that the inroads the
synthetic products have made into the drying-oil market may
be offset by a concerted effort directed at modifying and im-
proving tung oil and the drying oils, making them more
attractive to consumers. Potentially the oils might serve as
raw materials for making other film-formers yielding prod-
ucts superior to those now obtained from synthetics." It is
further stated that "The resulting decline in drying oil con-
sumption however, will be offset by the expansion in total
markets for most of these products. We may expect new
combinations of drying oils and synthetic raw materials."

Tung Oil Market

The production from U. S. tung orchards in 1958 was 42
million pounds of tung oil. Our domestic consumption by
industry since 1951 has been a little over 50 million pounds.
Argentina produces some 38 million pounds of tung oil each
year and has exported some into this country, making up some
of our shortage. However the import of tung oil from Argen-
tina and Paraguay has been limited by governmental agree-
ment to 26 million pounds during the 1958-59 years.
A further protection to our market price and stability has
been the National Agricultural Act of 1949 which put tung
on the list of products on which Price Support is mandatory.
This has ranged from a level of 24.1 cents per pound of oil
in 1949 to about 21 cents per pound in 1958.
Research on tung and its products is a necessary and
promising field needed to meet competition and increase in-
dustry profits. Tung meal is toxic and cannot be fed to
animals. Detoxification of the meal might raise the price
from a present one cent per pound to 3 cents per pound. The
U.S.D.A. is now conducting research along this line. (6)

Marketing the Crop

After harvest and preliminary drying the orchardist can
sell his tung nut crop to the mill at a delivered price, based
on the government support price, the daily quoted market
price, and the oil content of his crop. Or he can have his
crop custom-milled at a cost of from $12.50 to $15.00 per
ton of nuts, and the extracted oil held in bonded storage tanks
at his disposal. He can then sell it in various lots, or pool it
with other stored stocks for sale in larger quantities.







TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA


If the grower wishes to borrow money on his stored oil
from the government's Commodity Credit Corporation, he
can get a loan with interest at 4 percent and repay the loan
October 31st, or forfeit the oil. The amount of the loan is
determined by the government price support based on 60
to 90 percent of parity. Tung nuts under the National Agri-
cultural Act of 1949 were added to the list of nonbasic
agricultural commodities on which a price support is manda-
tory. The support price has varied since then from 25.1 cents
per pound of oil to around 21 cents per pound. The price per
ton of nuts is commuted on a basis of 17.5 percent oil content
in the dried nuts, and varies according to the oil content.
The accompanying Tables show figures relating to supply,
disposition and utilization of tung nuts and tung oil through-
out recent years.

Tables and Statistics
In the following tables data is given covering the follow-
ing:
Table I

TUNG NUTS: SUPPLY, DISPOSITION AND PRICE, 1939-58


Year Supply
beginning Pro- Imports
November duction
1,000 1,000
tons tons
1939 1.2
1940 11.0
1941 8.7
1942 16.4
1943 6.2
1944 26.7
1945 37.1
1946 57.4
1947 53.2
1948 58.5 2.7
1949 87.9 .3
1950 36.5
1951 49.1 .1
1952 132.1 .5
1953 120.0
1954 51.0
1955 6.2 .5
1956 103.5 -
1957 82.6 -
19582 134.5 -
1. Negligible.
2. Preliminary. Crushing is forecast.


Total

1,000
tons
1.2
11.0
8.7
16.4
6.2
26.7
37.1
57.4
53.2
61.2
88.2
36.5
49.2
132.6
120.0
51.0
6.7
103.5
82.6
134.5


Disposition
Crushings Residual

1,000 1,000
tons tons
(1.2) -
(11.0) .- .
(8.7)
16.4 .
5.5 .7
27.3 -.6
27.5 9.6
45.1 12.3
50.6 2.6
50.3 10.9
83.1 5.1
35.8 .7
48.5 .7
129.5 3.1
112.6 7.4
46.6 4.4

100.2 3.3
79.9 2.7
130


Price
Season
Average

Dol.
42.20
60.00
88.30
91.80
99.00
102.00
98.90
96.90
64.90
49.10
63.70
111.00
106.00
79.80
66.80
59.40
64.00
53.40
52.30
53.80








Table II
TUNG OIL: SUPPLY, DISPOSITION AND PRICE, 1935-581


Supply

Pro- Imports Total
duction
Mil. lb. Mil. lb. Mil. lb.


Year
beginning
November

Average
1935-39
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
19577
19588


123.2

1.8
.3
24.5
103.4
140.4
72.4
105.9
48.2
30.4
13.0
41.5
25.2
31.4
31.5
24.4
26.0


161.7
36.7
32.3
31.9
41.3
125.0
188.4
137.0
151.1
91.0
61.2
65.1
96.3
87.1
66.0
76.5
74.7
105.0


Disposition
Domestic
Exports' disap-
pearance
Mil. lb. Mil lb.


118.1
"11.5
"10.5
21.7
33.2
87.1
130.4
107.7
112.5
172.4
51.2
49.6
49.3
51.2
51.6
50.4
"38.1
45.0


Begin-
ning
stocks
Mil. lb.


Price
Tanks,
f.o.b.
mills"
Ct.


Support

Ct.


Oil
acquired
by CCC
Mil. lb.


Drums,
N.Y.
(imported)
Ct.

18.2
39.0
39.0
39.2
39.2
32.4
25.2
23.4
26.5
38.2
40.8
31.3
24.3
25.1
26.2
24.7
23.2


.6
5.2
1.9
8.8
9.1
14.4
16.0
17.0
26.8
12.3
14.7
43.4
39.6
15.2
2.2
32.0
25.5
42.0


Data by crop year not available until 1942-43. 1935-39 calendar year average.
Includes re-exports.
Not available before April 1949.
Less than 50,000 pounds.
Factory consumption figures used for years in which reported factory consumption exceeds domestic disappearance.
Processor had to agree to buy back oil at 37 cents a pound or else CCC would purchase oil only at 30 cents a pound.
Preliminary.
Forecast except beginning stocks.


36.0
"36.0


37.9
31.4
28.7
22.8
7.7
7.2
31.9
47.6
18.5
30.5
16.0
8.7
15.1
46.7
32.4
13.0
24.8
36.9


7.8

1.6


5.8
32.8
4


15.0
10.7







TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA 27


Table III

TUNG OIL: SUPPLY AND DISPOSITION, 1947-57'


Produc- Imports
tion
Mil. lb. Mil. lb.
16.0 140.4
17.0 12.4
26.8 105.9
12.3 48.2
14.7 30.4
43.4 13.0
39.6 41.5
15.2 25.2
2.2 31.4
32.0 31.5
25.5 24.4


Supply
Stocks Nov. 1
CCC Total

Mil. lb. Mil. lb.
31.9
7.8 47.6
18.5
1.6 30.5
1.6 16.0
.5 8.7
5.8 15.1
38.6 46.7
19.2 32.4
.4 13.0
15.0 24.8
25.7 36.9


Disposition
Domestic
Total Exports2 disap-
pearance
Mil. lb. Mil. lb. Mil. lb.
188.4 10.4 130.4
137.0 10.9 107.7
151.1 8.2 112.5
91.0 6.4 372.4
61.2 1.3 51.2
65.1 .3 49.6
96.3 .3 49.3
87.1 3.6 51.2
66.0 1.4 51.6
76.5 1.3 50.4
74.7 .4 338.1


1. Totals computed from unrounded data.
2. Includes re-exports.
3. Reported factory consumption, which exceeds
pearance.
4. Preliminary.


the computed domestic disap-


Table IV


TUNG OIL: UTILIZATION, YEAR BEGINNING

NOVEMBER 1947-571


Drying oil products
Linoleum
and Resins
oilcloth
Mil. lb. Mil. lb.
8.7
11.3
5.8 -
2.3


Other

Mil. lb.
19.4
10.2
10.3
9.7
4.7
3.8
2.2
3.4
3.9
3.3
.9


Total
domestic
disap-
pearance
Mil. lb.
130.4
107.7
112.5
272.4
51.2
49.6
49.3
51.2
51.6
50.4
238.1


Totals computed from unrounded data.
Reported factory consumption, which
pearance.
Less than 50,000 pounds.
Preliminary.


exceeds the computed domestic disap-


Year
beginning
November

1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957'
1958


Year
beginning
November

1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957'
1958


Paint and
varnish
Mil. lb.
102.3
86.2
96.5
57.3
43.4
41.1
43.6
43.8
43.0
43.8
33.6





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Table V
TUNG NUTS: HISTORICAL REVIEW 1944-1955 AND 1958

Production Price Total
Season in Tons Per Ton Farm Value
1944 7,000 $100.00 $ 700,000
1945 8,400 98.00 823,000
1946 15,000 96.00 1,440,000
1947 11,000 68.00 748,000
1948 17,500 46.00 805,000
1949 16,200 60.00 972,000
1950 8,200 120.00 984,000
1951 12,200 112.00 1,366,000
1952 31,000 84.00 2,604,000
1953 28,000 65.00 1,846,000
1954 21,600 59.00 1,274,000
1955 6,200 64.00 397,000
1958 40,000 54.00 2,160,000
The 1955 crop was small and the cash price higher because of a severe
freeze that damaged many acres.


Production
On suitable soils and sites and with the best strains of
planting stock now available, the grower using the best
proven practices should be able to produce 2 tons of field-
dried tung nuts per acre after the orchard is eight years old;
and from 212 to 3 tons per acre by the tenth year. Based on
recent-years data, an orchard of this type should bring a
return to the owner from crop sales of nearly enough to pay
off all costs of grove establishment and operation, including
the cost of land, by the end of the eighth year.
Continuous heavy production may be interfered with by
various factors, one of the most common being frost damage.
On the average, one-half a crop every five years is lost by
frosted bloom and terminals. This does not usually injure
the tree, and the following crop is likely to be heavier than
normal. Insufficient fertilizer to grow abundant fruiting
terminals for the next crop, especially during a year of
extra heavy crop production; abnormally dry weather com-
bined with weed competition; tree-crowding and competition
due to close planting; poor timing of fertilization and cultural
operations; these, and other failures to use efficiently all
proven factors of production and fertility-building are likely
to reduce the average yield well below two tons an acre.
However, suitable land and all the necessary information is
available to undertake the successful establishment of a high-






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA


Tung nut hulls for enriching soil.

production orchard in Florida. The superior qualities of tung
as a quick-drying oil in the manufacture of paints, varnish,
can liners, electrical insulation, linoleum and other products,
have been thoroughly established and the product is highly
acceptable if supplied in stable quantities and at a competitive
price. New treatments and new uses of the oil loom as a
S further incentive for expanded use and production.

Orchard Costs and Returns
The cost of establishing a top-quality one year old tung
orchard is calculated at around $185.00 per acre. This average
figure is based on 100 trees per acre, on land costing $100 per
acre, and includes the cost of trees, clearing, planting, terrac-
ing, cultivation, pruning, cover crops and fertilization and is
based on price levels of 1953-54.
Accumulated operating costs, interest and taxes through
the seventh year may increase the total amount invested per




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


acre of orchard to around $270 per acre. During these seven
years crop returns from an estimated total of 2.5 to 2.7 tons
of nuts per acre may bring total accumulated returns of
from $175 to $190 per acre. By the end of the eighth year,
allowing for the loss of half a crop from frosted bloom, the
grower may derive a gross income from the orchard since its
planting, of around $245 to $270 per acre, .. nearly enough
to pay off all costs of land, establishment, operation, taxes
and interest.
Good management can be very effective in reducing the
above costs, and increasing the net returns. High quality tung
soil, well-adapted sites, and the best varieties of planting
stock, are definitely effective in increasing the profit in tung
orcharding.

Orchard Profits
A good orchard under good management, having passed
the eight year mark of low net returns, should begin to get
into profitable production, and continue to produce a net profit
for another 20 to 25 years or more. Expectations of a net
return from capital and labor of $50 to $60 per acre from an
orchard producing 2 tons of nuts per acre, or of $90 to
$150 net from an orchard producing 3 tons of nuts per acre,
S. could be considerably altered by a change in market con-
ditions. foreign competition, government support price,
. .. substitutes,... and market demand. However, during the
past 50 years since tung was planted in Florida, the in-
dustry has prospered and expanded, the promoters have been
flushed out, and the tung orchardist is now a substantial
and satisfied citizen.

Stability of Tung Industry
One of the causes for the low percentage (5 percent) of
tung oil used in our domestic drying-oil industry, has been
the insufficient supply of tung oil from our orchards and
mills. This made it necessary to depend upon foreign imports
which resulted in instability of both supply and price. We are
rapidly approaching the point of being able to produce in
our own orchards enough tung oil to annually supply our
normal domestic consumption in industry.





TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA


CIF
r~


r
IF


1k


A chemist checks the finished tung oil.
Research on tung oil which is especially well suited to
chemical modification, is likely to develop new products with
superior properties that cannot easily be obtained with other
oils. This would readily establish the position of tung oil






32 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

as tops in quality and price, and amongst the leaders in the
drying-oil industry.



I


Tanks for storage of tung oil.






TUNG OIL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA 33



APPENDIX

REFERENCES-To Literature, Authorities, and Sources.
PUBLICATIONS
Ref. No.

1-TUNG PRODUCTION: By Dr. George F. Potter, and Dr. Harley L.
Crane.
Issued as Farmers Bulletin No. 2031, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.
For Sale by Supt. of Documents, U. S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C. Price 20 cents.

2-SUITABILITY OF VARIOUS SOILS FOR TUNG PRODUCTION:
By Dr. Mathew Drosdoff.
Cir. No. 840, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.
For sale by Supt. of Documents, U. S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C. Price 10 cents.

3-TUNG OIL: By Edmund C. Wood.
A publication by the U. S. Department of Commerce.
For sale by Supt. of Documents, U. S. Government Printing
Office, Washington 25, D. C. Price 25 cents.

4-GENERALIZED SOIL MAP OF FLORIDA: By Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station.
Dept. of Chemistry and Soils, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Fla.
Available in Agricultural Libraries.

5-TUNG: Processing and Marketing Practices and Costs.
For sale by Supt. of Documents, U. S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C. Price 20 cents.

6-THE FATS AND OIL SITUATION:
A pamphlet published every three or four months by the Agri-
cultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A. Free Distribution.
Issue consulted herein, released March 30, 1955.
7-STATISTICAL BULLETIN NO. 147: June 1954; "Oilseeds, Fats
and Oils, and Their Products, 1909-1953."
Published by Statistical and Historical Research Branch, Agri-
cultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A.
For sale by Supt. of Documents, U. S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C. Price $1.25.

8-TUNG PRODUCTION: By H. L. Crane, Bureau of Plant Industry,
U.S.D.A.
Pamphlet issued June 1950.
9-TUNG NUTS-PRODUCTION:
A Mimeo-release of August 1954, by Agricultural Marketing
Service, P. O. Box 273, Orlando, Fla.
An estimate of production in tons, price and value of Tung Nut
Crop, 5 states.
10-TUNG BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS:
Numerous bulletins and circulars published by the-
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Numerous bulletins and circulars published by the-






34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S.D.A., Washington, D. C.
Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Agricul-
tural and Industrial Chemistry, U.S.D.A.
Proceedings of American Society for Horticultural Science,
Michigan State College, East Lansing, Mich.

SOURCES:

11-DR. GEORGE F. POTTER, Principal Physiologist,
U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations,
Box 811, Bogalusa, La.
Authority and specialist on all phases of Tung culture, varieties,
planting stock, soils, fertilization, etc.

12-DR. R. S. McKINNEY, in charge U. S. Tung Oil Laboratory,
Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry, U.S.D.A.
Authority on the Chemistry of Tung Fruits, and Tung Oil, Dry-
ing, Storage, Hulling, Filtering, Processing of Oil, etc.

13-DR. F. B. SMITH, Head, Department of Soils,
Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida.
14-RALPH T. STEWART, Director
Agricultural and Chemical Products Div., Bur. of Foreign Com-
merce, U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C.
Statistics on Production, Consumption, Prices, Exports, and Im-
ports, Acreages, .... on Dometsic and World Tung Industry.
15-FRASIER T. GALLOWAY, Agricultural Statistician,
Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture,
P. O. Box 273, Orlando, Florida.
Specialist on Statistical Information and Crop Estimates, Prices,
Production, etc., on Tung Crop in U. S.
16-RAY HURLEY, Chief,
Agricultural Division, Bureau of the Census,
Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C.
Census Agricultural Statistics on Tung and other data.
17-H. G. HAMILTON, Agricultural Economist, Head of Dept.,
Department of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla.
Authority on Agricultural Economics, Data and Statistics.
18-"THE NATURE AND PROPERTIES OF SOILS"; 1949, 4th Edition
By T. Lyttleton Lyon and Harry O. Buckman, Cornell Univer-
sity.
Published by MacMillan Co., New York City.




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