• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Preface
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Part I. Tribes of the extreme...
 Appendix to Part I. Linguistic...
 Part II. Tribes of western Washington...
 Appendix to Part II. Linguisti...
 English-Niskwalli dictionary






Title: Contributions to North American Ethnology (Volume I, 1877)
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Title: Contributions to North American Ethnology (Volume I, 1877)
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Place of Publication: Washington, D. C.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Part I. Tribes of the extreme northwest
        Page 4
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        Page 6
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    Appendix to Part I. Linguistics
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    Part II. Tribes of western Washington and northwestern Oregon
        Page 157
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    Appendix to Part II. Linguistics
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    English-Niskwalli dictionary
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Full Text

r


DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.
U. S. GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF TIE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION.
J. W. POWELL, GEOLOGIST IN CHARGE.



CONTRIBUTIONS


TO



NORTH AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY,


t'~~z-1C


VOLUMli


1/?iO--C


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1877.


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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
U. S. GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION,
Washington, D. C., October 15, 1876.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith Volume I of the Contribu-
tions to North American Ethnology, comprising a report on the tribes of
Alaska by W. H. Dall, and a report on the Indians of Western Washington
and Northwestern Oregon by George Gibbs.
I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
J. W. POWELL,
In charge.
The Hon. SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR,
Washington, D. C.


III-IV


PP pp-


__

















PREFACE.


During the past ten years much of my time has been spent among the
Indians of the Rocky Mountain region. In 'the earlier years I collected
many short vocabularies of the various tribes with whom I met. From
time to time, as opportunity afforded, many of these vocabularies were
enlarged. I soon learned to enlist Indians in my party, and to seize every
opportunity of conversing with them in their own language, in order that
I might acquire as much knowledge of their tongues as possible. A large
number of vocabularies were collected, some embracing but a few hundred
words, others two or three thousand each. These Indians, among whom I
traveled, belonged chiefly to one great family-the Numas, a stock embracing
many languages, and several of the languages having more than one dialect.
I also made notes on the grammatic characteristics of these languages to
the extent of my opportunity.
In the mean time some of my assistants collected vocabularies furnish-
ing important additional material. Much" of this related to families other
than the one in which I was making especial studies.
In such a hasty review of the general literature of this subject as I
was able to make, my attention was attracted to some interesting publica-
tions in the Overland Monthly, from the pen of Mr. Stephen Powers, and
soon a correspondence was begun, which finally resulted in my receiving
from that gentleman a large amount of linguistic and other ethnographic
material, the results of his labors for many years among the Indians of
California.
From time to time other vocabularies were sent me from various per-
sons throughout the Rocky Mountain region.
Up to this time I had not expected to publish anything on this subject
in my reports, but it was my intention to turn over the whole of what I
had collected, through others and by my own labors, to the Smithsonian











PREFACE.


Institution, to be consolidated and published with a still larger amount
collected from various sources, through the officers and collaborators of that
Institution.
The materials collected by the Smithsonian Institution, together with a
part collected by myself, were placed in the hands of Mr. George Gibbs, that
eminent ethnologist and linguist, to be published in the Smithsonian Contri-
butions under his editorial management. By his death this plan of publica-
tion was necessarily delayed. By this time the materials in my hands had
increased to such an extent that it seemed but justice to my assistants and
myself that it should be published with as little delay as possible. I there-
fore laid the whole matter before Prof. Joseph Henry, Secretary of the
Smithsonian Institution, that I might have the benefit of his advice on the
subject. He kindly gave consideration to the matter, and a full review of
the subject led to the following correspondence:
"DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
"U. S. GEOG. AND GEOL. SURVEY ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION,
"J. W. POWELL, GEOLOGIST IN CHARGE,
S"Washington, D. C., October 2, 1876.
"SIR: Knowing that the Smithsonian Institution has been for many
years making collections of vocabularies of various North American lan-
guages and dialects, I beg leave to make the following statement and sug-
gestion:
I have myself been collecting vocabularies of many of the same tribes,
in which work I have been assisted by several gentlemen who are making
studies of North American Indians, and thus I have on hand a large amount
of linguistic material, consisting of vocabularies, grammatic notices, &c.,
which I desire to publish at an early date. In the continuance of this lin-
guistic work it will be of very great advantage to have the material in the
hands of the Smithsonian Institution published immediately, so that in the
future there will be no duplication of what has already been accomplished.
It would also seem wise to consolidate the Smithsonian material with my
own. I therefore beg leave to suggest that the material in your hands may
be turned over to me for publication.


I












PREFACE. vii

"Should you consider it wise to thus intrust me with this material I will
proceed with the publication as rapidly as the matter can be prepared, and
when published I shall be pleased to give the proper credit to the Institu-
tion for the great work performed in the collection of the material, and to
S those who have taken part in the work.
"I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
"J. W. POWELL.
"Prof. JOSEPII HENRY,
"Secretary Smithsonian Institution,
"Washington, D. C.

"SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,
"Washington, October 10, 1876.
DEAR SIR : Your letter of October 2, proposing that the Smithsonian
Institution should turn over to you for publication all the material it has
collected in regard to Indian linguistics, has been received, and after due
consideration I have concluded, on the part of the Institution, to accept
your proposition, and to place in your hands all the materials of the kind
mentioned now in our possession, it being understood that full credit will
be given to the Institution for the materials thus received by yourself, and
also to the several contributors.
"Among the latter, we would especially call your attention to the claims
of George Gibbs, whose elaboration of the materials in his possession you
will find of importance in the preparation of the vocabularies for the press.
This transfer is made in accordance with the general policy of the
Smithsonian Institution of doing nothing with its income which can be
equally well done by other means.
"Yours, very truly,
"JOSEPH HENRY.
"J. W. POWELL,
"In charge U. S. Geographical and Geological Survey,
"Washington, D. C."

This threw into my hands several hundred manuscript vocabularies,
with extensive grammatic notes collected from tribes scattered throughout












the greater part of North America. Examination proved that I probably
had in my hands valuable linguistic niaterial relating to every family, and
perhaps every language but two within the limits of the United States.
After a somewhat hasty review of the subject, a selection from this material
was made, to be published as the first volume of Contributions to North
American Ethnology ".
In order that the great number of collaborators throughout the country
might have an earnest of the speedy publication of the results of their labors,
this volume was rather hurriedly sent to the press. Perhaps, had a little
more time been taken to the proper digestion of the subject, a somewhat
different arrangement would have been made. I at least hope to improve
on the methods of presenting the subject in subsequent volumes.
The contributions in this volume from the pen of Mr. Gibbs will, it is
believed, be found to be of exceeding value. On every page are exhibited
evidences of his thorough and conscientious work, and it must ever be a
matter of deep regret to American linguists that Mr. Gibbs was notspared
to complete his labors, and to give to all'this great collection of linguistics
that better finish that would have resulted from his editorial skill.
It seemed proper that a biographic notice of Mr. Gibbs should appear
in the introduction to this volume, and I had commenced the preparation
of such a notice; but when I learned that a Memorial of George Gibbs"
had been written by John Austin Stevens, jr., and published by the New
York Historical Society, and subsequently republished in the Smithsonian
Report for 1873, I recognized that this task had been performed far better
than I could do it myself.
To Mr. W. H. Dall I am indebted not only for his valuable contribu-
tions, but-also for his kindly painstaking assistance in the general prepara-
tion of the volume.
The valuable contributions from the pens of Dr. William F. Tolmie
and Rev. Father Mengarini are but a part of the material in my hands col-
lected by these gentlemen. I hope that the method of publication adopted
will meet with their approval.
Mr. J. C. Pilling has rendered me valuable assistance in his proof-


PREFACE.


Vllli












PREFACE. ix

reading of the greater part of the volume-a work which he has performed
with care and skill.
For the last ten years I have habitually laid before Professor Henry
all of my scientific work, and have during that time received the benefit
of his judgment on these matters, and to a great extent I am indebted to
him for advice, encouragement, and influence. In expressing my gratitude
to the Professor, I beg also to express the hope that the results of my work
will not wholly disappoint him.
J. W. POWELL.













DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.
U. S. GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF TIE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION.
J. W. POWELL, GEOLOGIST IN CHARGE.






TRIBES OF THE EXTREME NORTHWEST.


BY


W. H. DALL.


TRIBES OF WESTERN WASHINGTON AND NORTHWESTERN OREGON.


BY


GEO. GIBBS.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1877.


XI-XII

































TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PART I.
Page.
On the distribution and nomenclature of the native tribes of Alaska and the adjacent territory,
with a map ......................................... ...W. II. Dall.......... ......... 7
On succession in the shell-heaps of the Aleutian Islands..........W. H. Dall ................... 41
Remarks on the origin of the Innuit ......................... W. H. Dall................... 93

APPENDIX TO PART I.

Notes on the natives of Alaskaa...............................J. Furnhelm................. 111
Terms of relationship used by the Innuit......................W. II. Dall................... 117
Comparative vocabularies ...................................... Gibbs and Dall................ 121

PART II.

Tribes of Western Washington and Northwestern Oregon, with map.George Gibbs................ 157

APPENDIX TO PART II.

Comparative vocabularies ....................................Gibbs, Tolmie, and Mengarini.. 247
Niskwalli-English dictionary.. ............................George Gibbs ................ 285
English-Niskwalli dictionary..................................George Gibbs ................. 309


xnI-xrv






















DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.
U. S. GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF TIE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION.
J. W. POWELL, GEOLOGIST IN CHARGE.




PART I.



TRIBES OF THE EXTREME NORTHWEST.


BY W. E-I. DALL.
























SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,
Washington, D. C., June 14, 1876.
DEAR SIR: In conformity with your suggestion, I have the honor of
transmitting to you herewith a manuscript containing information in regard
to the distribution, population, origin, and condition, past and present, of
the native races inhabiting our extreme northwestern territory, the material
for which has been gathered during some eight years of study, exploration,
and travel in the region referred to.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, yours,
WM. II. DALL.
Prof. J. W. POWELL,
Geologist in Charge, United States Geographical and
Geological Survey of the Bocky Jmnila1in Region,
Washington, D. C.






































CONTEND TS.



ARTICLE. I.-On the distribution and nomenclature of the native tribes of Alaska and the adljcent
territory; with a map .................... ........................................ 7
ARTICLE II.-On succession in the shell-heaps of the Aleutian Islands........................ 41
ARTICLE III.-Remarks on the origin of the Innuit........................................... 90






















ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND NOMENCLATURE OF THE NATIVE
TRIBES OF ALASKA AND THE ADJACENT TERRITORY.
With a Map.


BY -W. IH. bALL.


The information contained in this article forms a summary of
investigations which I have pursued since 1865, while engaged in duties
which took me, at one time or another, to nearly the whole of the coast
herein mentioned and over a considerable portion of the interior. As a
digest of the present state of our knowledge in regard to the tribal and ter-
ritorial boundaries of these people, it may form a not unfitting appendix or
supplement to the great mass of similar information in relation to more
southern tribes, which is by no means the least among the many results
obtained during the progress of the United States Geographical and
Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region under the direction
of Prof. J. W. Powell.
The accompanying map, in addition to affording the ethnological
information for which it was compiled, has also been brought up to date
geographically, and thus presents, far more fully than any other extant, the
latest and best data in regard to the geography of the region represented.
The names of tribes of Orarian stock are in leaning letters, those of the
various Indian tribes are in upright lettering. The investigations from which
the ethnological features are derived were concluded in the summer of 1874.
It is probable that, with tie exception of the interior tribes of Indians, the
tribal and territorial limits assigned will require but little future revision.














Apart from my own investigations, the principal authorities from which
information has been derived are Wrangell,* Holmberg,t Ross and Gibbs,f
Bendel, and various minor papers by Erman and Markham, Rink, and
others in the Arctic Papersl of 1875, and especially a most satisfactory and
lucid paper by Dr. John Simpson, R. N., which bears not only internal evi-
dence of care and accuracy, but is confirmed by what I have individually
been able to learn of the people treated of by the author.
Several papers of interest have appeared from the pen of M. Alphonse
Pinart in relation to Alaska natives, but these convey little new information,
excepting from a philological standpoint. The work of Mr. H. Bancroft,
which has lately appeared, on the "Native Races of the Pacific Coast", so
far as it relates to the people with whom I am familiar is chiefly valuable
for its numerous references to other works. Its arrangement is purely geo-
graphical, and unwarranted by the characteristics or kinship of the people
described.
A sketch not materially differing from the arrangement now proposed
was given by me in the Proceedings of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science, Salem meeting, 1869, and amplified with fuller
vocabularies in 1870 in Alaska and its Besources. Numerous additions and
corrections, as well as personal observation of much before taken at second
hand, have placed it in my power to enlarge and improve my original
arrangement. This is the object of the present paper.
In 1869, Iproposed for the Aleuts and people of Inntfit stock collectively
the term Orarians, as indicative of their coastwise distribution, and as sup-
plying the need of a general term to designate a very well-defined race,
which, though acknowledged as such by some ethnologists, had not received
the general recognition which it called for. In referring to the various
groups of people under particular stocks, I have introduced as far as prac-
ticable a system of synonymy, showing approximately the various names
applied to the same group by other authors, which may be of service in
SBaer and Helmersen, Beitr. St. Petersburg, 8vo, 1839.
tEthnogr. Skiz. Act. Hels., 4to, 1855.
t Smithsonian Report, 1866.
SProc. Agassiz Inst., Sacramento, Cal., 1873.
I Royal Gcogr. Soc., London, 8vo, 1875.















correlating information from various sources in relation to their habits and
customs.
The Orarians are distinguished, 1, by their language, of which the dia-
lects in construction and etymology bear a strong resemblance to one
another throughout the group, and differ in their homogeneousness (as well
as the foregoing characters) as strongly from the Indian dialects adjacent
to them; 2, by their distribution, always confined to the sea-coasts or
islands, sometimes entering the mouths of large rivers, as the Yukon, but
only ascending them for a short distance, and as a rule avoiding the
wooded country; 3, by their habits, more maritime and adventurous than
the Indians, following, hunting, and killing not only the small seal but
also the sea-lion and walrus. Even the great Arctic bowhead whale (and
anciently the sperm whale) falls a victim to their persevering efforts; and
the patent harpoon, almost universally used by American whalers in lieu
of the old-fashioned article, is a copy, in steel, of the bone and slate
weapon which the Innuit have used for centuries. Lastly, they are dis-
tinguished by their physical characteristics, a light fresh yellow complexion,
fine color, broad build, scaphocephalic head, great cranial capacity, and
obliquity of the arch of the zygoma. The patterns of their implements and
weapons and their myths are similar in a general way throughout the
group and equally different from the Indian types.
The Orarians are divided into two well-marked groups, namely, the
Innait, comprising all the so-called Eskimo and'Taskis and the Aleuts.
Taking the tribes in their geographical sequence, we may commence with

The Major Group, or

INNUIT.
Syn.-Esquimazx.
Eskimo, &c., of authors.
Eskima'ntzik of the Abenaki Indians.
Uskec'mi of the Northern Tinneh.
i~s'ky, Hudson Bay jargon-" Broken Slavb ".
In'niit, the name applied by these people to themselves.
containing the following tribes:
















K OPA'G-MOT.
Syn. =- Mackenzie River Eskimo, Richardson, and authors.
= Kopdn'g-meun (plural), Dr. Simpson, R. N.
< Kang-ma'li-inniin, Richardson.
? Tarrdor-neut, Abb6 Petitot.
The terminations ng and n indicate the plural form of the collective
noun. 'As we should say American in the adjective sense, meaning the
American people, and Americans, meaning a small number of individuals of
that race, so the Innflit say Inn it, the whole people of their race, and
Innzin, some individuals of that race (Yzt being the word for a man); or
Kop(g'-mut, the tribal designation, and Kopan'g-mein, some individuals of
the tribe. Ko-peg comes from K6k, river, and pak, great-the designation
meaning people of the great river, just as Kweekh and pak, form the desig-
nation of the Yukon-mouth Innftit, from the same roots. The number of
these people is comparatively few, and they are little known. They have
a tattooed band across the face, and occasionally travel with the next tribe
as far west as Barter Point in longitude 1440 west of Greenwich. Details
in regard to their manners and customs are given by Richardson, Franklin,
and other travelers in the Mackenzie River District. They formerly
extended two hundred miles up the Mackenzie River, but have been driven
out by the Indians.

KANGMLI'GMGTT.
< Kangmali-inniin, Richardson, Dr. Simpson.
These people live along the coast, between Barter Island or Manning
Point and the Mackenzie; their principal settlement being near Demarca-
tion Point. They appear to be very few in number, and known principally
as the most active agents in the inter-tribal trade between the Innfit of
Point Barrow and those to the eastward. From Barter Island, the coast to
the westward is uninhabited for nearly three hundred miles, except during
the temporary summer trading excursions. One of the articles furnished by
them is stated by Dr. Simpson to be skins of the narwhal (Kil-lel'-lu-4),
which he speaks of as being used for covering kyaks.
Strickland's convenient notation for synonymy,-of =, equal to, <, including less, and >,
including more, than the author referred to,-has been adopted here.


I















NOUWIJK-MUT.
= .niRin'g-meiun, Dr. Simpson, Richardson, &c.
Dr. Simpson's paper, before referred to, is a monograph of the habits,
customs, and appearance of these people who inhabit Point Barrow, Cape
Smyth, and have smaller villages at Wainwright Inlet and Icy Cape.. The
name nmwvk means point, or The Point, and the appellation Nuwiik-mut is
properly confined to the inhabitants of the village at Point Barrow; but
those of the other villages mentioned,-though doubtless having other local
names as do the people of all settlements, however small; are not differ-
entiated in any way of importance, as far as we know, from those of the
principal settlement at Point Barrow. This had, in 1853, a population of
about three hundred, and the other settlements perhaps half as much more.
It is probable that since that time they have materially diminished in num-
bers. These people have been more fully described than most of the Innfit
of the Arctic coast, owing to the fact that several exploring vessels have
wintered at Nuwuik. From Simpson, we learn that they travel on their
summer excursions for barter as far east as Manning Point (or Barter
Island), partly along the coast and partly through the numerous inlets and
intersecting lagoons which border the continent not far from the sea-coast.
The journey is an annual one, and is usually made in sixteen days. The
party starts about the 5th of July, and spends a portion of the time in
trading with the Nfnattin'g-meun, at the mouth of the Colville River, and
return about the middle of August.

NONA-TO'G-MUT.
= NiVn-tun'g-mniin, Dr. Simpson.
These people inhabit specifically the mouth and shores of the Nan'atWk
River, which enters the western extremity of Hotham Inlet, with outlying
villages to tle north and west, the principal of which is that at Point Hope,
called Noo-na. They number some three or four hundred souls, as far as
known. The character of those who meet the traders annually at Point
Hope is bad. They are reported as very ingenious and persistent thieves,
and exhibit a great degree of assurance, and even insolence, when their















numbers give them confidence and the whites are not numerous. These
people ascend the Nfinat6k to a point where an easy portage can be had to
the upper waters of the Colville, and have an annual barter at the mouth
of the latter river with the eastward-bound Innait from Point Barrow. The
Nunst6k is also known as the Inland River, which is a translation of its
Innfit name.
KOWAG'-MUT.
= -owan'g-maiin, Dr. Simpson.
Falling into Hotham Inlet, near its eastern extremity, is a river known
as the Kowak, on the banks of which graphite and galena are found. A
few Innuit inhabit the region near its mouth, and bear the above local name,
while others somewhat to the eastward, on the Sela'wik River, are called
Selawig'-mut. The latter have some trade with the K6yfakk Indians.
Most of the names above mentioned are merely local, and indicate no
special peculiarities of language or habits. They may, for convenience, be
correllated as follows:

WESTERN MACKENZIE INNUIT.
Kopd'lgmFit, King-mll'g-mtf.
WESTERN INNUIT.
.Niwik'-mut, Nnudtf g-mut, Kowdg'nmut, Selawig'-mZt.
We now come to a series of tribes better known than any of those
previously mentioned, and on which I have had the opportunity of personal
observation. I have already given a somewhat full account of them in
Alaska and its Resources, as well as some notes in my summary of 1869.
The following general headings will be strictly tribal, and the local village
names will be subordifiated in a list by themselves. For convenience' sake,
I shall commence at the extreme westward.*
Although not strictly within the limits of this paper, I mention here, as bearing on the relations
of the Innfit tribes above mentioned, the
CHUKCHIS ".
= Reindeer Chikcehis of authors.
< Chfkchis, Wrangell and others (variously spelled).
= Reindeer men of adjacent Innflit.
= Tsitsin, or Tchekto, of some authors, said to be their national name.
Although the very existence of such a people as these has been of late denied, and the name I have
provisionally used is doubtless based on some misconception, I believe that the evidence of the existence
of a tribe of people different from the Orariaus of the coast, but in constant communication with them,
is overwhelming. I have myself seen two of these people, in 1S65, at Plover Bay. They are of a tall and















13


CHIIKLU'K-MUT.
= NdeSllos, Pritchard and other older authors.
= Tchoukichi Asiatiques, Balbi, Atlas Ethn.
= Tuski, Hooper, Markham, and Dall 1. c., prov.
? Onkilon, Wrangell, Polar Sea.
< K6kh'-lit-innvin of the American Innrit, Dr. Simpson.
= ChiFk'-chi, with various etymology, of authors, erroneously.
> Chiklak'nmit, Stimpson, MSS.
= Sedentary or Fishing Chukchis of authors.

The name I have here adopted is probably quite local, and it is very
likely that the Innuit who at present inhabit the Asiatic coast near Bering
Strait have no special tribal name, resembling in this respect the people
from the Selawik River to Point Barrow, who have been previously men-
tioned. But I have given up the term Tuski, proposed by Lieutenant
Hooper, for the reason that I am convinced that it is due to some miscon-
ception. It is. not an Innuit word, and these people are purely Innfit, as
several vocabularies in my possession testify. They are in no respect dif-
ferentiated from the ordinary western Innfit, except in such features as the
character of the country and climate compels, and in not wearing labrets;
in this respect resembling the eastern Innait. Of their origin, I propose to
treat hereafter, and postpone that portion of my remarks for the present.
They extend from the Gulf of Ana'dyr to Cape Serdze, and formerly to
Cape Shelagskoi. Their distribution is invariably coastwise; they have.no
reindeer, and live by trading with the interior tribes, and by hunting the

lean habit, with a coppery tinge in the complexion, nomadic in their habits, with sharp noses, and hav-
ing a language apparently allied to the Kornk tongue. I think it probable that they are a branch of
that stock. They wander with their deer from the Arctic Ocean to the Anadyr River, following the best
pasturage, and in summer trading with the coast Innfit.
The parties of the International-Telegraph Company, during 1865 ahd 1866, were frequently brought
into contact with these people, and the result of their observations was that they were not dissimilar to
the Koriks in their habits and customs, though speaking a somewhat different dialect. A few of them,
having lost their reindeer, have been obliged to adopt a precarious mode of existence, depending upon
the products of the sea-shore and fish from the rivers. The existence of these quasi-settled bands and
their identification as Innfiit has given rise to much confusion. No region is more in need of unbiased
and careful ethnological investigation than this part of Eastern Siberia. What little knowledge is ex-
tant, resting upon a sound basis, is too frequently ignored by ethnological writers.
I have recently heard it stated, by a noted philologist and traveler, that the Koraks are Innfiit,
and the Innfiit stock a branch of the Turkish race! Mr. Markham also tells us that the Tinguises and
Yfaligirs have so wholly disappeared that even their names are hardly remembered ". Yet in 1860 there
were existing some five or six thousand of these people in Eastern Siberia, according to the Russian cen-
sus; and I have a Tinug-ise portrait taken from life in 1865. The Ttinguses are believed to lie Tatars,
and the Yfikagirs related to the Korhks, yet Mr. Markham would make the former, among other tribes,
the ancestors of the Innuit.














seal, walrus, various whales, and other arctic marine mammals. No group
of people have given rise to so much confusion, erratic theorizing, and
unfounded generalization as this small band of Innuit exiles. They have
been most commonly confounded with the impoverished sedentary bands
of the Chfikchis, if I may be permitted to use a term of which Erman
says, "I am of opinion that the word Tchikchee is a corruption of the
word Chau-clh?, which is used in the language of the Koriaks (Kori-ks) to
indicate the settled branches of their race." Certainly, if I can believe the
words of one of their own number, they are, and hold themselves, totally
distinct in language and race from the nomadic "reindeer people" with
whom they trade. The language is totally distinct, and there is not a
single word in the vocabularies of the Chikchis" which resembles, or
even has a similar construction to, those of the Innuit. These two stocks
do not intermarry; their intercourse is purely commercial; but as is inva-
riably the case with tribes so situated, and having distinct languages, they
use, in trading, a jargon composed of words, or corruptions of words,
belonging to both. As no living white man knows either language, the
intercourse with the whites on the coast is also carried on in this, or partly
in this, jargon; and unreliable and erroneous vocabularies have thus been
collected. But where the vocabularies have been obtained from the
nomadic people on their western boundaries where there are .no Innfuit, or
from the Innfuit on points of the coast not reached by the reindeer men ",
we find no such mixture and no connecting links between the languages.
The largest village of these people is on East Cape.; but settlements
are dotted along wherever it is possible to wrest a living from the desolation
which surrounds them. Among those of more particular importance are
the villages on Kayne Island; Seniavine Strait; Chiklak Island (whose
inhabitants assume the name I have provisionally adopted for the whole
people); Indian Point; Plover Bay; and Holy Cross Bay.
A somewhat full account of these people will be found in Alaska and
its Resources, Part II, Chap. III, but, unfortunately, at the time of my visit
other duties prevented me from collecting vocabularies, of the importance
of which I was not at that time fully aware. Since then I have received
several from different localities, but, with few exceptions, they have been















disfigured by the introduction of the trading jargon, which contains corrup-
tions not only of Innait and Chukchi, but also of English, Russian, and
even Hawaiian words. The only pure vocabularies I have received have
been from East Cape and Seniavine Strait; the latter very scanty.


OKEE-OG'-MUtT.
< Kokh'lit inniin of the Westcrn Innuit, Dr. Simpson.
= Okee-og'-mit of the Norton Sound Innliit.
< Malemiut of Tikhmenief.
Local names:
Imdklig'dmit of Ratmanoff Island, Diomedes, or Imdklit.
Ingl'igmnit of Krusenstern Island, Diomedes, or Ingdliilk.
.Kikhtdg'dmit of St. Lawrence Island, which is called lwo'Qren by the Plover Bay Innfit, feste Hooper.
Ukiv6g'-mut of King's Island, or Ukivrk.

These people inhabit the islands between Asia and America north of
latitude 630, and, is might be expected from their habitat, are among the
most agile and hardy of the northern canoe-men. They are great traders,
and do most of the intercontinental trading, in summer -reaching St.
Michael's and Kotzebue Sound on the east and the shores of Siberia on the
west. They are practically middle-men, living to a great extent on the
profits of their trade. The trade from America is chiefly in deer-skins and
sinew and wooden ware, the material for which does not exist on the Asiatic
shore. From St. Lawrence Island, especially, frames of kyaks and fimiaks
are transported to Plover Bay and exchanged for tame-reindeer skins,
walrus-ivory, and whale sinew and blubber. The distance traveled is
about forty miles, occupying nearly twenty-four hours, and the voyage is
never undertaken except under the most favorable circumstances and with
all possible precautions.
The Okee-og'mfit wear labrets, and in habits and appearance are more
like the American Innfiit than those of Asia. They are obstinate and
courageous, and have given serious trouble to the traders on more than one
occasion. Those of the island of St. Lawrence are said to be unusually
immodest and filthy in their manners. The dialect of the Okee-og'mit is
hardly distinguishable from that of the following tribe.


















KAVIJAG' -MTT.
= )ividg'-mnit, national appellation.
> Anlig-mit, Holmberg, Wrangell.
< Malegmjuti, Erman.
Aziag'-mnt of authors, in error.
< Malemiut, Tikhmenief.
> Tschnagmiit, Wrangell.
Local names:
Kwaik'-mfit of Kwaik settlement on Norton Bay.
Kniktag'emfit of Golofnin Bay.
KaCviazagemfit of Kaviazak River.
Aziag'-miit of Sledge Island, or Az'iik.
NKi'-mait of settlement at Port Clarence.
.Kingee'ga-milt of Cape Prince of Wales.

The peninsula between Kotzebue and Norton Sounds and Bering
Strait is called by these people Kdvi-i'dk, and they inhabit the whole of
it, and also Sledge Island, off the coast. There is a large village of them,
inhabited in winter only, at Unalaklik', on Norton Sound. Among the
members of this tribe, the tendency to theft, incest, and violence forms a
strong contrast to the character of their southeastern relatives, and is
probably due to contact with traders and the use of alcoholic liquors.
They travel extensively and have a large trade. They have been described
in Alaska and its Resources.

MAH'LE-MUT.
?> Tschuagmuti, Erman.
= Malliegnmt, Holmberg.
< Malmint of Tikhmenief.
*> Malimitht, Wrangell.
< Malegmjuti, Erman.
Local names:
At'tenmlt at the Attenmfit village.
Shakto'ligmit at the Shaktolik village.
Koyrig'miit on the Koyik River.
KiXngugemilt on the Ktingfik River.
Inglctidl'igemiit on the Inglutalik River.

These Innuit inhabit the neck of the Kaviak Peninsula, from Shakto'lik
on the south, east to Attenmfit, their principal village, west to the river
falling into Spavarieff Bay, and north to Kotzebue Sound at Eschscholtz
Bay. They also have a winter village at Unalaklik. They are described
in full detail in Alaska and its Besources.














17


UNALIG'MTT.

> Tschkag'mit" Holmberg, Wrangell.
> I'astoli'mnlt, Holmberg, Wrangell.
= Aziagmiut, Worman in Tikhmenief.
> TaIschigmit, Wrangell.
Local names:
Pastolig'mint at the Pasto'lik summer village.
Kcgiktowrig'emnlt at Kegiktow'rtik village.
Undlklig'il'lt at Unalaklik' village.
Pikmikta'lig-miit at Pikmiktal'ik village.

These occupy the coast from Pastolik to Shaktolik, and easterly to the
crest of the coast-hills. They are sometimes called Unaleet by other natives,
and the name Azidg'miat has been erroneously applied to them. They are
few in number, and much altered by intercourse with traders.


EKOG'MUT.

> Kwikhlpag'emnut, Holmberg.
> Kwithliadg'emi~t, Holmberg.
= Premorski of the Russians, meaning "people by the sea"
> Primoski, Whymper, Captain Raymond.
> AgOlmiit, Worman in Tikhmenief, Wrangell.
? Kaidllit, Zagoskin,
? Kangjulit, Erman.
Local names:
Angechag'emiit,
Telateg'miit,
Chi!kchlg'-emnt,
Ukalg'emt, inhabitants of various villages within fifty or sixty miles of the Yukon-month.
Koshkog'enilt,
Ikoklag'mit,
Makag'milt,

The EkOg'mat, or Kwikhipdg-mtt, inhabit the Yukon delta from about
Kipni'fik to Pastolik, ascending the river to a short distance above the
mission. The former is their own name, the latter the name applied to
them by the Unaligmftt Innfiit. They exhibit a marked change in personal
appearance, customs, and dialect from the whole group north and east of
Norton Sound. Their most noticeable personal peculiarity consists in their
hairy bodies and strong beards. They are more nearly allied to the tribes
to the south of them.
















MAG'EMUT.
< Inkaliten, Wrangell.
> Magimit, Wrangell.
> Magag'-mui, Holmberg.
= Maf'emut or S'Mag'ermt, their national name.
> Magmiut, Worman in Tikhmenief.
> Niinivakpeople, Worman in Tikhmenief.

These people call themselves mink people," in allusion to their most
abundant fur-animal, the mink, magemn'tik; and they extend from the
vicinity of Kipniik southward along the coast to Cape Romanzoff, includ-
ing several villages at the north end of Nfnivak Island. The women wear
C-shaped labrets on the main-land, though the younger ones at Nunivak,
seen by me, were destitute of this ornament. I purchased there several
labrets of this peculiar form, but did not see them worn, though one of the
older women had five holes for the purpose in her under lip. I had pre-
viously supposed that all the inhabitants of NunivAk belonged to the next
tribe, but these declared themselves to be Mag'emut. They. are a poor,
filthy, and not modest people, but excel in ivory-carving.


KUSKWOG'MUT.
Inkaliten, Wrangell in part only.
?Agilitn t, Holmberg; Dall, I.e., pars.
> Kusch-kuk-chwzak-milt, Wrangell.
> iiskiitchewdk of Richardson, Ludewig, and other authors.
> Kiiskokwimtsi, Worman in Tikhmenief.
> Kiiskokwig'-milt, Holmberg.
= KiiskwSg'-milt, Lukeen and other traders, as their own tribal name.
= Kuskokwimjuts, Turner in Ludewig, App. Zagoskin.
= Kuskokwimnes, Ludewig.

These people inhabit the shores of Kuskokwim Bay and westward to
Cape Avinoff. According to Wrangell, the southern part of Nunivak Island
is also inhabited by them, and as I have mentioned that we found the people
of the north coast in 1874 to be Magemi t, it would seem as if there was
no room left for the Agilmait of Holmberg, of which I have not been able
to find any trace. On account of shoal water, much of the coast between
Capes Vancouver and Avinoff is not habitable for a maritime people, and we
may therefore assign the boundaries of the present tribe as being from
















Cape Avinoff to Cape Newenham, with possibly part of Nfnivak Island
and the banks of the Kuskokwim River at least as far north as latitude 61.
lThe trading-jargon in use between them and the Indians has contaminated
some of the vocabularies. They do not intermarry, and some of the state-
ments in regard to this tribe quoted in Baer and Helmersen bear the impress
of romance.
They are said by Wrangell to differ more from the following tribes
than from those-just mentioned. They are said to number over five thou-
sand souls.

NUSHAGAG'-MUT.
> Kijdlaigmit, Holmberg, Wrangell.
< Aglegnmit, Worman in Tikhmenief.
> Kijaten, Wrangell.
= Nushidgdg'mnat, their own name for themselves.
These people inhabit the shores of Bristol Bay west of the Nufshagak
River to Cape Newenham, and also the banks and headwaters of that river
and the numerous lakes and water-courses of the tundra to the westward of
it. They number about four hundred souls, very widely distributed, with
their principal settlement near Fort Corstantine on the NushagAk.

OG'iLMUIT.
SOglemrit, Dall 1. c.
= Agleg'miit, Holmberg, Turner in Ludcwig.
= Agoljgmiut, Wrangell, Turner 1. e.
< .lit,,;,stl, Worman in Tikhmenief, Erman.
= Svernofftsi, or Northerners of the Russians.
< Tchouktchi americani, Balbi.
Local names:
Ugas'hig-miit on the Ugalshik or Sfiliina River.
Ugag6g'-m it on the Ugalkik River.
Kwichig-mit on the Kwichak River.

These Innfiit inhabit the north shore of Aliaska Peninsula (whence
their Russian name), north to the mouth of the Nushagak River, southwest
to the valley of the Sflima or Ugashik River, and eastward to the high
land of the crest of the peninsula, including the Iliamna Basin.


j















KANIAG'MUIT.
< KCdiakski of most Russian writers.
> Kadiakia of Worman in Tikhmenief.
< Kaniagist, Early Russian voyagers in Coxe.
> Kaniagi, IIolmberg.
= Ultschna of Kenai Indians, meaning slaves"
= Kaniagmut, Dall 1. c.
< Kodjakzy, Ernman.
= Konages, Ludewig.
The name of this tribe, the first of the restricted Innuit stock met by
the Russians in their eastern explorations, has often been applied by Russian
writers to all the western Inniit known to them. It is said that the origi-
nal name of Kadiak was K i,,;LJy', from which the former word has been
derived by corruption; but I wish to call attention to the remarkable simi-
larity between the name of the peninsula east of Cook's Inlet (which does
not appear to be an Indian word) and the root of the name of the Kadiak
people. From Kenai we would have Kenai-ag'-mnt by ordinary inflection,
which I venture to suggest is the original if not the present and correct
form of Kaniag'mnt.
These people inhabit the island of Kadiak, the southeast shores of the
Peninsula of Aliaska, from Cape Kuprianoff (or Ivanhoff) to Iliamna Peak
in Cook's Inlet, and the islands adjacent to the shores described.
At one time, until driven out by the Indians, they undoubtedly occu-
pied the northern shore of Kenai Peninsula as well as the southern shore,
which is still held by an allied community of Innait.
The Kanig'mftt number some fifteen hundred people, and were form-
erly much more numerous. They have become much altered by constant
intercourse with the Russians for nearly eighty years, and are nominally
Christians. They have been frequently confounded with. the Aleuts, even
in modern times, by voyagers and travelers.

CHUGACII'IG-MUT.

= Tschilgatschi of Holmberg, Worman in Tikhmenief, Erman.
= Tschiigatchik, Wrangell.
SCIhgach'igmiit, their own appellation for themselves.
= Tschugatschi, Lndewig.
STchougatchi-Konaga, Balbi.
These people occupy the shores of Chugach Gulf, or Prince William's















Sound, and the southern and eastern shores of Kenai Peninsula. Those at
Port Etches (N2chek) call themselves Nfchig'm2t. There are some half a
dozen small settlements containing not over six hundred people, and probably
a less number.

UGALAK'MfIT.

= Ugalentsi' of the Russians, Turner in App. Ludewig.
= Ugalentze, Holmberg, wrongly placed among the T'linkets
? Ugalachmjuti of Erman.
-= Ugalenskoi, Worman in Tikhmenief.
= Ugaljakmjuts or Ugaljakhmutsi of authors, Turner 1. c.
= Ugdldlk'mit, their own tribal name according to the traders.
= Chilkhak'mit, their own tribal name according to the Nutchigmut Innafit.
This people has long been one of the stumbling-blocks in the ethnology
of the northwest coast. On my visit to Port Etches in 1874, I learned
from the natives definitely that the Ugalik'mlt of the traders were, like
themselves, Innuit, and called themselves Chilkhak-mit, and had formerly
occupied the coast continuously with themselves; but the Ah-tena Indians
forced their way between the two tribes and hold a small part of the coast
near the Copper River mouth. Ugal'entsi is the Russian name for these
people, and is formed by adding a Russian termination to the root of their
supposed tribal name. It follows.that the distinction formerly drawn by me
between the Ugalak-mfit and the Ugalentsi, falls to' the ground, though at
the time it seemed warranted by the vocabularies furnished by the Russians
to Mr. Gibbs. The older errors, as to this tribe being T'linkets or Tinneh,.
arose probably from a confusion of vocabularies, obtained either of the
Ahtena, or some wandering band of Yakutats, who sometimes come from
Being Bay in canoes to trade at Port Etches.
The Ugalakmit reside on Kayak or Kaye Island in winter, and
pursue the salmon fishery at the mouth of the Atna River and along the
coast nearly to Icy Bay in summer. They comprise only some two hun-
dred families, and are the most eastern of the Innuit tribes now occupying
territory on this coast. It is probable, however, from shell-heap remains
obtained by Lieutenant Ring, U. S. A., at the mouth of the Stikine River
that at one period the Innuit extended at least to that point, if not farther
east and south.
















Second Group.

UNUNG'UN.
(Aleuts.)
= Aleutans, Ludewig.
= Uneing'in, their own national name, teste Erman and my own repeated observations.
= Ti-ykhk'unin, Pinart, M6m. Soc. Ethn. Paris, 1872, p. 158.
< Aleuts of the Russians.
= Kagataya Koung'ns, Humboldt (the corrupted name of the Eastern Aleuts erroneously applied to the
whole people according to Pinart).
Local names (teste Pinart 1. c.):
Khdgdn'-tdyd-khun'-khin, Eastern people, the inhabitants of the Shumagins and Aliaska.
YNikhi-khnin or Namikh'-hln', Western people, the inhabitants of the Andreanoff Islands.
Kigikh-kh.un, Northern Western people, of the Fox Islands proper.
The name Aleut, applied by the Russians indiscriminately to the
Kanidgmfit and the inhabitants of the Catherina or Aleutian Archipelago,
has gradually become restricted among writers to the latter group, while its
original meaning or derivation, the source of much controversy, is now lost
in obscurity.
The term U-ning'un, I have satisfied myself by repeated inquiry, at
Unalashka, Atka, Attu, and Unga, is a generic term, which these people
apply to themselves, and which means simply "people" of their race, as
distinguished from others. Erman says the original meaning of it is lost,
but this is not borne out by my inquiries. According to my observations,
';lyul .-/bi .;,1;, given by Pinart, means Aleutian men, in contradistinction to
Ui',:'i'in, which means all Aleutian people, without distinction. The local
names given from Pinart are doubtless authentic, but I have no means of
verifying them. On a previous occasion I quoted Humboldt's term, now
shown by Pinart to be improperly extended in its range, but without intend-
ing to use it as a point in argument-of their eastern origin, as he seems to
have understood me. These people have lost almost entirely their tribal
distinctions indicated by the above local names, though small local jealousies
are not entirely extinct. They have been transported from island to island,
and even to Sitka and California, by traders, and are so thoroughly reclaimed
from barbarism by long, contact with Russian civilization that of their original
condition only traces exist.
They occupy the entire chain of the Aleutian Islands, the Pribiloff














Islands, the Shumagins and adjacent islands, and various parts of Aliaska
Peninsula west of 1600 west of Greenwich.
They have been, perhaps, more thoroughly monographed than any
other branch of the Orarian stock, except the Greenlanders.
To recapitulate, the Orarians of Alaska and the adjacent coast of Asia
comprise the following groups, and approximate population:
I.-INNUTIT.
A.-Western Mackenzie Inn'it.
a. Kopg'-mt .... .......-------------------------------------- 200
b. Kangmalig'-mut --..-...---.- --... ----------------------- 200
B.- Western Innuit.
a. Nul'wak-mut --.--------------------------------------- 600
b, Nuntg'-mt ..........------------ ------------------------ 300
c. Kowag'-mft....--------.-----.. ---- --------------------- 100
2. Selawig'-mt ...----..-------..--------------------- 100
d. Chafk'lak-mt ..........--- .....----- ------------------
e. Okee-6g'-mft ..-....--------- ..------------------------. 300
e2. Kikht6g'amft ....----- ---. ------------------------- 250
f Kaviag'-mft ......------------------------------------- 500
g. Mah'lemat .......---------- --.---------------------.- 600

C.-Fishing Innuit.
a. Unligmt ---..--....------------------------------------- 150
b. Ek6g'mi t- ..........-----. ----------- ------ ----------- 1,000
c. Mag'entt --......---------- ---------------------------- 500
d. Kiskwbg'miut ......----.-----. ------------------------- 2,000
e. Nushagag'-mfut. ---.----------------------------------- 400
f Og'lmt .....-----------..------------------------------- 500
g. Kanidg'mut .-....------.------------------------------- 3,000

D.-Southeastern Innuit.

a. Chfigach'ig-mt ....-------------------------------------- 600
b. Ugalk'mfit ....---.....---- -------------------------- 300

















II.-UNUNG'TN.

Aleuts.
a. Eastern or Unalashkans,
b. Western or Atkans,
of which belonged to the eastern division ...........---. 707
to the middle division ..------.......-- 940
to the Pribiloff Islands ...-....---... 337
to the western division* --------........... 470
In all about 2,450 people, in 1871, nearly equally divided
between males and females. There were in that year 44
births, and 57 deaths, mostly from asthma and pleurisy.

Total approximate Orarian population .....---------- 14,054

INDIAN TRIBES.

The Indian tribes of Alaska and the adjacent region may be divided
into two groups, with possibly a third, which just impinges on the southern
border of the Territory. These groups are:

I.-TINNEH.t
= Tin'ncl, Kennicott, Hardisty, Ross and Gibbs, Dall 1. c.
= Thnaina, IIolmberg.
-= Kenaizer, Holmberg.
== Chippewyans of authors.
== Athabascans of authors, Ludewig, &c.

SThere are also a number of Aleuts, chiefly Atkans, living on the Commander's Islands in Russian
territory.
tin his paper in the Bulletin of theParis Geographical Society for September, 1875,Father Petitot
discusses the terms Athabaskans, i M.u.. ..I, r.,. Montagnais, and Tinneh as applied to this group of Indi-
ans, and in several cases falls into serious error, apparently from want of familiarity with the literature
of the subject, which has of late years assumed such unwieldy proportions. He is in special error in
regard to the term tinneh". This he erroneously derives from a verb, "osltis, je fais", and writes otimie.
It is indeed strange that he should not have recognized in "tinnkh" a direct derivation, or, more properly,
a correct orthography (for the western tribes, at least), of the word he does adopt, namely, "Dend",
meaning landsmenn", as a German would say, the o being merely an inserted euphonic. He takes "Dnd6",
" people of the country ", and diudji6 (correctly, tinjec), the Kutchin word for a man ", and compounds
them into a term for designating all the Tinneh tribes, and then goes entirely off the track to seek a
derivation for Tinneh which is identical with his Der'n as correctly written. Hardisty, Ross, Kennicott,
and Gibbs are sufficient authority for the true meaning of the word, leaving my own personal and pretty
conclusive investigations out of account. There can be no manner of doubt as to the woid "tiuneh" and
its representative term "Kutchin", meaning "people native to the legion" respectively indicated by its
various prefixes. The erroneous nature of some of the reverend father's statements in regard to native
words is sufficiently indicated by his confusion of the Eskimo salutation, teymo, or, in the west, chamnn.i,
with the word tayma, enough (p. 257, 1. c.).














25

> Kolshina of the Russians.
= Thynn, Pinart.
> Dind, Abb6 Petitot. (Not olincr, Pctilut.) Not Difdjie, Abl6 Petitot (== "man" of Ktitchin tribes).
< Itynai, Ermau.
> It'-kalyi of Nfiwtikmft Innuit of Point Barrow.
> It-kal-ya'-r~in of Nfwihkmfit Infuit of Point Barrow.
> In'-kal-ik of Mah'lemft and UnDlig'niut Inlnfit.
> Ing'aliki of the Russians; not of Wrangell.
= Tlynai, or Tawai, of Zago'skin.
= Tined, or Dline, Ludowig.
This great family includes a large number of American tribes extend-
ing from near the mouth of the Mackenzie south to the borders of Mexico.
The Apaches and Navajos belong to it, and the family seems to intersect the
continent of North America in a northerly and southerly direction, princi-
pally along the flanks of the Rocky Mountains. The northern tribes of
this stock extend westward nearly to the delta of the Yukon, and reach the
sea-coast at Cook's Inlet and the mouth of the Copper River. Eastward
they extend to the divide between the watershed of Hudson's Bay and that
of Athabasca and the Mackenzie River. The designation proposed by
Messrs. Ross and Gibbs has been accepted by most modern ethnologists.
The northern Tinneh form their tribal names by affixing to an adjective
word or phrase the word tinneh, meaning. "people", in its modifications of
tin'nch, td'nd, or tend', or in one group the word kit-chin', having the same
meaning. The last are known as the Klftchin tribes, but, so far as our
knowledge yet extends, are not sufficiently differentiated from the others to
require special classification by themselves.
The following are the tribes of the Tinneh, beginning at the westward
and ascending the Yukon toward the north, east, and south:

KAI'-YUIH-KHO-T.XNA.
= Kaiygiltho-tand, Dall 1. c.
=- Ig'aliki of the Russiains, Wornin in Tikhmenief.
= In'-kal-ik of the Mahlremft Iunnuit.
r nkiliken,
I +Ultkdgmiits,
I +Ttkdjdkscn,

S--Inkdlicn iaten,
+[-Tlijeoncholda, &c., &c., of Holmberg, from Zagoskin.
> Inkiiliiclliale, Wrangell and Ludcwig, Triibn. Bib. Glott., ed. 1, 1858.
= Ingaleets, Whymper and Raymond.
< Inkaliten of Wrangell = Ekogmitt, &c., partly,
Local namcs:
Ulila'kholtn'a on the Ulaukak River.












26
Nuila'to-kho-tan'd at Nulato.
Kaiyik'da-kho-ltn'd on the Kai'yuk River.
Takai'-ydkho-ln'd on the Shgg'eluk River.
Tai-yydyn'o-kholan'd, Upper Kuskokwim River.
The name of this great tribe means Lowlanders, and as they occupy
for the most part the low tundri on and about the Yukon and Kuskokwim
Rivers, it is not inappropriate. It comprises a great' many settlements,
extending over a large extent of country, and having each its local name
of course, but presenting hardly any marked change in the dialects spoken
and the general characteristics of the people. All these people intermarry,
and do not appear to have adopted a totemic system. Their habits vary
with their environment, and those who live by fishing differ somewhat from
those who hunt the moose and deer, as might be expected, while the tribes
most adjacent to the Ekogmft Innuit have followed their fashion in having
more festivals and dances than those to the northward. On the Yukon, the
southernmost settlements live principally by their abundant fisheries, and
trade dry fish, wooden ware, in making which they are very expert, and
strong birch canoes, with the Upper Yukon and Shagelfk people. Those
on the Kuskokwim live more especially by hunting, and those on the Upper
Yukon above the Shageluk about equally by either pursuit according to
circumstances.
These people are most commonly called Inqgliks or Inqgaleet by the
Russians, a corruption of the Innfit word meaning "Indians".
Holmberg, in his summary, was misled by the untruthful and imagi-
native Zagoskin, many of whose fables were exposed by the parties of the
International Telegraph Expedition when exploring in this region. Hence,
his undue multiplication of tribes, intended to enhance the discoveries which
he made principally, not by traveling, but by questioning the natives.
I feel quite confident, from my own intercourse with these people, that,
until further knowledge is attained, no division of this group or tribe -is
necessary or even desirable. They extend from near Kolmakoff Redoubt
on the Kuskokwim River to its headwaters, on the Yukon above the mis-
sion on the left and above the Anvik River on the right bank, west to
the Anvik River and Iktig'alik on the Ulfkak River, north to Nulato, and
east to the mountains or the Kuskokwim River.


I















They build permanent villages, though they sometimes leave them
during the summer, and originally wore the pointed hunting-shirts, which
gave name to the Chippewyans, but which have been, to some extent, put
aside where trade with the whites or Innuit gave them opportunities for
procuring more durable clothing. They are fully described in Alaska and
its Resources. The Nulato settlement is nearly extinct, and numbers have
died on the Lower Yukon from asthma, produced by inhaling tobacco-
smoke into the lungs, and other causes.

KOYUI'-KUKH-OT'NAX.
= Koyukhiinoland, Dall 1. c., meaning KoyTikik River people".
= Jiindkacolhota, Holiberg, Zagoskin.
= Ketlilk-Kitchin of the Fort Yukon Kittchin Indians.
= Koyiikiins, or Koqfukinskoi, of the American and Russian traders.
= Coyoukons, Whymper, Raymond.
= Kgiyiikantsi, Worman in Tikhmenief.
These people inhabit the watershed of the Koyf'ka~k or Koy2ka'kdt
River, and that of its tributaries, the Kuthldt'no, Kotel'no, and Khotelka'kdt.
They are a fierce and warlike tribe, and principally distinguished from the
Kaiyihkhotana by being in a chronically hostile attitude toward them. I
see no strong differences in language or habits; but as a tribe they consider
and keep themselves markedly apart from the others, and, as such, I have
retained them separately.
Misled by Zagoskin and bad vocabularies, Wrangell (in Baar) has
mingled Innfit and Indians in his account of these people. His Inkaliten
appear to have been considered by him as an Inniait people, though lie
includes several subtribes of the Lowland Tinneh, and the same appears to
have been the case with his Inkaliichliiaten. The result is that it is not easy
to refer to his nomenclature of these people without giving occasion for
misconception.*
These people also build houses, and occupy more or less permanent
villages. They seldom intermarry with the Lowlanders, and live princi-
pally by hunting the deer and Rocky Mountain sheep. They also act as
middle-men in trate between the Mahlemfit and the Lowland. Tinneh.
They do not seem to have any system of totems.
SThe same is to some extent true of Erman's papers in the Zeitschr. fuir Ethnologio.















UN'A-KHO-TANA.
= Un'khlol na, Dall 1. c., meaning "Dis'ant" or "Far-off people", a name applied to then by other
Tinneh.
= Jan chotana, Holmbeig, Zagoskin.
= YFkon'ikkhotnda, among themselves.
< Inkiliki, Worman in Tikhmenief..
? Inkiichliiaten, Wrangell in part.
These people inhabit the Yukon from the Sunka/'kt River to the
mouth of the Tananah' River. They call themselves Yfikonikhotana, men
of the Yukon, but so also do some of the Kutchin people living on the river
above the Tananah mouth, so I have preferred to keep the original term,
which is the name by which tie Lowlanders call them, rather than risk
confusion by a change. They are few in number; their principal village is
at the mouth/of the Nowikakat River. Their houses are less solidly built
and less permanent than those of the Lowlanders. They seem to acknowl-
edge no totems; rarely intermarry with the Lowlanders, from whom their
dialect differs slightly; deposit their dead sometimes in an erect posture, the
sarcophagus looking like a roughly-made cask; have no draught-dogs like the
tribes previously mentioned, but have a small breed for hunting; and meet
on the neutral ground of Nui-klfk-ah-yet' every spring to trade with the
Kutchin tribes from the Upper Yukon and Tananah.
The three previously-mentioned tribes differ less among themselves
than they do from those which follow, and I have elsewhere designated them
as "Western Tinneh". The bodies of the dead are always placed by them
above ground in a box or wooden receptacle. They have no marriage-
ceremony; take and discard wives at their pleasure; have often more than
one, but rarely more than three wives; practice shamanism, but have no
idea of any omnipotent or specially-exalted deity, though believing in a
multitude of spirits good and bad; have similar festivals and songs, and a
tolerably uniform language. They are of tall and rather slender build, with
faces varying from square to oval; their hue is an ashy olive, never cop-
pery; their hair coarse, straight, and black. Those near the Innuit have,
in some places, adopted the fashion of wearing labrets, and the inland tribes
very commonly wear a nose-ornament. Their noses are small but aquiline,
or rarely Roman. They vary in hairiness, but rarely have a beard, and















seldom any amount of mustache. In habits and dress, the people of periph-
eral settlements show usually some influence of the differing, but adjacent,
people with whom they are brought in contact. Their manners and dress
are now rapidly altering by intercourse with traders. I am informed that
many of the peculiarities noted by me, when the International Telegraph
Expedition first brought its explorers into contact with these people, have
become obsolete or are rapidly passing away.

TE'NAN'-KUT-CHIN'

= Tenan'-Kiitchin, Dall 1. c., their own tribal name.
? Tschinkaten of Wrangoll, hairy men.
= Kolchaina of the Russians (among other tribes).
= Gens des Butles of Fort Yukon Hudson Bay men.
= Mountain-men of authors.
The name of this people signifies "mountain men", as that of their river,
th6 Tananah', signifies the river of mountains. They occupy the watershed
of the Tananah', which has been visited very recently for the first time by
Ketchum and other white men, but is not, properly speaking, yet explored.
When we met them in 1866, this tribe was almost in a state of nature. Once
a year, without their women, they descended the Tananah' in birch canoes,
in full accoutrement of pointed coats, beads, feathers, and ochred hair, to
trade at the neutral ground of Nuklikayst; or, failing to be pleased there,
ascended the Yukon to Fort Yukon, and there awaited the arrival of the
annual bateaux. With the goods purchased, they then retired to their fast-
nesses, and were seen no more until another year. No white man or Indiarr
of other tribe had penetrated the wilds in which they pursued the deer and
trapped the fox and sable. Their reserve, fierce demeanor, and the mystery
which surrounded their manner of life had its effect on the imagination of
the adjacent tribes, who seemed to fear the strangers, and had many tales,
smacking of the marvelous, to tell of them. This is now changed, and the
account which I have elsewhere given of them will have a kind of historical
interest.
They appear to have certain localities where they establish huts of very
flimsy construction, but move about a large part of the year, and cannot be
said, therefore, to have strictly permanent villages. They live chiefly by














hunting the deer, the broken nature of the country not attracting the moose
into that region. They also trade from the headwaters of the Tananah'
with the Han Kitchin of the Upper Yukon. They are supposed to have
a totemic system similar to that of the Loucheux.

TENNUTH'-KOT-CHIN'.
Gens de Bouleaux, or Birch Indians, of the Hudson Bay men.
These people, with the TatsJh'-Ki tchin', comprised a few bands of
Indians allied to the KiUtcha-Kit-chin', who formerly wandered in the
region between the rapids of the Yukon and the mouth of the Porcupine
River, having their principal hunting-ground near the Small Houses. About
1863, however, they were all swept off by an epidemic of scarlet fever,
introduced through contact with the whites, and there is now not an indi-
vidual living of these two tribes.

KITCHI KUIT-CHIN'.
= KHtchd-Kiitchin, Ross, Kennicott, Gibbs, their own name.
= It-ka-lya-riin of the Nftuwik-mfit Innuit, Simpson.
< Loucheux of the Hudson Bay men.
< Kutchi-kitchi, Ludewig.
< Kolchaina of the Russians. Not Kwitchia Kittchin of Petitot.
These Indians inhabit both banks of the Yukon from the Birch River to
the Kotlo River on the east and the Porcupine River on the north, ascend-
ing the latter a short distance.
They are nomadic, polygamous, and live principally by hunting and
trapping. They formerly burned their dead. They have a totemic system
with three totems-Chit-che-dh, Teng-rat-si, and Nat-sahi, according to Stra-
chan Jones, esq., late commander at Fort Yukon. They are described by
me elsewhere. Their name means "Lowlanders".

NATSIT'-KfIT-CHIN'.
= Nitsit-kttchin, or = .YNtsikc-kctchin, Hardisty and Hudson Bay men.
= Natche'-kiitchin, Ross, MSS. map; Dall 1. c.
= Loucheux, or Gens de Large, of the voyageurs.
These extend from the Porcupine, near Fort Yukon, north to the
Romanzoff Mountains. Their name means strong people ", and is vari-
ously spelled by different authorities. They are migratory, few in number,















generally resemble the last tribe, and are chiefly notable from their trade
with the Kang-malig-mut Innufit, and the fine, strong babiche, or skin-twine,
which they manufacture.
ViNTA'-K OJTCHIN'.
= Vdnta'-ktchin, Ross, MSS. map, Dall 1. c.
= Loucheux, or Quarrellers, of the Hudson Bay voyageurs
= Gens des Rats of the Canadian voyageurs.
? Tdha-kuttchin of Petitot.
Another tribe of KIitchin, occupying the region north of the Porcu-
pine, east of the last tribe, and south of the Innfiit on the Arctic shores.
Little is known of them. Their name signifies Rat people", and is taken
from the Rat or Porcupine River, one of their boundaries.

TUKKITHI'-KUTCIIIN'.
= Tiil7kith-kitchin, Ross, Dall 1. c.
-= at Indians of the Hudson Bay men.
? Tdhd-kittchin of Petitot.
These Indians inhabit the region east of the headwaters of the Porcu-
pine as far as Fort McPherson, and including the district of La Pierre's
House and all the southern headwaters as far west as the next tribe. It is
uncertain whether. to this or the last tribe the appellation of Father Petitot
properly belongs. I have preferred to retain that of Mr. Ross, who is
excelled by none in his knowledge of this region. A small river falling into
the Mackenzie is named Rat River on Petitot's map, but this should not be
confounded with the Porcupine River, which is most-commonly called the
Rat River by the Hudson Bay people. The present tribe is also sometimes
called Rat Indians, but the exact signification of their name is not known
to me. In all respects, as far as known, this people does not differ mate-
rially from the other and better known tribes of the Kitchin Indians of the
Yukon.
HAN-KUTCHIN'.

= Han-kiitchin, Ross, the H. B. Co.'s traders, Ketchum, Dall c.
= Gens des Bois of the Hudson's Bay voyageur..
< Kolchaina, or Kolshina, of the Russians.
This is a small tribe, inhabiting both banks of the Yukon above the
Kotlo River for over a hundred miles, to the Deer River, and sometimes















extending their wanderings north to the banks of the Porcupine, east of the
Kitclh'-kiitchin' and west of the TUikkith'-kUtchin'. Their name signifies
"Wood" or "Forest people", and-they are comparatively but little known.
They trade at Fort Yukon.

TUT-CHONE'-KUTTCHIN'.
= Titchone Kiitchin, Ketchum, Dall 1. c.
= Gens des Foux of the Hudson's Bay voyagours.
= "N haunce", Caribou, or Mountain Indians, of various Hudson Bay officers, Ross and others.
< Kollclanes, or Galzanes, Ludowig (north of Atna River), Wrangell.
< Kollchanskoi, Worman in Tikhmenief.
? Titlogat (Titlokakat?) people, of Ah-tena Indians, fide Wrangell.
This is an extensive and widely-distributed tribe, whose amiable man-
ners have gained them the name of Gens des TFoux from the voyageurs, and
whose name signifies "Crow people". They occupy the banks of the Yukon
from the Deer River nearly to the site of Fort Selkirk and the watershed
of the small streams flowing into the Yukon from the north, especially on
the Stewart River about Reid House; the basin of the White River, heading
in the glaciers of the St. Elias Alps; and perhaps the Lewis River to some
extent These are, with little doubt, the natives with whom the Ahtena
Indians trade from the headwaters of the Atna and Chechitno Rivers, called
Kolchaina by the Russians, who apply that term to all the interior Indians
with whom they are unfamiliar. "Titlogat", mentioned by Wrangell as one
of the settlements of the Kolchaina, is possibly some mutual trading-
ground which has an Indian name of Titlo-kakat or something similar.

We now come to a group of Indians but little known, and which can-
not be differentiated with any certainty into tribes. The names I give for
them are on the authority of Mr. Ross's manuscript map, lately in the
possession of the late George Gibbs, and for an opportunity of examining
which I am indebted to his kindness.

NEHAUNEES.
= Nelhaunees, Ross, Dall 1. c.
? Naa"anee of Pctitot.
Including the following people:
A.-ABBATO-TENA..
= Abbato-tena', Ross, Dal1 1. c.
? Eaba-t'a-o-tinne of Petitot.
A very low grade of Indians inhabiting the basin of the Pelly and















Macmillan Rivers. The very erroneous character of this part of Petitot's
map renders it impossible to identify his names geographically with any
known tribes. They have also been called Gens des Bois by some of the
Hudson's Bay people.
B.-MAUVAIS MONDE.
= Maurais Monde, or Slavi, Ross, Dall 1. c., H. B. Co.'s officers.
Inhabit the region of Frances Lake. Very few in number, and little
known.
C.-ACHE'TO-TIN'NEH.
= Acheto-timneh Ross 1. c.
On the western headwaters of the Liard River, occasionally visiting
Dease House and Lake.
D.--DAHO'-TENA'.
D= otendt, Ross 1. c.
Below the last, on the Liard River. Sometimes called Sicanees by the
traders; or else there is another tribe in the same region to which this
name has been applied.
E.-T3H'KO-TIN'NEH.
= Tahko-tinel of some of the traders.
Inhabit the basin of the Lewis River; are very few in number, and
scarcely known to the whites.

F.-NEHAUNEES OF THE CHILKAHT RIVER.
Chilkaht-tena, Dall 1. c., nom. prov.
Indians of Tinneh stock, inhabiting the shores of a river heading near
the Chilkaht, but flowing in an opposite direction, and falling into the Lewis
River near Lake Lebarge.
These people are. bold and enterprising, great traders, and of great
intelligence. They carry goods bought from the Chilkaht-kwan (who do
not allow them to descend the Chilkaht River) to the Yukon, where they
trade with the Crows and Nehaunees. I erroneously applied the term
Chilkaht to them, which I have since discovered is a T'linket word. My
informant must have been led into error in assigning it to a Tinneh tribe.
They appear to be a numerous people, but have never mixed with the
whites, except on a few occasions at Fort Selkirk, which they are said to
have had afterward a hand in burning.
3
















It will be seen from the above that the term Nehaunee covers a large
number of bands, some of which are probably independent tribes, and the
only thing which can be said to be known about them is that they all belong
to the Tinneh stock.

To the westward of the Nehaunees and Crows are the following two
tribes, which complete the list of Alaskan Tinneh.

AH-TENA'.
= Ah-tena, Dall 1. c., their own tribal designation.
= Atnaer, Wrangell.
= Atakhtans, Eriman.
= Ketschet-naer (ice-men) of the Russian traders, fide Wrangell.
= Miednoffskoi, Worman in Tikhmenief.
= Atnaxthynnd, Pinart, Rev. Phil. et Ethn., Les Atnals.
= Atnas, Ludewig, in Triibner Bib. Glott., ed. 1,p. 14, 211.
= Yellowknife or Nehaunee Indians, Ross, MSS. map.
Not Ainah, Ludowig, Flatheads of the Frazer River.
Not Yellouwnives of the Coppernino River, H. B. Terr.
These Indians, known principally by report, occupy the basin of the
Atna or Copper River, and reach to the sea at its mouth, having pushed
themselves between the Ugalakmut Innfiit and their relations of Chugach
Bay. I was fortunate enough to be present in 1874 at their annual trade
at Port Etches, to determine definitely their own name for themselves,*
and to recognize in their speech many of the Tinneh words with which I
had become familiar on the Yukon. I also obtained from them a piece,
weighing about five pounds, of the celebrated native copper, found in the bed
of the river on which they live. They resembled strongly the Koyukuns
in appearance, and wore the original pointed coats trimmed with beads,
such as I had seen on the persons of the Tenan-kcitchin. Their faces were
oval and of pleasing and intelligent expression. On a visit to the vessel in
my charge, they showed unusual tact and discretion in their behavior, which
could hardly have been improved, though she was to them an object of the
greatest curiosity, the only sea-going vessel they had ever seen.
Father Petitot, by a curious misreading of my text in Alaska and its Rtsources, has arrived at
the conclusion that I have confounded the Copper or Atna River with the Coppermine River of Hearno
and Franklin, because (on Ross's authority) I stated that the Ah-tena were sometimes called Yellow-
knife or Nehaunee Indians by the English, while the Yellowknivcs that he knows are residents of the
Coppermine River. It would appear, apart from his misconception, that he has forgotten that the trad-
ers frequently apply the same name to widely different tribes, and that in quoting them, then as now, I
could not vouch for the proper application of any names except those I have personally verified.















They were tall and rather slender, but of good physique, of a clear
olive complexion, and with straight black hair, arched eye-brows, and with-
out hair upon the face. They appear to be not very numerous, but rather
widely distributed on the river, trading with the interior Indians at its head-
waters. The signification of their name has some relation to the glaciers
which are found in their territory, -but I could not make out its exact Eng-
lish equivalent. I noticed no traces of T'linket words in their speech, and it is
a question whether those noted by Pinart, in this as in other cases, were not
due rather to the defective knowledge or memory of his half-breed inter-
preter than to their actual existence as words incorporated in the language.

TEHANIN'-KUTCHIN'.
= Tctanin-Kutchin, Ross 1. c., as applied to them by the Yukon Indians.
=Kenayerv, Wrangell, as of the Russians.
= Tnaina or Tnai, Wrangell, as of themselves.
= Kinajit of the Kaniagnmit Inniit, fide Wrangell.
= Kcnaitse, Worman in Tikhmenief.
= Kinai, Buschmann.
= Kinai, Kenai, Kenaitze, itynai, Ludowig in Triibner.
= Ougaglianmuzi-Kinaia, Kinaitsa, Balbi, Atlas Ethn.
= Kenai-lend, Dall 1. c., nom. prov. (erroneous).
= True Thnaina, Holmberg.
= K'nai'a-khoti'na, their own name according to the Ah-tena Indians.
No satisfactory vocabulary, nor even a trustworthy statement of the
name by which these people call themselves, has yet been published. By
some words of Wrangell's and Lisiansky's vocabularies, and by the fact
that they possess a totemic system, it may reasonably be' surmised that
they are more closely related to the Kutchin tribes than to the western
Tinneh. The word Kenai I have strong reasons for believing is an Inniit
word, and hence any application of it to them is erroneous. On the other hand,
I cannot reconcile the form Tnaina with any of the forms in use among the
Tinneh for denominating themselves as a tribe. I have some doubts of the
correctness of the name supplied to me by the Ah-tena, and so I have pro-
visionally adopted the name supplied by Ross. This is that by which they
are called by the Tenan-Kutchin of the Tananah', with whom they are said
to occasionally trade.
They are among the least known of the tribes which reach the sea-
coast. They are said to occupy the Kenai Peninsula on its northwest side
from Chugachik Bay to its head, and the shores opposite as far south as the















bay near Iliamna Volcano, the basin of the Knik and Suchitno Rivers, and
their headwaters. They bury their dead in boxes above ground, on which
they pile up stones. They are said to be more intelligent than the adjacent
Innuit, from whom they purchase kyaks and other articles. They kill large
numbers of the Rocky Mountain goat and use the skins for clothing.

This completes the list of the Tinneh tribes of Alaska and the adjacent
territory, and we now come to the stock or family of

2.-T'LINKETS.
= ThlinkeLs of most Russian and German authors.
= Kolosles or Koloshians, Ludewig, and most English and French authors.
= Kolouches, Balbi.
= Koloches, Pinart, Bull. Soc. d'Anthr. 1873, Erman.
= linkedt, their own name for people of their stock.
> Silkliinskoi, Worman in Tikhmenief.
These people as a whole are remarkably well differentiated from the
Tinneh, and have been very fully described by Veniaminoff, Wrangell,
Bendel, Pinart, and the writer. Of the tribes on Norfolk Sound especially,
the material, vocabularies, &c., are remarkably complete. There are several
outlying tribes, however, of which the affinities are not positively deter-
mined. The principal of these is the Kygani or Haida tribe, which has
been very generally united with the T'linkets, but which I am disposed to
so refer only provisionally; and the Chimsyans or Nasse Indians, who
very probably belong to a distinct family. The Billecoola are Selish; the
Hailtzuh belong to the Vancouver Island family, though both have been
referred to the Nasses. The language of the latter is, according to Gibbs,
quite distinct from that of the Tacullies or Carriers, to which Ludewig com-
pared it.
The Yakutats in many respects, also, are differentiated from the other
T'linkets, though they belong, without doubt, to the same stock. The
T'linkets may be divided as follows, into five groups:

"YAK'i TATS."
= Y-k'ilttts, Dall 1. c., Pinart, and most authors.
= Yakiltatskoi, Worman in Tikhmenief.
= Yakoutats, Erman.
These Indians inhabit the region between the coast-mountains and














the sea, from Bering Bay to Lituya Bay, occasionally traveling in canoes
farther west or southeast for purposes of trade. On my visit to Bering
Bay in 1874, I endeavored to get their own name for themselves, but had
no interpreter, and neither the natives nor myself spoke much Chinook, so
that I do not feel sure that they understood my inquiries. At all events, I
could get no other answer than "Yakutat", which is evidently the name they
give to the country they inhabit, but must, in all probability, have some
other suffix or termination when applied as a tribal name. Their principal
settlement is on a large stream, abounding with salmon, and emptying into
Bering Bay or Yakutat. They fish and trade at Port Mulgrave in the
spring before the salmon arrive, and hunt seal near the glaciers of Disen-
chantment Bay. The women do not wear the kalushka, or lip-ornament
They are said not to adopt the totemic system, so much in vogue among the
other T'linkets, and eat the blubber and flesh of the whale, which the other
tribes of their stock regard as unclean.

CHILKAHT'-KWAN.

The Chilk4ht'-kwdn inhabit the valley of the Chilkaht River, which is
of moderate size, and falls into the head of Lynn Canal. They are inti-
mately related to the inhabitants of Norfolk Sound, and some of them may
almost always be found sojourning at Sitka. They consider themselves,
however, a distinct tribe, and have on some occasions been involved in hos-
tilities with the Sitka people. They are a wild and untamable people, and
said to be very numerous. They trade with. the whites on the sea-coast,
and with the Tinneh of the interior, by means of numerous small lakes and
streams near the head of the Chilkaht River. In all essentials, they do not
seem to differ from the Sitkans.

SITKA-KWAN.
-=Siila-kwtan, their own appellation at Sitka.
= Antou-ktan, fide Pinart, for the tribe in general.
< Silka-kran, Pinart.
== Chiigagancs, Sandifort, fide Pinart.
= Tcl ikiItaiens of Marchand.
=Silkans of Erman.















Local names:
Hiidsinii at Hood's Bay and Hoochenu Rapids.
Ahk on Frederick Sound.
Kehk on Frederick Sound.
Eklikheeno, Chatham Strait.
Ki'ii near Capo Decision.
Henneega on Prince of Wales Island.
Tomgass near Fort Tomgass or Tongass.
Silka-kwan at Sitka on Norfolk Sound.
These names may require some revision hereafter, except the Inst.
These people inhabit Baranoff Island and its vicinity, Chichagoff,
Admiralty, Kuiif, Kuprianoff, and Prince of Wales Islands (the latter only
in part), and the archipelago, of which these form a part. They are among
the best known of the Northwest American tribes, and information in rela-
tion to them may be found in the works referred to under the head of
T'linkets. The nickname of Koloshes, which has been extensively applied
to them, arises, according to some authorities, from a Russian word meaning
to pierce,'in allusion to the perforations made for labrets in the lips of the
women, and is asserted by others to be derived from "kalushka", a Russian
word, meaning a little trough, in allusion to the trough-like shape of the
labrets themselves. The latter would seem to be the more probable deriva-
tion, as the custom of piercing the lip was common among tribes familiarly
known to the Russians before they met the T'linkets; while no North
American tribe in historic times has worn any labret at all comparable, in
size and grotesque appearance, to the kalushka. The latter would have
struck the observer at once as a remarkable ornament, and was therefore
more likely to be remembered and spoken frequently of in referring to these
people. The Sitka-kwan have numerous large villages with large houses,
often ornamented with carvings, and capable of standing quite a siege.
They are a fierce and independent people, and of late years much demor-
alized from the use of alcoholic stimulants, which they have even learned
to distil from molasses for themselves.

STAKHIN'-KWAN.

These are a T'linket tribe, little differentiated from the last, occupying
the mainland near the mouth of the Stikine River (a corruption of Stakhin).
They consider themselves distinct from the Sitkans, and the two tribes have















frequently been involved in hostilities. They do not penetrate far into the
interior, but extend along the coast from the Lynn to the Portland Canal.
Here they are bounded on the south and east by the Nasses and the Chim-
syans. We now come to the last group of Alaskan Indians, the-

KYGAH'NI.
= KygIh'ni, their own appellation.
= Kaiganskoi, Worman in Tikhmenief.
= Kaigans, Erman.
< Kyganies, or Kigamies, Ludewig.
= Haidahs, Ludewig, and authors.
= Hydahs of authors.
= Kyga'ni, Dall 1. c.
These people, which I refer with doubt to the T'linket stock, have
their headquarters on the islands of Queen Charlotte's Archipelago, but
there are a few villages on the islands forming the southernmost portion of
Alaska Territory, south of Prince of Wales Island. They are a tall, hand-
some, fierce, and treacherous' race, not improved by the rum sold them by
the Hudson Bay Company, and noted for their skill in carving wood and
slate, and their chasing and other work on silver which they obtain from
the whites. In Alaska, they are very few in number.
The Nasses and adjacent Chimsyan and other tribes are in so much
confusion, from an ethnological point of view, that I am glad to avail myself
of the fact that they do not, strictly speaking, come within the limits of this
paper.
The following is a recapitulation of the different Indian tribes of Alaska,
with an approximate estimate of their numbers. I omit the population for
those exterior to the Territory.
TINNEH.
(WESTERN.)
Kaiyuhkhotna ....-- ...- : ...-- ....---.....------------ ..-- 2, 000
Koyfakkhotana -....----...----- ...--...-...---..--- --. 500
UJnakhotan..--..---.......-----------------------------. 300
(KIiTCHIN.)
Tenan-kUtchin.--- ............------- ..------......-- 400
Tenniith-kUtchin, extinct.
T;itsah-kUtchin, extinct.
Katitcha-ktchin ---------------------------------------- 250














Natsit-kiatchin ..-.. ...-- .... .. ..........................------
Vinta-kUtchin.
Tfikktith-ktitchin.
Han-kUtchin.
Tiitchone-katchin.
Tehanin-kitchin ........-..........-................ ....
(EASTERN.)
Abbato-tena.
Mauvais Monde (Nehaunees).
Acheto-tinneh.
Daho-tena.
Tchko-tinneh.
" Chilkaht-tena."
Ah-tena .-.. -....-.. -...... -----.....- -.... ............
T'LINKETS.
(YAKfTATS.)
"Yakutats" ..... ............. ..... ..............
(KWAN.)
Chilkaht-kwan.-----------... . ................ ... .... .
Sitka-kwan - - - .- --. ... ...-.-. ... .............
Stakhin-kwan .....-.............................. ....
(KYGiiHN.)
K ygahni ----- - -- -----.........................
(NASSES.)


150




1,000








1,500


250

1,300
2, 200
1,500

300


Nasse Indians.
Chimsyans.
Total Alaska Indians ----.....-- ...-....- ..... ....... 11,650
Total Alaska Orarians...----......--..--..-........ 14,054
Total native population ---......-- .......-.....-.. .. 25, 704
Add Russians ..----.-------.------------........ 50
Add half-breeds or Creoles .-----....-..- ..........-. 1, 500
Add citizens (including 100 military) ................. 250
1,800
Total population of the Territory-..-..--......--. ...- 27, 504
This estimate is probably over rather than under the real number,
except for white citizens, whose number fluctuates, and who, during the
mining-season, may number as many as fifteen hundred.




















II.


ON SUCCESSION IN THE SHELL-HEAPS OF THE ALEUTIAN
ISLANDS

BY W. H. DALL.


The notes of which this paper is the result were made while engaged
in a hydrographic and geographical reconnaissance of the Aleutian Islands,
under the auspices of the United States Coast Survey. They were made
at enforced intervals of leisure, occasioned by weather which would not
permit the ordinary surveying operations of the party to be carried on; a
circumstance which will explain the limitations by which our observations
were necessarily curtailed. Notwithstanding this limitation, however, it is
believed results of value have been obtained.
The character of the islands is tolerably well known, and a sketch of
them, which gives all the details necessary for a comprehension of this
paper, will be found accompanying the paper on the distribution of the
Indian tribes on the general map of Alaska Territory.
Their topography, with few exceptions, is high and rugged; their
shore-lines very irregular, and mostly rocky; their vegetation rich and
abundant, but confined to herbaceous plants and small species of Vaccinium
and Salix, none as a rule attaining to a greater height than four feet, and
often creeping along the surface of the soil. The climate is moist and not
cold, but inclement from the abundance of cloudy weather, fog, rain, and
at certain seasons the prevalence of severe gales. The harbors are rarely
closed by ice, and then only for a few days or until the first fresh breeze.












42


The invertebrate fauna of the shores is abundant in individuals, but sparse
in littoral species. Fish are abundant to the eastward, but more and more
scanty west from Atka Island. Sea-birds are everywhere found in myriads.
The sea-lion, the sea-otter, fur-seal, and varieties of hair-seal, once very
abundant, are now scarce or even entirely extinct in some localities.
There is yet an abundance of small whales; some land-birds, including the
ptarmigan (Lagopus albus); the blue fox has been introduced into many of
the islands, and flourishes; lemmings of small size are said to exist on
Kreesa or Rat Island to the westward, and, from Unalashka eastward,
are, with Spermophilus Parryi, abundant. This comprises the indigenous
vertebrate fauna of the present day.
Wood is not abundant on the beaches, but is more plenty to the
eastward, where the westerly current throws it on the eastern and northern
shores of the islands. From an examination of the drift-stuff, it is evident
that the larger portion of it comes from the east and south. The Sitka
spruce, cedar and fir, Panax horridum, cocoa-nut shells, and acacia-nuts
are all from the western shores of America, either indigenous or as refuse
thrown overboard by the merchantmen. The Yukon spruce, willow, birch,
and poplar are much less common and rarely occur.
The islands are washed by two seas, both notoriously stormy and foggy.
There are no currents, on their north shores, proper to Bering Sea. In the
Pacific, the great easterly current passes entirely to the southward of the
islands, not grazing them, and not affecting the water north of latitude 500.
It strikes the northwest coast of America at or near Dixon's Entrance, and
here a strong but narrow branch is deflected to the northward, and, follow-
ing the trend of the coast, finally to the westward; passing south of the
islands, and being evident as a current as far west as Atka, when it gradu-
ally spends its force, and is not perceptible in the extreme western islands.
The tide in this region rises in the east and sets toward the west, adding to
the force of the current during the march of the tide. It rushes into Ber-
ing Sea through the numerous passes and straits, carrying its burden of
drift-wood, and generally forming a severe rip or tide-bore during its pas-
sage; this, with the set of the Bering Sea tide, tends to form an occasional
westerly drift or set, north of the islands. The northerly branch of the














Kuro Siwo passes far to the westward of the westernmost island, and
between it and the warm current a broad strip of water, with a temperature
of 350 Fahrenheit, intervenes. This is strikingly evident in the fauna of
shoal water about Attu, where Arctic forms prevail almost exclusively. The
strait between Kamchatka and the Commander's Islands is, at its narrowest
part, one hundred and twenty nautical miles wide; and, between them and
Attu, it is two hundred and twenty miles wide. Between the Commander's
Islands and the end of the Aleutian chain is a great gulf of four thousand
fathoms in depth, cutting off the fauna of Asia from that of America, except
such portion as has spread from the Arctic along the shores southward
on both sides of Bering Sea. I have been thus explicit in stating the
physical features of the region, because they have a very important bear-
ing on the subject of migration, and are usually wholly ignored in ethno-
logical papers which treat of that topic.
Shell-heaps are found on nearly all the islands of the Aleutian group.
They are most abundant and extensive in the islands east of Unalashka,
and on the few islands from Amchitka eastward, which are less high and
rugged than the others; or on those where the greater amount of level land
is to be found. The two necessaries for a settlement appear to have been
a stream of water or a spring, and a place where canoes could land with
safety in rough weather. Where these are both wanting, shell-heaps are
never found, and rarely when either is absent. The favorite spots appear
to have been on narrow necks of land, across which an easy portage could
be made from one body of water to another. Safety from hostile attacks
also governed the selection of village-sites, and hence the mouths of streams
abounding with salmon, but offering no protection, were seldom made a
place of settlement. The earliest inhabitants, however, appear to have
been less particular in this respect than their more modern successors.
On the islands west of Amchitka, shell-heaps are less abundant, the
shores being less fully provided with food and drift-wood, and less acces-
sible for canoes.
We observed shell-heaps in the following localities:
Attu Island.-1. At the head of Chichagoff Harbor, east of the present
village; extent about three acres and a half; the shell-heaps covered with













an ancient village-site of subsequent occupation. 2. On the western shores
of Saranna Bay. We were informed of similar deposits on Massacre Bay,
and two other localities on the western and southern shores of Attu.
Agattu Island.-We were informed that some old village-sites exist on
this island, which was inhabited at the time of its discovery.
Kyska Island.-On the south shore of Kyska Harbor, near a small
portage, is a rather modern shell-heap. A modern village-site exists at the
west end of the harbor, and one, quite extensive, on the bay on the west
side of the island, opposite the harbor.
Little Kyska Island.-Afforded no evidences of shell-heaps.
Amchitka Island.-A flat and low island abounding with birds. Shell-
heaps excessively abundant wherever a convenient cove presented a good
site. A large settlement at the head of Constantine Harbor; another,
smaller and apparently more modern, on the eastern shore of the harbor.
Numerous large village-sites on the north shores of the island, west to
Kiriloff settlement, the latter being quite modern, and abandoned in 1849.
On the south shore, very extensive evidences of settlement, and a large
resident population.
Adakh Island.-Near the Bay of Islands were several small village-
sites on shell-heaps, and this island is said at one time to have been very
populous.
Atka Island.-At Nazan Bay, only comparatively modern burial-places,
rock-shelters, and a village-site were noticed. On Korovin Bay, there are
several village-sites, but no old shell-heaps were seen.
Amlia Island.-Said to have numerous old village-sites.
Islands of the Four Craters.-Were in comparatively modern times
occupied by a considerable population, especially on Kagamil, but no shell-
heaps are reported, and the former activity of the volcanoes, not yet quiet,
would hardly have invited early settlement.
Umnak Island.-Extensive evidences of early settlements and numerous
village-sites reported.
Unalashka Island.-On this and the adjoining islets, on every practi-
cable site, shell-heaps or village-sites are to be found, with numerous more














modern rock-shelters utilized for burial-places. There are nine village-
sites on Captain's Bay alone.
Chika Rocks, Akutan Pass.-Here are remains of a small, but populous,
settlement, but no shell-heaps.
On the islands to the eastward of Unalashka these remains are so
numerous as not to be practicable to enumerate, except such as we actually
visited or have been specially reported to us, namely: Sannakh Islands,
village-sites very numerous; False Pass, two localities for village-sites; Port
Miller, Aliaska Peninsula, shell-heaps extending over twenty acres, village-
sites much less extensive. Unga Island, at Delaroff Harbor; Korovin
Island, Nagai Island and Simeonoff Island, among the Shumagins. Chiachi
Islands; Chignik Bay, Aliaska Peninsula, extensive village-sites; Chirikoff
Island; and so on to Kadiak Island and Cook's Inlet.
The population of the islands was estimated at fifty thousand by
Shelikoff, and, in view of the evidences of habitation, the estimate could
not have been excessive at one time, though perhaps too great at the time
he visited the islands. The present population is about two thousand.
The village-sites or shell-heaps are indicated, as far as the eye can
distinguish vegetation, by their brilliant green covering of herbage, which
is only dimmed when covered by snow, and even in the height of spring is
brighter and more verdant than the adjoining slopes.
This is the result of the fact that the shell-heaps are great mounds of
the most fertile material, which thousands of years would not suffice to
exhaust by the ordinary draughts of nature. Bones, shells, and all varieties
of rejectamenta having been deposited here for centuries, the covering of
soil which has accumulated over them is incomparably rich, and it has even
been suggested that the solid beds of compacted fish-bones, which are to be
found in some localities, might be quarried and exported as a fertilizer.
Nothing is to be got from these deposits without extensive excavation
and patient search.
Our usual method in investigating .these accumulations was as follows:
The shell-heaps, especially those surmounted by village-sites, usually pre-
sent an undulating appearance, which from some neighboring elevation is
at once seen to result from the following cause: The method of house-














building in vogue among the ancient inhabitants was to excavate slightly,
to build a wall of flat stones or of bones of the larger whales, and bank this
up on the outside with turf and stones. In these ancient houses, there was
usually a door at one side, as in most Innuit houses, and as many of the
Aleuts practice even now. The enormous yourts, entered only by a hole
in the top and accommodating a number of families, were of more modern
invention, and are rarely found among the ruined villages. From throwing
out debris, and the gradual accumulation of material in the course of years,
the house being more or less resodded every autumn, the outside embank-
ment in the course of time became elevated from four to six feet above the
level of the floor. The roof was formed of whales' ribs in default of wood,
covered with wisps of hay tied together and laid on grass-mats across the
rafters; and all this was turfed over. Hence, when the house was aban-
doned the straw and mats decayed, the earth and finally the rafters fell
in (the latter being often removed to use in some new house), the rain and
storms diminished the angles of the embankment, and, finally, the only
evidence remaining would be a roundly rectangular pit, with steep sides,
somewhat raised above the surface of the external soil. This might endure
for generations without any practical alteration, as the stone walls within
would prevent caving in at the sides, and the filling-up of the pit by the
accumulation and decay of subaerial deposits would progress very slowly.
As the ancient Aleuts built their houses as close together as possible, the
surface which is left by the disappearance of the structures above described
is irregularly pitted all over with depressions from four to six feet in depth,
and varying from ten feet square to dimensions of forty by twenty feet, or
even much larger. There is usually, on the highest point of the bank or
knoll where the village stood, a pit much larger than the others, which was
probably the workshop or kashim' of the settlement. Around this we usually
found tools and implements more abundantly than about the smaller pits
or remains of houses. We also found that the floors of the pits hardly
afforded anything until we reached.the strata of the shell-heap upon which
the houses had been erected; while the outer embankment, containing
everything which had been thrown away, was correspondingly rich.
We therefore adopted two methods of procedure. When stormy


L














weather prevented surveying work, we would muster six or eight men with
picks and shovels, clad in storm-proof rubber-coats, boots, and sou'westers,
and attack a shell-heap. Having, if possible, detected the kashim, one party
would enter the pit which represented it, and dig away the embankments
from the inside, having first cleared away the superficial covering of vege-
table mold, often a foot deep, and the rank herbage upon it. This gave
them a good "face" to work on, and was the easier part of the work. The
others would start near the edge of the shell-heap, if possible taking a steep
bank bordering on the sea or on some adjacent rivulet, and run a ditch into
the deposit, going down until the primeval clay or stony soil was reached,
and this was steadily pushed, even when quite barren of results in the shape
of implements, until the day's work was done. This latter gave us a clear
idea of the formation and constitution of the shell-heaps; enabled me to
distinguish between the different strata and their contents; to make the
observations repeatedly; to fully confirm them by experience in many
localities; and thus to lay the foundation for the generalizations suggested
in this paper. While this work was barren in "finds" compared with the
excavations in the superior and more modern accumulations, implements and
utensils were by no means entirely wanting; on the contrary, several hun-
dreds were collected in the period from 1871 to 1874, though I do not doubt
that we moved half a ton of debris for every specimen found. Thirty
specimens from all sources we considered a good day's work, though we
frequently obtained a larger number and often fewer. We excavated in this
manner in Attu, Amchitka, Adakh, Atka, many localities in Unalashka,
Amaknak Island, and the Shumagins, and made casual examinations or slight
excavations in numerous other localities.
In order to give a clearer idea of the arrangements of the village-sites,
I subjoin a sketch, not representing with exactness any special site, but
not dissimilar to one examined at Constantine Harbor, Amchitka. This
represents the outlines of the houses as more distinct than they are in reality.
The village had been built at the top of a steep bank, overlooking the broad
sandy beach of the harbor, and a small stream divided the base of the bank
from a marsh to the north of it.
The absence of any differentiation into stone, iron, and bronze ages in














the archmology of America is well known, as is the fact that the conditions
of the stone age and the most advanced civilization exist simultaneously
in the social state of living inhabitants of
S- the North American continent in different
i- ** regions. Hence it follows, in our archaeology
Sas well as in our paleontology, that we must
break away from received ideas and nomen-
clature, which fulfill their purpose in accel-
erating the study of the successive epochs
in Europe, but which, when applied to the
differing conditions of America, to a certain
extent at least, fetter and confuse. Even
in America, the conditions are by no means
so uniform as to authorize a single system
K,kathim. beach. of nomenclature in archmology. For intel-
ligent study we must separate at least three regions, the Mississippi Valley,
the Pacific Slope, and the Mexican Region, and perhaps to these should be
added an Atlantic Region, extending from the Chesapeake to Labrador.
The generalizations in this paper, however, cannot claim even so
extended a range as might be implied by one of these regions. They refer
only to the past conditions of life, as the facts in evidence show to have
existed in the Aleutian Islands and the immediately adjacent shores of the
continent. It is probable that the insulated condition and the narrow range
of subsistence within which the ancient islanders were confined had much
to do with the sharpness of the contrast between the successive stages which
the strata of the shell-heaps reveal.
From the observations and collections about to be enumerated, it appears
to me probable that the following generalizations are well founded:
I. That the islands were populated at a very distant period.
II. That the population entered the chain from the eastward.
III. That they were, when they first settled on the islands, in a very
different condition from that in which they were found by the first civilized
travelers.


_ ~ _____ __~_~f













IV. That it is possible that the later population was partly a distinct
wave of emigration from the first; that is, that -the emigration did not take
place gradually and with a steady progress, but that a later influx may have
taken place, of people who (while related to the firstcomers) may have
had some opportunities for development in manners and arts while tempora-
rily resident on the adjacent continent, while at the same time the firstcomers
had been developing under different and more restricted conditions on the
islands.
V. That the people who first populated the islands were more similar
to the lowest grades of Innuit (so-called Eskimo) than to the Aleuts of the
historic period; and that while the development of the other Innuit went
on in the direction in which they first started, that of the Aleuts was
differentiated and changed by the limitations of their environment.
VI. That a gradual progression from the low Innuit stage to the
present Aleut condition, without serious interruption, is plainly indicated
by the succession of the materials of, and utensils in, the shell-heaps ot
the islands.
VII. That the difficulties by which they were surrounded and the
necessity of coping with natural limitations, by which the continental
Innuit were not restricted, led to a more rapid and a greater intellectual
development on the part of the Aleuts in certain directions; and that this
progress is shown, among other ways, in the greater development of the
possibilities of their language, in its more perfect grammatical structure,
and in a much more thorough system of numeration, as compared with
that of the continental Innuit.
VIII. That the stratification of the shell-heaps shows a tolerably
uniform division into three stages, characterized by the food which formed
their staple of subsistence and by the weapons for obtaining, and utensils
for preparing this food, as found in the separate strata; these stages being-
I. The Littoral Period, represented by the Echinus Layer.
II. The Fishing Period, represented by the Fishbone Layer.
in. The Hunting Period, represented by the Mammalian Layer.
IX. That these strata correspond approximately to actual stages in
the development of the population which formed them; so that their















contents may appropriately, within limits, be taken as indicative of the
condition of that population at the times when the respective strata were
being deposited.


Section of shell-heap.
A. Original hardpan.
B. Echinns layer.
C. Fishbone layer.
D. Mammalian layer.
E. Modern deposits and vegetable mold.


To make clear the succession
of the strata in the shell-heaps, 1
subjoin an ideal section of one-of
them, with one of the house-pits
of a subsequent village surmount-
ing it; the section showing the
stone-walls of the latter still in
place beneath the covering of
vegetable mold and debris.


A.-THE LITTORAL PERIOD.

In most of our excavations, especially in Attu, Amchitka, and Adakh,
we found the first stratum of the shell-heaps, above the primeval soil or
hardpan, to be composed almost exclusively of the broken test and spines
of Echinus (Strongylocentrotus) Dribachiensis, (Miill.) Agassiz, recently
described by E. Perrier under the name of Loxechinus violaceus. This
is at present the common and only species of the family found living
in the Aleutians. With it were found sparingly the shells of the following
edible mollusks, all found living in the adjacent waters at the present time:
Modiola vulgaris, Fleming.
Mytilus edulis, Lin.
Purpura lima, Martyn.
Purpura decemcostata, Mid.
Litorina sitkana, Phil., and vars.
Tapes staminea, Conr.
Saxidomus squalidus, Desh.
2lacoma nasuta, Conr.
Acmcea patina and A. pelta, Esch.
The list is given in the order of the frequency of their occurrence, but
they do not form altogether more than one-tenth of one per centum of the














stratum. Bones of all vertebrates, except very rarely those of fish, seemed
totally absent in this stratum.
Shells were not sufficiently abundant to modify the appearance of the
layer, which was totally free from any admixture of earth or extraneous
matter, and presented the aspect, until closely examined, of fine, pure, uni-
form, greenish-white sand. This bed varied in thickness from a total of two
feet to three feet in a vertical direction. The deposit extended everywhere
underneath the shell-heaps, covering an area of three acres and a half at
Attu, about four and three-quarters acres at one of the Amchitka vil-
lages, and at Adakh half an acre or more, by measurement. Traces of it
were found in all the shell-heaps examined, though its depth and extent
were less fully determined at other points than those above mentioned.
The echinus, though possessing no edible tissues of its own, is furnished
with ovaries on the inner side of the dome of the test, radiating from the
center. These, when in full condition, which occurs in some individuals at
all seasons of the year, offer two or three tablespoonfuls of really palatable
minute eggs, tasting like an oyster, and of a bright-yellow color. It would
require forty or fifty adult individuals to afford a good meal for a man.
They are eaten to this day in a raw state by the Aleuts. We may arrive at
some slight idea of the length of time it must have taken to have formed
such enormous deposits of this material, by a simple calculation. It is not
at all likely that a community of natives could constantly obtain a sufficient
supply of this kind of food at any one locality for any great length of time
continuously. It is probable that they migrated from place to place within
a certain area, subsisting at one place until the supply became short, and
then going to another, and so on until the original locality had become
restocked, which might readily occur, such is the abundance of this animal,
in two or three months. It is also probable that at some seasons other kinds
of food might be resorted to, such as birds' eggs in the spring, &c. We
may suppose that one locality might supply them with echini for three
months of the year, at different periods during the year. It is probable,
also, that at that time, with the limited amount of food to be obtained, the
communities would be small, probably not exceeding twenty persons each
on the average.












* 52


Upon these theoretical considerations as a basis, we may proceed to
make a calculation.* Taking the least thickness of the beds at two feet,
which I consider a fair average for the ordinary shell-heaps, the amount
required to cover an acre two feet deep would be 87,120 cubic feet, using
the United States statute acre (= 43,560 square feet) as a basis. Admitting
that each person consumed one hundred echini per day, a community of
twenty persons would consume two thousand per day, or, in three months,
184,000 echini. Having taken an echinus of the largest size, dried, and
reduced it to coarse grains, such as those of the layer in question, I find
that it occupies a cubical capacity of one and three-quarters cubic inches.
The specimen was unusually large, not one in fifty, as seen on the shores,
attaining its size. Furthermore, it was not practicable for me, without
reducing it to dust, to make the dry fragments as compact as they are in the
Echinus layer; so, if there be any error in this part of the calculation, it
will be on the side of prudence. At this rate, it would take 988 echini to
make one cubic foot of the layer, and for the sake of convenience, it not
being likely that an estimate of 1,000 to the cubic foot will be excessive, I
shall adopt that number. This would give over eighty-seven millions of
echini to a stratum two feet deep and covering an acre. Under the circum-
stances previously assumed, this would be formed by a community of twenty
persons visiting one locality for three months in each year and eating one
hundred echini four inches in diameter per diem per head in a little more
than four hundred and seventy-three years.
To form a deposit like that at Amchitka under the same circumstances
would require over twenty-two hundred years.
It would matter practically little whether one hundred large echini or
eight hundred of half the diameter were eaten, the contents, either of nutri-
ment or of solid material, in each case being about the same. The individuals
not containing ova are rarely found except at a depth of several fathoms.
They seem to enter the shallower water when gravid and to retire to the
deeper water after discharging their eggs. This has probably some connec-
*I must disavow any intention of proving anything absolutely by this calculation. It is merely
intended to give a clearer idea than could otherwise be conveyed of the length of time which would be
occupied in forming such a deposit under circumstances not in themselves improbable, and which may
not materially differ from those under which the particular deposit mentioned was actually formed.














tion with the mode of fecundation. Hence the tests of barren echini would
not form an important factor in the accumulation of ddbris. Judging by the
abundance of echini, as they exist to-day, it is not probable that more than
twenty people could find sustenance from that source at any one place, not
at that place for more than a quarter of a year, and then only at intervals
The size of the specimen I selected was four inches in diameter; the average
size will not exceed two and a half inches. Then birds' eggs, occasional
stranded seals and whales (whose bones would be left on the beach and
finally washed away or destroyed), young birds, and the various edible
orchidaceous roots, the Fritillaria root, and that of the Arclhangelica,-all these
would be consumed and leave no trace. The various mollusks, apparently
scarce at that period, would leave a much smaller cubical waste material in
proportion to the nutriment they afforded than the echini. Indeed, of the
Modiola and Jy1l7il1,, hardly anythingjbut the horny epidermis remains in
these beds, and these are the most nutritious and abundant mollusks of the
region. I account for the absolute absence of bones of any kind, except ,
those of fish, from the Echinus layer, by some superstition like that which
necessary economy has forced upon the minds of the present Innuit of
Norton Sound. These people, believing that the guardian spirits of the
beluga and salmon will be angry if any part of their gifts is wasted, carefully
preserve all the bones in a store-house, and at times take the accumulation
of years away and secrete it in some secure place where the dogs and wild
animals cannot reach it. The Indians have a similar notion on the Yukon.
It would seem impossible to doubt that dead carcasses at least of some sea-
animals must have been obtained and utilized for food by the littoral people,
and their bones may have been similarly treated. Food from all of these
sources would have diminished the increase in depth of the Echinus layer in
proportion to the amount of nutriment they afforded, and the time represented
by it would be thus increased. On the whole, I am disposed to assign a
time of not less than one thousand years for the accumulation of this stratum.
When we reflect how long the savages of Tierra del Fuego, living in a very
similar climate and in a not dissimilar manner, have been known to exist
without any perceptible change in their mode of life, this does not seem an
excessive estimate. That these savages were anthropophagi I do not doubt,
though there are no evidences of it in the shell-heaps.














No human remains distinctly referable to this period have been dis-
covered by us. Their mode of disposing of their dead remains in doubt.
It is not impossible that they exposed them on the surface. Their houses,
if they had any, must have been temporary structures of drift-wood, straw,
and mats; at all events, they have utterly disappeared and left no sign.
The littoral settlements appear to have almost always been situated upon
some bank or hillock near the beach, but beyond the reach of storms or
the highest tides. There are no evidences of any changes of the level of the
land since the stratum was formed. The western islands, where it is most
strongly marked, are metamorphic, not volcanic or eruptive like many of
the more eastern islands.
We find in the Echinus layer no evidences of fire in the shape of char-
coal (one of the most indestructible of substances when buried); and we
know that the Aleuts of the historic' period were accustomed to eat fish
and most of their other food raw. Indeed, such is, and probably always has
been, the scarcity of drift-wood on the western islands and its value for
other purposes, that little of it has ever been used for making fires. No
lamps have been found in the Echinus layer, nor any baking-stones or
hearthstones, so we may reasonably conclude that these ancient people
were not in the habit of using fire for domestic purposes, even if they were
acquainted with its use. The climate, though inclement from a Caucasian
point of view, is no more so than that of Magellan Strait, where the natives
still go nearly naked. The total absence of awls, bodkins, knives, needles,
or buttons, in fact of any bone utensil whatever which might be used in
making clothes, and of any bone or stone implements for dressing skins,
leads to the conclusion that these people did not wear much clothing; and
what they might have worn was probably of a very simple character, such
as a rude mantle of skin, softened by rubbing between the hands or with
an ordinary pebble from the beach, like that of the Fuegians. It is not
unlikely that they might have made some coarse fabric of straw or grass
which would require no implements to sew, and would, if cast off, decay
and leave no trace.
No weapons of any kirid were found in the tons of this pulverized
Echinus-shell which we examined. There is no evidence that they were












acquainted with the use of the hand-lance or spear, though they may have
had slings and weapons resembling a "slung-shot ". How low in the scale
of humanity must these creatures have been who were content to pick up
sea-eggs for a living!
It may be asked, What is found in this layer to distinguish it from an
accumulated wash from the sea? I may answer as follows: It must be
noted that the Echinus layer always occurs under later deposits full of
implements, and unmistakably human in their origin. It usually is situ-
ated on some small knoll or other natural elevation of the original soil. It
extends usually over a less area than the subsequent shell-heaps, and is
thickest where they are thickest, i. e., in the most central portion of the
remains of the settlement. These facts appear to prove conclusively that
no other agencies than those referred to above could have been concerned
in the formation of this layer, even if implements had been entirely absent.
But we do find hammer-stones, round pebbles from the beach with an in-
dentation formed on either side for the finger and thumb, and bruises on the
periphery, where the ancient had cracked his sea-eggs and shell-fish. We
find heavy sea-shells broken, evidently for extracting
the animal; and toward, the top of the layer we begin
to find net-sinkers of very rude patterns. These, how-.
ever, occur only near the uppermost surface, where the
Echinus layer joins the stratum which I have termed
the Fishbone layer.
And now we mark a sudden, sharp, and extraordi-
nary change in the whole character of the deposit. We
have seen that a people have existed here, which, so far .*o. 130s71 (241.-nammr.
as discovery of vestiges or relics informs us, were without oneti from E ins lyr' "a
houses, clothing, fire, lamps, ornaments, weapons (unless '""sd Scale inear
of the most primitive kind), implements of the chase, for fishing, or even
for cooking what they might have found upon the shore. If any of these
things were possessed by them, they must have been formed of such rude
or perishable material as to have entirely passed away. It would appear
*The larger numbers refer to the number of the specimen in the Ethnological Catalogue of the United
States National Museum, the smaller number to my own field-catalogue, and the fractions to the relative
linear size of the figure to the specimen.














that they must have had rafts or rude canoes of some kind, but. no trace of
them is left. On the whole, it is eminently probable that they were sunk
in the lowest depths of barbarism. Are we to ascribe the sudden change
in their food, and the sudden increase in the kind and number of imple-
ments found in the deposit, to the stimulating example of some genius who
had invented a seine, or is it to a new incursion of people who had devel-
oped in.a less restricted field the ingenuity which led to the invention and
manufacture'of new and varied implements? Probability would seem to
point to the latter explanation.

B.-THE FISHING PERIOD.
On the uppermost surface of the Echinus layer are found a few rude
net-sinkers, indicating that to the primitive hand-nets or scoop-nets, with
which the echinus-eaters might have secured their food, had been added
the larger, more elaborate, and more effective seine.












No. 13C07.-Rude net-sinker from bottom of No. 16403 (496)--Modern net-sinker, village.
Fishbone layer, Amaknak Cave,Amaknak Island, site, Chilikoff Island, j linear.
SUnalashka, linear.
While the rude character of the early sinkers, and the better-formed
and more carefully-finished character of modern ones, would be evidence
of progress in one direction, yet it must be noted that rude sinkers occur in
all, even the most modern, deposits. Yet the fact that all the more ancient
ones are rudely fashioned, and it is only among the modern ones that
we find any attempt at finish or symmetry, indicates that there was a
progression, even if this was not attested in other ways.














It may be remarked also that the use of the seine would tend to knit
the interests of the community together, as individuals could use hand-nets
or gather echini, but the united labor of several would be required not only
to use, but to make, the seine. Better material than the twisted grass, which
might serve for hand-nets, would also be required to make a seine efficient.
If this were supplied by sinew or raw-hide line, it would require the culti-
vation of a new industry to utilize the raw material. The sinew from
stranded whales was the probable source of supply.
Whatever might have been the cause of the change, it is a fact that
we find immediately surmounting the Echinus layer, in all cases, a bed
composed of fish-bones, intermixed with molluscan shells, and rarely the
bones of birds. Traces of Echinus test or spines may be occasionally seen,
but these and the other materials mentioned form so small a'proportion of
the whole mass that to casual inspection it presents the appearance of a
solid bed of fish-bones compacted and forced together by time, the tread of
those ancient feet, and the weight of the accumulations above. Here,
as in the Echinus layer, we find a remarkable absence of earth, decayed
vegetable material, or carbonized wood. The bones are clean and free from
detritus. Had the people built houses, at least like those of the modern
Aleuts, depressions in the strata of fish-bones, masses of earth from their
turfy walls, or stones, would somewhere present themselves. There is
do doubt that the fish were eaten raw, as that has been the custom until
very recently among the historic Aleuts, and has not entirely died out to
this day. But had fire been commonly used, we should anticipate some
remains of charcoal in the deposits, or lamps, if fish-oil had been their fuel.
These, however, have not occurred in all our researches. It is probable
that these people lived in temporary huts of mats or skins, retiring and
rising with the sun.
The fish-bones composing the layer are those of species still commonly
found in that region. They are chiefly the bones of the head and vertebrae
of two kinds of salmon (hoikoh' of the Russians, and another, Salmo sp.),
and similar parts of the cod (Gadus macrocephalus, Tilesius), the halibut
(Hippoglossus vulgaris?, Cuvier), and several species of herring, sculpins, and
flourders, which I cannot, at the date of writing, specifically identify. The















layer is so hard that a bar and pick-ax are required to disintegrate it. The
beds vary in thickness, being in different places from one to three feet in
depth, and at least two feet being about an average. This layer is well
developed at Attu, Kyska, Amchitka, Adakh, most places examined on
Amaknak Island, and in the various shell-heaps examined on the island of
Unalashka. To this period I refer also the lowest stratum excavated in a
remarkable cave situated on Amaknak Island, Captain's Bay, Unalashka.
A short account of our excavations in this cave (which we entirely cleaned
out in the seasons of 1872 and 1873) has been published in the Proceed-
ings -of the California Academy of Sciences, from which the subjoined
section and topographical sketch have been reproduced.
This cave is situated under a large isolated mass -of porphyrite, which


II

.. .... /--- ''


'" _



Reduced chart of tho Iccality of the cave, showingtho
low isthmus between the higher portions of the island
north and south.


stands up like a low tower on a flat,
composed of old shingle-beaches, raised
a few feet above the present sea-level.
This flat unites higher areas of Amaknak
Island to the north and south. The
Cave Rock stands close to the beach,
and is probably a portion of an old reef,
an obstruction to which is probably due
the formation of the flat. The rock is
about twenty-five feet high from the
level of the flat to its summit. Its sides
are abrupt, and it is covered with grass
25 feet.


//


i-i: ; _I ,' c;_._. ,I
_&--'.____ _______ ___ ---- _________ **--
Vertical section of the Amaknak Cave, showing the rock, the beach southwest of it, and the flat isthmus formation
northeast of it. A, upper stratum of brown mold, most modern deposit. B, layer of shingle or beach-worn stones. C,
stratum of "kitchen refuse", shells, &c. (Mammalian layer). D, lower stratum of organic mold with skeletons (Fish-
bone layer).
above. The greatest height of the cave inside is perhaps ten feet. The









































12985 (267).-Chipped stone knife from bottom Fishbone layer,
Constantine Haiabor, Amchitka Island, t.




----- -- --- -- ----- ................. ...... .... .... ..




I r~~ 8WI


1986 (428).-Stone knife, with handed indicated by dotted line, edge ground,
and hole for lashing chipped through; Fishbone layer, Amaknak Cave, Amak.
nak Island, Captain's Bay, Unalashka, I.


13058 (120).-Rude flsh-spear of gray porphyrite, upper Fishbone layer, Chichagoff Harbor,
Attu Island, I


__


Ilrssar~i~nLi~,uX;ry*rsi-;~s.iiiin-4 ;.n*~_l- ~-IL----- ~.l~li---r4














entrance is not more than four feet in height from rock to rock, and is, on the
side opposite to.the beach.- It was originally walled up, and the upper border
was, when first examined, only a foot or two above the level of the outside
soil. We enlarged it by excavating to its full dimensions for convenience
in working and to light the interior. Disregarding the order of excavation,
it may be briefly stated that we found the floor of the cave to be an irreg-
ular concave bed of soft porphyritic rock, covered first by a layer of
organic mold, two feet in thickness in its greatest depth, and inclosing skel-
etons and some stone implements. This layer I refer to the Fishing Period.
Above this was a layer, six or eight inches thick, of kitchen refuse, indicat-
ing that the cave had been used as a temporary camping-shelter by occa-
sional hunting-parties, rather than as a dwelling-place. This layer, evidently
of much later date, I refer to the early part of the Hunting Period. Above
it was a layer of beach-worn shingle, apparently deposited by water. Then
came another layer, from 18 to 20 inches thick, of fine organic mold, con-
taining many implements and human remains, apparently referable to the
period extending from the later part of the Hunting Period to the time
immediately preceding the discovery of the islands by civilized people.
Probably during this later period, while used as a burial-place, the roof of
the cave had received a coat of red ochre or clayey ore of iron, and, per-
haps to avoid desecration by the 'Russians, the door had been walled up
with stones, in which condition it remained until a few years before the
time of our investigations. The details of each layer will be mentioned
under the period to which I have referred them. I will only remark here
that no evidences of civilized influence of any kind were discoverable in
any of the articles found in the cave, and it unquestionably in its latest
contents antedates the Russian occupation of the islands.
The invention or introduction of the seine,judging by the remains
found, worked a revolution in the economy of these savages. Fish, when
raw, is a substance which cannot be conveniently dismembered by teeth
and nails The use of sharp chips of stone as knives, doubtless of great
antiquity, was soon superseded by the introduction of much more artistic
implements of rhomboid or semi-lunar form. These at first had merely the
edges ground instead of chipped; but later the entire surface was ground














smooth, and sometimes holes were deftly formed by chipping, in order that
the lashing of the knife, to a wooden handle like that of a furrier's or chop-
ping knife, might be made more secure.
The finest-ground knives of the most artistic shapes do not, however,
appear in this stratum, but above it.
The first rude and rough lance-heads, such as might be useful in secur-
ing salmon in shallow water, now begin to appear.; and toward the upper
surface of the fish-bone layer, bone implements begin to be introduced.
This application of an easily-obtained substance, namely, the bone and
ivory of the sea-animals, which then frequented these shores in the greatest
abundance, seems to have stimulated the aboriginal mind much as in later
days the invention of the printing-press and telegraph have affected modern
races. The first forms were notably rude and roughly shaped, as the stone
tools with which they were made must have been of the most primitive
character, and the art was a new one. Still these rude objects have their
counterparts, of more artistic shape and smoother and more delicate finish,
in the weapons of the continental Innuit of to-day.
As may be seen by fig. 13,000, at the termination of the Fishing
Period, the manufacture had already much progressed beyond the rude
forms figured with it; though this is indicated rather by the sharpness of
the finish than by the shape. The latter is variable for different uses,
though the form 13,000 does not appear in the stratum until long after the
others.
SWhen the skin-canoe first came into use, or how the present indis-
pensable and artistic bidarka was gradually elaborated from the first crude
conception of a boat, we have no means of knowing, as the materials of
which the earlier canoes must have been composed are liable to decay.
It is not improbable, 'however, that this improvement was coeval with the
Fishing Period. The canoes of this epoch, however, were probably less
highly ornamented and less perfect than those of the Hunting Period, as
we find none of the little ivory paddle-rests and other ornaments which are
now in use, and which are not uncommon in the Mammaliah layer.
But, with the invention of the hand-lance of stone and the application
of bone to the same use, a multitude of new wants and appliances sprang




































13003 (125).--Rude stone hand-lance head
from upper Fiahbono layer, Chichagoff Har-
bor, Attu Island, t.


13000 (13).--Bone hand-dalta head, lowest Mamma-
lian layer, Amaniak Cave, Amnlknak Island, Captain's
Bay, Unalashka, f.


(897).-Bone lance-head, upper Fishbone layer, shell-heaps, Unalashka
island, I.


12999 (423).-Bone hand-dart head, upper
Fishbone layer, Amaknak Cave, Amaknak
Island, Captain's Bay, Unlaashla, j.














into being. The savage mind was awakened and stimulated by many new
applications for their rude weapons or for the results of the chase. Unlike
subsisting on echini, which cannot be kept for future use, but must be eaten
the day they are secured, the possibility of laying up a store of dry fish
would ease the gnawings of necessity, give time for mechanical work and
invention, and would often preserve life, which must, under similar exigen-
cies in the preceding epoch, have been lost by famine or sacrificed to
avert the starvation of other individuals. A store of provisions necessitates
a store-house, a protection against the ravens and the weather. Here we
have the first intimations of that enforced progress which is the result of /
preceding progress, and which, in the present instance, may have been the
compelling cause which finally led to the construction of permanent winter-
dwellings and villages. But the absence of means for lighting such dwellings,
drift-wood being too valuable and scarce to use for fires, and lamps not being
invented, would retard the savages' progress in that direction. The boldest
of them would hesitate to immure 'himself, in unnecessary darkness, which
his animism would not have failed to people with innumerable evil or mis-
chievous spirits. At that time, and before the blubber of the sea-animals
was utilized for oil, it would doubtless have seemed the extremes extrava-
gance to devote to burning, the fish-oil which was their greatest luxury.
The right of the strongest being then in all probability the only law,
and their stores being a coveted prize, the necessity of watchfulness and
self-defense or ready escape would tend to determine the savage against
putting himself in an underground house, where he might be killed
"like a rat in a hole" without hope of defense or escape, or in which he
might sleep undisturbed while his hard-earned stores-necessarily kept for
dryness above ground-were carried off by a thief in the night. Add to this
the probability that it was only about this time that the opportunities for
subsistence would have rendered it possible to congregate large communities
in one locality for mutual protection, a work of time, slowly-growing confi-
dence, and mutual trust, and it may readily be seen that the fishermen were
only approaching the social state which made fixed villages possible. At
the same time, the increasing means of subsistence with the improved methods
of capture would obviate the cruel necessity of cannibalism, if it had pre-














viously existed, and in the ceaseless struggle by which the northern barbarian
wrests his sustenance from a niggardly environment, a surplus store of food
would give him now and then a breathing spell. This would render it
possible for an occasional inventive or aesthetic idea to germinate and grow.
The sharp line of definition between the Echinus layer and the Fish-
bone layer, which suggested an incursion of-fishermen upon the echino-
phagi, is not paralleled in the line between this and the Mammalian stratum.
The distinction is readily marked in an actual section of a shell-heap, but
the uppermost portion of the Fishbone bed contains some mammalian
bones, and the Mammalian bed throughout, but particularly at its base, con-
tains a fair proportion of fish-bones. In fact, the change is what we might
expect in the progress of a race stimulated by new invention or application
of means which placed new, valuable, and eagerly-accepted powers within
their reach.
Unlike the previous stratum, the limitations of population and con-
sumption, of demand and supply, are so vague that even the most lax
hypothesis will not permit us to attempt any computation of the length of
time which it might take to form a layer like the Fishbone layer. I believe
it to have been nearly as long as the time required for the Echinus layer,
but this is only an assumption.
The earliest remains of manl found in Alaska up to the date of writing
I refer to this epoch. These are some crania found by us in the lowermost
part of the Amaknak Cave, and a cranium obtained at Adakh near the
anchorage in the Bay of Islands.
These were deposited in a remarkable manner, precisely similar to that
adopted and still practiced by most of the continental Innuit, but equally
different from the modern Aleut fashion.
At the Amaknak Cave we found what at first.appeared to be a wooden
inclosure, but which proved to be made of the very much decayed supra-
maxillary bones of some large cetacean. These were arranged so as to
form a rude rectangular inclosure covered over with similar pieces of bone.
This was somewhat less than four feet long, two wide, and eighteen inches
deep. The bottom was formed of flat pieces of stone. Three such.were














found close together, covered with and filled by an accumulation of fine
vegetable and organic mold. In each was the remains of a skeleton in the
last stages of decay. It had evidently been tied up in the Innuit fashion to
get it into its narrow house; but all the bones, with the exception of the
skull, were reduced to a soft paste, or even entirely gone. At Adakh, a
fancy prompted me to dig into a small knoll near the ancient shell-heap;
and here we found, in a precisely similar sarcophagus, the remains of a
skeleton, of which also only the cranium retained sufficient consistency to
admit of preservation. This inclosure, however, was filled with a dense
peaty mass not reduced to mold, the result of centuries of sphagnous
growth, which had reached a thickness of nearly two feet above the remains.
When we reflect upon the well-known slowness of this kind of growth in
these northern regions, attested by numerous Arctic travelers, the antiquity
of the remains becomes evident. A figure of this cranium is appended.
In both localities, the skulls were much softened and partially deficient,
requiring the greatest care to preserve them. One of the Amaknak skulls
is now in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences, the others
are in the United States Army Medical Museum at Washington. Dr.
George A. Otis, U. S. A., curator of this invaluable collection, whose
researches into this branch of ethnology are "well known, has kindly fur-
nished me with the measurements (made at the museum under his direction)
of nearly all the crania collected by myself or by the parties under my
charge from 1865 to 1874 inclusive. These crania now form part of the
Army Medical Museum, and comprise a much larger number of undoubted
Aleut crania than exist altogether in all the other museums of the world.
The table comprises measurements of crania dating from the earliest deposits
affording such remains, as above, and successively down to those of natives
who must have been living about one hundred and fifty years ago. For
the use of the four figures of Aleut crania which are here given, I am also
indebted to the liberality and courtesy of Dr. Otis.
I have made use of some measurements of crania, from the northern
part of Bering Sea, examined by the late lamented Jeffries Wyman, but
which were by accidental circumstances (over which he had no control)
erroneously named or taken to be what they were not. In his pamphlet


_ ~C











64

(Obs. on Crania, Boston, 1868), five crania are described as Tsuktsli,
which are all Asiatic Eskimo; and of five from the "Yukon River", only one
(7530) is an Indian cranium, the others being Eskimo from St. Michael's,
Norton Sound. I have also used the means of Dr. E. Bessels's measure-
ments of crania of Greenland Innuit, given in a paper (Einige Worte iiber
die Innuit des Smith Sundes) in the Arch. f. Anthropologie for 1875. In
this paper of Dr. Bessels are also given measurements of some of the crania
obtained by me in the Aleutian Islands.
The following tables may throw some light on the subject discussed in
the second part of this paper, while possessing a general interest for the
craniologist:





































I N ii


O s~.


1099.


1106. 1092.

1099.-Cranium from the Bay of Islands, A'dakh Island, Aleutians, found in a case of whale's bones, and referred to the
later Fishing Period.
1104, 1106.-Crania from rock-shelter on an island in Nazan Bay, Atka Island, Aleutians, referred to the Hunting
Period.
1092.-Cranium of child from rock-shelter, Delaroff Harbor, Unga; remarkable for its broad and short form.

















Notes on the locality.


Asiatic Eskimo (locality doubt- .
ful).
Collected by Dr. Stimpson,...
Kayne Island.





Collected by W. H. Dall, Plover
Bay, E. Siberia.




Mr

Mean ofthe measurements i


I.--ASIATIC ESKIMO.

SI I I i I 1 I I I -


S7117 860
..... 7118 625
..... 7120 610
90 7124 298
256 ...... 606

257 ...... 927
260 7121 362
278 7123
352 4718

.. .. ...


560 1 14251 171


...- 4612 1450 1 1400 176 137


1580 183
..... 178
..... 176
..... 187

1488 178


133 824 777

134 778 761


814 743
758 ....
E01
727 .....

795 744


117 136

114 ......
113 .....

107 1:32


448 1 285


298 362



298 340

294 330


366 1 496 I 130


251 391 524
...... 38 499
...... ...... 508
248 ..:... 517

253 371 493


:46 _...


129 1'28 137 138 ...


Remarks.


Measured by Dr.
Wyman.



Imperfect.
Lower maxillary and
7 teeth gone.
4 teeth gone.


-Imperfect.


II.-NORTHWEST AMERICAN ESKIMO.


Collectedon Norton Sound, near f ...... 7531 735
BeringStrait, in1866 and 1867, ... ......7532 545
by WV. H. Dall, and belonging .7533 781
to the Unalit or Mahlemt .... 4 44
tribes or communities-exact
locality near Fort St. Mi- 58 51
Ichael's. td 261 ...... 865

Mean of the measurements. .... ...... ...... ....


1240 176
1190 172
1390 179
1200 169
1200 173
1410 183

1270 175


132 91
129 92
134 94
132 86
130 106
133 116

132 1 97


750 744
750 738
748 726
781 727
751 769
727 765

751 745


409 2S4
395 280
424 291
414 26J
413 283
443 298

416 1 283


. .___I__.___I____ II_ I I I_-__


130 ....
132
132 'Measured by Dr.
129 Wyman.
129 7
132 730 All but 6 teeth gone.
123 750 All but 7 teeth gone.

130





---


7





















III.-GREENLAND ESKIMO.


Notes on the locality.





101 crania* collected by Hayes
and others.


2 s
L
d I





. ...... 1250


175 127


I I I -


^ -s
C3


1
Ci CL



103 138


I 707


* i
.0 n

S
'3 '5
0^ 0

316 23?


ci 5 I

- 0 0 I- -3
t t o 0
r0 0 0 o
0 Pio
a a 0 c
o .. a 0h C

353 470 1i6 174 10N
353 47G 116 118 174 104


* Height and index of height from 99 crania, the index of breadth from 100 crania.


IV.-PREHISTORIC ALEUTS OF THE FISHING PERIOD.


I'rom cave, Amalnak Islan I. {
W. H. Dall.
From grave, Adakh Island, W.
H. Dall.

Mean of measurements ...


d 1089
9 1096
r 1097
d 1099
d o~o


435 508 1280 171
419 .......... 172
418 549 ..... 173
3J1 554 1360 174


...... .1320 17-2


147 120 128 869 749 480 277 321 235 252 506 118 126 181 ...... 710 Slightly imperfect.
... .. ........ ............................ 491 120 127 173 .......... Imperfect fragments.
141 111 137 815 792 416 291 333 230 363 505 123 131 177 ...... 770 Imperfect.
148 1 0 131 851 753 448 293 323 246 342 516 12 12 17 ...... 670 Lower jaw wanting.


117 132 842 765 448 288 326 237 352 504 122 126 116 ...... ...


V.-ADULT PREHISTORIC ALEUTS OF THE LATER HUNTING PERIOD.

(SHUMAGIN ISLANDS.)


I.



Rock-shelter used for burial,
Unga Island, collected by
W. H. Dall and party.





Mean of the measurements


cf 1034
9 1035
d 1036
9 1037
c 103,
c 1042
o 1046


Si 1047 391_ 672 1510

......... - ... 43


L1io I o iUi
178 159 125

180 145 119

176 152 118


133 780 726

124 867 1 728


435 310 331 239 352 530 121 128 173 150 740 All but 10 teeth gone.
477 292 348 221 366 510 120 132 182 136 770 All but 13 teeth gone.
447 301 311 252 350 530 123 120 183 ..... 680 Imperfect.
502 280 328 210 342 496 112 123 176 136 71o All but 13 teeth gone.
450 281 315 246 349 512 116 133 170 135 680 All but 11 teeth gone.
471 294 343 243 353 529 115 139 172 147 720 All but 11 teeth gone.
444 309 343 235 354 530 123 127 172 145 740 Lower maxillary and
8 upper teeth gone.
452 305 344 246 380 529 120 125 198 146 740 Imperfect.

460296 338 241 356 521 119 128 178 142 72


_ __


___


I I


' --" ---


I I


[










(ATKA.)


Notes on the locality.


Rock -shelter, Nazan Bay,
Atka, collected by W. H.
Dall and party.







Mean of the measurements


1045 395 668 1235 173 146 110

1098 388 395 ...... 170 136 .....
1103 396 503 1135 165 144 113
1104 398 708 1430 183 151 119

1105 400 642 1360 176 141 109
1106 397 535 1465 174 147 114


123 844 711


134 801 761
137 845 787


433 I 275 I 321 232


296 322 228
287 310 227
293 331 270


437 280
425 290


. ...... I. 1404 17 11 840 7 1 443 291


332 338 357


342 500 117


120 126
121 132


182
175


510 121 128 178





(UNALASHKA.)


( 035 ... 413 1250 179 .... 101 127 ..... 709 452 276 312 220 359 493 123 131 168 127 730 Imperfect.
Village site, Amnakak Island, d 936 ..... 424 ..... 177 131 113 11 ...... 740 ..... ............ ... 354 491 123 123 ..... ......... Imperfect.
collected by W. H. Dall 937 255 717 1535 183 151 111 127 816 686 481 286 336 231 374 529 123 135 201 145 720 4 teeth gone.
and party. r 938 230 616 1375 171 144 116 133 842 778 456 2V4 328 245 349 503 115 123 18- 141 740 Complete skeleton;

__ __ __height, 5 ft. 6 in.
Mean of the measurements .... ............ .. 133 178 14 110. 123 79 ) 524 4 i63 S F323 2:1'. 359 504 l i 128 184! 138 7301


S Remarks.


t I

142 740 10 teeth gone.
144 730 All but 4 teeth gone.
134 720 All but 12 teeth gone.
145 710 Lower maxillary and
4 upper teeth gone.
136 710 Lower maxillary and
8 upper teeth gone.
..... 770 Imperfect.
.......... Imperfect.
..... 680 Lower jaw gone (fig-
ured).
...... 720 Imperfect.
...... 690 Lower jaw gone (fig-
ured).
...... 720



















VI.-CRANIA OF CHILDREN OF THE ALEUTS OF THE HUNTING PERIOD.


Notes on the locality.


Burial rock-shelter, Unga sl'd,
Shumagins, collected by W.
H. Dall and party.





Burial rock-sheller, Nazan Bay.
Atka Island, collected by W.
H. Dall and party.


447 232

390 275


924 729 465 274
909 .--------...... 253


899 704

937 728


459 267

494 274


S Pemarks.





Boy aged 12 years.
Child of 2 years; im-
perfect.
Child of 2; years; 10
teeth gone.
Child of 5 years 'fig-
ured).
Imperfect; child about
2 years.
Imperfect; child about
18 months.
Imperfect; child about
8 years.


VII.-CRANIUM OF ALEUT OF 1740-1800.


Grave, Constantine Harbor,Am- 1039 251 991 1370 185 158 115 123 854 C65 492 296 335 262 373 533 131 135 184 146 700 2 teeth gone.
chitka, Island.


N. B.-Capacity in cubic centimetres; weight in grammes; measurements in millimetres. The collector's number and the number borne on the catalogue of the United State
Army Medical Museum are both given.


11 -- ---


-


------------------I-- I I--I I I i I I I i-I 1
















The crania of Orarian tribes of Northwest America and Eastern Siberia,
when compared with those of Greenland, show a greater cubical capacity;
a head of about the same length, but proportionately much broader in its
broadest part and with a broader forehead. The skull is also proportion-
ately not so high. The coronal ridge, [typical to a certain extent of all
Orarian crania, and from which it occurs that the terms "roof-shaped" and
"scapho-cephalous" have been applied to them,] which is very strongly
marked in some Greenland skulls, is less apparent in the majority of the
Northwestern Orarians, and the decrease in cranial capacity occurring from
a diminution in this particular is made up for by a broadening of the
cranium.
The following table shows the facts alluded to. The number of crania
from the Northwest affording the means used range from 36 to 42, being
taken from the preceding tables, and compared with a series of means from
99 to 101 Greenland skulls measured by Dr. Bessels.
Breadth of
Locality. Capacity. Length. Breadth. frontal. Ileight.
Northwestern ...................... ........... 1401 176 144 111 130
Greenland......... ... ....................... ........ 1250 175 127 102 138

Among the northwestern people, the crania of the Aleuts collectively,
compared with the Northwest American and East Siberian Innuit crania,
show differences precisely similar to, but less in degree than, those which
have been pointed out as distinguishing the northwestern people from the
Greenlanders; the Aleuts, as might be expected, showing the greater special-
ization, while the continental people tend more toward the Greenland type.

Breadth of
Capacity. Lengh. Breadth. h fcntal. Height.
Aleuts ........................... ............ ..... 1409 17G 148 120 126
Innuit..................................................... 1388 177 138 103 131

In obtaining these means, an average of twenty-five Aleut crania have
been employed, and an average of fifteen of Asiatic and Northwestern
American Innuit.
The people of the Aleutian Islands were formerly divided into two
principal groups or tribes according to some authorities on the subject,
















namely, the Atkans and (Eastern or) Unalashkans. A comparison between
about the same number of Aleut crania, from the east and from the west,
shows the differences to be very trivial, if, indeed, they are not such as would
disappear entirely with the examination of larger numbers of specimens, or
under mensuration by a different person.

Capacity. Length. Breadth. Breadth o Height.
frontal.
Eastern.............................................. 14:34 177 150 115 128
Western .................................................... 1400 176 149 115 131

The crania supposed to belong to the era of Fishermen have not been
included above. Indeed, they are so imperfect, for the most part, that it
would be worse than rashness to attempt any generalizations upon them.
Compared with the twenty-two more modern crania referred to the epoch of
Hunters, they stand as follows:
Capacity. Length. Breadth. Breadthof eight.
frontal.
Fishermen...................... .......................... 1320 172 145 117 132
Hunters...................................................... 1418 176 148 115 130

A slightly smaller capacity might have been expected of the ancient
Fishermen, but it may not have existed, and, except for the few individuals
concerned, the above comparison does not prove it. The other differences
are of the most trivial description.
The average facial angle among the Aleuts appears to have been
about 720.
In this connection, I may venture to remark that, while not a professed
craniologist, I have had the opportunity of examining a very large number
of aboriginal crania, and have become impressed with the great range of
variation which occurs in cases where no hybridity can be reasonably
asserted. It has appeared to me that while certain features, hardly defina-
ble, are to be recognized in crania from a single locality, yet when a com-
prehensive series of crania of any race to the number of several hundred are
examined, if the people be widely distributed in area, and subjected to vari-
ous conditions of diet and surroundings, it will invariably be found that
nearly all the so-called characteristic types of crania may be recognized, and














that from dollchocephaly to brachycephaly a series of individual variations
will be found closing up apparent gaps. I am far from denying that bra-
chycephalic or dolichocephalic crania may be found to be characteristic of
races restricted to a limited area or uniform conditions, but that craniology,
any more than oology, is an exact science, seems yet to be proved. That
a race can be identified by cranial characteristics, though often assumed,
has never been satisfactorily established, and the practice of characterizing
a people from the examination of half a dozen skulls, as has occasionally
been done, seems little short of absurdity. I cannot refrain from suggest-
ing that much of the apparent confusion in certain departments of American
archeology is likely to be cleared up when its full measure is allowed to the
factor of individual variation. When such extremes in difference of form,
for instance, as 199mm and 165mm, with respective breadths of 137mm and
144m", are on record among Eskimo crania, and by no means very excep-
tional, a little hesitation in accepting world-wide theories, based on a few
narrow or broad skulls of a given people, seems not unreasonable.


C.-THE HUNTING PERIOD.

With the ability to kill, by means of bone weapons, and aided by some
kind of skin canoes, not only fish from the shores, but sea-animals, and
even birds, many flew instruments were required. Many new wants and
applications of material sprang into being. To utilize the results of the
chase, many new contrivances were necessary. With this expansion in
their powers, and this change in the habits of the aborigines, the stratum
which I have termed the Mammalian layer began to be deposited. This
was eminently an epoch of hunters.
The Mammalian layer has been recognized wherever we have made
excavations. It attains a varied thickness in different localities, due to
differences in population and abundance or scarcity of the animals hunted.
Many refuse or kitchen heaps were entirely deposited during this epoch.
It is evident that the population, whose increase had begun during the last
period, now that the means of sustenance were so greatly enlarged, might
expand until the food supply and consumption were again in equilibrium.














That it did increase very largely, there is hardly any room to doubt. To
show this, the increased number of shell-heaps of this period is sufficient.
They extend over all the islands, the Peninsula of Aliaska, and we
have in the National Museum bone implements of pattern similar to those of
the Mammalian layer, obtained near the mouth of the Stakhin or Stikine
River. These last are dissimilar to Indian weapons, and the modern
Indians of that region never use bone for arrow-points. I am tolerably
well satisfied that the deposit whence.these were obtained is also an Innuit
shell-heap. Where we have made excavations we have found the Mamma-
lian layer varying from two or three feet to eight or ten feet in thickness.
The combined thickness of the shell-heaps (including the deposits of the
Fishing and Hunting Periods), on Iliuliuk Spit, Unalashka, is about fifteen
feet. The difference is chiefly due to the differences in population and
length of occupation of the various localities. We have no means of esti-
mating the length of time required to produce these accumulations, but we
may obtain hints of it from the facts relating to the Amaknak Cave. Here
we have the three skeletons deposited some time during the Fishing Period.
These were then gradually covered by an accumulation of mold, resulting
from the decay of vegetable matters and organic refuse, possibly brought
in by foxes who might have had their nests in the cave, or partly from
material which might have gradually worked its way in from the exterior
by the aid of the weather. This would have been a very slow process,
when we note that the cave is so protected by its contracted aperture that
hardly anything could be carried in by the wind; the bottom not being
below the natural surface of the outer soil, it would receive little or no
wash from the flat outside. Considering the great antipathy, exhibited by
the Innuit generally, to approaching a burial-place of this kind, to say
nothing of camping on it, the covering of the remains buried there must
have been complete, and the original use forgotten, before the deposition of
the next layer could have been commenced. The Cave Rock, as shown in
the sketch, stands on a narrow isthmus, and, being a damp place, presents
no qualifications for a dwelling. The layer C is composed of kitchen
refuse, bones, broken arrow-heads, odds and ends of carvings half finished,
&c., &c. It seems evident to me that it was made by occasional parties of














natives forced to seek shelter from storms until the surf subsided, so that
they might launch their bidarkas from the stony beach beyond. The
material, as a whole, is that of a temporary camp of traveling hunters
rather than that of a dwelling, and the cave is situated close to a frequently-
used portage or cut-off. The six inches of ddbris from the repasts of occa-
sional visitors (who unquestionably were men of the Hunting Period) must
have accumulated very slowly. Then it would seem as if some tidal or
earthquake wave was instrumental in forcing a layer (B) of heavy shingle-
stones from the adjacent sea-beach into the cave. After this had been
accomplished, the use of the cave was again changed, and it became a
second time a refuge for the dead. The upper layer (A) was exclusively
composed of decayed organic matter, from which refuse was excluded,
apparently only the bodies of the dead, and articles placed with them,
contributing to its formation. This material is free from any taint of
civilized influences, and, as I have previously mentioned, unquestionably
antedates the advent of the Russians. The length of time taken to form
the layer of eighteen or twenty inches of this mold cannot have been small.
About the time of the Russian advent (in all probability) the mouth of the
cave was walled up, perhaps to avoid its desecration by the bigoted Greek
missionaries. In this condition it remained until 1870, or thereabouts,
probably about a century after its being closed. While estimates may
differ largely as to the actual time occupied in all this, few will be inclined
to dispute its being very considerable. If we allow a thousand years for
the duration of the Littoral Period, or deposition of the Echinus layer (and
I am disposed to do so), then I think that fifteen hundred or two thousand
years is not an excessive estimate for the duration of the Fishing and
Hunting Periods. It must be recollected that theproportion of the refuse
to the food-supplying material in fish, and especially in mammals, is much
less than in the case of the echini; consequently, the population being
similar, the time required to form a layer of fish-bones or mammalian
bones would be greater than that required to form an equally deep layer
of echinus shells. But the population undoubtedly increased considerably,
which would vitiate the proportion if it were not that the area of the shell-
heaps also increased very greatly in the later epochs. On the whole, I am














inclined to think that three thousand years is a moderate estimate for the
time required to form these mounds of refuse.
The constitution of the Mammalian layer is, as would naturally be
expected, much more heterogeneous than that of either stratum previously
deposited.
The contents, besides the remains of shells, fish, and occasionally of
echini, which have been previously enumerated, are principally as follows:

LOWER MAMMALIAN LAYER.

Bones of the following mammals:
Callirhinus ursinms, fur-seal.
Eumetopias Stelleri, sea-lion.
PhIoca, or hair-seals, two species.
Rosmarus obesus, walrus; rarely in the eastern islands.
Phocaena vomerina, puffing-pig.
Orca ater, the killer whale.

MIDDLE MAMMALIAN LAYER.

The above, and the following mammals and birds:
Megaptera versabilis, the hump-backed whale.
Diomedea brachyuzra, the mottled albatross.
Mormon corniculatus, the horned puffin.
Mormon cirrhatus, the tufted puffin.
Uria sp., several of the divers.
Phaleris sp., several of the smaller auks.
Lagopus albus, the ptarmigan.
Larus leucopterus or glaucescens, the larger gulls.
Rissa iri, tlhir, the kittiwake.
And bones of several species of eiders and other ducks.

UPPER MAMMALIAN-LAYER.

All the preceding, and also the bones of-
Balcena Sieboldii, Pacific right whale.
Balcna mysticetus, bowhead or Polar whale.



































16058 (889).-Stone dart-head from lower Mammalian layer (C),
Amaknak Cave, Unalashka, chipped quartzite, 4.


16062.-Obsidian dart-head, upper Mammalian
layers, shell-heaps, Port Miller, Aliaska Penin-
sula, -.


12995 (287).-Quartzite dart-
point for bone hand-lance, upper
Mammalian layer (A), Amaknak
Cave, Unalashka, 4.


14918 (439).-Head of whaling-lance, -, from upper Mammalian
layer (A), Amaknak Cave, Unalashka. Green slate, ground sharp on
both edges; the other side flat.


~-C- --yr-L.---r-L~.- ----^-----_~_-,I- ._~ .~.-rr^--^----- ------li-.----u -~-------lr - -~--------- ------ ---- .-----_---- .*i














htachianectes glaucuzs, the California gray whale.
Sibbaldius sulfurcvs, the sulphur-bottom whale.
Balvnop)tera velifera, the fin-back whale.
Pliyseter macroceplhalus, the sperm whale.
And various species of birds not identified.
Also in the most eastern islands, and rarely even there, the following
introduced species:
Vulpes lagopzts, the Arctic fox (afterward introduced by the Russians
into many other islands).
Canis familiaris var. borealis, the Eskimo dog.
All these remains are largely mixed with organic matter in a perfect
state of decay, such as would result from the decomposition of grass and
other vegetable fibers, turf, drift-wood, and all the soft rejectamenta of a
savage people.
Remains of houses of the half-underground type, afterward so univer-
sal, appear only in the middle stratum, showing that not until then had the
population so multiplied and mutual confidence sufficiently matured, for the
more ancient, temporary, above-grbund houses to begin to be supplanted
by more substantial and comfortable structures.
With the new resources at their command, the invention of new forms
of implements and entirely new tools greatly multiplied, rendering it nec-
essary to attempt a sort of classification in considering them.

WEAPONS.
These were greatly improved, and forms multiplied, and were made
often in more artistic fashion, with some attempts at ornamentation. They
consist of hand-lance heads of stone, obsidian, and bone, or both combined.
The later forms for seal-hunting had bone barbs and obsidian tips, combining
thus sharpness for incision and toughness for retention., The later whale
harpoons were always slate-tipped, the modern Aleuts ascribing some poison-
ous quality to that stone, which they assert will invariably kill the whale in
a few days, providing the slate-tip remains in the wound, even if the dart
has penetrated but slightly. It would be impossible, without figuring
hundreds of these weapons, to show the gradual progress in finish and














adaptations of form which, as a whole, characterizes the weapons of the
successive portions of the shell-heaps. I have therefore contented myself
with a selection of the more characteristic types.
These seem to show not only a gradual progress, but a remarkable
similarity in type of the earlier weapons of the Aleuts to the modem types
in use among the Eskimo of the adjacent region. These Eskimo types are
very ancient and have been handed down, with some improvements but
not much alteration of form, from a period probably contemporaneous with
these Aleut weapons. The stone dart soon ran its course among the Aleuts,
and became with them merely an appendage of the bone dart-head. This
was owing to the lesser facilities which it affords for retention in a wound
when compared with the bone barbs. When bone was first applied to this
purpose, the weapons were of a most primitive character. No. 16083 exhibits
one of these rude and clumsy forms. At first, all the weapons seemed to
have been barbed on one side only, and this type persists to the present day;
but points barbed on both sides were introduced at a very early stage, and
also still persist, each type being in some respects better fitted for some
special purpose. The bone points were first made to be permanently
attached to the shaft of the dart. But an improvement was soon intro-
duced, by which it was detached, but not lost, being still made fast to a
cord attached to the shaft, when a wounded animal had worked it out of its
socket. This saved the shaft from breaking, an important consideration
with the Aleuts, from the scarcity of wood suited to the purpose. But the
oldest form still persisted, and is now in use among the Eskimo, but chiefly
as children's toys for shooting at a mark or at small birds. Various modifi-
cations of the type represented by No. 16079 were found in various parts
,)f the shell-heaps above the lower Mammalian layer, on the whole improv-
ing much in finish as we pass to the specimens from the upper strata. None
of them, however, carried this form to the perfection which has been reached
by the modern Eskimo, a specimen of whose work is shown in No. 16413.
When the double barbing was introduced, we have no means of deciding;
but none of our specimens are from a greater depth than the middle Mamma-
lian stratum. At first, the barbs of one side were longer than those of the
other, and a tendency to this may be noted in most modern Eskimo dart-

































16083 (897).-Primitive bone dartkhead, lowest Mammalian layer,
Ulakhta Spit, Unalaskka, j.








16063 (897).-Lower Mammalian layer, Ulakhta Spit,
Unalashka, bone dart-bead, i.









16079 (759).-Bone dart-head, lower Mammalian layer, Port MIiller, Alias-
ka Peninsula, 1. (Grooved for poison ?)











13004 (358).-Bone dart-bead, lower Mammalian, ancient rock-
shelter, Atka Island, j,







16083 b (897).-Primitive bone dart-head, low r Mammalian layer,
Ulakhta Spit, Unalashka, f.





-C-


16413.-Modern Eskimo bone dart-head, Cape Etolin, Nunivak Island, Bering Sea, i.
Introduced to show similarity of type combined with artistic finish in the modern
Eskimo weapon.


























13024 (357).-Aleut bone dart-bead, middle Mammalian layer, Nazan
Bay, Atka Island, .









13023 (328).-Aleut bone dart-head, middle Mammalian layer,
Adakh Island, j. This cut is engraved a little too smoothly to show
the roughness of the original compared with the next figure.








13023 a (328a).-Aleut bone dart-head, upper Mammalian layer, A dakh
Island, }.









15673.-Modern Eskimo dart-head, Cape Etolin, Nunivak Island, Bering Sea,
-. Introduced to show similarity of type with greater finish in the modern
weapon.






16083 a (897).-Aleut bone dart-head, to hold obsidian point, up-
per Mammalian layer, Ulaklita Spit, Unalashka, .








14937 (439).-Ditto of later part of Hunting Period, burial-place, Amaknak Island, Una-
lashka, b.







1568.-Modern Eskimo dart-head, Cape Etolin, Nunivak Island, Bering Sea, J. Intro-
duced to show identity of type of the prehistoric Aleut weapon with the better finished
modern one of the continental Innuit.












*














points of the same type. But with the Aleuts the form soon became nearly
symmetrical, as figured in 13023 and 13023 a. Some of these points from
the middle and upper parts of this stratum are beautifully finished and sym-
metrical. They are always thinner than the Eskimo weapon of the same
type, and for this reason probably, were not weakened by a hole in the
butt. If secured by a cord it was probably made fast to the haft just
in advance of the butt. Again, however, as a general proposition, the
modern Eskimo weapon of the same type is more cleanly and sharply finished,
and always stouter and stronger. Instead of being flattened, like the Aleut
weapon, it is carinated on each side, thereby much increasing its strength.
The Eskimo weapons more generally have a conical haft, while the Aleuts
made theirs more commonly with a wedge-shaped square haft.
The final improvement in dart-points was made, as far as we. can
judge, about the time of formation of the uppermost Mammalian strata,
none of the examples occurring in the lower or middle layers. This
was the pointing of the bone-dart with obsidian or stone. As compared
with the rude implements of the Fishing Epoch previously figured,
Nos. 16058 and 16062 show much better workmanship, and the final type
to which the stone points gravitated is shown by No. 12995. Stone dart-
points, except the small ones for bone hafts, are not abundant after the early
part of the Hunting Epoch. The bone article served the purpose much
better, and hence was universally used. Still we find occasional specimens
of stone heads, even to nearly historic times. An unusual modification,
offering many objections to its general use (and as a type, I believe, unique),
was found in the uppermost stratum at Port M6ller, and is figured with the
others (No. 16083 a). The final form of the stone-pointed bone dart is shown
by figure 14937, while the Eskimo weapon of the same type is represented
by 1568, below the first. The Eskimo have worked out the same type of
weapon, finely finished, but their less restricted environment made its use
less universal than it became among the Aleuts. A specimen of one of the
slate whale-harpoon heads carefully ground is also figured (No. 14918).
It came from the later deposits of this period. In the middle Mammalian
layers at Ulakhta Spit, I was puzzled by certain round bone or ivory articles
which I found. They were made of that part of the walrus tusk or sperm-














whale tooth which has a central hollow or core, which had been reamed out.
Some of the old Aleuts explained to me that these
things were placed on the point of a dart when
practicing at a mark, in order that it might not
215(263).-Button for dat, of sperm-become blunted. The annexed figure shows one
whale-tooth ivory, upper Mammalian
layer, Constantino Harbor, Amchitka,--. of these, which I found in the uppermost layer at
Amchitka, very nicely finished and much more artistic than the older speci-
mens of Unalashka.
IMPLEMENTS.
Use relating to dress.
With the ability to kill sea-animals affording skins for clothing, and the
utilization of these skins, which we have some reason to think took place
about the latter part of the Fishing Period, came the necessity for new
implements to adapt the skins to their proposed use. Accordingly, in the
lowest beds of the Mammalian period we begin to find, for the first time,
various implements of this kind. The most common (as the least valuable
and most likely to be lost or thrown away) are pumice-stone skin-dressers
or rubbers, of variable shape, but always with flattened sides and rounded
edges, and usually longer than wide. These do not materially alter in ap-
pearance in the different strata. The coarse grain of the pumice, which
floats on the sea and may be found on most of the beaches, is admirably
adapted for removing the remnants of flesh and tendinous matter from a
dry, raw skin. Then we find rude bone skin-dressers, more or less chisel-
shaped, and hardly to be distinguished from the wedges hereafter to be
described, except by not being hammered at the thicker end. These bone
dressers, however, improved greatly in form and finish. One from the lower
stratum is figured (16079) above, and another from the upper stratum
(16088) is remarkable for the care with which it is finished and the excava-
tion of one side clear to the tips of the horn-processes, which afforded a
secure grip to the prehistoric tanner. This implement is even better finished
than most of the modem Eskimo tools of the same kind which have come
under my notice.
In addition to these implements, small, sharp stone scrapers, usually
ground flat, and with chipped edges, are found throughout the Hunting













































16088 (903).-Deer-horn skin-dresser, up-
per Mammalian layer, Port Miller, Aliaska
Peninsula, i.


--


_ f4


14910.-iPumice-stone skin-dresser, upper Mammalian layer
(A), Amaknak Cave, Unalashka, ,. Side view.


16079 (759).-Bone skin-dresser, lower Mammalian layer, Port Mller, Aliaska Peninsula, t.
16079 (759).--B~one sktin-dres~ser, lower fammalian layer, t'ort hl~ler, Aliaska :Peninsula, n.































16037 (889).-Stone skin-scraper, lower Mamma-
lian layer, Ulakhta Spit, Unalashka, j.


N-


16054 (885).-Ground slate skin-knife, middle Mammalian layer,
Amaknak Cave, Unalashka, i.



-- [ .:2 _-=-- -: ..----'- ...

16084 (898).--one sewing-awl, lower Mammalian layer, Ulakhta
Spit, Unalashka, ,.






12995 a (287).-Upper Mammalian layer, Constantine Harbor, Amchitka, b.


-]














Period. These were used for removing the remnants of flesh and muscle
from the edges and corners of the skin in places not reached by the larger
implements. To cut and sew the skin, when dressed, other implements
were required. The knife figured under the Fishing Period had been by
this time much improved in its general finish by being ground smooth over
its entire surface, instead of merely at the cutting edge. No. 16054 shows
a fine example of this type. These knives, of course, were used for many
other purposes besides cutting the dressed skins; but for this they were
better than scissors, not cutting the hair. Something similar is used by
all furriers. For piercing the skin, in order to insert the thread, an awl
was used. This, from the earliest times, was preferably of the wing-
bones of birds. They answered the purpose better than other bones on
account of the hollow in them, and their harder texture, which made it
easier to keep them sharp. The more modern awls are the better finished,
but the general form is not changed from that of the primitive type.
One is figured above from the lower, and one from the upper, Mammalian
layer. With these things are found a great variety of whetstones
of all shapes and sizes, on which the bone and stone tools were
brought to a sharp edge. The thread was twisted, of whale-sinew, and
attached by a little resin, from the bark of pine or spruce drift-wood, to a
bit of quill or bristle, like a cobbler's '' waxed end", in lieu of a needle. In
the remains of a woman's work-basket, found in the uppermost layer in the
cave, were bits of this resin, evidently carefully treasured, with a little
birch-bark case (the bark also derived from drift-logs), containing pieces
of soft hemmatite, graphite, and blue carbonate of copper, with which the
ancient seamstress ornamented her handiwork. There were also a multi-
tude of little bone splinters, used as needles or awls. Among the modern
Aleuts, the fibers of baleen were formerly made use of for a similar purpose.
These things were once inclosed in a basket of woven grass, which had
shared the fate of its owner, and passed away. I suppose that the birch-
bark was also used by these natives as tinder, for which its resinous prop-
erties peculiarly adapt it. Up to the close of the Fishing Period, though
it is incredible that they should not have been acquainted with the use of
fire, yet there are ,no evidences of its having been used in any way. We














may safely conclude that it did not come into general use until the absence
of woody fuel was made up for by abundant supplies of oil and blubber
from the slaughter of sea-animals. Not only must there have been an
abundant supply for savage appetites, but there must have been an abun-
dant surplus to induce them, habituated to cold and exposure, to use such
valuable food as fuel. This had also an important bearing on the use of
half-subterranean houses, where light would be needed a large part of the
time in winter, and on the employment in mechanical and other labor of
time which would otherwise have been devoted to sleep or idleness. This
brings us to utensils of-

Use in mechanic arts, &Cc.
The use of oil for lighting and cooking purposes necessitated a lamp
of some kind. All the Innuit use a lamp of similar construction. It bears
a slight resemblance to the ancient Greek lamp, being merely a saucer or
dish of stone or clay, with a wick, usually of sphagnum, arranged along the
edge. Some Innuit tribes have elaborated this conception, and form large
semi-lunar dishes of steatite for this purpose. Most of the tribes, however,
use a lamp entirely similar to that of the ancient Aleutian hunters, an oval
or circular shallow dish of stone or baked clay.
Clay suitable for pottery is exceedingly rare in the Aleutian Islands,
and hence does not appear to have ever come into general use. No pre-
historic pottery has ever been found there. Many of the continental Innuit,
however, make rude pots and cups, as well as lamps, of burned clay.
The annexed figures show a typical stone lamp from Unalashka, and a
unique form from the upper beds. The latter was probably carved by some
storm-bound hunter in his temporary shelter, as it was broken in several
pieces when found, and had never been used. Fire other than in lamps
was never used in their houses by the early Aleuts, and even in historic
times the same is reported by the old voyagers, who say that when the
natives were cold they folded their long robes about them, "built a fire of
grass, and stood over it". Small lamps a couple of inches in length are
sometimes found, suggesting toys; but these were carried in their kyaks by
the natives, who used them to warm themselves in winter, or when chilled













































13022 (270).-Bone wedge fromlower Mam-
malian layer, Constantineo Harbor, Amchitka
Island, t.































-5-









13021.--Lamp carved from unbaked clay, upper Mammalian layer,
rock-shelter, Nazan Bay, Atka, i.


14896 (232).-Stone (porphyrite) lamp from
lower Mammalian layer, Ulakhta Spit, Una-
lashka, j.


13034 (355).-Adze of green
quartzite, Upper Mammalian, old
burial-place, Nazan Bay, Atka, 3.














by long contest with the icy-cold waters. They were lighted and held
under their garments until the heated air, confined by the gut-shirt or kam-
layka, had served'its purpose.
In the course of time, however, wood from the shores, when unsuited
for other purposes, was used as fuel, the fires being made in the open air, on
stone hearths, built for the purpose. Many of these hearth-stones were
found by us bearing the marks of fire. They were preferably somewhat
concave on the upper surface, but otherwise irregularly shaped. The natives
also used the bones of cetaceans, spongy and full of oil, for fuel. They
sometimes placed fish or meat between two concave stones, plastered the
chinks with clay, and baked the whole in the fire until done. Much of their
food, including alge, shell-fish, most true fish, the octopus or cuttlefish, and
blubber, was eaten raw. The old men, to this day, ascribe the various com-
plaints, which have afflicted later generations, chiefly to the pernicious prac-
tice of cooking food. Wood was prepared for various uses by splitting it
with a maul and bone wedges. These latter articles are among the most
common relics of the Mammalian layer. They are to be distinguished from
skin-dressers of similar shape by their ruder outline and by being ham-
mered at the broader end. A specimen is here figured, which had received
much hard usage. They were usually cut from the jaws or ribs of whales.
The cutting of the bone, from the marks left on fragments found in the
shell-heaps, was usually done with a sharp-edged stone used as a saw or
file, and very rarely with any other tool. There is hardly any stone on
the islands, such as serpentine, fit for making celts or adzes. They were
Probably imported from the continental Innuit at great cost, and very
highly valued. We know that small thin iron chisels, shaped like the native
celt (which was always attached like an adze to a wooden knee or handle),
were among the most profit able trading goods of the first discoverers.
Fifteen and even twenty of the finest sea-otter skins were cheerfully paid
for one. To the great value which they attached to them I refer the
absence of these implements from the shell-heaps. Not one was found
in all our excavations. And in only one case, that of a comparatively
modern, though prehistoric burial-place, has an adze or celt been found
in the Aleutian Islands. This is one of the ethnological peculiarities of the














region. The fact that among the thousands of implements, weapons, &c.,
that we have collected in this region, there should be but one celt, shows
their extreme rarity and the high value probably placed on them. This
solitary specimen is here figured, No., 13034. There are also no axes,
grooved or otherwise, hammers, gouges, or hollow chisels, found in this
region.
The intertribal traffic I have referred to is universal among the Innuit.
Among other articles which were found in a prehistoric burial-place, on
Kagamil, were a number of the kantags, or wooden dishes and receptacles,
made by the Nushagak and other continental Innuit, and undoubtedly
imported before the advent of the whites. Many other articles of use and
ornament, which we know these people possessed, and which were in part
imported, I have left unmentioned, as this paper relates merely to the relics
of the shell-heaps, village-sites, and rock-shelters of the prehistoric time, and
to admit articles which are not indicated by the deposits in question, except
by way of illustration, would too greatly expand this paper. These points
may be hereafter treated of elsewhere.
The "fiddle-bow drill" was an instrument largely used in their carv-
ing and working bone and ivory; but for obtaining fire, two pieces of quartz
were struck together over some down obtained from the wild cotton-grass
or rush, which had been sprinkled with sulphur from the crevices of the
volcanos.
In the upper layers alone we begin to find the ivory ornaments and
appendages, which now form part of every kyak or bidarka; and the thin
strips of bone with which was ornamented the wooden visor used by the
Aleuts to protect themselves from the glare of the sun when in the kyak.
Various little nondescript carvings, which we found in the top stratum, were
without doubt used as appendages to the peak of the visor, which was
further ornamented with the long translucent bristles of the sea-lion.
Among other articles found in these strata only are bone handles for dishes
or baskets, bone spoons, and needle-cases of the bones of birds' wings.
These were sometimes rudely ornamented with a tracery of lines, dots, and
circles, all strictly of the Innuit type. Chips of quartz and obsidian were
used to finish the shafts of their darts, and the throwing-board was invented














to give a better aim to the hunter, whose moist habitat precluded the use of
the bow with its hygrometric string of sinew. Doubtless, many of the small,
sharp pieces of sandstone which we found were used as files in finishing
their bone and wooden implements and weapons. In fact, the number and
variety of the tools and implements used could only be illustrated by a very
large series of figures; hence I can only offer here, for this epoch, a brief
review.
DWELLINGS.
Whatever may have been the character of the huts or dwellings of the
more ancient islanders, they were at least of so temporary and perishable a
nature that they have left no traces in the shell-heaps. The first evidences
of permanent dwellings appear in the middle and upper Mammalian layers.
It is probable that at first they were comparatively small, and resembled the
present houses of the continental Innuit. As the communities became
larger and the builders more skillful, larger houses were built, of the com-
munistic type characteristic of most American aborigines; but the accumu-
lation of long logs for the support of the roof must have been in such cases
a work of years. In all the village-sites I have examined, a large propor-
tion of the houses were small and of the strict Innuit type, namely, with
a door at the side, and probably a hole in the roof for ventilation. The
houses were built with the floor somewhat below the level of the outside
soil, the walls of whale-ribs, sticks of wood, or upright stone walls, covered
outside with mats, straw, and finally turf. Rude bone picks, for excavating,
were not uncommon in the shell-heaps. The roof was formed by arching
whale-ribs, or long sticks of drift-wood, matted, thatched, and turfed like
the sides, with a central aperture. A platform, somewhat raised, around the
sides of the house afforded a place for sitting and sleeping. Later, each
village had a large house, or kashim, ivhich served as a common work-shop,
and a lodging for strangers, as well as for a town-hall for their discussions
and festivals. In all this, they agree precisely with the present Innuit. Still
later, in a period not very greatly antedating the historic, the Aleuts began
to build large communistic dwellings with features peculiar to themselves,
without doors, and entered by the hole in the roof, the inmates descending
on a notched log placed upright. These large yourts were divided, by par-














titiong of wood, stone, or matting, into small rooms like the state-rooms of a
steamer, but without doors; open toward the center of the yourt, and each
accommodating one family. Sometimes the dead were inclosed in the
apartment they had occupied when living, which was filled with earth and
walled up, while the other inhabitants retained their apartments as before.
We found, in the course of our excavations on Ulakhta Spit in one of these
old yourts, three skeletons thus interred. The bodies were tied with the
knees brought up to the chin, as is now customary among the continental
Innuit.
The building of houses and lighting them with lamps must have exer-
cised a powerful modifying influence on these people. Rising and retiring
with the sun, their progenitors relied on heaven for their light and warmth.
Now the lamp formed at once a center of attraction for the members of a
household, prolonged their available hours of labor, and cheered the dreary
nights of winter. Not only would the utilitarian side of the native mind
become developed, but it might begin dimly to experience sensations of the
beautiful. Probably the greater comfort and mutual confidence in which
they existed would tend to modify for the better the dreary animism which
characterizes all of the most degraded and savage races.
This brings us to the consideration of those objects found in the shell-
heaps, and solely confined to the uppermost strata, which may be fairly
denominated-
ARTICLES OF ART OR ORNAMENT.
The expression of esthetic feeling, as indicated by attempts at orna-
mentation of utensils or weapons, or by the fabrication of articles which
serve only for purposes of adornment, is remarkably absent in the contents
of the shell-heaps. As a whole, this feeling became developed only at the
period directly anterior to the historic epoch. It was doubtless exhibited
in numerous ways, of which no preservation was possible, so that the early
record, even for a considerable period, would be very incomplete. We
know that great taste and delicate handiwork were expended on articles of
clothing and manufactures of grass fiber, which would be entirely destroyed
in the shell-heaps, and of which only fragmentary remains have been
preserved on the mummies found in the latest prehistoric burial-caves and




=Nw


85

rock-shelters. I have elsewhere treated this part of the subject in extenso,
and will pass it by here with the foregoing allusion. There can be no
doubt also that, by the insertion of feathers, hair, and whisker-bristles
of the seal, as well as in other ways, the bidarka or kayak was tastefully
ornamented. The double or two-holed bidarka, peculiar to the Innuit of
Kadiak- and the Aleuts, became a necessity from their method of hunting,
which necessitated two persons, one to hurl the dart and the other to steer
and manage the bidarka. The single kayak, common to all the Innuit, is
comparatively inefficient in sea-otter hunting. The three-holed bidarka
appears to have been a Russian innovation. The bidarra, or umiak, does
not seem to have been as extensively used among the Aleuts as it is among
the ordinary Innuit; and it is noteworthy that on the whole west coast it
has not the special character of a "woman's boat ", which is characteristic of
it among the Greenlanders and eastern Innuit.
There are some articles used on the kyak which are usually made of
bone, and often preserved in the upper Mammalian stratum, and upon
which some attempts at ornamentation were bestowed. These are little
pieces of bone or ivory, in general shape resembling a kneeling figure,
with one or two holes, through which cords were passed. These cords
were made fast at the outer angles of the kyak, passing over the
upper ridge of it, and drawn taut. On each side, one of the bone append-
ages was placed, to raise the cord a little, so that a paddle or dart might
be slipped under the latter, and so made fast to the kyak. There are
usually at least two of these transverse cords placed in advance of
each seat and two behind the stern seat, making six in all, in a double
kyak, and requiring twelve appendages. The latter were, in some cases,
carved to represent figures of animals. Another species of ornamentation
has already been alluded to in the flat, thin strips of bone which were
fastened to the wooden visor worn in hunting. These were frequently
ornamented with typically Innuit patterns of parallel lines, dots, concen-
tric circles, with zigzag markings between them, and radiating lines. All
these were in black on the white basis of the bone or ivory. These bone
ornaments also served the purpose of strengthening the visor against a blow.
At the tip, there was usually suspended a small bone carving, bead, or figure,




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