• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Quadrumana
 Wing handed animals
 Quadrupeds
 Birds
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: Illustrated natural history
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00088953/00001
 Material Information
Title: Illustrated natural history (animal and birds)
Alternate Title: Wood's natural history
Physical Description: 191 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wood, J. G ( John George ), 1827-1889
McKibbin, Gilbert H ( Publisher )
Manhattan Press ( Printer )
Publisher: Gilbert H. McKibbin
Place of Publication: New York
Manufacturer: Manhattan Press
Publication Date: 1899
 Subjects
Subject: Zoology -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1899
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by J.G. Wood ; arranged for young readers ; with illustrations in colors.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00088953
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002239952
notis - ALJ0490
oclc - 269328793

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 1a
    Half Title
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Frontispiece
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Preface
        Page 7
    Quadrumana
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Wing handed animals
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Quadrupeds
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
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        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Birds
        Page 113
        Page 114
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    Back Matter
        Page 192
    Back Cover
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Spine
        Page 195
Full Text

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WOOD'S
NATURAL HISTORY

















































TIGRESS AND CUBS.


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ILLUSTRATED


NATURAL -HISTORY
(ANIMALS AND BIRDS)

BY THE
REV. 5.. G. WOOD


Arranged for Young Readers


WITH ILLUSTRATIONS IN,COLORS


a


NEW YORK
GILBERT I. McKIBBIN
MDCCCXCIX



































COPYRIGHT, 1899,

By G. H. McKIBBIN

























Printed by the Manhattan Press,
474 W. Broadway, New York













PREFACE.


WORKS on Natural History are always favorite reading
to the young, and this volume is an attempt to supply the
juvenile population with a book which, in addition to ac-
curate information and clear arrangement, will be attrac-
tive by its numerous illustrations. These not only give
the reader a better idea of these strange creatures than
mere descriptions can do, but have enabled us to be as
brief as possible in our accounts of their appearance and
habits. While we' have studied brevity, care has been
taken to give all necessary information, and especial pains
has been bestowed on the descriptions of the birds and
beasts of our own country. In all cases for both illustra-
tions and descriptions the latest authorities have been con-
sulted.
NEW YoRK, October 1st, 1899.




A


HEAD OF THE PREHISTORIC MAN. (RESTORED).
The above head is drawn on the basis of, the skull found in 1857 at Nean-
derthal, near Dilsseldorf, in Germany, iin supl..:.-|:.1 to be the cranium of a
prehistoricman. It is dolichocephalic iiud almn:.st w without a brow.
v..:. : -*













WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

Q I-::D UMANA.
THIS section includes the apes, baboons, 'and" monkeys.
The name of Quadrumana, or fourbhanded, is given to
these animals because their feet ai fr:imed like hands., and
0 capable of grasping the branches along which most
nkeys live. Apes are placed at the head of the Quad-
rumana because their instinct is superior to that of the
baboons and monkeys. The former ~ are sullen and fero-
cious,*when arrived at their full growth, and monkeys are
volatile and mischievous..
The Gorilla, the most man-like of the apes, lives in the
forests of Africa. It is shorter but broader than the aver-
age man, being about five feet and a half high aund about
thirty-eight inches from shoulder to shoulder. The neck
is short, the forehead retreating, the nose flat, the arms
very long and strong, the jaws enormous with large canine
teeth. The body is covered with iron-gray hair, while the
hair on the head is reddish. Its favorite food is the wild
sugar-cane and nuts.' When attacked by hunters; it bE~ts
its breast with its huge paws gives terrible roars, and if
not.fatally wounded at foce, flings itself on the hunter,
crushing both the weapon and thb@man%
The Chimpanzee is a-native of We-.ter Africa, and large
bands of these apes congregate together, in repelling an







WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


invader. Even the dreaded elephant and lion are chased
away by their united efforts. They live principally on the
ground, and as their name imports, spend much of their


BIDE VIEW OF HEAD OF CHIMPANZEE.
time in caves and under rocks. Their height is from
four to five feet. Several young Chimpanzees have shown
themselves very docile and gentle in captivity.
The Orang-outan inhabits Borneo and Sumatra. Next
















































































OR4ATGS IN THEIR NATIVE WOOD&.


Cl\ -







WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


to the gorilla, this is the largest of all the apes, many
being above five feet in height. The strength of this
animal is tremendous. Its arms are of extraordinary
length, the hands reaching the ground when it stands
erect. This length of arm is admirably adapted for climb-
ing trees, on which it principally resides.
The orangs are dull and slothful. "I never observed
the slightest attempt at defence," a traveller writes; "and
the wood, which sometimes rattled about our ears, was
broken by their weight, and not thrown, as some persons
represent. If pushed to extremity, however, they are for-
midable; and one unfortunate man, who was trying to
catch one alive, lost two of his fingers, besides being
severely bitten on the face, while the animal finally beat
off his pursuers and escaped.
"The rude hut which they build in the trees is more
properly a seat, or nest, for it has no roof or cover of any
sort. The speed with which they form this seat is curious;
a wounded female has been seen to weave the branches to-
gether, and seat herself in a minute. She afterward re-
ceived the fire without moving, and died in her lofty abode,
whence it cost much trouble to dislodge her.
"I saw a young Orang-outan. It had a very small and
very round body, with very long and slender limbs. Its
face was like that of an old miser thoroughly wearied of
life. The lips appeared to express its feelings much in the
same manner as do the ears of a horse. When it was
alarmed or astonished at any objejit would shoot out both
its lips, and form its mouth into a trumpet shape. A snail
made it produce this contortion of countenance. --
"The creature-was very tame, and delighted in walking
about the garden leaning on the arm. pf its keeper, and if










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: GORILLAS AT HOME.






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


any lady would venture to be its guide, it appeared as
happy as could be."
When young the Orang-outan is very docile, and has
been taught to make its own bed, and to handle a cup and
-saucer, or a spoon, with propriety. It exhibited much in-
genuity in stealing blankets from other beds, which it
added to its own. A young Orang evinced extreme horror
vat the sight of a small tortoise, and when it was placed in
its den, stood aghast in a most ludicrously terrified attitude,
with its eyes intently fixed on the frightful object.
The Agile Gibbon is a native of Sumatra. It derives its
name of Agile from the wonderful activity it displays in
leaping from branch to branch. One of these creatures
sprang with the greatest ease through distances of eighteen
feet; and when apples or nuts were thrown to her while in
the air, she would catch them without discontinuing her
course. The height of the Gibbon is about three feet, and
the reach of the extended arms about six feet.
The Kahau is a native of Borneo. It derives its name
from its cry, which is a repetition of the word "Kahau."
It is remarkable for the extraordinary size and shape of its
nose, and the natives relate that while leaping it holds it
with its paws, apparently to guard it against the Iranches.
The length of the animal from the head to the tip of the
tail is about four feet four inches; and its general color is
a sandy red, relieved by yellow cheeks and a yellow stripe
over the shoulders.
We now arrive at the Baboons. They are distinguished
from the apes by their short tails. The Mandrill, the most
conspicuous of the baboon tribe, is a native of Guinea and
Western Africa, and is chiefly remarkable for its vivid
colors. Its cheeks are of a brilliant blue, its muzzle of a






BABOONS.


bright scarlet, and a stripe of crimson runs along the centre
of its nose. It lives in forests with brushwood. On this


THE MANDRILL.
account it is much dreaded by the natives. It is excessively
ferocious, and easily excited to anger.






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


The American Monkeys are found exclusively in South
America, and are never seen north of Panama. Their tails
are invariably long, and, in some genera, prehensile.
The Coaita is one of the Spider Monkeys, so called from
their long slender limbs and their method of progressing
among the branches. The tail answers the purpose of a
fifth hand; indeed, the Spider Monkeys are said to use this
member for hooking out objects where a hand could not be
inserted. The tail is also of use in climbing; they coil it
round the boughs to lower or raise themselves, and often
will suspend themselves entirely by it, and then swing off
to some distant branch. They are sensitive to cold, and
when chilly wrap their tail about them, so that it answers
the purpose of a boa as well as a hand. When shot, they
will fasten their tail so firmly on the branches that they
remain suspended after death. In walking, they cast their
tail upward as high as the shoulders, and then bend it over
so as to form a counterbalance against the weight of the
body. In most of the species the thumb is wanting. The
Coaita inhabits Surinam and Guinea.
The Howling Monkeys are larger and not so agile as the
Spider Monkeys, and derive their name from an enlarge-
ment in the throat which renders their cry exceedingly loud
and mournful.
They howl in concert, principally at the rising and set-
ting of the sun; one monkey begins the cry, which is grad-
ually taken up by the rest. They are in great request:
among the natives as articles of food, their slow habits
rendering them an easy prey. *
The Ursine Howler, or Araguato, is common in Brazil,
where fifty have been observed on one tree. They gener-
ally travel in files, an old monkey taking the lead, and the






MARMOSETS. 17

others following in due order. They feed on leaves and
fruit; the tail is prehensile like that of the Spider Monkeys.
The Marmoset is a most interesting little creature. It
is exceedingly sensitive to cold, and usually nestles among


MARMOSETS.













































TYPICAL SPIDER MONKEYS.


,~L~FJ~~F~LI~ ;i~~


,r.Ci~be!






WING-HANDED ANIMALS.


the materials for its bed. It will eat almost any article of
food, but is very fond of insects. It will also eat fruits.
This pretty little Monkey is also called the Ouistiti, from
its peculiar whistling cry when alarmed or provoked.
The Lemurs derive their name from their nocturnal
habits and their noiseless movements. The Ruffled Lemur
is a native of Madagascar. It lives in the depths of the
forests, and only moves by night, the entire day being spent
in sleep. Its food consists of fruits, insects, and small
birds, which latter it takes while they are sleeping. This is
the largest of the Lemurs, being rather larger than a cat.
The Slender Loris is a native of India, Ceylon, etc. It,
like the Lemur, seldom moves by day, but prowls about at
night in search of food.


WING-HANDED ANIMALS.

WE now arrive at the Bats, or Cheiroptera, whose fore-
paws, or hands, are developed into wings by a thin mem-
brane.
The usual food of Bats is insects, which they mostly cap-
ture on the wing; but some, as the Vampires, suck blood
from other animals, and a few, as the Kalong or Flying
Fox, live upon fruits. Even the cocoanut is not secure
from their depredations.
The membrane of the wing is extremely sensitive, and
the elongation of the finger joints gives the animal the
power of extending or folding it. When the Bat wishes to
walk, it half folds the membrane, and assumes an attitude
represented in the cut of the Long-eared Bat.
The thumb joint has no part of the wing attached to it,
!


19







WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


but is left free, and is armed with a hook at the extremity
by means of which it is enabled to drag itself along.
The Vampire Bat is a native of South America. It lives
on the blood of animals, and sucks usually while its victim


LOaG-EABRED BAT.























































FLYING SQUIRREL.


i'
t~,






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


sleeps. The extremities, where the blood flows freely, as
the toe of a man, the ears of a horse, or the combs and
wattles of fowls, are its favorite spots. When it has se-
lected a subject it watches until the animal is fairly asleep.
It then fans its victim with its wings while it bites a little
hole in the ear, and through this small hole, into which a
pin's head would scarcely pass, it sucks up a very ample
meal. The victim does not discover anything until the
morning, when a pool of blood betrays the visit of the
Vampire.
The wound made by the teeth is no larger than that
made by a needle, and the blood must be extracted by suc-
tion. The membrane on its nose resembles a leaf. The
length of its body is about six inches.
The Long-eared Bat may be seen on warm evenings fly-
ing about in search of insects, and uttering its peculiar
shrill cry. It is easily tamed, and will take flies and other
insects from the hand. It will hang by the wing-hooks
during the whole of the day, but in the evening becomes
very brisk, and eagerly seizes a fly or beetle and devours
it, always rejecting the head, legs, and wings.
When it is suspended by its hinder claws, it assumes a
most singular aspect. The beautiful long ears are tucked
under its wings, which envelop a great part of its body.


QUADRUPEDS.

AT the head of the Quadrupeds, or four-footed animals,
are placed the flesh-eaters, and at the head of them the cat
kind are placed, as being the most perfect and beautiful in
that section. The cats all take their prey by creeping as






LION. 23

near as they can without observation, and then springing
upon their victim, which its claws and teeth dash insensi-
ble to the ground. Their jaws are powerful, and their
teeth long and sharp. Their claws, too, are very long,
curved, and sharp, and are drawn back, when not in use,
into a sheath which guards them and keeps them sharp.
There are five claws on the fore-feet, and four on the
hinder feet. The tongue is very rough, as may be proved
by feeling the tongue of. a common cat. This roughness
is occasioned by innumerable little hooks which cover the
tongue, point backward, and are used for licking the flesh
off the bones of their prey. The bristles of the mouth, or
whiskers, are useful in indicating an obstacle when the ani-
mal prowls by night. Their eyes are adapted for night work
by the pupil expanding so as to take in every ray of light.
- The Lion, "king of beasts," inhabits Africa and certain
parts of Asia.
One of the most striking things connected with the Lion
is his voice, which is extremely grand and peculiarly strik-
ing. It consists, at times, of a low deep moaning, repeated
five or six times, ending in faintly audible sighs; at other
times he startles the forest with loud, deep-toned, solemn
roars, repeated five or six times in quick succession, each
increasing in loudness to the third or fourth, when his
voice dies away in five or six low, muffled sounds, very
much resembling distant thunder. At times a troop may
be heard roaring in concert, one assuming the lead, and
two, three, or four more regularly taking up their parts
like persons singing a catch. Lions who have once tasted
human flesh are the most to be dreaded, as they will even
venture to spring in among a company of men and seize
their victim. These lions are called Man-eaters.






WOOD'S NYATUBAL BISTOBY.


The Lioness is much smaller than the Lion, and is desti-
tute of the mane. As a general rule she is fiercer and
more active than the male, especially before she has had
cubs, or while she is suckling them. They are beautiful,
playful little things, and are slightly striped. They have
no mane until about two years old. The cubs are remark-.
ably heavy for their age, and about the size of very large
cats, but weigh considerably more.
The Tiger is found only in Asia. In size it is almost
equal to the lion, its height being from three to four feet,











THE BENGAL TIGER.
and its length rather more than eight feet. It has no
mane, but it is decoratedwith black stripes, upon a ground
of reddish-yellow fur, wftich becomes almost white on the
under parts of'the body. The chase of the Tiger is among
the favorite sports in India. A number of hunters assem-
ble, mounted on elephants, and proceed to the spot where a
Tiger has been seen in the long grass or jungle. When
roused it endeavors to creep away under the grass. The








































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LION AND LIONESS.


LION AND LIONESS.






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


movement of the leaves betrays him, and finding that he
cannot escape without being seen, he turns round, and
springs at the nearest elephant, endeavoring to clamber up
it and attack the party. Many elephants will turn round
and run away, regardless of the efforts of their drivers to
make them face the tiger. Should, however, the elephants
stand firm, a well-directed ball checks the tiger in his
spring, and a volley of balls from the backs of the other
elephants soon lays him prostrate.
Tigers are usually taken by the natives in pitfalls, at the
bottom of which is planted a bamboo stake, the top of
which is sharpened into a point. The animal falls on the
point and is impaled.
The Leopard is an inhabitant of Africa, India, and the
Indian Islands. A black variety inhabits Java. Its height
is about two feet. It lives on trees, and is called the Tree-
tiger by the natives. Nothing can be more beautiful than
the elegant and active manner in which the Leopards sport
among the branches of the trees: at one time they will bound
from branch to branch with such rapidity that the eye can
scarcely follow them; then, as if tired, they will suddenly
stretch themselves along a branch, so as to be hardly dis-
tinguishable from the bark, but start up again on the
slightest provocation and again resume their graceful antics.
It is easily tamed, and expresses great fondness for its
keeper, and will play with him like a cat. It is exceed-
ingly fond of some scents, especially preferring lavender
water, by means of which it has been taught. to perform
several tricks.
The Leopard and Panther are considered the same ani-
mal, on the authority of Mr. Gray.
The Jaguar inhabits America. It is larger and more.







PUMA. 27

powerful than the leopard, which it resembles in color, but
has a black streak across the chest and a black spot in the
centre of the rosettes. It is fond of climbing trees, and
chases monkeys successfully, and is said to watch for tur-
tles on the beach, and to scoop out their flesh by turning
them on their backs, and inserting its paws between the
shells; and will enter water after fish, and capture them in


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THE PUMA.






28 WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.
the shallows by striking them out of the water with a blow
of its paw.
The Puma inhabits the whole of America, and is held in
much dread by the natives. Its color is a uniform gray,








.. -.




fading into white on the under parts of its body. It lives
much on trees, and usually lies along the branches.
We always speak of this animal as the panther, or
"painter," as it is more familiarly pronounced; some term
it the cougar, a word contracted from the original elon-
gated unpronounceable Mexican name, Gouazouara."
The Ocelot is a native of Mexico and Peru. Its height
is about eighteen inches, and its length about three feet.
It is a most beautiful animal, and is easily tamed. When
in a wild state it lives principally on monkeys.
The domestic Cat differs from the wild Cat by, the form
of the tail. That of the domestic Cat is long and taper-
ing, while that of the wild cat is bushy and short.




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LEOPARDS.






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


The Cat is known to us as a persevering mouse- and bird-
hunter. Kittens but just able to see will bristle up at the
touch of a mouse and growl.
The Cat displays a great affection for her kittens, and
her pride when they first run about is quite amusing.
Cats are very fond of aromatic plants and several power-


THE ANGORA CAT.
ful scents. Valerian or catnip appears to be the great at-
traction, for they will come in numbers, roll over it, and
scratch up the plant until there is not a vestige of it left.
There are several varieties of the domestic Cat, among
which the Angora cats, with their beautiful long fur, and
the Manx cats of the Chartreuse breed, which have no tails,
are the most conspicuous.






OHETAH.


The Lynxes are remarkable for the pencil of hairs which
tufts their sharply pointed ears. The Canada Lynx is a
native of North America. Its method of progression is by
bounds from all four feet at once, with the back arched.
It feeds principally on the hare. Its length is about three
feet. Its skin forms an important article of commerce.
The Chetah, or Hunting Leopard, is one of the most
graceful animals known. It is a native both of Africa and
S India, and in the latter country is used for hunting game.
The Chetah is either led blindfolded in a chain, or placed
upon a cart, and taken to the place where antelopes or deer
are feeding. When close enough the hunter takes the
band from its eyes. Directly the Chetah sees the deer, it


THE CANADA LYNX.






32 WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

creeps off the cart, and when it has succeeded in approach-
ing, it makes two or three springs, and fastens on the back
of one unfortunate deer, and waits until its keeper comes

-- -- - -- -- --- --- --o--

""--.--.-..


THE CHETAH, OR HUNTIlNG LEOPARD.
up. It is. so easily tamable and so gentle that it is fre-
quently led for sale about the streets by a string.
The Hyenina, or Hyenas, are remarkable for their fero-
cious and cowardly habits. There are several Hyenas,-but
the habits of all are very similar. The Hyenas, though






























. ',



















JAGUAR KILLING TAPIR.
n-L:\ I






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


very repulsive in appearance, are yet very useful, as they
prowl in search of dead animals, especially of the larger
kinds, and will devour them even when putrid. Their
jaws and teeth are exceedingly powerful, as they can crush
the thigh-bone of an ox with little effort. The skull is
very strong, and furnished with heavy ridges for the sup-
port of the muscles which move the jaw.
The hinder parts of the Hyena are very small, and give
it a strange shambling appearance when walking. The
Hyena is easily tamed, and even domesticated
The Striped Hyena is found in many parts of Asia and
Africa, where it is both a benefit and a pest, for when dead
animals fail it, the flocks and herds are ravaged, and even
man does not always escape.
The Civets are active little animals averaging about two
feet in length. The whole group is celebrated for their
perfume, which is of some importance in commerce. It is
found only in North Africa. It feeds upon birds and small
quadrupeds, which it takes by surprise.
The Ichneumons, or Mangousts, with their long bodies,
short limbs, and slender tails, insinuate themselves into
every crevice in search of their food. Snakes, lizards,
crocodiles' eggs, or even young crocodiles themselves, form
their food, and they are able to secure birds, and even
sieze upon the swift and wary lizards.
The Egyptian Ichneumon, or Pharaoh's Rat, as it is
sometimes called, is a native of North Africa, and is often
domesticated for the purpose of destroying the various
snakes and other reptile annoyances, which are such a pest
in the houses of hot countries. Its length without the tail
is about eighteen inches.
The Dog Family includes the Dogs, Wolves, Jackals, and






DOGS.


Foxes. The first of the Dogs is the Kolsun, or Dhale,
which inhabits Bombay and Nepaul. It hunts in packs,
and has been known to destroy tigers and chetahs. The
Newfoundland was originally brought from Newfoundland.



'1i~


(I-


THE SPOTTED HYENA.
It is often confounded with the Labrador Dog, a larger
and more powerful animal. The Newfoundland is well
known as a faithful guardian of its master's property. It
is remarkably fond of the water, and instances are known


',, W






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


of this noble animal saving the lives of people who have
fallen into the water. This is one of the largest of the
dogs, as it stands nearly two feet two inches in height.
There are several varieties of Bloodhounds, inhabiting
Cuba, Africa, and England. They all are endowed with a
wonderfully acute sense of smell, and can trace a man or
animal with almost unerring certainty.
The Foxhound and Beagle are not very dissimilar in
form or in habits. They both follow game by the scent,
and are used in hunting. The height of the foxhound is
about twenty-two inches.
The Beagle is used for hare hunting. It is much smaller
than the foxhound, and not nearly so swift, but its scent
is keener.
The Pointer is used by sportsmen to point out the spot
where the game lies. It then remains, every limb fixed,
and the tail pointing straight behind it, until the gun is
discharged.
The group of the Mastiff dogs includes the Mastiff, the
Bull-dog, and the little Pug-dog.
The Mastiff is generally employed as a house-dog. It is
by far the most sagacious of the whole group, and exhibits
much more attachment to its master than the others.
The Bull-dog is proverbial for courage and endurance.
This dog was extensively ivi-t] in the cruel sport of bull-
baiting. When opposed to the bull the dog would fly at
its nose, and there hang in spite of all its struggles.
The Terriers never grow to any considerable size. These
dogs were once used to unearth the fox or the badger, but
now are mostly pets, as they are extremely attached to their
master, and are capable of learning many amusing tricks.
The Shepherd's Dog is a oughh, shaggy animal, with









WOLF. 37


sharp-pointed ears and nose. It is an invaluable assistant
to the shepherd, as it knows all its master's sheep, never
suffers them to stray, and when two flocks have mixed, it
will separate its own charge with the greatest certainty.
The Greyhound is the swiftest of all dogs, and is princi-
pally used in the pursuit of the hare, which amusement is
termed coursing. It hunts by sight.
The Wolf has very much the form of a large, long-


~j~- 'I


THE WOLF.


,r

.r.

~ :~,

1-.-
-1

.-
L
.

~.i







WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


legged dog with a drooping tail. The hair is long, rough,
and thick, of a grayish color mixed with black. In the
thickly peopled countries of Europe it has been extermi-
nated, but it is still found in Russia in the steppes, in Spain
in the mountains, in Hungary and Lapland, and is common
in Central Asia. It is wild and fierce and very destructive
to sheep and cattle, and when driven by hunger has been
known to attack travellers. In winter they gather in
large packs and become a terrible scourge. The American
Wolf is slightly different from that of the Old World.
The Gray Wolf is more robust than that of Europe, and
has a straight and bushy tail. The Black Wolf, in the
time of Audubon, was not uncommon in Kentucky, but is
now found chiefly in Florida. The Red Wolf of Texas is
more slender than the others, with a cunning, fox-like look.
The Fox. The habits of this animal are mostly noctur-
nal. It lies by day concealed in its burrow, or in the depths
of some thicket. Toward evening it sallies out in search
of food, and woe to the unfortunate hare, rabbit, pheasant,
or fowl that comes in its way.
When irritated, the fox gives out a strong, disagreeable
scent, which lies so long on the ground that it may be per-
ceived for nearly an hour after the fox has passed. Partly
on this account, and partly on account of its speed, endur-
ance, and cunning, the chase of the fox is one of the most
popular English sports.
The Coyote, properly so-called, is a little cur of an animal,
scarcely larger than a fox, and is sometimes known as the
Indian Fox. It has a wolfish head, sharp ears, a long
muzzle, and rough thick tail. The name Coyote, however,
is commonly applied to the Prairie Wolf. It digs its bur-
row in the prairies, on some slight elevation, to prevent the







POLECA T.


burrow being filled with water. Its howl resembles very
closely the bark of a dog. When buffaloes were numerous
they used to follow the herds, and attack the weak or
wounded members of the herd. Some of them have been
tamed, and they display all the qualities of the common
dog, and know their masters. The color is a dirty gray


I -
;--Z



'AA* il


COYOTE.
passing into a blacker tint on the back. When full grown
it measures about four feet. It is found on the plains of
the West and in Mexico.
The Foumart, or Polecat, is known by its giving out an
offensive odor. It is bold and bloodthirsty; it sucks the
blood of its victims and eats their brains, but leaves the
body untouched. Its fur is often sold for sable. It de-






40 WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

stroys game and attacks poultry yards, and does not de-
spise to make its dinner on frogs and fish. In offensiveness
it cannot be compared to our native skunk.
The Mustelina, or Weasels, are easily distinguished by
their long slender bodies, short muzzle, sharp teeth, and








--







POLECAT.
predatory habits. Almost all the Weasels devour the brain
and suck the blood of their prey, but seldom touch the flesh.
There are two kinds of Martens, the Pine and the Beech
Marten. The Pine Marten is not uncommon in North
America, where it is much too fond of chickens and duck-
lings to be a desirable neighbor. This animal, as well as
the sable, is much sought after on account of its skin,
which furnishes a beautiful fur.
The Stoat, or Ermine, is a common English animal.



















Ir




I~



it i

uc
I: -







'I




Y


COMMON FOX.


S'. i


ii
'I


"-`
~ -~- ---



--
-






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


During the winter, the Stoat becomes partially white, in
northern countries wholly so, except the tip of the tail,
which remains black. In this state it is called the Ermine,




*-=: ... .


THE PINE MARTEN.
and is killed in great numbers for the sake of its beautiful
and valuable fur.
The Weasel is the least of this tribe. It wages unrelent-
ing war on rats and mice.
The Badger. This harmless animal lives at the bottom
of deep burrows, in which it passes all the day. When the
evening approaches it seeks its food, consisting of roots,
fruit, insects, and sometimes young rabbits.






BEAR.


Its' skin is rather valuable, the hair being extensively
employed in the manufacture of brushes. The length of
the Badger is about twenty-seven inches.
The Otter seems to play the same part in the water as
the weasels on the land.
It slides noiselessly into the water, turns and twists
about below the surface with the same ease as a fish, then,

S -,










THE BADGER.
with a sweep of the body, it glides to the surface and
ascends the bank with almost the same motion. While
below the surface it resembles the seal.
The Otter is easily tamed, and the Hindoos have brought
the art of training them to catch fish to great perfection,
and keep their otters regularly tethered with ropes and
straw collars on the banks of the river.
The Bears and their allies are mostly heavy, and walk
with the whole foot placed flat on the ground, unlike the
cats, dogs, etc., which walk with merely their paws or toes.
All the bears are omnivorous, that is, they can eat either






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


animal or vegetable food, so that a leg of mutton, a pot of
honey, a potato, and an apple are equally acceptable.
The Brown Bear inhabits the north of Europe, Switzer-
land, and the Pyrenees. It is solitary, infests mountains
and forests, eats fish and other animals, and subsists partly


V I













THE AMERICAN BLACK BEAR.
on fruits and vegetable food. The inhabitants of Northern
Europe hunt it, and take it in traps.
The Black Bear is found in all parts of North America.
Its total length is about five feet. It prefers vegetable
,food. but when pressed by hunger will kill and eat small
'&.animals. It kills its prey by hugging or squeezing with its
fore-paws. Great numbers of black bears are killed for their
skins, which have a smooth, glossy fur, and are valuable











































































THE GRIZZLY BEAR.


-9y
v P
-s-


;t





:~-~


~Y~'~~



a-






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


for cloaks, caps, etc. This animal is an expert climber, is
very fond of honey and green corn (maize), and is less fierce
and dangerous to man than the brown bear.
The Grizzly Bear is a native of North America. It is
the most ferocious and powerful of its family, and is an
animal which must be either avoided or fought, for there is
no medium. If a Grizzly once sees a man, it will probably
chase him, and will do so with. great perseverance. An
American traveller was chased, nearly thirty miles by one
of these bears, who would probably have kept up the chase
as many miles more, had the traveller not crossed a wide
river, over which the bear did not choose to follow him.
The Polar, or White Bear, called Nennook by the Esqui-
maux, lives in the Arctic regions, where it feeds on seals,
fish, and even the walrus, as it dives with great ease, and
is able to chase the seal amid the waves. These bears are
often drifted from Greenland to Iceland on fields of ice,
and the inhabitants are forced to rise in a body and put an
end to their depredations.
The Raccoon is about the size of a fox, and an inhabitant
of Canada and other parts of America. It is said to wash
its food before eating it. Its skin is valuable, and is much
sought after.
The food of the Raccoon is principally small animals and
insects. Like a squirrel when eating a nut, the Raccoon
usually holds its food between its fore-paws pressed to-
gether, and sits upon its hind-quarters while it eats. Like
the fox, it prowls by night.
The Mole. The eyes of the Mole are very small, in order
to prevent them from being injured by the earth through
which the animal makes its way. The acute ears and deli-
cate sense of smell supply the place of eyes. Its fur is very






RACCOON. 47
fine, soft, capable of turning in any direction, and will not
retain a particle of mould. The two fore-paws are composed
of five fingers, armed with sharp, strong nails, in order to
scrape up the earth; and the hands are turned outward, so
as to throw the earth out of its way.
It is a good swimmer, and can pass from bank to bank,


COMMON RAcCOON.
or from the shore to an island, and when the fields are in-
undated by.floods it can save itself by swimming.
The construction of the Mole's habitation is very singu-
lar and interesting. Each Mole has its own habitation and
hunting ground, and will not permit strangers to trespass
upon its preserves, which it guards, not by "man-traps"
and "spring-guns," but by its claws and teeth.






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


The animal works desperately for several hours, and
then rests for as many hours. The mode of burrowing is
by rooting up the earth with its snout, and then scooping
it away with its fore-feet.
The depth at which this animal works depends almost
entirely on the time of year. In the summer, the worms
': ~ -.-, .I --.


THE MOLE.--a and b, Upper and Lower Surface of Right Fore-Foot of Mole.
come to the surface, and the Mole accordingly follows
them, making quite superficial runs, and sometimes only
scooping trenches on the surface. But in the winter, when
the worms sink deep into the ground, the Mole is forced to
follow them there, to work at the hard soil, as it .did in the
earth nearer the surface.
Moles vary in color, the usual tint being a very deep














r- I

I'


I-


--4
-" "E "'R




1. .




POLAR BEARS






50 WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

brown, almost black; but they have been seen of an orange
color, and a white variety is not uncommon. There are
several Moles known: the Shrew Mole, the Changeable


,,---; --~~
-"'' "-


w-"' -" _-_-_.... --`_ -i .



THE SPIDER MUSK-SHREW AND COMMON SHREW.

Mole, the Cape Mole, and the Star-nosed Mole are the most
conspicuous.
SThe Shrew Mouse is very like the common mouse, but
is distinguished from it by the length of the nose, which
is used for grubbing up the earth in search of earth-worms
and insects. A peculiar scent is diffused from these ani-
mals, which is possibly the reason why the cat will not eat
them, although she will readily destroy them.
The Shrew has no connection with the true mice. It be-
longs to a different class of animals, its teeth being sharp






HEDGEHOG. 51

and pointed, whereas those of the mouse are broad and
chisel-shaped.
There are, besides the common species, the Oared and
the Water Shrew. The formation of their hair as seen
under a powerful microscope is very beautiful, but quite















distinct from the hair of the mouse or rat. In the autumn, -
I: .. I










MiS



THE HEDGEHOG.
distinct from the hair of the mouse or rat. In the autumn,
numbers of these little animals may be seen lying dead,
but what causes this destruction is hot known.
The Hedgehog is one of the remarkable animals that are
guarded with spikes. These spikes are fixed into the skin






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


in a very beautiful and simple manner. When the Hedge-
hog is annoyed it rolls itself up, and the tightness of the
skin causes all its spines to stand firm and erect. While
rolled up, even the dog and the fox are baffled by it; but
by rolling it along they push it into a puddle or pool, when
the Hedgehog immediately unrolls itself to see what is the
matter, and before it can close itself again is seized by its
crafty enemy.
The food of the Hedgehog consists of insects, snails,
frogs, mice, and snakes. Dr. Buckland placed a snake in
the same box with a Hedgehog. The Hedgehog gave the
snake a severe bite, and then rolled itself up, this process
being repeated until the spine of the snake was broken in
several places; it then began at the tail, and ate the snake
S gradually, as one would eat a radish.
:The flesh of the Hedgehog is said to be good eating, and
the gypsies frequently make it a part of their diet, as do
the people in some parts of Europe.
During the winter it lives in a torpid state, in a hole
; well lined with grass and moss, and when discovered looks
like a round mass of leaves as ithas rolled itself among
the fallen foliage, which adheres to its spikes.
In the Kangaroos the hind-legs are very long and im-
Smensely powerful; the fore-legs are very small, and used
moreas hands than for walking; the tail also is very.thick
an.d strong, and assists the animal in its leaps.
SThe Great Kangaroo inhabits Australia, where the na-
.* ties live much on its flesh. Its method of progression is
by immense leaps from its long hind-legs. The natural
walking position of this animal is on all four legs, although
it constantly sits up on the hinder legs, or even stands on a
tripod composed of its hind feet and tail, in order to look







-:-".-- I'" "''


,,1 liR " J
t '-
l I ..-."
THE RED KAGAOO
r- r i r -I? ~ .
I~~ nl


-, -r~xir



.., : '.-, ,


: ...


~ ~~ ~~ ... .. -.': ..




THE RED KANGAROO.







WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


out over the tops of the luxuriant grass among which it
lives. The leaping movements are required for haste or
escape, the length of each leap being about fifteen feet.
Hunting this animal is a favorite sport. The natives
either knock it down with the boomerang, spear it from
behind a bush, or unite together and hem in a herd, which
soon fall victims. The colonists either shoot it or hunt it
with dogs. The "old man," or "boomer," as the colonists
call the Great Kangaroo, invariably leads the dogs a severe
chase, always attempting to reach water and escape by
swimming. It is a formidable foe to the dogs when it
stands at bay, as it seizes the dog with its fore-legs, and
either holds him under water until he is drowned, or tears
him open with a well-directed kick of its powerful hind
feet, which are armed with a very sharp claw.
,The female Kangaroo carries its young about in a kind
of pouch, from which they emerge when they wish for a
little exercise, and leap back again on the slightest alarm.
All the kangaroos and the opossums have this pouch.
The length of the Great Kangaroo is about five feet with-
out the tail, the length of which is about three feet.
There are many species of Kangaroo, the most extraordi-
nary being the Tree Kangaroo, which can hop about on
trees, and has curved claws on its fore-paws, like those of
the sloth, to enable it to hold on the branches.
The Opossum inhabits North America, and is hunted for
the sake of its flesh. When it perceives the hunter, it lies
still between the branches; but if disturbed from its hiding
place, it attempts to escape by dropping among the herbage
and creeping silently away.
Its food consists of insects, birds, eggs, etc., and it is
very destructive among the hen-roosts. The Opossum uses






SEALS AND WHALES.


its tail for climbing and swinging from branch to branch,
and makes it also a support for its young, who sit on its
back and twist their tails round their mother's in order to
prevent themselves from falling off.
When overtaken by its pursuers, it can simulate death
S -.














COMMON OPOSSUM.
so admirably that it frequently deceives the foe. The
length of the Opossum is about twenty-two inches, and its
height about that of an ordinary cat. When disturbed or
alarmed it gives out a very unpleasant odor.

The Seals and Whales, although they are not fish, are
inhabitants df the water. The fore-feet of the Seal are
,used as fins, and the two hinder feet almost as the tail of
a fish, to direct its course. On land the movements 6f







56 -WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

this animal are very clumsy; it shuffles along by means of
its fore-feet, and drags its hind-feet after it.
Seals live during warm weather mostly in the cold
regions of the north and south poles, and go into milder
waters in the winter. They like to bask in the sun upon


__
..-- --II
;
''i '
---_-: ~~ :1~-~

~~:~- `-- ----~-~
L


THE GREENLAND SEAL.
rocks, sand-banks, or ice-floes. They can see far, and their
sense of smell is very sharp. They live mostly on mullusks,
crabs, and fish. In the winter they make holes in the ice
where they can come up to breathe.
Seals are among the most useful of animals to man.
The Greenlanders use their flesh for food; their' oil for
light, warmth, and cooking; their skins for clothes, boots,
and coverings of boats and tents; their sinews for thread






SEALS AND WHALES.


and fishing-lines; the skins of the entrails for window-
curtains and shirts; and their blood for making soup.
Seal-skins are an important article of commerce and the
seal-fishery is largely carried on along the coast of New-
foundland and Labrador and also on the islands off the
coast of Alaska. The fur in its natural state is yellowish,


THE COMMON SEAL.
spotted, and marked with brown, and is unfit for use until
it is dyed.
The length of the common Seal is about four or five feet,
and its weight often two hundred and twenty-four pounds.
There are many Seals known, .among which are the Sea
Leopard, a spotted species; the :Harp; Seal, so called be-
cause. ,the markings on its back -resemble a harp; the Sea
Bear, and the Sea Lion.
The Walrus inhabits the northern seas. Its most-re-






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


markable point is the great length of its upper canine teeth,
which extend downward for nearly two feet, and resemble
the tusks of the elephant. They furnish very fine ivory,
and are extensively used by dentists in making artificial
teeth. These tusks
are used by the
Walrus for climb-
ing the rocks or
heaps of ice, and --- '
also for digging .
up the sea-weeds '
on which the ani-
mal mostly sub-
sists. It will also;
eat shrimps and
young seals.
hunted for the
sake of its oil, its
flesh, its skin, and
its teeth. Its _-. F1
length is about sixteen f,..et. aul it yieldls bhm
twenty to thirty galloui -:,f ex, .ellen t. oil.
The Cetacea, or Whale tribe, clustly resemble -'
the fishes, but are distinguished by possessing warm blood,
and, in consequence, are forced to rise at intervals in
order to breathe the air.
The Whale remains under water for a time much longer
than could be borne by any other warm-blooded animal,
and is furnished with means for supporting life during its
stay beneath the water.
Along the interior of the ribs there is a vast collection of






SEALS AND WHALES.


blood-vessels, capable of containing a large quantity of
blood, having no immediate connection with that portion of
the blood which is already circulating in the body. As fast
as the exhausted and poisonous blood returns from its
work, it passes into another reservoir adapted for its neces-
sities, while a portion of the arterialized blood in the arterial
reservoir passes into the circulation. By means of this
wonderful apparatus, a Whale can remain below the water
for more than half an hour at a time.
The depths to which the Whale can descend are astonish-
ing, wounded Whales having been known to take down
perpendicularly nearly eight hundred fathoms of line.
: The great Greenland Whale is found in the northern
oceans. Many ships are annually fitted out for its cap-
ture. The oil is obtained from the thick layer of fatty sub-
stance, called blubber, which lies immediately under the
skin; and the whalebone is obtained from the interior of
the mouth, where it fringes the jaws, and acts as a sieve
for the Whale to strain its food through. The throat of
the Greenland Whale is so small that the sailors say that
a penny loaf would choke a Whale. The Whale, when it
wishes to feed, rushes through the water with its immense
jaws wide open, enclosing a host of little sea animals and
a few hogsheads of water. As the Whale wants only the
animals, and not the water, it shuts its mouth, and drives
all the water out through the fringes of whalebone, leav-
ing the little creatures in its jaws.
The Whale shows great attachment to its young, which
is called the cub, and on the approach of danger seizes it
with its flipper and carries it down out of danger. Its
flippers are in fact fore-legs, furnished with a kind of hand
covered with a thick skin. The hind-legs are wanting.






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


The length of this Whale averages sixty feet. Its tail is
placed transversely, and not vertically, as in the fishes.
The Cachalot, or Spermaceti Whale. This animal is not
furnished with baleen," or whalebone, but is armed with
a number of strong conical teeth, which are placed in the
lower jaw, and which are often used in defending itself
from the attacks of the whalers' boats. Besides this
method of defence, it has a habit of swimming off to a
-distance, and then rushing at the boat with its head, there-
by knocking it to pieces. One of these whales actually
sank a ship by three or four blows from its head.
Spermaceti is obtained from the head of the Cachalot.
When the whale is killed a hole is made in the upper part
of the head, and the spermaceti is baled out with buckets.
When just procured it is almost fluid, but is rendered solid
and transparent by being first drained of its oil, then boiled
in water, and lastly set to cool in wide pans, where it soon
assumes .a white,.flaky appearance. The skull of the
Cachalot occupies only a small portion of the head, the
mass at the end of the mouth being composed of a gristly
kind of substance. The bone of the upper jaw runs back-
ward nearly straight until just. before the eyes, when it
joins the remainder of the skull with a bold sweep. That
part of the skull is called "Neptune's Chair," and is the
part where the spermaceti is found. The layer of blubber
is thin, but yields a fine and valuable oil. Ambergris, so
long a riddle to all inquirers, is now found to be produced
in the interior of the Cachalot. This substance is of the
consistency of wax, inflammable, and gives out a kind of
musky odor. The length of this whale is about seventy
feet.
Those readers who have formed their ideas of Dolphins
















I

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:"i,:


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=i ---- :---;
-~/-~u
r=-~---- ___ --


-4
---------
--
-- i


I. ., .


GREENLAND .WHALE.






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


from the very graceful and elegant creatures represented
under that name in the pictures of the "old masters," or
the statues of the ancient sculptors, will find that the real
animal differs much from the ideal. The Dolphin is, like
the whale, a warm-blooded animal, suckles its young, and
is forced to come to the surface in order to breathe. Its
snout is very long, and is apparently used for capturing
such fish, and other animals, as live in the mud. The
length is from six to ten feet. Several species are known.
The Porpoise. These animals may be observed in plenty
playing their absurd antics off every coast of America.
They frequent greatly the mouths of rivers, because they
find more food there than in the open sea. They tumble
at the surface of the water for the purpose of breathing.
In old times the Porpoise constituted one of the standard
delicacies of a public feast, but it has long since been de-
posed from its rank at the table, as its flesh has a very
strong oily flavor.
It feeds on various fishes, but its great feasts are held
when the shoals of herrings, pilchards, and other fish ar-
rive bn the coasts. The teeth are very numerous, and in-
terlock when the jaws are closed, so that the fish when
once seized cannot escape. Its length is about five feet, its
color a rich black; becoming white on the under side.
The Narwhal has one visible tusk, which used to be sold
at a very high price as the real horn of the unicorn. Of
course, when the whale fishery was established, the real
owner of the horn was discovered.
The Narwhal possesses two tusks, one on each side of its
head. Only the left tusk projects, the other remaining
within 'the head. Sometimes a specimen has been found
with both tusks projecting, and some think that when the






NARWHAL. 63

left tusk has been broken off by accident, the right one be-
comes large enough to supply its place.




-71







-- --- --- :










NARWH.ALS.
Its body is from thirty to forty feet in length, and its
tusk from five to nine.

The Rodentia, or gnawing animals, are so called from
their habit of gnawing the substances on which they feed.
For this purpose their teeth are admirably formed. In the
,-.















sor this purpose their teeth are admirably formed. In the






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


front of each jaw there are two long flat teeth, slightly
curved, and having a kind of chisel edge for rasping away
wood or other articles.
The constant labor which these teeth undergo would
rapidly wear them away. To counteract this loss, the
teeth are constantly growing and being pushed forward,
so that as fast as the upper part is worn away, the tooth is
replenished from below.
The Brown Rat, sometimes called the Norway Rat, is
the species usually found in England and America. It is
at all times difficult to get rid of these dirty, noisy animals,
for they soon learn to keep out of the way of traps; and if
they are poisoned they revenge their fate by dying behind
a wainscot or under a plank of the floor, and make the
room uninhabitable.
The Common Mouse is so well known that a description
of its form and size is useless. It almost rivals the rat in
its attacks upon our provisions, and is quite as difficult to
extirpate. It brings up its young in a kind of nest, and
when a board of long standing is taken up in a room it is
not uncommon to find under it a Mouse's nest, composed
of rags, string, paper, shavings, and everything that the
ingenious little architect can scrape together. It is a round
mass, looking something like a rag ball very loosely made.
When opened, seven or eight little Mice will probably be-
found in the interior-little pink transparent creatures,
three of which could go into a lady's thimble, sprawling
about in an unmeaning manner, apparently greatly dis-
tressed at the sudden cold caused by the opening of their nest.
A white variety of Mouse is tolerably common, and is
usually bred in cages. As it is very tame and beautiful, it
is in some repute as a pet.



1A ^ /






r



3


'9:























HARVEST MOUSE.
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1.'' .
,_ ,
HAVS MOUSE






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


The Harvest Mouse is very much smaller than the ordi-
nary mouse. Its nest is raised about a foot and a half
from the ground, and supported on two or three straws.
. he nest is made of grass, about the size of a baseball.
The Water Rat is very common on banks of rivers,
brooks, etc. It does not eat fish; but gnaws the green
bark from reeds, which it completely strips, leaving the
mark of each tooth as it proceeds.
The Beaver. North America is the principal country
where the Beaver is found, but it is also to be found on the
iuphrates, and along some of the larger European rivers;
as the Rhone and the Danube.
The houses of the Beaver are built of mud, stones, and
sticks. They are placed in a stream, and their- entrance is
always below the surface. As a severe frost would freeze
up their doors, it is necessary to make the stream deep
enough to prevent the frost from reaching the entrances.
This object is attained by building a dam across the river,
to keep back the water until it is sufficiently deep for the
Beaver's purposes. The dam is made of branches which
the Beaver cuts down with its strong, sharp teeth, and
mud and stones worked in among the branches. The
Beavers throw these branches into the water, and sink them
to the bottom by means of stones, and by continually throw-
ing in fresh supplies a strong embankment is soon made.
The mud and stones used in their embankments are not
carried on their tails, as some say, nor do the Beavers use
their tails as trowels for laying on the mud, the fact being
that the stones and mud are carried between their chin and
fore-paws, and the mistake respecting the tail is evidently
caused by the slap that Beavers give with that member
when they dive.












4P









_._.. ----- --.













BEAVERS AT WORK.






68 WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

Every year the Beavers lay a fresh coating of mud upon
their houses, so that after the lapse of a few years the
walls of the house are several feet in thickness. Many of
the houses are built close together, but no two families can
communicate with each other, except by diving below the
walls and rising inside their neighbors' houses.
When in captivity the Beaver soon becomes tame, and
will industriously build dams across the corner of a room
with brushes, boots, fire-irons, books, or anything it can
find. When its edifice is finished, it sits in the centre ap-
parently satisfied that it has made a beautiful structure to
dam up the river-a proof that the ingenuity of the Beaver
is not caused by reason, but by instinct.
The fur of the Beaver, like that of many other animals,
consists of a fine wool intermixed with long and stiff hairs.
Its length is about three and a half feet.
The Common Porcupine is found in America, Africa,
Tartary, Persia, India, and some parts of Europe. It lives
in holes, which it digs in the ground, and only comes forth
at night in order to feed. It eats vegetable substances
only, such as roots, bark, and other similar substances.
The array of spines or quills with which this animal is cov-
ered forms its principal means of defence. Occasionally a
loose quill falls on the ground, which gave rise to the error
that the Porcupine could dart its weapons at its adversary
from a distance. There are two kinds of these quills-one
kind longhand curved, the other short, thick, and pointed.
These last are the weapons of defence, as the former are
too slender to do much service.
The American Indians use the quills extracted from the
Canada Porcupine, a species living on trees, for ornament
ing various parts of their dress, especially their moccasini











































































* 4 -


u 'PINE.


Ll






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


or skin shoes. The length of the Porcupine is about two
feet, and its quills are from six to fourteen inches long.
The Capybara, or Chiguira, looks very like a pig, and its
skin is covered thinly with hairs like bristles. It inhabits
the borders of lakes and rivers in many parts of South
America. During the day it hides among the thick herb-
age of the banks, only wandering forth to feed at night,
but when alarmed it instantly makes for the water, and
escapes by diving. It is hunted for the sake of its flesh,
which is said to be remarkably good. The food of the
Capybara consists of grass, vegetables, and fruits. Its
length is about three feet six inches.
S.The Guinea-pig, or Restless Cavy, was originally brought
from South America, and is frequently domesticated. Its
beauty is its only recommendation, as it shows little intel-
ligence and is never used for food. Children are fond of
keeping them, as they are easy to manage, and do not
make much noise. They are popularly supposed to keep
off rats.
The Hare when full-grown is larger than the rabbit, and
exceedingly like that animal. But its color is slightly dif-
ferent. The Hare makes a kind of nest of grass and other
materials. In this nest, called'a "form," the Hare lies,
crouching to the ground, its ears laid along its back; and
trusting to its concealment, will often remain quiet until
the foot of an intruder almost touches it.
In cold countries the Hare changes its fur during winter,
and becomes white, like the Arctic fox and the ermine.
The Rabbit is smaller than the hare, but resembles it in
form. It lives in deep holes, which it digs in the ground.
The female Rabbit forms a soft nest at the bottom of her
burrow, composed of fur torn from her body, of hay and
6






JERBOAS.


dried leaves. Here the young rabbits are kept until they
are strong enough to shift for themselves, and make their
own burrows.
The tame Rabbit is only a variety, rendered larger by
careful feeding and attendance.
The Jerboas are celebrated for their powers of leaping.
Their long hind legs enable them to take enormous springs,


THE JERBOA.
during which their tails serve to balance them. Indeed, a
Jerboa when deprived of his tail is afraid to leap.
The foot of the Jerboa is defended by long bristly hairs,
which not only give the creature a firm hold of the ground
for its spring, but also defend the foot from the burning
soil on'hich it lives.
Grain and bulbous roots are its chief food; while eating,






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


it holds the food with its fore-paws, and sits upright on
its haunches, like the squirrels and marmots.
The Dormouse is very common in all the warmer parts
of Europe. It lives in brushwood, through which it
makes its way with such rapidity that it is very difficult to
be captured. During the winter it lies torpid, but takes
care to have a stock of food laid up, on which it feeds dur-
ing the few interruptions to its slumbers. A warm day in
winter will usually rouse it, but during the cold weather
it lies rolled up. It lives principally on nuts, acorns, and
grain. It brings up its young in a nest of leaves and
hay.
The Squirrel is a very common animal in woods, where
numbers may be seen frisking about on the branches, or
running up and down the trunks. If alarmed it springs
up the tree with extraordinary activity, and hides behind
a branch. By this trick it escapes its enemy the hawk,
and by constantly slipping behind the large branches fre-
quently tires him out. The activity and daring of this lit-
tle animal are extraordinary. When pursued, it makes
the most astonishing leaps from branch to branch, or from
tree to tree, and has apparently some method of altering
its direction while in the air, possibly by means of its tail
acting as a rudder.
It is easily domesticated, and is very amusing in its
habits when suffered to go at large in a room or kept in a
spacious cage; but when confined in a little cramped box,
especially in one of the cruel wheel cages, its energies and
playfulness are quite lost.
The color is a deep reddish-brown or gray, and its tail so
large and bushy as to shade its whole body when carried
curled over its back.






OXEN.


The Ox. The Ruminants, or animals that chew the cud,
include the oxen, sheep, and goats, deer, giraffe, and
camels. They have a peculiar construction of stomach,
which receives the freshly gathered food, retains it for
some hours, and then passes it back into the mouth to be
remasticated.
The Ox is spread widely over the earth, scarcely any
country being without its peculiar breed. In this country,
where it is our most useful domesticated animal, there are
many breeds. Each of these breeds has its peculiar value:
some fatten easily, and are kept especially for the butcher;
others give milk, and are valuable for the dairy. The best
dairy cow is the Alderney, a small, short-horned animal,
furnishing exceedingly rich milk.
Oxen are often used to draw wagons, or to drag the
plough. They are not so strong as horses, and their move-
ments are much slower.
Every part of the Ox is of value. We eat his flesh, we
wear shoes soled with his skin, our candles are made from
his fat, our tables are joined with glue made from his
hoofs, his hair is mixed with the mortar of our walls, his
horns are made into combs, knife-handles, drinking cups,
etc.; his bones are used as a cheap substitute for ivory, and
soup is made from his tail.
The young Ox is called a calf, and is quite as useful in
its way as the full-grown Ox. The flesh is termed veal,
and by many preferred to the flesh of the Ox or Cow, which
is called beef; jelly is made from its feet. The stomach is
salted and dried, and is named rennet. Cheese is made by
soaking a piece of rennet in water, and pouring it into a
vessel of milk. The milk soon forms a curd, which is
placed in a press, and the watery substance, called whey,






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


squeezed from it. The curd is colored and salted, and is
then cheese.
The Cape Buffalo is a native of South Africa. It is fero-
cious and cunning, often lurking among the trees until an
unsuspecting traveller approaches, and then rushing on him
and destroying him. The ferocious creature is not content
with killing its victim, but stands over him mangling him
with its horns, and stamping on him with its feet.
The Bison, or Buffalo, used to roam the plains or prairies
of North America in countless multitudes. But since the
opening up of the West by railroads it has been almost
exterminated, only a small herd being preserved in the
Yellowstone Park by the United States Government, and a
few specimens in zoological gardens. A small herd or two
remain in Canada.
The Buffalo is a giant among American animals. Its
bulk, shaggy mane, vicious eye, and sullen behavior give
it a ferocious appearance, but it is really a mild, inoffen-
sive beast, sluggish and stupid. It is about eight to nine
feet from head to tail, and seven feet from the ground to the
shoulder. The flesh is good eating, especially the hump.
The cow is smaller than the bull, and can run faster.
The Yak inhabits Tartary. The tail is very long and
fine, and is used in India as a whisk to keep off the mos-
quitoes. From the shoulders a mass of long hair falls
almost to the ground,. something like the mane of a lion.
The Tartars weave it into cloth.
The Gnoo, or Wildebeest, inhabits Southern Africa.
The horns, sweeping downward over the face, turn boldly
upward with a sharp curve. The neck is furnished with a
mane like that of the horse, and the legs are formed like
those of the stag. In size it is about four feet in height.







KOODOO. 75

The Koodoo is a native of South Africa. It is remark-
able for its beautifully shaped horns, which are about four


THE AMERICAN BISON.
feet in length and twisted into a large spiral of about two
turns and a half.







WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


The Gazelle, so famous in poetry, inhabits Arabia and
Syria. Its eyes are very large, dark, and lustrous. The
color of this pretty little animal is a dark yellowish-brown
fading into white on the under parts.
























THE GNOO.
The Chamois is found only in mountainous regions. It
lives on the loftiest ridges, displaying wonderful activity in p
leaping with certainty and security on places where there
is hardly room for its feet.
J
THE GNO
































































ALPINE IBEX.







WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


The Ibex in the Alpine regions of Europe has magnifi-
cent horns, which sweep from the head almost to the
haunches. The horns are immensely strong, serving to


THE CHAMOIS,







SHEEP.


break the fall .of the Ibex when it makes a leap from a
height. Its height is two feet six inches; the length of its
horns often three feet.
The common Goat is not in much request in America, but


~- -^^^S^r-^-_-sf,

THE BIGHORN SHEEP.
in some other countries large herds are kept for the sake
of their milk. The most celebrated variety of this animal
is the Cashmere Goat, which furnishes the fine wool from
which Cashmere shawls are made.
The Sheep. There are many kinds of Sheep, among






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


which the common Sheep, the long-tailed Sheep, and the
Wallachian Sheep are the most conspicuous. California
produces better wool than any other country.
The long-tailed Sheep inhabits Syria and Egypt. Its tail
is so large and so loaded with fat that to prevent it from
being injured by dragging on the ground a board is fast-
ened to the under side of it, and wheels are often attached
to the board.
The hair of the Wallachian Sheep is long and silky like
that of a spaniel, and of great length, falling almost to the
ground.
The Bighorn has the body of a deer and the head of a
sheep. Its horns are of an enormous size, and make a
large semicircular curve backward. The head and horns
often weigh sixty pounds. Its hair is short and gray, but
in the fall changes to dun and becomes longer, while in
winter a layer of fine wool, which never shows outside the
hair, grows close to the skin. It is found in troops of
twenty or thirty in rocky districts, which it leaves only to
get water. It is very shy and takes flight at the first ap-
pearance of a man. Its flesh is in good. condition from
August till November. General Dodge says if one can
imagine a saddle of Southdown mutton flavored with the
gamey juices of the black-tail deer, he will form some idea
of a feast of mountain sheep in season.
| The Giraffe. This beautiful animal is found only in
South Africa. Its height varies from thirteen to eighteen
feet. Its beautiful long neck enables it to browse on the
leaves of the trees on which it feeds. It is very dainty
while feeding, and plucks the leaves one by one with its
*flexible tongue. The skin is an inch and a half in thick-
ness.



























$ \







1 -,, ,P *













. GIRAFFES






GlAE ---.

GIRAFFES,






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


The Giraffe has much difficulty in reaching the ground
with its mouth. It straddles widely with its fore-legs, and
with some trouble succeeds in reaching the object aimed at.


THE BACTRIAN CAMEL.
The movements of the Giraffe are very peculiar, the
limbs of each side appearing to act together. It is very
swift, and can outrun a horse, especially if it can get
among broken ground and rocks,. over which it leaps with
a succession of frog-like hops.
































































Ai i
.. .



ARHN :,iIL






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


SThe Camel. The Bactrian Camel has two humps on its
back, the Arabian Camel only one.
The Camel forms the principal wealth of the Arab, and
its power of drinking at one draught sufficient water to
serve it for several days enables it to march from station
to station without.requiring to drink by the way.
The foot of the Camel is admirably adapted for walking
on the loose sand, being composed of large elastic pads,
which spread as the foot is placed on the ground. To
guard it from injury when it kneels down to be loaded, the
parts of the body on which its weight rests are defended by
thick callosities. The largest of these callosities is on the
chest; the others are placed on the joints of the legs.
The Llamas, of which there are several species, inhabit
South America, and are used for the same purpose as the
camel. When wild they are very timid, and fly from a
pursuer the moment that they see him; but their curiosity
is so great that the hunter often secures them by lying on
the ground and throwing his legs and arms about. The
Llamas come to see what the extraordinary animal can be,
and give the hunter an opportunity of firing several shots,
which the astonished animals consider as part of the perform-
ance. The Llama can go for several days without requir-
ing to drink. The fleece is very long and more resembling
silk than wool, and is sometimes twelve inches in length.
The Red Deer or Stag is the largest of the deer. It
bears different names according to the size of its horns,
which increase year by year. All the males have horns,
which they shed every year, and renew again. Hunting
the Stag is a very favorite amusement in some countries,
and packs of hounds, called stag-hounds, are kept expressly
for that purpose.















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rl :r~ir
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IN1:~i~~l,,






86 WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

The Virginia Deer is remarkable for its peculiar horns,
which bend boldly backward and then suddenly curve for-


THE LLAMA.
ward. Its color is reddish-brown in spring and dull brown
in winter. It is found everywhere from Canada to Mexico
and from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains. It is a
very good swimmer, and loves to go into deep water to get








m w;--


. ...
5 1


FALLOW DEER.


~C
'C






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


rid of ticks and other insects. When it is near settled dis-
tricts it will leap fences and browse on the crops, but at


THE VIRGINIA DEER.
other times feeds on the young grasses of the plains. In
the months of August, September, and October it is
very fat and the venison is very fine. It is fond of salt,














































--


R DEER.
REINDEER.


~ci: 1I






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


and resorts in great numbers to salt-licks. The skin of
the Deer is very valuable, and is used to form the greater
part of the Indian's dress.
The Fallow Deer are usually seen in parks, where they
congregate in large herds. They are generally tame, and
will suffer people to come very close to them. They soon
become familiar with those who treat them with kindness,
and will eat from their hands.
The Reindeer is found throughout the Arctic regions of
Europe, Asia, and America. A Laplander in good circum-
stances possesses about three or four hundred deer, which
enable him to live in comfort. The subsistence of one who
possesses only one hundred is very precarious, and he who
has only fifty usually joins his animals with the herd of
some richer man, and takes the menial labors upon himself.
The Reindeer feeds principally on a kind of lichen, which
it scrapes from beneath the snow. During the winter its
coat thickens, and assumes a lighter hue, many deer being
almost white. Its hoofs are divided very high, so that
when the animal places its foot on the ground the hoof
spreads wide, and as it raises the foot a snapping noise is
heard, caused by the parts of the hoof closing together.
When harnessed to a sledge it can draw two hundred and
fifty to three hundred pounds' weight at about ten miles an
hour..
The European Moose inhabits the northern parts of Eu-
rope. It was considered at one time to be identical with the.
American elk, but naturalists now believe it to be a dis-
tinct animal. Its usual pace is a high, awkward trot, but
when frightened it sometimes gallops. It is very strong,
and can destroy a wolf with a single blow of its large and
powerful horns.








MOOSE, OR ELK. 91

Like the reindeer, the Moose makes a great clattering
with its hoofs when in rapid motion. It is a good swim-
mer, and is fond of taking to the water in summer-time.


.- I ~
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A FAMILY OF ELK.


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~~*~*


L I






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


It is rather dangerous when incensed, as it fights desper-
ately with its horns and hoofs.

We now arrive at the thick-skinned animals which do
not chew the cud. The first on the list is the Horse. The


~, .- ,. 4 --'.-
~w1I( :


^-_SF_ ".7 ---,
ENGLISH RACE HORSE.
Arabian Horse is a model of elegance and beauty. The
Arab treats his Horse as one of the family; it lives in the
same tent with him, eats from his hand, and sleeps among
his children, who tumble about on it without any fear.
A Horse in Norwich, Vt., was sold to a man in Oxford,
N. H. As he was being taken from the wagon one even-




































































ZEBRA.






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


ing he slipped away from his new owner and disappeared
at a gallop. In six hours he reached his old home, having
crossed the Connecticut River and travelled twenty-seven
miles in the darkness, over a road he had not seen since he
was a colt.
The English Horse, from which the best Horses in the
United States have come, has much Arabian and Barb
blood in it. The Race Horse is swifter for short distances
than the best Arabian Horse. It is much like the Arabian
in looks, but is taller and longer, and has changed in color.
The Trotting Horse of the United States and Canada is
the fastest in the world. It is not usually as tall as the
Running Horse. There is also a breed of Trotting Horses
in Russia, called Orloff Trotter, which is faster than com-
mon horses, but not so fast as the American Trotter.
The Percheron Horses are much used for drawing omni-
buses and business wagons. They are large, heavy Horses,
with large heads. In England the breeds called the Suf-
folk, the Cleveland Bay, and the Clydesdale are noted for
their size and strength. The Flanders Horse, of Belgium
and Holland, is very large, heavy, and strong.
Ponies are found in many countries. Among the most
noted are the Shetland Ponies. The Indians of the Western
parts of the United States have a breed of Ponies which are
very hardy and strong. One of them will travel all day
long with a heavy man on its back.
The Ass is scarcely less serviceable to man than the
horse. In Asia, where it is properly treated, it is an ele-
gant and spirited animal with good action and smooth coat.
The Zebra is found in South Africa. This beautiful ani-
mal lives in troops among the mountains, shunning the
presence of man. It is a very conspicuous animal, and
































































.0444


A F CAN F L. i-i N .


:.,;


:: i


* -*^c't
*..*** ^l.







96 WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

easily distinguished by the regular stripes of brownish-
black with which its body is covered even down to the hoofs.
Its voice is very peculiar and can hardly be described.
The Elephant. Of this magnificent animal, whose form
is familiar to every eye, two species are known, the Indian
and the African. The anatomy of this huge quadruped is
well worthy of consideration. Its head and tusks are so
very heavy that no long neck would bear them; the neck
is therefore very short. But this shortness of neck pre-
vents the Elephant from putting its head to the'ground, or
from stooping to the water's edge. This apparent defect
is compensated by the wonderful manner in which its up-
per lip and nose are elongated, and rendered capable of
drawing up water or plucking grass. In the proboscis or
trunk there are about forty thousand muscles, enabling the
Elephant to shorten, lengthen, coil up, or move in any
direction this most extraordinary organ. The trunk is
pierced throughout its length by two canals, through
which liquids, can be drawn by suction. If the Elephant
wishes to drink, after drawing the liquid into its trunk, it
inserts the end of its proboscis into its mouth, and dis-
charges the contents down its throat; but if it merely
wishes to wash itself or play, it blows the contained liquid
from the trunk with great violence. Through the trunk
the curious trumpet-like voice of the Elephant is produced.
At the extremity is a finger-like appendage, with which it
can pick up small objects. In order to sustain the muscles
of the jaw and neck, the head must be very large: were it
solid, it would be very heavy. The skull is therefore
formed of a number of cells of bone, forming the necessary
expanse without the weight, leaving but a very small cav-
ity for the brain.




















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INDIAN RHINOCEROS
INDIAN RHINOCEROS.


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E-
V









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WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY.


This fact will account for the numberless bullet wounds
which an Elephant will endure in the skull. The ball,
instead of penetrating to the brain, merely lodges among
the bony cells, and does no great mischief. Not long since,
a ball was found firmly embedded in the tusk of an Elephant;
it was thoroughly impacted, and there was no apparent
opening by which it could have reached the place that it
occupied. It was afterward found that the ball had struck
the Elephant at the base of the tusk, so as to have sunk
among the soft and as yet unformed ivory. This by de-
grees was pushed on as the tusk grew in successive years,
until it was at last surrounded closely by hard ivory. A
spear-head has been also found similarly embedded.
The Indian Elephant is almost invariably taken from its
native haunts and then trained. The Indian hunters pro-
ceed into the woods with two trained female Elephants.
These advance quietly, and by their blandishments so occu-
py the attention of any unfortunate male that they meet
that the hunters are enabled to tie his legs together and
fasten him to a tree. His treacherous companions now
leave him to struggle in impotent rage, until he is so sub-
dued by hunger and fatigue that the hunters can drive him
home between their two tame Elephants. When, once cap-
tured he is easily trained.
In captivity, it is very docile and gentle, but sometimes,
when provoked, will take a very ample revenge. Of this
propensity many anecdotes are told.
The tusks and teeth of the Elephant furnish exceedingly
fine ivory, which is used for various purposes, such as knife-
handles, combs, billiard balls, etc. There is a great art in
making a billiard ball. Some parts of the tusk are always
heavier than others, so that if the heavy part should fall on






ELEPHANT. 99

one side of the ball, it would not run true. The object of
the maker is either to get the heavier portion in the centre,
or to make the ball from a piece of ivory of equal weight.
In either case, the ball is made a little larger than the



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THE AMERICAN TAPIR.
proper size; it is then hung up in a dry room for several
months, and finally turned down to the requisite dimen-
sions.
All elephants are fond of the water, and sometimes sub-




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