Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Australian natives
 Travelling in South Africa
 The Chinese at home
 Boat life in Amsterdam
 A cocoa nut coat of mail
 In Eskimo land
 A visit to New Guinea
 Busy little people
 In a typhoon
 Meetings and greetings
 A gold mine
 The dragon of the China Sea
 On Lake Titicaca
 A sand storm at Dongola
 A Japanese home
 Up the Kilima Njaro mountains
 A winter storm in Death Valley
 American Indians
 In the changing monsoons
 Winter in Canada
 The land of Egypt
 The Turks at home
 A New Guinea village
 A visit to Rio
 In the straits of Cape Horn
 A peep into India
 Raiders and traders
 The fairy's palace
 The land of midnight sun
 Beneath Niagara
 A peep into Spain
 In central China
 Among the rubber trees
 Camp life in New Zealand
 A ride in petticoats and slipp...
 Among the date palms
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Graphic story books
Title: Graphic stories of other lands
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00088961/00001
 Material Information
Title: Graphic stories of other lands
Series Title: Graphic story books
Physical Description: 256, 16 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Yates, M. T ( Editor )
William Collins Sons and Co ( Publisher )
Collins' Clear-Type Press ( Publisher )
Publisher: William Collins, Sons, & Co. Ltd.
Collins' Clear-Type Press
Place of Publication: London ;
Publication Date: 1898?
Subject: Geography -- History -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Anthropology -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Manners and customs -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1898   ( rbgenr )
Prize books (Provenance) -- 1898   ( rbprov )
Bldn -- 1898
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Prize books (Provenance)   ( rbprov )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Glasgow
Statement of Responsibility: edited by M.T. Yates ; coloured illustrations.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00088961
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002230752
notis - ALH1117
oclc - 221757295

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Australian natives
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Travelling in South Africa
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The Chinese at home
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Boat life in Amsterdam
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    A cocoa nut coat of mail
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    In Eskimo land
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    A visit to New Guinea
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Busy little people
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    In a typhoon
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Meetings and greetings
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    A gold mine
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    The dragon of the China Sea
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    On Lake Titicaca
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    A sand storm at Dongola
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    A Japanese home
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Up the Kilima Njaro mountains
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    A winter storm in Death Valley
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    American Indians
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    In the changing monsoons
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Winter in Canada
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    The land of Egypt
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    The Turks at home
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    A New Guinea village
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    A visit to Rio
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    In the straits of Cape Horn
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    A peep into India
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Raiders and traders
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    The fairy's palace
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    The land of midnight sun
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
    Beneath Niagara
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
    A peep into Spain
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
    In central China
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    Among the rubber trees
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
    Camp life in New Zealand
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
    A ride in petticoats and slippers
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
    Among the date palms
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
    Back Matter
        Page 273
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

. .... ....... .

-C-7 V,



[See page 7.




Other Lapds.









An interesting series of Story Books for Young Readers,
containing a number of entertaining tales and graphic descriptions
of life and adventures in all parts of the world.
The matter is thoroughly healthy in tone, and has been written
or carefully selected, so that Teachers and Parents may have no
hesitation in placing any of these books in the hands of children
under their charge.
As prize books, and for school libraries, the series will be found
very suitable, providing a large amount of good and interesting
reading at a small cost.


Graphic Stories of Adventure by Land and by Sea, at Home
and Abroad.
Graphic Stories of Bravery in many Lands, Afloat and
Graphic Stories of Other Lands describing Foreign Persons,
Scenes, and Incidents.
Graphic Stories of Animals, Tame and Wild, in all parts ot
the Globe.
(Others in Preparation.)

Handsomely Bound, Cloth, Price 2/-


Australian Natives, 7
Travelling in South Africa, .13
The Chinese at Home, 17
Boat Life in Amsterdam, 27
A Cocoa Nut Coat of Mail, .31
In Eskimo Land, 34
A Visit to New Guinea, .42
Busy Little People, .55
In a Typhoon, 58
Meetings and Greetings, 62
A Gold Mine, 68
The Dragon of the China Sea, .73
On Lake Titicaca, 77
A Sand Storm at Dongola, 88
A Japanese Home, 93
Up the Kilima Njaro Mountains, 99
A Winter Storm in Death Valley, 108
American Indians, 120
In the Changing Monsoons, 129
Winter in Canada, 134
The Land of Egypt, 138
The Turks at Home,. 148
A New Guinea Village, 157

A Visit to Rio,. 160
In the Straits of Cape Horn, 165
A Peep into India, 168
The Hindus at Home, 180
The Land of the Midnight Sun, 191
Beneath Niagara, 194
A Peep into Spain, 206
In Central China, 210
Among the Rubber Trees, 215
Camp Life in New Zealand, 220
A Ride in Petticoats and Slippers, .. 227
Among the Date Palms, .245


HILE out one day with my butterfly
net, I saw two almost naked savages
coming towards me; one carried a
spear and a nulla-nulla, and the other
was armed with a boomerang.. They
were both very dark, almost black,
and their heads were covered with long, tangled
hair, while the lower parts of their faces were
hidden under thick, bushy beards.
Their flat, spreading noses, and small glittering
eyes, partly hidden beneath their protruding brows,
gave them a savage, almost terrible look. They
came straight up to me, and, in very good English,
asked for tobacco. I told them that I did not use
the article, and I considered it bad both for white
and black men; whereupon they both laughed.
As I was mentally comparing their ugliness, a
large, handsome butterfly came sailing past, and
away I ran after it. A roar of wild laughter
followed me, as I caught and put the insect into
my bottle. Then up they came again, grinning


and showing their teeth, no doubt thinking me the
simplest person that ever walked the earth.
I had heard many stories of the native Australian
throwing the boomerang, and it occurred to me
that this would be a grand opportunity to see how
it was done. So I bargained with them, for a
shilling, to give a performance. They led the way
through the forest to a grassy opening of an acre
or more in extent, where they gave me a grand
exhibition of their skill in throwing that wonderful
I noticed they always threw it point first instead
of elbow first, as I had expected. The black would
run a step or two, and, standing well up on tiptoe,
hurl the whistling weapon into the air. It would
go one hundred feet almost in a straight line, then
make a sudden turn, and after going nearly as far,
at right angles to the first direction, would turn
again, and finally come down as light as a feather,
almost at the feet of the thrower.
They could hurl it just over the grass tops to a
great distance, when it would suddenly shoot up
into the air, and come scaling down towards the
place whence it started. There seemed to be no
limit to the number of curious antics this thin, bent
piece of hard wood could be made to perform. I
gave them the promised shilling, and then pur-
chased the nulla-nulla and the boomerang.
On the way back to the house, I tried my hand
at throwing the latter weapon. It seemed rather

S- r --




perverse, for when I wanted it to go up, it dived
into the ground, and when I tried to hurl it at a
tree, it astonished me by shooting up into the air.
It was well there was no one with me, or he
might have been hurt.
A great deal of sugar cane is raised in Northern
Queensland, and, as white labour is scarce and
expensive, the planters import blacks from the
numerous islands north of Australia. These blacks
are quite industrious, and must well repay the
trouble and expense of their transportation. Each
native has a trunk or large hinged box, with a
lock, in which he stores all the treasures he buys
with his earnings.
The poor fellows have to work a long time for a
very little money, and often get sadly cheated in
their purchases; but when they carry home a large
box well filled with knives, hatchets, guns,
ammunition, handsome calicoes, beads, rings,
tobacco, and like articles, dear to the savage heart,
they must be looked upon by their brothers as
wealthy men, possessing all the luxuries one could
The Australian natives are rather averse to
work, preferring to beg about the towns than to
earn a living by labour. They seldom wear any
clothing when at home in the woods; but as they
are not allowed to come into town in this costume,
each native has a shirt, which is carefully kept for
all great occasions.


Often, on starting out in the morning, I would
meet a band of naked natives on their way to town,
each carrying under his arm his shirt, carefully
rolled up in a banana leaf. On nearing the first
straggling houses, they would don this apparel, and
march into town with the air of well dressed men.
Returning in the evening, I would sometimes
meet the same band coming back, and, as soon as
the houses were left behind, off would come the
shirts again, just as the tight boots and high collar
of the farmer boy are taken off on his return from
a visit to his country cousins.
The huts of the natives are probably the poorest
dwellings made by human beings. They are
inferior to the homes of many wild beasts. They
are generally nothing more than a few bushes put
up to keep off the wind, a space in front serving for
a fireplace. For the rainy season, they sometimes
make huts of bark, which are, perhaps, five feet
high, and six or seven feet across at the ground.
Near the towns, they cover their dwellings with old
carpets, sheet iron, or anything they can find to
keep out the wet.
A village of such huts looks, at a short distance,
something like the winter quarters of a colony of
beavers; and it gives one an idea of the progress
we have made since our forefathers lived in caves
and huts, little, if any, better housed than the
wild beasts about them.
At one place some of the natives came out to the


steamer in a canoe, to dive for money, which the
passengers threw into the water. They were a
motley looking crowd of men and women, and as
ugly as imagination could possibly picture. Their
boat was made of bark, and, in order that it might
keep afloat, they were obliged to bail it out con-
tinually with a large shell.
One day I shot several ducks on a lagoon, and
tried to hire an Australian black to go in after
them, but he was not to be tempted with the
promise of silver, and answered, "No fear. Too
much afraid crocodile, to go longa water." Laugh-
ing at him, I went in after them myself; but as I
was dressing, I saw in the mud the track of one of
the large reptiles, and concluded that it would take
more than a few ducks to tempt me to again make
myself bait for a crocodile.
Among the earliest explorers of Australia were
George Bass and Matthew Flinders, who were
exploring the coast when their boat upset near the
shore, and their powder got wet. A tribe of angry
looking blacks gathered round the explorers, and
Flinders strove to please them. He had heard
that they were very fond of having their hair cut,
so he took a pair of scissors out of his kit, and
trimmed their beards, which made them very


RAVELLING is made so easy and com-
fortable in the more civilised countries
of the world, that we can scarcely
appreciate the difficulties attending a
journey through regions where there
are no roads, no bridges, and no means
of conveyance, except that which is provided by
the traveller himself.
The journeys, so graphically described by African
travellers, have still to be made much in the same
way, where one departs at all from the beaten
tracks. In South Africa, long journeys inland are
made by means of the heavy lumbering Cape
waggon, which is usually drawn by ten oxen.
Waggon travelling is described by Dr. Livingstone
as "a prolonged system of picnicking." He says
that it is excellent for the health, but he also adds,
that while it is agreeable to those who delight in
the open air, it is well that such travellers should
not be over fastidious about trifles.
The slow pace at which the travellers wend their


way through the country, gives ample time for the
study of the more interesting features and objects
which come under their notice during an extended
The absence of roads, and the rough and uneven
character of the ground, not only makes the progress
slow, but is an element of anxiety and danger. It
is not at all uncommon for heavily ladened waggons
to become so fixed in the soft ground, that the
united power of the men and animals is not
sufficient to extricate them. Then the only course
to be followed is to unpack the waggons, and
literally lift them out of the holes in which they
are embedded.
Probably the most exciting part of a w..--.on
journey in Africa is the crossing of bridgeless
streams and rivers. In the dry season, most of the
streams do not flow, and therefore there is little
difficulty in crossing or traversing the river beds,
but at other seasons, and especially when the
streams are in flood, great care must be exercised
in selecting fording places.
Where the current is too strong, and the water
deep, the cri.- in_, of a river is often attended with
loss of life. Animals and men are carried away,
and waggons are overturned and wrecked, and
much valuable property is lost.
It was in the rainy season that Livingstone
travelled through a part of, the country where the
grass was higher than the waggons, and the water


-r. 9 Ir-





.s 'I


~ I


courses resembled small rivers, and were twenty
yards broad and four feet deep. The oxen
floundered desperately in holes which had been
made by wild elephants. The pole of one of the
waggons broke, and the doctor and his men had to
work up to the breast in water for three hours and
a half.
Indeed, the country was so inundated, that
progress was almost impossible, and from the tops
of the trees no passage could be seen. Canoes
were obtained and assistance was sought from a
native tribe. A large party willingly helped the
travellers out of their difficulty. They took the
waggons to pieces and carried them across on a
number of canoes lashed together, while they them-
selves swam and dived among the oxen more like
alligators than men.
In the forest the path has to be cleared with the
axe, and often the travellers spend whole days
almost constantly at work. Once when Livingstone
was crossing a wooded part of the country, the
party ran short of water, when a heavy rain came
on. He says: "I was employed the whole day
cutting down trees, and every stroke of the axe
brought down a thick shower on my back and
into my shoes, which in the hard work was very


H[IINA is one of the queerest countries in
the world. Everything in that strange
Island is the wrong way to us. The colour
-' of their mourning is white. They turn
their relatives out of doors to die. When
they salute a friend, they put on their
hats and shake their own hands, instead of each
Nor is that all. Their books begin where ours
end, read backwards, and have the footnotes at the
top of the page. They write up and down instead
of across the page as we do. When rowing, they
face the bow instead of the stern of the boat, and
face the direction in which they are going.
Their wheelbarrows have sails. Their pigs ride
to market in baskets. The "washer women" are
men, and the river "boatmen" are mostly women
and girls. A carpenter sits down to work and
draws his tools towards himself, instead of pushing
them away from him.
The poor people live in mud houses thatched


with reeds, or in low houses built of wood. Instead
of glass windows they have openings, which may
be closed with wooden shutters. There is no open
fireplace, no chimney, and no mats, no carpets, or
To warm himself the Chinaman carries a small
stove, a kind of lamp which burns oil. Sometimes
be has it in his hand, and at other times he stows
it away in his sleeve. The cooking stove is a kind
of firebox, which may be carried into any room
where it is wanted.
The houses of the better class are often very
grand, and are decorated with fine carved work.
Some of them have floors of marble, porcelain, or
ebony. Silk or satin curtains hang on the walls,
on which are written sentences of wise sayings and
good advice. Pretty ornaments are also suspended
from the ceilings. They are also furnished with
tables and chairs, and contain handsome cabinets,
screens, fans, and other ornaments.
The people are very fond of gardening, and many
of their houses are surrounded by high walls.
Here may be seen trees, and flowers, and pretty
lakes. The rooms open into verandahs and bal-
conies, where the inmates often sit to enjoy the
fresh air. In no part of the world is every bit of
land more carefully tended and turned to the best
The strangest piece of furniture in a Chinese
house is an elegant coffin. The poorest coolie, or


[ j


labourer, often denies himself the necessaries of
life that he might save enough to buy his coffin.
This article is also regarded as the choicest gift a
child can make to a parent.
A Chinese gentleman does not put his name on
a doorplate at the entrance of his house. Instead
of that he hangs a lantern before his door, on
which his name and rank are written.
On the great Canton River there are miles and
miles of boats, making quite a town anchored in
the stream. These boats are the homes of thou-
sands of persons who live and die in their floating
The children sleep in a hole at the bottom of the
boat, and the parents and grown-up members of
the family sleep on the cabin seats, or on shelves
which pull out of the sides of the apartments.
Both men and women, boys and girls, wear
jackets and trousers. The rich people have their
garments made of silk or other rich materials,
and some of their outer robes are very beautiful
and of very gay colours. They wear shoes, which
they remove when they enter a room.
The pride of a Chinese lady is the small size of
her feet. While still very young, a Chinese girl
has her feet bandaged with long narrow strips of
muslin, which draw the toes down under the soles,
and make them very small. Often they are not
more than two or three inches in length, and are
called Golden Lilies."
G.S.O.L. B


For years she suffers the most severe pain until
her feet are as small as they can possibly be made.
Then she goes tottering through life, scarcely able
to hobble out, and is regarded by her parents and
friends as a graceful young lady.
When she is about twelve years of age, she is
married to a husband chosen for her by her parents.
As soon as she reaches this period of her life, her
hair is put up in the most wonderful manner. It
is drawn back from her forehead and made stiff
with gum, and piled up in a wonderful mass of
bows, and loops, and wings, and rolls, all so firm
with the gum that no hairpins are required to keep
it in order.
This curious structure lasts about a week, and is
adorned with flowers or jewels. So that it may
not be disarranged at night, she sleeps with a
leather pillow under her neck, or packs her head
safely in a box.
The pride of a Cl iih~;ii.i is his cue or pigtail,
which hangs down his back. When he is a month
old, his head is shaved, all except a little fringe at
the back. As soon as this fringe is long enough,
it is gummed to make it stand up and form a tail.
It is then tied with a red ribbon. The shaving
continues through life, and the cue is regarded as
his greatest ornament.
Some Chinese gentlemen also wear very long
finger nails. They carefully tend them, till they are
several inches in length, often as long as their


hands. To prevent them from breaking off, they
are fitted with cases of silver, gold, or bamboo.
Long finger nails are regarded as the height of
refinement, for they are a proof that the owner
does not descend to work.
Chinese children are carefully taught how to
behave themselves at a very early age. They are
shown how to enter a room in a proper manner,
and how to treat other persons. To their parents
they are expected to bow so low that their heads
nearly touch the floor.
They address their father as "Family's Majesty"
or "Venerable Father," instead of simply "father"
as we do. Their devotion to their parents is beyond
all praise. Throughout their long lives they are as
obedient as little children. Most of them will
make any sacrifice for their parents, and many a
child has given up his own life to save his father
from death. The greatest crime of which a China-
man can be guilty is ingratitude to parents.
The Chinese are very learned people, and school
is a very hard place for the children. The course
of study for a boy is both long and severe. The
importance of learning may be seen, when we
remember that a poor boy who becomes a good
scholar may rise to the highest position in the
In school each scholar repeats his lessons over
and over again at the top of his voice, as if there
was no one else in the room. When he has


mastered his task, he takes his book to the master,
bows, turns his back, and repeats it from memory.
This is called "backing the book." This plan is
adopted to prevent the boy from seeing the large
characters in which the lesson is printed.
The Chinese children have a great many amuse-
ments, which they no doubt enjoy, in spite of their
solemn manner. Both boys and girls play at
shuttlecock. This favourite game is often played
in a curious manner. The children form a circle,
and then use their feet instead of battledores.
They also skip, play at horses, and fly the most
wonderful kites in the world. The Chinese are
famous for their kites, which are of many curious
shapes and sizes. Some of them are in the form
of men and women. Others are like dragons,
snakes, birds, bats, and butterflies.
Both men and boys spend a great part of their
time on this amusement. On Kite Day, that is, the
ninth day of the month of the ninth month of the
year, nearly every man and boy in China takes a
holiday in flying kites.
This country is also famous for its lanterns. By
law, every person is obliged to carry one at night,
and sometimes thousands of lanterns may be seen
in the streets. On the Feast of Lanterns the
people hang lanterns of various kinds before their
doors. There is also a grand procession, music,
and fireworks.
We must not, however, forget to say something


about the food of this curious people. What do
they eat, and how do they partake of their food ?
To answer this question, we will describe a Chinese
"We commenced the repast," says a writer, "by
eating the seeds of the watermelon. After that we
went to a side table, on which were candied ginger
and watermelon, and bamboo shoots, all in tiny
porcelain dishes. From there we went to the
dinner table, on which were twenty-five little
porcelain basins, full of some unknown messes.
"We were armed with chopsticks-two small
sticks of bamboo, ivory, or gold-and a little china
bowl not .li-.i-' than a teacup. We were supposed
to help ourselves freely from all the little dishes,
digging into them with our chopsticks.
"Everything that came to the table was cut into
tiny square pieces, but what the things were we
could not tell. Every dish we tasted had a flavour
we had never tasted before. We had not courage
to attempt more than a few. Tea without milk or
sugar was served after nearly every course."
Here are some of the thirty courses provided in
a first rate dinner-" Slugs, stewed pork, birds'
nest soup, black fish, hashed dog, stewed black
cat, fried rat, rice, shrimps, and fish." Rice is,
however, the chief article of food of the poor
We think that the ways of the Chinese are very
strange and less civilised than our own, but they

have an idea that their ways are much superior to
ours. Once when an Englishman was speaking to a
Chinaman about the use of chopsticks, he received
the following reply: "In remote ages, before we
became civilised, we used knives and forks as you
do, and had no chopsticks. We still carry a knife
in our chopstick case, but it is a remnant of bar-
barism. We never use it. We sit down to table
to eat, not to cut up the bodies of animals."


OLLAND is one of the queerest countries
'I, under the sun, and Amsterdam, its
L s. capital, is a funny old town. It is full
-':, of canals, which divide the city into
Si'-.'t nearly a hundred islands. Over these
S canals are two hundred and sixty bridges,
with draws in the centre, to let the boats pass
A large part of the inhabitants pass their lives
entirely on canal boats. Here they keep ducks,
chickens, pigs, and cattle, as well as their families.
Many children are born on these boats, and grow
up without ever sleeping in a house.
When they have not the money to buy horses,
the men and their wives, and even the children,
drag the boats through the canals by a rope, called
the tow line, fastened to the bow. The boys and
girls, even when they are only ten or twelve years
old, pull the tow line.
When the father is lucky enough to own a
horse, as many children as possible will often climb


on its back. The result is, they now and again
fall off; but they are so stout and fat that they
seldom hurt themselves. Sometimes they tumble
into the canals, but, being too fleshy to sink, they
are soon fished out.
It is amusing to see a Hollander going on board
one of these boats with his wife, seven or eight
children, two or three dozen geese, a lot of pigs,
and a number of cows. It reminds one of a small
Noah's ark, with its green, red, white, blue, and
yellow men, women, and animals.
The poor people wear wooden shoes; and the
clatter they make in the streets of Amsterdam is
heard above the sound of the sledges. I have
often wondered how the boys and girls keep their
shoes on; because those that the children wear
are really large enough for the parents.
In Holland, children have very few playthings.
The shoes are shaped very much like the canal
boats of the country. The children observing this,
have a custom of sailing them on the water. This
is fine sport, except when the little craft is loaded
with too many stones, and sinks to the bottom.
I was told of a small lad, who, going out one
morning to sail his wooden shoe, put into it his
knife, a small brass cannon, a top, and some
marbles, that had been given him on the previous
His tiny vessel, which had a paper sail, ran
finely, until an old man came down to the canal to


b lb


trc,: .U91;, '

I 4





take up a pail of water. This made such waves
that the heavily laden shoe was upset, and sank
suddenly, before the knife, cannon, or marbles
could be saved.
The boy, who had been the envy of all his
playmates, was completely ruined. If some of the
great bankers of Amsterdam had lost a million of
money, they would not have felt so badly as that
child did over the total wreck of his shoe.
In winter all the canals are frozen over, and then
everybody in the city goes skating. The boys and
girls learn to skate almost as soon as they learn to
walk, and it is pleasant to see the little things,
with the steel runners curled above their toes,
whirling over the ice, making circles and cutting
fanciful figures.
They not only skate from one part of the town
to another, but often go miles into the country to
see their relatives and friends. Sledges are much
used, as well as chairs on runners, which are
pushed forward by skaters from behind. The women
skate very skilfully, often bearing large loads on
their heads long distances, and sometimes carrying
their babies in their arms for many miles.


HE full armour worn by a warrior of the
S Caroline Islands is one of the most
curious bits of savage workmanship in
S the world.
.' The Caroline Islands are a small group,
marked by a few dots on the map of
the Pacific Ocean about fifteen hundred miles north
east of Australia.
The Caroline Islanders dwell in the midst of
plenty, and have attained a very high degree of
skill in a good many of the arts of comfortable
living. Among the rest they have learned to
make excellent cloths and mattings of various
vegetable fibres, of rushes, and of strips of leaves.
They contrive powerful weapons, too; and, as they
fight with enemies who are equally well armed,
they have learned to provide themselves with
defensive armour.
This, a complete suit, consists of two separate
parts-the clothing and the coat of mail. The cloth-
ing, worn next to the skin, is made by weaving, or


rather netting, by hand, a web of coarse cords,
twisted out of the husk of the cocoa nut, each cord
being tied into a hard knot between each mesh.
The knots are crowded close together, and thicken
the cloth, so that it would not be easy to stab or cut
through it; it also protects the legs against being
torn by thorny shrubs or scratched in clambering
over the sharp coral rocks.
The trousers fit close, and are elastic enough to
mould themselves to the shape of the leg. They
reach high up the waist, and are sustained by two
back bands, which take the place of suspenders;
but instead of passing over the shoulders and down
in front, they are tied together, necktie fashion,
under the chin. The shirt or waistcoat of the
same material, is short, made all in one piece like
the trousers, and of the same knotted material.
This is slipped on by poking the head through a
slit in the top.
The most curious part of the armour is the chest
and head protector, the like of which is known
nowhere else. The woof, or substance of the cloth,
is of cocoa nut threads the thickness of ordinary
-ti _. but tightly twisted and tough, while the
warp upon which these are woven is much heavier,
so that the finished cloth is as thick as heavy
canvas. The threads are crowded very compactly
together also, so that no slight force would be
needed to drive a blow through. The selvage is
bound over a stout cord, and ornamented by


alternate plaits of black hair and yellow fibre.
Ornamental designs are worked in with horse
The form of this outer war jacket is also re-
markable. It consists of two parts, joined into
one garment by the bands covering the shoulders.
Through the round hole between the shoulder
bands the head emerges, while the broad back part
is folded around under the arms on each side,
and laced firmly to the front flap by stout cords.
This done there stands erect, behind the wearer's
head, a fan-shaped shield, kept stiff by its well
bound border, and held erect and fixed by cords
passing down to the shoulder on each side.
Encased in this armour, a fixed shield worn to
protect his neck and head from blows behind, and
a thick palmleaf shield held before his face upon
his left arm, the Caroline Islander is well fitted to
face any sort of weapons his savage neighbours
may be able to contrive, though bullets and swords
would find their way through his cocoa nut coat of


-I HAT do you think one would see if lie
were to go to the very home of the
north wind-the far off Arctic land
,. Not many, white people have been
.' able to live in that cold country
long enough to learn much about it.
A few brave men, however, have lived among the
people who are called Eskimos.
These brave men ate and slept in the odd houses
of the Eskimos, dressed in Eskimo clothing, played
with the little Eskimo children, and went on long
hunting trips with the men. Then, returning to
their own land, these men have told us about the
people of that cold country.
First, you should look on some map of the world
to see where the Eskimos live. You will find far
north a line called the Arctic Circle. North of this
line, on the sea coast and islands of North America,
Europe, and Asia, is the home of the Eskimos.
Their country is so cold that even the hardiest
trees, cannot grow. Nothing grows there except


* MA",



. i



mosses, a little grass, a few trailing vines, and some
shrunken berries. These grow only during the
short summer. There are no gardens or planted
fields. The Eskimos never sow any seed, for the
earth, being frozen all the year, the seed would not
There are very few land animals in this desolate
country, since it is hard to find food; but the water
animals are very numerous and large. These are
the polar bear, that lies on the ice and swims
in the sea, the great whale, the walrus, and
the seal.
At certain times of the year there are many fine
birds and fishes; so the Eskimos depend more on
the sea than on the land for their food. For this
reason they live near the sea coast.
Why is that part of the world where the Eskimos
live so cold, do you think ? It is the very strange
way in which the sun rises and sets.
With us the sun rises every day in the year.
Sometimes he is hidden by clouds, but still we know
his shining face is behind them, only waiting to
peep out. In the winter the days are shorter and
the nights are longer than in summer, but we do
not mind it much. We finish our work earlier, and
have pleasant, cosy times reading stories by
the fire in the evening.
What if the sun did not rise at all for a great
many days or weeks, and then again did not set
for just as long a time ? Wouldn't that very much


change our way of living ? That is the way it is in
Eskimo land.
The sun, during one half of the year, either
doesn't set at all, or just sinks out of sight. During
that part of the year, the sun may be seen a little
pale, but always welcome, circling all around the
You wonder when the Eskimos sleep. It isn't
always in the night, as with us. They sleep after
so many hours of work or play. Perhaps they are
not very sure when bedtime does come.
During the other half of the year, the sun either
does not come in sight at all, or comes for a very
short time. Would you like to live in a country in
which the days and nights are each six months
If an Eskimo baby could speak in our language,
what a strange story it would tell.
It might say, I am a little Eskimo baby, and my
name is Boreas. I do not wear clothes till I can
walk. When I am out of doors, I ride in a skin
cradle on my mother's back. When I am in the
house, I roll upon the floor on a warm fur rug,
and play with my puppy.
When I am a man, I shall have two suits of
clothes made of fur. The inner suit will have the
fur next to my body, and the outer suit will
have the fur on the outside. My outer suit will
have a hood. When I put the hood on, Jack Frost
can see nothing but my eyes, nose, and mouth.
G.S.O.L. C


I once heard a white man tell papa, Eskimos
all dressed so much alike, that he could not tell
girls from boys, or women from men.
Do you know what kind of a house I live in?

-- ~ ~ ~ -~- -- ---- '3:- = '-.

the half of an egg shell, only larger. We do not
.. -
--_ '. -


It is not made of wood like yours, for it is so cold
in this country that no trees can grow here.
My house is made of snow, and it looks like
the half of an egg shell, only larger. We do not


heat it with a stove, for that would melt the
snow. We warm it with lamps. These lamps are
made of stone, and look like clam-shells. We
burn moss in them, and use moss for wicks. It
must always be cold enough in the house to freeze,
or the water begins to drop from the top, and then
we know the house is melting.
One day our house was too warm, and the snow
began to melt. Some of it dropped down papa's
neck, some of it fell into our soup, and scattered
it on mamma. One piece fell on me, and I jumped.
I did not like it. Papa had to mend the melted
places with fresh snow.
Our house has only one room and one door.
The doorway is low and small, so that papa and
mamma must creep through it on their hands and
knees. The door is a big block of ice. It is
used as much to keep out the dogs as the cold.
Our dogs will sleep on the hard ice and snow
if they have plenty to eat. Papa never feeds them
oftener than every other day, and generally about
every third day.
What do you think is the best food they can
have ? It is tough walrus hide, about an inch
thick. One day the dogs were very hungry, and
as many as could put their heads in at the doorway.
They watched mamma to see if she would give them
something to eat.
Papa has many dogs. He has one team of
nineteen. Once the dogs worked seven days


without eating. They grew very thin, but none of
them died.
Do you think you could drive dogs ? Papa says
he never saw a white man who was a good dog
driver. The forward dog of a team is called a
"leader," or "chief." The Eskimo dog driver


manages the leader by speaking to him, making
him go to the right or the left as he desires.
The other dogs watch the leader, and do as he
We could not live without our dogs. They are
our horses and oxen for drawing our loads, and


our hunting dogs, too. The dogs like to hunt.
When they are near the game, papa slips their
harness off. Then they stand around the animal,
and keep it till papa can kill it. Sometimes, if they
go too near a bear or a muskox, they are killed.
One night we heard a loud noise outdoors on the
ice. Papa jumped up and went out. He found a
large bear breaking the ice to catch fish.
Mr. Bear did not know that papa was near,
until he shot. Then the bear ran, and papa ran.
Papa called the dogs, too, but the bear reached the
ice. He went up on an iceberg, which was so steep
that no one could get after him. The next day
papa saw him up there throwing big pieces of ice
down on a seal.


HE harbour of Port Moresby was almost
inclosed by high hills, covered with
long, dry grass, with here and there
T a garden. In the ravines between the
hills grew patches of forest, and a belt
of cocoanut trees encircled the shore.
On two small hills near the beach were the
houses of the missionary, the church, and a few
other small buildings. To the right, stretching for
a quarter of a mile, the native town of Bura-Bura
was supported on piles, in some places extending
into the water; another part of the same town
extended along the left shore to a small rocky
The morning after our arrival a boat load went
ashore, but I remained behind on account of my
lame foot. They came back with such glowing
accounts of the land and the natives, that I could
no longer resist the temptation to go ashore.
When I landed, I hobbled up the beach and sat
down under the cocoanut trees.


Groups of the natives (the men and children
absolutely naked, the women wearing a short grass
petticoat) were engaged in different pursuits. The
children ran about on the smooth, well-trodden
ground, or played with their toy boats in the
shallow water. The young men, bedecked with
shell and bone ornaments, their faces painted, and
their hair as soft and fluffy as carded wool, worked
on their spears or fish-nets, and chatted with the
girls coming with water from the springs. The
older men, looking less foppish, their hair more
neglected, repaired their boats or thatched houses,
while the women made pots of clay, baking them
in the fire; or they brought yams and bananas
in net bags from the field.
As I sat beneath the trees, making a sketch of
the village, a group of little girls, returning from
Sunday School, with their hymn books under their
arms, stopped to watch me a while, and then sat
down on the grass, and began smoking their
bamboo pipes.
The weapons of the people were mostly long
spears, made of some dark brown, heavy wood,
and barbed near the point. They had no guns,
or firearms of any kind, but were well supplied with
knives and hatchets, which they had gained by
barter. Their boats were made of single logs,
carefully dug out and shaped; many of them had
outriggers to steady them when in rough water.
While I sat there, a boy came up with three


green cocoanuts, which he gave me for a few red
beads. When the nut is green, it is filled with a
sweet, refreshing milk (very unlike the rancid fluid
that goes by that name in the dried nut), and the
little meat it contains is soft and like custard. I
know of nothing so nice, on a warm day, as a drink
of this milk.
The Papuan women are some of them fine
featured, and many of the little children are really
handsome. When they get old, they are plain
enough; and some of the old cronies-who sit in
the sun, kneading clay, or beating balls of it into
shapely pots or dishes, their heads shaven with
fragments of bottle glass, and every bone of their
emaciated bodies showing through their wrinkled
skins-are pictures of ugliness.
They seemed to be a merry, laughter-loving
people, and fond of games and joke, very talkative,
neat and cleanly, and always anxious to trade and
exchange. Taking them as a people, I liked them
from the first.
As soon as possible, we took our things ashore,
hiring the natives to carry them all to the top of a
small hill, where we had leased a patch of ground.
The natives took hold with determination. There
was an immense quantity of goods to carry up from
the beach; but with so many, it was a short piece
of work. With their help the big tent was
put up, and the place began to look like a white
man's camp.


In the afternoon we started for Lapidoma, a
native-town about fifteen miles inland. Descending
the well-trodden path, we emerged into the plain;
and, after a walk of five or six miles, put down our
packs, erected our tent, and soon had supper
cooking. As there was no water where we camped,
my brother and I went back to a spring in a grove.
It was just beneath three graceful sago palms, and
the water was clear and cool. The evening was
fine, the full moon rose over the hills, and we were
in such good spirits that we had a camp fire song
and a chat over the prospects of the trip. We cut
a lot of the long grass, with our knives, for a bed,
and had a refreshing night's sleep.
Early the next morning we started out, and
kept on steadily until noon, when we took a bath
in a clear stream, and lay down for a short nap
under the trees. We were awakened by some one
shouting, and found that the natives had discovered
us. My brother went to meet them, but they ran
away at first, and it was not until we made friendly
signs that they stood their ground. There were
three of them, two men and a boy, and they were
all trembling from fear or excitement.
We gave them to understand that we wished to
go to Lapidoma, and they picked up our heavy
packs and started off with them, seemingly pleased
to help us. It was all we could do to keep up, and
the perspiration was running down our faces before
they halted for a rest. They took us directly to


Lapidoma, where we arrived about four o'clock.
This was a strange village, composed of fifteen or
twenty houses, and surrounded by banana and
sugarcane plantations, situated at the base of the
What interested and surprised us most, however,
was a number of houses in the trees, some of them
at a height of sixty feet. They were well built,
and rattan or bamboo ladders extended from the
ground to just below the platform of the house.
We thought they were used to defend themselves
from their enemies in case of an attack, and we
afterwards found that to be a correct idea. In the
houses are often stored food, wood, and water, with
a ton or two of stones to throw down at their
enemies; and spears in bundles for the same
purpose. The platform of sticks, below the house,
is used to stand upon when throwing stones and
spears; and with their primitive methods of cut-
ting down trees, these houses must be almost
impregnable to an enemy.
We were well pleased with the natives, for they
were so honest that we never lost anything,
although we frequently left our things in the tent
while roaming about the country.
They had a curious way of slapping themselves
on the hip when at all excited, and one old fellow,
who rather prided himself on this accomplishment,
could make a crack like the report of a pistol in
this manner.



The first thing they do on seeing a stranger is
ask his name, and if he is hungry.
We shot several kangaroos for them, with which
they were greatly pleased, and they kept us well
supplied with sweet potatoes and sugarcane.
The men were not the lazy savages depicted
to us. They worked in the gardens, carried heavy
packs, and hunted the kangaroo and wild boar.
The best of feeling seemed to prevail among them;
and their village was the scene of dancing, merry-
making, and laughter.
When we hired the packers, we made them
understand by motions what we would pay, and
when the "carry" was over, the goods were placed
on the ground in order, and we put that which we
had promised at each bundle. There was no
scramble for the trade we gave, which consisted of
sugar, salt, knives, and hatchets, and not until we
informed them that all was settled did they take
what belonged to them.
Each person owned the property thus earned,
and I well remember a little girl, not over ten
years old, who carried a twenty-five pound bag.of
shot all day over the mountains for the trade she
obtained for it.
The morning was fine, but the paths led up very
steep and rocky hillsides, and we had a hard day's
climb. We did not carry any packs ourselves; and,
had we started with any, we must surely have left
them by the way. The view was at many places


very fine. Sometimes we walked along a narrow
spur or ridge only a few feet wide at the top, and
so steep on each side that it made one feel dizzy to
look down.
The canyons were filled with dark forests, and
many birds that were unfamiliar to us were flying
among the trees.
I shot a large kangaroo about noon; and, when
the packers came up, they called a halt, and made
a meal of him. They did not skin the animal, but
singed the hair off, and then cut up the flesh and
cooked it. They were not especially particular
about what parts they ate, and when roasted the
whole amount was eagerly devoured.
We climbed higher and higher as the day ad-
vanced, and finally came to a steep and most
difficult place to scale. It was little less than a
precipice two or three hundred feet high, composed
of broken and ragged lava rocks, with here and
there a shrub or bunch of grass striving to grow in
the crevices and chinks.
In places the rocks were covered with mud,
which made them very slippery, and we had to
advance with great caution. How in the world
the poor natives ever got up that place, many of
them carrying one hundred pounds' weight on
their backs, is a mystery. We were very nearly
exhausted when we reached the top. We took a
good rest, and then started on over a nearly level
country covered with large trees.


We noticed a great change in the vegetation
from that which we had left in the morning. We
saw oaks very like our own trees at home, and the
grasses and mosses looked like those of a temperate
climate. The air was much cooler, and the day,
now far advanced, was like one of our early autumn
days, when the heat of summer has passed.
We passed a thriving little village near a small
creek, where we obtained a drink of cool water;
and, after a two or three mile walk down a gentle
slope, we arrived at Narinuma. It was a village
of sixteen houses, besides five tree houses, fifty or
sixty feet from the ground. The village looked
clean, and the houses neat and very comfortable.
One house, larger and stronger than the rest,
was the visitors' house, or hotel, where strangers
have a roof to cover them, and a comfortable place
to sleep, free of charge. This was afterwards
found to be the custom in all the villages. The
largest and best house is for the stranger.
We put all our goods into one end of the large
house, and made a bed by stretching cord across
a rough wooden frame, and covering it with our
The natives brought us bunches of bananas, and
plenty of yams and sweet potatoes. We purchased
two melon trees, which grew at the back of the
house, so that we might enjoy the fruit as it
ripened, for the natives always pick the green fruit
for cooking.


The forests were alive with birds of many kinds,
and some of them the richest and most beautiful
specimens the world contains.
Just below the village were many trees loaded
with purple fruits, resembling plums, and there we
used to go to get the pigeons and parrots attracted
to the place. Some of the fruit pigeons were as
large as ducks, and came down out of the trees,
and struck the ground with a thump. They were
of many kinds and colours. Some green, with
pink spots on their wings : some slate blue, others
brown and coppery green; and one kind had a
green back and purple breast. Many were good
eating, and we often preserved the skin, and ate
the body of the same bird.
The parrots were very numerous, and whole
flocks of the gayest coloured birds could often be
seen on a single tree.
In the thickest forest we found the red and blue
tailed kingfisher, the handsomest of the tribe; and
near the grassy plains, other species scarcely less
beautiful. I secured several of a very small species,
with a shining blue back and a reddish breast.
We were at the place some time before we
obtained the full plumaged bird of paradise. The
young males and females were quite common; but
the old males, with the green throat and the long
red plumes growing from the sides under the
wings, were rare. We finally learnt where and. how
to get them.


They congregate in numbers, in certain trees,
early in the morning and late in the afternoon,
where they play about, spreading their plumes
and displaying all their charms, to the admiration
of the females who sit by, watching the performance.
They are not very wild at such times, and we had
no trouble in approaching the "play trees. Even
when shot at they soon return.
It is a rare sight to watch these superb birds
flutter about in the trees. Their plumes almost
hide them, when spread, and the body only of the
bird can be seen in the centre of a red halo, which
is constantly in motion. They are very noisy;
and their voice is hard and discordant, resembling
our common crow, only not so loud.
Many tame pigs, with snouts half as long as their
bodies, and covered with long, brown bristles,
roamed at will about the village; and a small
species of dun-coloured dog, which neither barked
nor bit, but only howled, was the occupant, with
the owner, of nearly every house. They looked half
starved; but I believe the natives, when they are in
need of food, do not hesitate to eat them.




HE little people of the frozen zones are
called busy, because those who live in
very cold countries are mostly an active
< and busy people. They must be active
to live. If they do not move about
quickly, they will freeze.
The country, too, is so poor and barren, that the
natives must be wide awake, and work for what
they need, or they will starve. Their wants are
very few, when you compare them with your own;
but, few as they are, it keeps the people busy to
supply them.
I said little people, for they do not grow as tall,
nor do they have as fine forms and faces, as the
people who live in warmer climates. The cold
seems to dwarf them. You know how it makes
you draw yourself up, so that your shoulders almost
touch your ears, and how you bend your body
forwards, in the face of the cold wind.
As for beauty, well, perhaps here and there you
might see a face among these northern people more
G.S.O.L 55 D 2


pleasing than the rest. No doubt the young man
of the north regards his bride as the most beautiful
girl in the world.
But beauty of the sweet and noble kind is not
often found among a people whose food has always
been coarse, and whose homes and habits have
always been rude.
Though their bodies are dwarfed by the cold, and
their faces made rough by the weather, the people
of the frozen zones have among them active,
thinking minds. Some very wise men have come
from a Lapland tent, or grown up in an Eskimo
Look at the people in the picture. They are
well wrapped up, and many of their garments are
made of fur. Fashions do not change very
often in the far north, and the men and women
dress very much alike.
Of course, the Arctic girl likes to look pretty, too;
and I am sure she succeeds in doing so, in the eyes
of some one, when she puts a bright handkerchief
round her head, or ties some gay beads about her
The people of the frozen zone eat mostly animal
food-reindeer, seal, wild fowl, and fish. Vege-
tables are very rare. Much fat is eaten. This
supplies the body with the kind of food which it so
much needs to keep it warm. I suppose a tallow
candle is quite as much of a treat to an Arctic boy
or girl as a stick of candy is to you.


The climate is very cold for nine months of the
year. *The sun does not set for weeks after that,
and the months of July and August are very warm.
It is at this period of the year that the strange
sight of the midnight sun is seen-that is, the sun
shines at midnight.
Between this long winter and short summer come
a short spring, and an autumn of only two weeks in
length. As the sun never sets in summer, so in
winter there are many weeks when the sun is never
seen. But the white snow reflects back the light
of the stars, and the wonderful Northern Lights
send their broad flames across the sky.
Where the people settle in little villages there
are schools, and here and there a church.
Farther north, the people are fewer, ruder, and
more wild. Farther north still, only a wide world
of snow and ice is to be seen. This is the home of
the white polar bear and the seal.
The people of the frozen zone are not all alike.
The Lapps, or the people of Lapland, differ in many
ways from the Eskimos.
As for the frozen zone of the south, we do not
yet know much about it.


i, URING dinner time in the evening it got
very hot, so much so that we were all
very glad to get upstairs and sit on the
', deck outside for some air. It was then
blowing very hard, and we were com-
pelled to go inside the social hall soon
after eight o'clock on account of the heavy rolling
of the ship. Shortly after this the majority of the
ladies retired to their cabins for the night, but
several of the men and I remained in the room
talking and strumming the piano as well as we
We had not the faintest idea of what was in
store for us, and were greatly surprised when a
tremendous sea struck the vessel, shaking it like
a leaf. Before I knew where I was, I was hurled
off the seat I was on, and thrown right across the
room. As soon as I recovered myself I found the
ship shaking and creaking terribly, and a fearful
thumping noise going on over us, as though the
whole roof was smashing in. We found out


afterwards that this was caused by the boom
of the mast, which had been washed away and
was loose, and was sweeping the decks to and fro,
with all its gear attached.
At the same time we heard terrible shrieks from
the ladies, who came rushing out of their cabins
and screaming into the room. We men instantly
caught hold of them and tried to keep them still.
Meanwhile the ship was groaning and labouring
as though she would split in halves, and it was all
we could do to sit on the seats. We could see
down the stairs into the dining saloon, which was
rapidly filling with water, which rushed about the
room, carrying everything with it, tearing up the
carpet, breaking chairs, and leaping up the sides
to the ceiling.
We were almost quite in the dark as to what
was happening to us, and there were no officers to
tell us. The freight agent came and said it was a
southerly gale, and this impression was kept up all
night-at any rate, with the ladies-but we had
our suspicions that we were in a typhoon, which
were realized later on towards midnight. We were
entirely cut off from communication with any other
part of the ship, as, even if one got through the
dining saloon, the gangway outside was full of
wreckage and water.
A second sea struck us about twenty minutes
after the first one, and I do not believe a soul on
the ship thought we should recover from it. The


water rushed in upon us through all the windows
and doors, although doubly shut. Nothing seemed
to keep it out, but it forced its way through every
conceivable chink, drenching us all. The scene
was truly a painful one, the agonised expressions
on the women's faces, some shrieking, some pray-
ing, while others simply stared vacantly as though
off their heads. The water inside the saloon had
increased tremendously, and all the Chinese servants
had struck and refused to work, except the sailors,
who were forced to.
Although the condition of the ship was kept
secret, we knew it was being staved in by the
seas. I got one glimpse out of a window and could
scarcely believe my eyes; the funnel appeared to
be dipped into the water when she rolled over, the
boats and davits disappearing entirely. I could
see some of the boats and a large quantity of the
deck were washed away. Seas now struck us at
intervals, seeming to wrench and thump us down
like a piece of tin under a hammer. The crashing
noise outside was awful, and every one felt that
she could not hold together much longer.
It must have been about two A.M. when the smash-
ing seas seemed to abate and the wind ceased to
roar so much ; but the pitching and tossing lasted
till daybreak as bad as ever. The captain looked in
about three with a smile to reassure everybody.
He had his head bandaged up, having got a nasty
cut on the side of his face. At daybreak I got out,


and with difficulty made the round of the ship, and
saw the night's damage.
It was then that I fully realized what a sea we
must have been in. Boats washed away, and those
that were left staved in, rigging and spars hanging
about, ventilators battened in and knocked down,
and the railing broken in places. The whole of the
stern was washed quite away; but downstairs the
sight was far worse. The lavatories at the stern
had disappeared altogether, and the two cabins
next to mine were completely washed away too, and,
as to mine, it was an utter wreck. Nearly the whole
length of the ship's sides along the gangway was
battened in and port holes smashed. Broken doors
and wreckage lay in every direction.
I heard for the first time that our greatest
moment of danger was when the second sea struck
us at the beginning of the storm. It knocked off
the skylight over the engine room; and if another
sea had struck us before it had been repaired the
fires would have been extinguished, in which event
we should have been inevitably done for. There
are many black eyes and bruised bodies among the
passengers; but the general impression is we all
got off very cheaply, and I can honestly say, from
what a great many have owned to me since, that
scarcely .anybody on board ever felt themselves
nearer to death than they did that night.


S" N the ordinary salutations of the people of
various nations at meeting and parting,
we trace the outward sign of courtesy
C and respect paid by one to another, from
the highest to the lowest, from inferiors
to superiors, between equals of all ranks,
and in every degree of life.
Such tokens of respect and good manners are
observable in all countries, and are looked upon as
part of the rules of life, which bind men together
in friendship and love. The natural solicitude or
inquiry after the welfare of friends and kindred,
has a tendency to strengthen those feelings of
relationship which endear us the one to the other.
In foreign countries the ceremonies and customs
observable at meeting and parting are frequently
of a very solemn and formal character, and are
enforced with the strictest rigour by the superior
in rank from those beneath him; and when not
observed with all humility and submission, the
omission is punished with the utmost severity.


Among Eastern nations it was customary for the
common people, whenever they approached their
prince, or any person of dignity or superior position,
to prostrate themselves on the ground before they
saluted. This mode of making obeisance prevailed
also among the Jews.
When honoured with admittance to the presence
of their kings, or on being introduced to illustrious
personages, they fell down at their feet, and
remained in this servile position till they were
commanded to rise. It was also customary to kiss
the hand or foot of the person approached, to kiss
the hem of his garment, or to embrace his feet.
The Egyptians extend their hands, place them
upon their breast, and bow their heads. The
greatest act of politeness is to kiss their own hand
and afterwards to place it upon their heads. They
only kiss the hand of distinguished men, not of
women. Inferior officers hold the stirrup of their
superiors when they are mounting on horseback.
In the divan, the inferior takes off the slipper of
the superior, places it by his side, and receives the
same salutation from the latter.
The Moors, at their meetings, kiss the right
shoulders of one another, and, when they take
their leave for departure, they kiss each other's
knee. In Morocco foreigners are saluted by the
Moors on horseback, in a manner which may well
startle those unaccustomed to it. The Moor rides
full speed towards the stranger, as if to run him


down; he then suddenly stops, and discharges his
pistol over his head.
In Africa, among several negro nations, the
people take each other's hands, and pull the fingers
till they crack. The negroes of Sierra Leone bend
the right elbow, so that the hand touches the
mouth; the person saluted does the same thing;
they then put their thumb and forefinger together
and withdraw them slowly. Other negroes snap
their fingers in meeting each other, pull the comb
out of their hair and replace it.
In Lower Guinea, the saluting person seizes the
fingers of the saluted, brings them into a particular
position, presses them, cracks them hastily, calling,
"Thy servant! Thy servant!"
On the Gold Coast of Upper Guinea, friends
embrace each other, join the forefingers of their
right hands until they crack, bend their heads,
repeating, "Good day Good day.!" Persons of
distinction, after cracking their fingers, exclaim,
"Peace Peace!" If the Mandingoes salute a
female, they take her hand, raise it to their noses,
and smell it twice. In other countries of Africa,
people take off their clothes, fall on their knees,
bend their heads to the ground, and cover the head
and shoulders with sand.
The greeting of the common Arab is, "Peace be
with you," a salutation which has long been in use
among the Jews. At the same time he places his
left hand upon his breast, as a sign that this wish


comes from his heart. The reply is, "With you be
Arabians of distinction embrace each other two
or three times, kiss each other's cheeks, and inquire
two or three times after each other's health; at the
same time each kisses his own hand. The Arabians
of the desert shake hands six or eight times. In
the province of Yemen, persons of distinction allow
their fingers to be kissed.
At an entertainment in Persia the host goes a
considerable distance to meet his guests, bids them
welcome with the most respectful compliments, then
returns hastily to the door of his own house, and
waits their arrival to repeat the same demonstra-
tions of respect.
In Ceylon, when the natives salute, they raise
the palm of the hand to the forehead and make a
low bow. Before a superior, they throw themselves
upon the ground, continually repeating his name
and dignity, while the superior passes gravely on
and hardly deigns to utter a word of reply.
The Chinese are singularly affected in their
personal civilities; they even calculate the number
of their reverences. These are their most remark-
able postures:-The men move their hands in an
affectionate manner, while they are joined together
on the breast, and bow the head a little. If they
respect a person, they raise their hands joined, and
then lower them to the earth in bending the body.
If two persons meet after a long separation, they


both fall on their knees and bend their faces to the
earth, and this ceremony they repeat two or three
times. If a Chinese is asked how he finds himself
in health, he answers, "Very well, thanks to your
abundant felicity."
If they wish to tell a man that he looks well,
they say, "Prosperity is painted in your face," or,


"Your air announces your happiness." If you
render them any service, they say, "My thanks
should be immortal." If you praise them, they
answer, How shall I dare to persuade myself of
what you say of me?" If you dine with them,


they tell you at parting, "We have not treated you
with sufficient distinction." The various titles they
invent for each other it would be impossible to
In Japan, the inferior of two persons saluting
takes off his sandals, puts his right hand into his
left sleeve, permits his hands, thus crossed, to sink
slowly upon his knee, passes the other person with
short, measured steps and a rocking motion of the
body, and exclaims, with an expression of fear on
his countenance, "Do not hurt me."
The North American Indians, when a friendly
visitor approaches their wigwam, perform the
simple ceremony of an introduction by putting the
pipe of peace into the stranger's mouth and inviting
him to sit near the fire.
In most of the South Sea Islands, though the
custom may vary in some respects, this very impor-
tant preliminary to a friendly intercourse is usually
adjusted by an easy contact of the parties' noses,
or by an exchange of gifts. The Laplanders also
rub noses.


HE town next in importance to Mel-
bourne in the Colony of Victoria is
Ballarat. It is distant from Melbourne
S by rail about a hundred miles, has a
population of 46,000 souls, and is an
S important gold mining centre. Nobody
visiting Australia should miss seeing Ballarat, even
if he has to do as I did-leave Melbourne in the
morning and return again the same day-for, has
not Ballarat, within the memory of comparatively
young people, been famed for big nuggets, repre-
senting fortunes to the lucky finders? And
although such golden prizes may not now be
picked up as formerly, gold mining at Ballarat
is still a large, and, on the whole, profitable
industry. But apart altogether from its gold
mines, Ballarat offers much to interest the obser-
vant traveller, and I make no apology for taking
you thither.
As we drew near to Ballarat, the country greatly
improved both in its scenery and fertility; and by


the time we steamed into the station, I was pre-
pared to find Ballarat and its surroundings different
from what my imagination had depicted. I was
not, however, prepared for the wide contrast
between the real Ballarat and the Ballarat I had
expected to see. I expected to find Ballarat a
large mining village, or at best a mining town, with
the usual evidences of mining scattered round.
But what I did find was a lovely city with
handsome buildings, whose main streets were
beautified with avenues of stately trees, providing a
grateful shade from the heat of the burning sun.
I was alike amazed and gratified. To me it was
wonderful. At once I conceived an immense
respect for the Ballarat people.
The further acquaintance I had of Ballarat
during the few hours I was there did not in any
way diminish the first impressions I had received;
but, contrariwise, the more I saw the more I was
impressed in its favour, and this cannot be said of
every place one visits.
A gold mine was, as of course, the first thing I
wanted to see; so, armed with a letter of intro-
duction to the manager, my friend and I drove
straight to the Band of Hope and Albion Gold
Mine, where we were most courteously received.
We were shown over the above-ground works, and
had explained to us the mode of extracting the
gold from the quartz, and saw at work the great
batteries pulverising the quartz, and the process'

for washing and intercepting the gold. It was all
very prosaic. In fact, the romance of the gold
digger's life is gone, now that the gold is no longer
found in nuggets on or near the surface. Gold
digging has given place to gold mining. Deep
shafts are sunk, and the gold bearing quartz is
gotten the same as coal is in our coal mines. So,
when invited to go down below, we excused our-
selves, having seen enough, and for the reason that
a gold mine would be no novelty to us, if it was,
as the courteous manager assured us, in its working
arrangements similar to those of a coal mine.

nfl,.I rutu~ D ae~lI( l1. 00rIf&rt L00,lAO.l ,I(L



,i -'CARCELY a Chinese junk ever sails the
Ssea without more or less of a dragon for
L' its figurehead. Sometimes it is only a
'iU block of wood representing a small
? dr.ion; but it is a dragon all the same.
And every dragon has at least one eye.
It takes a rogue to catch a rogue, and the cause of
these figureheads is the belief that a real, live
dragon lurks beneath the waters of the China
The greater part of Chinese teaching is made up
of dragons. There are dragons in everything, and
a Chinaman's life is chiefly spent in either making
friends with, frightening, or guarding against
I was crossing the China Sea with my native
servant, pig tailed Toasen. The name means "run
for life," and Toasen lived up to it.
He was very much opposed to the vessel I had
chosen, because it had no dragon at the prow, and
no eye.
G.S.O.L. 73 E


"No got eye, how can see ? No can see, how
can sail? Me no like he muttered.
Then, as ill luck would have it, a roaring storm
set in. Toasen knew all about it; he was certain
it would be the end of us; and aside from all
dragons, it did seem more than probable that he
was correct.
If he had been out of my reach, he would have
beat gongs, rattled pans, fired crackers-anything
to make a noise. He would have wailed and
howled, and tried to frighten the dragon, who was
rolling about beneath us. If that did not work, he
would have killed a white rooster, if he could have
got one, sprinkled its blood on the water, and
nailed its head and some of its feathers to the
Then he would have thrown rice into the sea,
thinking the dragon might be hungry. Then he
would have tried a little wine to see if he was
thirsty. Then he would have tried to frighten him
again; and he would have kept it up till the junk
went down under him-when, if he had escaped,
he would have said that the dragon was too angry
to be appeased, or until the storm abated, when
he would have stronger faith in the grand Chinese
system of learning than ever.
Toasen knew very well that for any such antics
he would have his pigtail smartly pulled, be shaken
out of his heavy shoes, or dumped into a pail of
water by some of the English sailors, and his fear


of the angry dragon was not so intense as his desire
to keep himself and his cue out of the tub.
Something must be done, however, for, though
he was Toasen, he could not run for his life when
there was no place to run to, and he proceeded to
do the most inoffensive thing to appease the dragon,
that is, to burn josspapers.

-- .-

Joss means a "god" or dragon-any god and

light easily and burn quickly. Sometimes they are
plain prepared tissue paper. Sometimes they are


gilt and silver sheets, covered with a wash to help
them to burn. Some have pictures or special
dragons for which they are intended, and some are
all covered with printed prayers.
Toasen had no fine papers, for he was a poor boy,
and could not afford them. Such as he had,
however, he burned; but the cranky old dragon
down below did not seem satisfied, for the wind
roared and the sea rolled more fiercely than ever.
My dog Tag was with me. Tag was always with
me. He was not a handsome dog, but I loved him
and he loved me. He was never with Toasen, for
he and Toasen never got on very well together;
so, when I missed Tag, the last place I thought of
looking for him was where Toasen and a Chinese
friend were burningjosspapers out on the deck. Tag
must be found, however, and at last I found him.
Toasen was on one side, burning josspapers; his
friend was on the other, burning josspapers ; and in
the middle was Tag, howling in piercing notes, as if
to sing down the storm.
He was a real Chinese dog-that little Tag of
mine, and though he hated Toasen and Toasen
hated him, the storm had reached a point where
something must be done, and they had joined
forces. They proved too much for the dragon of
the China Sea. He subsided as quickly as possible,
and Toasen and Tag were ever the best friends.


UNO, on Lake Titicaca, is not an attractive
spot. Lying at a great elevation, it has
a cool climate, and its inhabitants pass
a good part of the time in trying to keep
warm. There are no trees in the neigh-
bourhood; before the opening of the
railway, the only fuel was the dried dung of llamas
and other animals, and a small shrub known as
tola. The nights are always cold, and people
retire to bed very early, and remain there till after
sunrise, as the best means of escaping the cold.
The Cathedral of Puno is the most elevated
building of its size in the world. It was begun
in 1757, and is an imposing structure, with a very
handsome front. It is at one side of the grand
square where every morning is held the market for
the sale of provisions. We visited the market
the morning after our arrival, and were greatly
interested in what we saw and learned there.
Most of the sales are managed by women, who
sit on the ground in rows stretching away from


the fountain in the centre of the square, each with
little heaps of dried potatoes, fish, dried beef,
peppers, beans, pease, maize, barley, and similar
things for sale. Each heap has a price fixed for
it, and the rise and fall of the market are regulated
by the size of the heap, the price remaining the
Pease, beans, and pepper come from the coast,
as they do not grow at.the height of Puno. Flour
is too dear to be used by the lower classes, though
it has fallen somewhat since the opening of the
railway. Beans and pease must be reduced to
powder before cooking at this height, and potatoes
are frozen, and then dried and powdered, like the
beans and pease.
We were guided through the market by one of
the English speaking residents, who called our
attention to coca, which was sold as an article of
food, in the form of dried leaves. We had already
seen the leaves, and heard of their qualities, but
this was the first time we had seen them for sale
at the side of the usual articles for supplying the
table. Our informant said that coca possessed
wonderful properties.
Coca is the dried leaf of a plant, and is called
cuca by the natives. It grows in the mountainous
parts of Peru and Bolivia, at elevations varying
from two to six thousand feet, and is a shrub or
small tree about six feet high. Its leaves are
gathered and dried in the sun, and are chewed


with a little quicklime. Its effect is stimulating,
and the most remarkable stories are told of the
endurance of the people who use it.
A Peruvian or Bolivian Indian will travel for
days without any sign of weariness, with only a
small supply of coca and some dried maize; he
chews the coca while walking, and it really seems
to be his chief support. He will work or travel
for twenty or thirty hours continuously, without
sleep or rest, if he is allowed plenty of coca.
Indians have been known to travel seventy miles
a day, for three days, with no other sustenance
than this article. In the silver mines, where the
employers feed their labourers, they limit the
quantity of other supplies, but give the Indians
all the coca they want.
Thirty million pounds of coca are annually con-
sumed in South America. The finest is grown in
Bolivia, where it is cultivated somewhat as tea is
cultivated in China. Its properties were known
to the ancient Peruvians, and it was used in their
religious ceremonies. It received divine honours,
and under some of the Incas its use was reserved
for the nobility. Even at this day the Indians
sometimes put coca in the mouths of their dead.
The miners of Peru throw coca against the veins
of silver, under the belief that it causes them to be
more easily worked.
Another curiosity of Puno is the large number
of llamas we see in the streets, either running at


large or used as beasts of burden. The llama,
guanaco, alpaca, and vicuna were "the four sheep
of the Incas," says a writer, the first clothing the
common people, the second the nobles, the third
the royal governors, and the fourth the Incas.
Llamas and alpacas are tamed; guanacos and
vicunas are wild. They all go in flocks, and, in
their wild state, one of their number always keeps
watch; if danger threatens, he stamps his feet
and gives the alarm, and it must be a very swift
pursuer that can overtake them.
The four animals belong to the same family. The
llama is found all through South America, from
Northern Peru to the Strait of Magellan. It has
been well described as having the head of a camel,
the body of a deer, the wool of a sheep, and the
neigh of a horse. It prefers a cold climate to a
warm one; in the torrid zone it lives at a high
elevation, while on the cool plain of Patagonia,
near the level of the sea, it is found in great num-
bers. The llama, in Patagonia, is not tamed, but
in Peru, Bolivia, and Chili it is used as a beast of
burden. It is about three feet high at the shoulder,
and its head is five feet high when it stands erect.
It can carry a burden of not more than a hundred
pounds, lives on very scanty food, endures cold
without suffering, and requires no drink as long as
it can find succulent herbage.
The pens where the animals are shut up at night
have no shelter against the cold winds, which they

A. A -



*. '. "

,,'-' 1
-*ti i r




do not mind in the least, and they are said to
require very little care from one year's end to
Those we saw in the streets seemed to have
things their own way, and to be indifferent to the
presence of men, but when we tried to approach
one he refused our acquaintance, and walked
The alpaca is not used as a beast of burden, but
is reared for its wool, flesh, and skin, especially
the former. The alpaca wool is fine, and so is
that of the vicuna, which closely resembles the
alpaca. The wool of the llama is about six inches
long, and its fleece often weighs ten pounds. The
llama is interesting from being the only native
domestic animal in South America. The horse,
ox, sheep, hog, and all other animals useful to man,
came from other countries.
The principal sport of some parts of South
America, especially of Patagonia, is the chase of
guanaco. The hunters go on horseback or on
foot, and "stalk" their game by moving slowly
towards them, being always careful not to alarm
the animals.
In this way they may get near enough for a
shot with their rifles, but very often the guanacos
are wary, and decline close acquaintance. Every
hunter who can afford it keeps a lot of dogs trained
to the chase, and it is interesting to see how well
they understand their work.


If the guanacos are grazing singly on the plains
the chances of overtaking them are doubtful, even
for the swiftest and strongest dogs. But when a
herd is being chased, each animal tries to crowd
into the centre of it, and so much confusion is
caused that the speed is considerably diminished.
Knowing this, the dogs are always eager to pursue
a herd, while they look with indifference upon a
single guanaco.
After a glance at the town, with its open
market and massive cathedral, we strolled to the
shores of the bay on which Puno is built. It is
a sluggish body of water, fringed all round with
rushes, which grow profusely and serve many
They are used for making baskets, lining the
walls of houses, filling beds, thatching roofs, and
in other ways are of material advantage to the
inhabitants of the region bordering the lake.
They are an important item of fuel, though
they burn too quickly to give off much heat.
Cattle feed upon them, and as we stood on the
shore of the bay we saw cows and oxen in the
water nearly up to their backs, making their
breakfasts on rushes.
Some distance out from the shore a steamboat
was lying at anchor. The guide said there were
two steamboats on the lake, but the shallowness
of the water prevented them coming up to Puno.
They were obliged to communicate with the land


by means of small boats, which were rowed or
pushed along the narrow channel through the bed
of reeds. These steamboats were placed on the
lake before the construction of the railway; they
were brought in pieces on the backs of mules, and
put together on the shore.
Lake Titicaca is about one hundred and seventy
miles long by seventy in breadth. It stands in
an immense basin and receives several large
streams. The lake is very deep in places; it
never freezes over, but ice forms sometimes in
the bays and shallow places.
Arrangements were made for a trip on the lake
to visit Titicaca and Coati Islands, for an inspection
of the monuments of the Incas. We engaged the
steamboat for a moderate sum, which included the
wages and board of the crew, but left the
passengers to take care of themselves. A supply
of canned and other provisions was readily obtained
from a merchant of Puno, and in a few hours we
were started on our journey.
Lake Titicaca is the largest body of water on the
surface of the globe, at an elevation exceeding
twelve thousand feet, and probably the most
elevated lake navigated by steam. Before the
introduction of steamboats the only mode of water
transit was upon rafts, made of the rushes already
The lake is liable to be swept by sudden winds,
and the party who ventures upon it in one of these


frail craft runs a good chance of a wetting. The
steamboats have not by any means driven the rafts
from the lake.
It was after dark when the steamer reached
Titicaca Island, and ran into a little bay, where
there was a shelter from the wind. As nothing


could be seen on the land during the night, it was
decided to sleep on board, and make an early visit
to the shore in the morning. We therefore made a
hearty supper from our provisions, and then spread
our beds on the floor of the cabin, which had no
berths or other sleeping arrangements.


Several rafts came from shore in the morning,
and afforded means for landing on the sacred island
of Peru. Titicaca Island is about six miles long by
four in width; it is high and rugged, and the shores
are deeply indented in many places.
It contains the ruins of the Temple of the Sun,
a palace of the Incas, and several other buildings,
which have sadly gone to decay. We ascended
the steep cliff at the landing place, and were soon
at a little village near by, where we obtained a
guide to show us through the ruins.
About half a mile from the landing place is the
Palace of the Inca," on a cliff overlooking the lake.
Its walls are broken at the top, but enough remains
to show the style of the ancient building, and the
forms of the windows and doorways. Near the
palace there is the "Bath of the Inca," at the base
of a hill which was evidently terraced at great
expense. The walls of the terrace were made of
cut stone, and the whole work was laid out with
the skill of a surveyor. Here the Incas had their
gardens, but the ground is not now cultivated, and
little more than the terraces remain to show what
it once was.
The bath is a tank or basin of stone, about five
feet deep, and measuring twenty feet by forty on
its surface. Vines and other plants grow over the
walls, and at one end of the tank there are three
streams of water, each about two inches in
diameter. The sources of these streams are


unknown; they come through underground chan-
nels, and are flowing today exactly as they flowed
during the time of the Incas.
The sloping sides of the hill crowned by the
rock are terraced and walled off into platforms,
which contain the remains of small buildings, sup-
posed to have been the residences of the priests
and attendants upon the worship of the founder of
the line of Incas. There was formally a garden on
the terraces, and the earth for its construction was
said to have been brought on the backs of men a
distance of four hundred miles.
Doubtless the work of the Incas was performed
under the same oppression as that of the rulers of
ancient Egypt. The latter built the Pyramids by
the unpaid labour of their subjects; the former
terraced the rugged sides of Titicaca Island, and
erected their temples and palaces with little thought
of the lives that were lost in the toil. The history
of the Old World is repeated in the New.


0NGOLA was visited by a terrible sand
storm, to my idea the most dread-
ful of storms. Was there ever such a
one before ? Millions, I suppose; but I
never experienced one as bad. "It baffled
all description," but for that reason I
shall try to describe it.
Midday, everything sweltering and seething in the
sun that happens to be exposed to it; everybody
bubbling-positively bubbling-with perspiration
that happens to be in the shade; thermometer
looks as if it would burst-I am afraid to say how
high the mercury has risen-in fact, the perspiration
pours so into my eyes, that I cannot see the small
figures. Rock and sand pain the eye by their glare.
A black, dense, mud-coloured cloud suddenly
appears on the horizon at the south, at first a speck,
then growing larger and larger, rolling rapidly
towards us, now in the distance, now nearer and
Down go tents and up in the air go straw hats


and sheds, while the palm branches wave and nod
like the plumes of a hearse caught in a gale, or of
the helmet of a knight at a mad gallop. On, on it
rolls, that grimy, fast riding cloud. Now I cannot
see twenty yards ahead of me. The landscape is
suddenly enveloped in a black shroud. It burst
upon my hovel.
Away, away, away go my half-answered home
letters. Who shall catch them ? Go : run after
them; quickly, quickly, boy." I am enveloped in
sand. Over goes my only globe lamp-crash!
My bottle of seven days' allowance of lime juice-
it totters and capsizes. My last paper takes
wings to itself, and flies far, far away."
Down come the spiders, and away bolt the rats-
whom I encourage to run about and eat the
scorpions and white ants. In comes a flock of
little crimson headed bats, and tumble exhausted.
I have no doors or windows to be blown in, and
there is no fear of a shower of broken glass, such
as I have seen during a sirocco on the shores of
the Levant.
Books, sketches, writing paper, manuscripts,
linen, lie scattered on the floor, I was going to say
-no, the earth-we have no floors here in Ethiopia
-buried in a moment in black dust; and over
goes my only bottle of spirits, kept for medical
purposes. Luckily the cork was in.
I put my head out of my window, was I going
to write ?-I mean a square hole in one of the
G.S.O.L. F


four mud walls forming what is called by courtesy
a house. My eyes were instantly filled with sand,
every particle of which was a burning spark. It
wearied me to find my way to my-washing stand;
I mean my pile of old wooden cases on which was
carefully balanced my basin-an old biscuit tin.
Finding it at length, I cleanse my eyes smarting
with the fiery dust, and put on a huge pair of green
goggles-all glass; these are the only kind that
keep out the sand.
Thus armed, I looked forth into the moving
mountain of sand. A burning blast, like unto the
breath of a fiery furnace, scorches my face, dries
up my skin, stopping every pore. I look unto the
heavens. The sun was a blood-red ball of fire, float-
ing all in a hot and copper sky;" while along the
horizon hung a lurid light, such as one sees on the
ocean before a storm. In the distance trees, huts,
and tents were invisible; but near one could just
make out the winding lead-coloured Nile, lashed
into billows.
A dense cloud, which enveloped all, seemed
raining fire. The atmosphere as if seething,
boiling, sputtering. And now waltzing, whirling
along the banks, come the sand spouts-aerial
giants, their huge fantastic figures rearing their
heads from earth to heaven. One is reminded of
the djin of the "Arabian Nights let out of the
casket in which King Solomon had sealed him up,
and rising as a tall column of smoke. How grim

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and gruesome are they No doubt the fanciful
ghouls and genii of Arab folk-lore drew their
origin from such as these.
And a destructive element are these rolling
spiral sand billows-powerful agents, having a
grinding, roughing action on rocks and stones-as
they ride the whirlwind. And these gusts of sand
penetrate everywhere, into clefts and fissures of
stones, eating into and sapping their foundations,
and acting with immense mechanical strength,
lifting and rolling rock over rock.
There is a weird and ghastly dance all round, in
a dull and lurid glare. Now I am enveloped in a
heaving mountain of sand; the air is stifling, my
mouth is parched, speech is impossible without
wetting the lips, the tongue is swollen. I never
before properly understood "the darkness of the
Egyptian plague which could be felt."
Half an hour the sand tornado has swept by. I
can hear the rush of scared horses, mules, donkeys,
and cattle, as they rush madly oil, having broken
loose; the tremendous gutteral roar and grunt-
ing of camels, the howling of dogs, and the shrill
screeching of vultures and kites flying before the
gale. All nature groans. Half an hour-the
Dongola carnival of the wild elements of the
"Soudan is over.


SNE day Mrs. Takamino, who had been
i- ) calling at our house, asked me if I would
y not spend the next day with her. I
S accepted the invitation at once, as there
was nothing I enjoyed so much as spending
or taking any meal at a Japanese home.
Mrs. Takamino was an intimate friend of ours, so I
told her I should go early and help her with her
I started the next morning directly after break-
fast, going in a quaint little carriage called a
This carriage is something like an old fashioned
baby carriage, having only two wheels, but is much
larger; the jinrikisha man jumped in between the
shafts, and away we went at a lively rate.
It was a pretty drive to Mrs. Takamino's, for
after going through one or two busy streets, we
turned off on a road leading to the country, where
everything is quiet and peaceful.
We met little children on their way to school,


with their books done up in a big cotton handker-
chief and hung over their backs. Some of the
farmers were bringing in their vegetables to the
markets, others going to work in the rice fields.
Here and there you would see a woman, with her
baby strapped on her back, opening her little shop;
for while the men are away the women are also
earning a little at home by having little trifles for
sale: some kind of candy or cake, a few toys,
bright coloured hairpins; such little objects,
indeed, as would attract people's eyes as they
were passing by.
I reached Mrs. Takamino's at last. She heard
me coming, and was at the door all ready to
receive me. After I said good morning, I sat
down on the steps to take off my boots, for in Japan
no one ever enters a house with his shoes on.
The house is not large, only five or six rooms,
these opening into each other; for you never see
shut up rooms in Japan, as you do in our country,
but one can look right through the house. The
front of this house opened into a pretty little
garden, while from the back you looked far away
over the rice fields, with here and there a
picturesque farmhouse.
Mrs. Takamino could not speak a word of Eng-
lish, so with what little Japanese I knew, we had a
funny time getting along. I watched her do her
housework, which consisted of sweeping the rooms,
dusting a little, and one thing in particular that I


remember well was a dress she washed. This was
ripped to pieces, and after being washed was
stretched on a board and put in the sun to dry.
This is not the way they wash all their dresses,
only the nice ones; those of cotton are washed as
we wash ours.
About one o'clock the son and daughter came
home from school; they both spoke English very
well, so it made it much pleasanter for me. We
had a very merry dinner, all sitting on the floor,
with our trays in front of us. On each one of the
trays were four little dishes, having in them rice,
fish, soup and vegetables. I had learned to use
chopsticks, and so got on very nicely and enjoyed
my dinner very much. After dinner the daughter
played for me on her samisen, an instrument some-
thing like a guitar. I asked her if she would not
teach me some little tune, but I made such poor
work of it that I soon gave up the attempt. After
putting her samisen away she brought out her fancy
work, which interested me very much. She was
making raised figures out of crape. She let me try
it, but it was slow work for me, though I made one
very pretty flower and had it all done by supper
After supper we played some Japanese games;
two of them I remember well, one being battledore
and shuttlecock, which is very much like our
game, and the other like our jackstones, only in
Japan they play with little crape bags filled with


rice. This game is much more elaborate than ours,
having much more to go through with before the
game is finished.
My jinrikisha man came for me only too early, I
thought; but as it was growing dark, I had to say
goodbye to my kind friends who had made the day
so pleasant for me, and with promises that I would
come again very soon, I started off.
My ride home was very different from the one in
the morning, for then everything was bright and
cheerful, and now it was dark, so dark we could
hardly see our way along, and so quiet were the
streets there seemed to be a hush over everything.
Here and there you could see into a house,
where a dim light was burning, with one or two
people sitting round it; but mostly all the houses
were dark. It being a hot night, every one was out
of doors, sitting in front of their houses, some
asleep, tired out with their day's labour, while
others were talking; once in a while the stillness
would be broken by the sound of some one playing
on a musical instrument.
I soon reached the busy streets, where things
looked much more lively. All the shops were
lighted, and all along the way were hucksters,
sitting on the ground with their wares displayed
before them. Some had little shows and games,
and a crowd of little eager faces gathered around
them; others had fruit, flowers, shoes, hardware,
old pottery, and all sorts of things. And yet,



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among this large crowd, there was no loud talking
and laughing, no pushing and shoving to be the
first to see this or that. Everything was quiet and
peaceful, and I, a foreigner, riding among them,
was treated in the most courteous way. No one
laughed at me or called me names. Many of them
turned to look at me, some of the girls smiling so
No one need ever be afraid to go through the
streets of that great city of Tokio at any time,
night or day.

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