• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Preface
 Stonewall Jackson's way
 An orphan boy
 A cadet
 A major of artillery
 A professor
 A Confederate colonel
 A Brigadier-General
 A Major-General
 A Major-General (continued)
 A Lieutenant-General
 Upon the roll of fame
 The lone sentry
 Observations of "Stonewall's"...
 Stonewall Jackson mortally...
 The bivouac of the dead
 The sunny south
 Back Cover






Group Title: life of Gen. Thos. J. Jackson, "Stonewall"
Title: The Life of Gen. Thos. J. Jackson, "Stonewall"
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00088952/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life of Gen. Thos. J. Jackson, "Stonewall" : for the young (fourth reader grade), in easy words
Alternate Title: Life of Thomas J. Jackson "Stonewall"
Physical Description: 248 p. : ill., port. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Williamson, Mary L ( Mary Lynn ), 1850-1923 ( Author, Primary )
B.F. Johnson Publishing Co. ( Publisher )
Publisher: B.F. Johnson Publishing Co.
Place of Publication: Richmond Va
Publication Date: 1899
 Subjects
Subject: Christian life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Generals -- Biography -- Juvenile literature -- United States   ( lcsh )
Generals -- Biography -- Juvenile literature -- Confederate States of America   ( lcsh )
History -- Biography -- Juvenile literature -- United States -- Civil War, 1861-1865   ( lcsh )
Biographies -- 1899   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1899
Genre: Biographies   ( rbgenr )
individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Virginia -- Richmond
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Mrs. Mary L. Williamson.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00088952
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002239797
notis - ALJ0332
oclc - 02631818
lccn - 00001900

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 1a
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Frontispiece
        Page 3
    Title Page
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Dedication
        Page 6
    Preface
        Page 7
    Stonewall Jackson's way
        Page 8
    An orphan boy
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    A cadet
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    A major of artillery
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    A professor
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    A Confederate colonel
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    A Brigadier-General
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    A Major-General
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    A Major-General (continued)
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
    A Lieutenant-General
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
    Upon the roll of fame
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
    The lone sentry
        Page 239
    Observations of "Stonewall's" servant
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
    Stonewall Jackson mortally wounded
        Page 244
    The bivouac of the dead
        Page 245
        Page 246
    The sunny south
        Page 247
        Page 248
    Back Cover
        Page 249
        Page 250
Full Text








I.. I




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~-~*l~i~&/Fn!


General "Stonewall" Jackson's Staff.


1. Major W. J. HAWKS.
2. Major R. L. DABNEY.
3. Captain J. HOTCHKISS.
4. Lieutenant-Colonel W. A-LAN.
5. Major HUNTER MCGUIRE,
Medical Director.


6. Lieutenant-Colonel A. S. PENDLETON.
7. Captain J. P. SMITH.
8. Captain J. G. MORRISON.
9. Major H. K. DOUGLAS.
10. Major D. B. BRIDGEFORD.






THE LIFE

or


GEN.THOS.


J.JACKSON


"Stonewa ll"

FPO THE YOUNG,
(fOURTH READER GRADE)

IN ExAS WORDS.

ILLUSTRATED.


Bv MRS. MARY L. WILLIAMSON.


1899.
B. r. JOHNSON PUBLISHING CO.
PICHMOND, VA.







































Copyright, 1899,
BY
MRS. MARY L. WILLIAMSON.


























DEDICATED

TO ALL YOUTHS WHO

ADMIRE THE CHRISTIAN VIRTUES

AND MILITARY GENIUS OF

THOMAS j. JACKSON.










PREFACE.

Continuing the argument set forth in the "Life of
Gen. Lee for Children," that we can advance primary
education and impress lessons of morality upon children
in no better way than to place before them the careers
of our great men, I now give, in simple words, the Life
of Gen. Thos. J. Jackson."
In this brief sketch of our great Southern hero, I have
endeavored to portray, amid the blaze of his matchless
military genius, the unchanging rectitude of his conduct,
the stern will-power by which he conquered all diffi-
culties, his firm belief in an overruling Providence, and
his entire submission to the Divine Will. These traits
of character were the corner-stones upon which he
reared the edifice of his greatness, and upon which the
young people of our day will do well to build.
Teachers may introduce this book as a supplementary
reader into the fourth grade, as I have been careful to
employ as few words as possible outside of the voca-
bulary of that grade.
In preparing this work, I used chiefly as reference and
authority the Life of Lieut.-Gen. Thomas J. Jackson,-by
Prof. R. L. Dabney, D. D., who was, for a time, Jack-
son's chief of staff, and who had personal knowledge of
his character and military exploits.
Acknowledgment is due Col. James H. Morrison for
valuable assistance rendered, and to Mrs. Thomas J.
Jackson, of Charlotte, N. C., and Mr. M. Miley, of Lex-
ington, Va., for furnishing valuable illustrative matter.
I am also indebted to the kindness of Messrs. Paxton
and Henkel, the editors, respectively, of the Rockbridge
County News and the Shenandoah Valley, for files of their
reliable journals, containing accounts of the more recent
events recorded in the last chapter.
MARY LYNN WILLIAMSON.
NEW MARKET, VA.,
March 30, 1899.












Stonewall Jackson's Way.

DES RIVIERES.

Come! stack arms, men ; pile on the rails,
Stir up the camp-fires bright;
No matter if the canteen fails,
We'll make a roaring night.
Here Shenandoah brawls along,
There lofty Blue Ridge echoes strong
To swell the brigade's rousing song
Of Stonewall Jackson's Way."
We see him now-the old slouched hat
Cocked o'er his eye askew;
The shrewd, dry smile, the speech so pat,
So calm, so blunt, so true.
The Blue Light Elder knows them well:
Says he, That's Banks-he's fond of shell;
Lord save his soul we'll give him-." Well,
That's Stonewall Jackson's Way.
Silence ground arms! kneel all! caps off!
Old Blue Light's" going to pray;
Strangle the fool who dares to scoff i
Attention! it's his way :
Appealing from his native sod,
In forma pauperis to God-
" Lay bare thine arm, stretch forth thy rod;
Amen!" That's Stonewall Jackson's Way.
He's in the saddle now. Fall in!
Steady the whole brigade !
Hill's at the ford, cut off! We'll win
His way out ball and blade.
What matter if our shoes are worn?
What matter if our feet are torn?
Quick step we're with him e'er the morn !
That's Stonewall Jackson's Way.
The sun's bright glances rout the mists
Of morning-and, by George !
There's Longstreet struggling in the lists,
Hemmed in an ugly gorge.
Pope and his columns whipped before.-
Bay'nets and grape!" hear Stonewall roar;
"Charge, Stuart! pay off Ashby's score!"
Is "Stonewall Jackson's Way."












Life of Gen. T. J. Jackson.


CHAPTER I.

An Orphan Boy.
THOMAS JONATHAN JACKSON was born Jan-
uary 21, 1824, at Clarksburg, West Virginia,
which State was then a part of old Virginia.
He sprang from Scotch-Irish stock. His
great-grandfather, John Jackson, was born
in Ireland, but his parents moved to the
city of London when John was only two
years old. John Jackson grew up to be a
great trader. In 1748 he came to the New
World to make his fortune, and landed in
the State of Maryland. Not long after, he
married Elizabeth Cummins, a young woman
who was noted for her good looks, fine mind,
and great height.
2






10 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.

John Jackson with his wife soon moved
West, and at last took up lands in what is
now known as Upshur county, West Virginia.
As land was then cheap, he soon owned a


House in which Jackson was Born, Clarksburg, Va.

large tract of country, and was a rich man
for those times. He was greatly aided by
his brave wife, Elizabeth. In those days
the Indians still made war upon the whites,






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


who would flee for safety into the forts or
strongholds. It is said that in more than
one of those Indian raids Elizabeth Jackson
aided in driving off the foe.

















Father of "Stonewall" Jackson.

When the great Revolutionary war came
on, John Jackson and several of his sons
marched to the war; and at its close came
back safe to their Virginia home. In these
lovely and fertile valleys, John Jackson and






12 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
his wife Elizabeth passed long and active
lives. The husband lived to be eighty-six
years old, while his wife lived to the great
age of one hundred and five years. Her
strength of body and mind fitted her to
rear a race of mighty men.
Thomas Jonathan was the great-grandson
of these good people. His father, Jonathan
Jackson, was a lawyer. He is said to
have been a man of good mind and kind
heart. Thomas's mother was Julia Neale,
the daughter of a merchant in the then
village of Parkersburg, on the Ohio river.
Mrs. Jackson was good and beautiful.
Thomas had one brother, Warren, and two
sisters, Elizabeth and Laura. Not long after
the birth of the baby Laura, Elizabeth was
taken sick with fever and died. Her father,
worn out with nursing, was also taken ill;
and two weeks after her death he was laid
'in a grave by her side.
After his death it was found that he had
left no property for his widow and babes.





THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


They were now without a home, and the Ma-
sonic Order gave the widow a house of one
room. Here she sewed, and taught school,
caring as well as she could for her little
fatherless children.
In the year 1830 she married Mr. Wood-
son, a lawyer, who was pleased with her
youth and beauty. Her children-Warren,
Thomas, and Laura-were now claimed by
their father's family, who did not like the
S second marriage of the mother.
As her new husband was not a rich man,
she was at last forced to give them up. Little
S Jonathan, then only seven years old, was
placed behind good, old "Uncle Robinson,"
S the last of his father's slaves, and sent away
to his aunt, Mrs. Brake, who lived about four
miles from Clarksburg.
After being one year at his aunt's he was
sent for to see his mother die. Death for
her had no sting; and Thomas, long years
after, said that her dying words and prayers
had never been erased from his heart. She






14 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
was laid to rest not far from the famous
Hawk's Nest, on New river, West Virginia.
Jonathan was then a pretty child, with
rosy cheeks, wavy brown hair, and deep-blue
eyes. It is said of him that, as a child, he
was strangely quiet and manly. The sad-
ness of his young life made him grave and
thoughtful beyond his years. When he was
but eight years old he went one day to the
home of his father's cousin, Judge John G.
Jackson, in Clarksburg.
While eating his dinner, he said to Mrs.
Jackson in a quiet way, "Uncle and I don't
agree. I have quit him and shall not go
back any more." His kind cousin tried to
show him that he was in fault and that he
should go back to his Uncle Brake. He
only shook his head and said more firmly
than ever, "No, uncle and I don't agree.
I have quit him and shall not go back any
more." It seems that his uncle had tried to
govern him by force rather than through his
sense of right and wrong. So, this strange





THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


child calmly made up his mind not to stay
where there would be constant warfare.
From Judge Jackson's he went that even-
ing to the home of another cousin, who also
tried to persuade him to return to his Uncle
Brake. But Jonathan only said, "I have
quit there. I shall not go back there any
more." The next morning he set out alone
and on foot, and went eighteen miles to the
home of his uncle, Cummins Jackson, the
half-brother of his father.
There he found his brother Warren, and
soon felt quite at home with his kind uncle
and aunts. His Uncle Cummins was a
bachelor, who owned a fine farm and mills,
and was one of the largest slave-owners in
Lewis county.
He was quite fond of his little nephew,
and took pains to teach him all the arts of
country life. He treated him more as an
equal than as a child, for he saw at once the
noble nature with which he had to deal. He
Also sent Thomas and Warren to the nearest






16 THE L1FE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
county school, but Warren, now a bold lad
of fourteen years, did not like such restraint.
He at last induced Thomas to go with him
from their uncle's home to seek their fortunes
in the great West.
After stopping for a time at the home of
their uncle on the Ohio river, they went
down that river, and for some months were
not heard from.
In the fall of that year, they returned to
their kind friends, ragged, and ill with chills
and fever.
Their story was that they made a raft
and floated down to one of the lonely islands
in the Mississippi river near the Kentucky
shore, where they cut wood for steamboats
on the river. Here they spent the summer
-alone, with little food, in the midst of a
dense forest surrounded by the turbid, rush-
ing waters of the great Mississippi.
At last, illness forced them to seek their
way homeward; and Thomas boldly said
that he was going back to his good Uncle









:iip7
-lr

-.: 4,.


Warren and Thomas on the Ohio river.





18 THE LIFE OF GEN THOMAS J. JACKSON.
Cummins. Warren stopped at the home of
his Uncle Brake, but disease had laid so
firm a hold upon him that, after lingering a
few years, he died, aged about nineteen.
Thomas and Laura were now all that were
left of the little family. They lived together
for several months at their Uncle Cummins's,
and it is told of Thomas that he was very
fond of his little sister. Across the brook
from the house was a large grove of sugar-
maple trees where they would go to play
"making sugar." It was a great pleasure
to Thomas to build bridges for his little
sister to walk on in crossing the stream, and
many were the delights of the cool and
fragrant forests. But in a short time Laura
was sent to live with her mother's friends
in Wood county, and Thomas was left alone,
Though they could not live together, Thomas
always cherished the warmest love for his
sister, and the very first money he ever earned
was spent in buying a silk dress for her,
Thomas now went to school to Mr. Robert





THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


P. Ray. He showed no aptness for any
study except arithmetic. When called upon
to recite a lesson, he would flatly say that
he did not understand it and, therefore, was
not ready; nor would he go to the next lesson
until he had learned the first perfectly. Thus,
he was always behind his class. He was
never surly at school, but was always ready
for a merry romp or play. When there
were games of "bat and ball" or "prisoner's
base," he was sure to be chosen captain of
one side, and that side generally won.
As long as he was treated fairly by his
playmates, he was gentle and yielding; but,
if he thought himself wronged, he did not
hesitate to fight it out. It is said that he
would never admit that he had been beaten
in a fray, and was always ready to renew the
contest when his foe assailed him again.
In the summer, Thomas worked on the
farm and became of use to his uncle in
many ways. One of his most frequent tasks
was to haul great logs of oak and pine from






20 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
the wood to the saw-mill. He, thus, became
a famous driver of oxen, and was known
throughout the country-side as a young man
of great strength and courage.
So his life was passed, from nine to six-
teen, between the school and the farm. He
was then like his father, of low stature, but
he afterwards grew tall like the men of his
mother's race.
About this time, he was made constable of
one-half of Lewis county. We see him now
with his bag of bills and account books
going up and down the hills of Lewis county.
In this work he had to be firm and exact,
for it was now his task to collect money due
for debts.
This story is told of his nerve and skill in
doing this unpleasant duty. A man who
owed a debt of ten dollars promised to pay
it at a given time. The day came and the
man failed to keep his word. Young Jack-
son paid the money out of his own purse,
and then watched for the man who would






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


not pay his debt. The very next morning
the man came riding up the street on a good
horse. Jackson at once taxed him with not
keeping his word, and was going to take the
horse for the debt, when the latter resisted,
and a fierce fight took place in the street.
In the midst of the fray the man mounted
his horse and was riding off.
Jackson, however, sprang forward and
seized the bridle. Seeing that he could get
the man off the horse in no other way, he
led it to the low door of a stable near by.
The man cuffed him right and left, but Jack-
son clung to the bridle, and pulled the horse
into the stable. The man was thus forced
to slide off to keep from being knocked off;
and Jackson got the horse.
Though this life in the open air was good
for the health of our hero, it did not benefit
his morals. He was kept much from home,
and was thrown with the worst class of
people in the county.
His aunts had now married, and his Uncle




















4?.' ^


S.


Jackson and the Debtor.


p
~~iQ~L~ ~4

P~


'''c~,%






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


Cummins was keeping "bachelor's hall."
He also kept race horses, and none save
Thomas could ride for him if a contest was
close.
It was said through all that country that
if a horse could win, he would do so if young
Tom Jackson rode him in the race.
It is sad to think of this young man
thrown upon the world without mother or
sister or any human influence, save his own
will, to keep him in the right way. But
in this wild, rough life the great wish of
his heart was to reach that condition from
which he had been thrust when left a poor
orphan boy. And even now the great God,
who has said that He will be a father to the
fatherless, was opening up a way to a great
and notable career.


Constable (kun'-sta-ble), an officer of the peace.
No-ta-ble, wonderful.
Ca-reer', a course.
In'-flu-ence, power not seen.






24 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.

Do you remember-
The name of Thomas's father?
The place of his birth?
His early loss of father and mother?
His life at Uncle Cummins's?
The story told of him when constable ?
The wish of his heart in the midst of his
wild, rough life?






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSOZ.


CHAPTER II.

A Cadet.

IN 1842, the place of a cadet in the great
academy at West Point became vacant. In
that school or academy the young men of
the United States are trained to become
soldiers. Thomas at once sought and secured
the place, and very soon set :out ;on horse-
back to Clarksburg, where he would take
the coach going to Washington.
He was clad in home-spun clothes, and
his whole wardrobe was packed in a pair of
saddle-bags.
When he reached Clarksburg, he found
that the coach had passed by; but he rode
on until he overtook it and then went on to
Washington city.
He was kindly met by his friend Mr.
Hays, member of Congress from his district,
8






26 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON:
who took him at once to the Secretary of
War. The latter was so pleased with his
manly bearing and direct speech that he
ordered his warrant to be made out at once.
Mr. Hays wished him to stay in Washing-
ton for a few days in order to see the sights
of the city, but he was content to climb to
the top of the dome of the Capitol, from
which he could view the whole scene at
once. He was then ready to go on to West
Point for examination. His great trouble
now was the thought that he might not
know enough to stand that examination.
Mr. Hays wrote to his friends at the
academy and asked them to be easy in
examining the mountain boy, who wished so
much to be a soldier; and it is said that
they asked him no very hard questions.
Thomas was now eighteen years old. He
had a fresh, ruddy face, and was strong and
full of courage.
The fourth-class men at this school were
called by their school-mates "plebs," and












I. Ii*V.*- -~UU=S*I~I'
omlr--4-41'.--J.,--I'ii P.


[I I


View of West Point from Fort Putnam.


I


*. ..- ^^


A W,






28 THE LIFE OF GN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
were made to sweep and scrub the barracks
and to do other tasks of the same kind.
The third-class men would play pranks upon
the new boys, some of which were quite hard
to bear. Now, when they saw this country
boy in his home-spun clothes, they thought
that they would have rare sport out of him.
But such were his courage and good temper
that they soon let him alone.
He now studied hard, for, being behind
his class, he had double work to do. He
once said to a friend that he studied very
hard for what he learned at West Point.
Just as when he was a boy, if he did not
understand the lesson of the day, he would
not pass over it to the next, but would work
on until he knew all about it.
It was often the case that when called to
the black-board to recite, he would say that
he was still at work on the last lesson. This,
of course, caused him to get low marks, but
he was too honest to pretend to know what
he did not understand at all. His teachers






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


judged his mind sound and strong, but not
quick. What he lacked in quickness, he
made up in steady work; so, at the end of
the fourth year, he graduated seventeenth in
his class.
During the second year at West Point he
grew, as it were, by a leap to the height'of
six feet; and in his cadet uniform was very
fine-looking.
He was neat in his attire, and kept his
gun clean and bright.
It is said that one day during this year, he
found that his bright musket had been stolen,
and that a foul and rusty one had been put
into its place.
He told the captain of his loss, and gave
him a mark by which his gun might be
known. That evening it was found in the
hands of a fellow-cadet who had stolen it
and then told a falsehood to shield himself
from punishment.
Jackson had been angry because of his
musket, but now he was deeply vexed at the






30 THE LIFE OF EN. THOMAS J. JACKSON
falsehood, and asked that the cadet should
be sent away, as he was unfit to remain at
the academy. The friends of the boy at
last prevailed upon him to waive his right of
pressing the charge, and the erring cadet was
let alone. Not long after, the cadet again
broke the rules of the school and was sent
away in disgrace.
From this we see that Jackson had at
that time a hatred of all that was low and
wicked.
He now wrote, in a blank book, a number
of maxims as rules for his life. They
touched on morals, manners, dress, the
choice of friends, and the aims of life. One
of these rules every boy should keep in mind.
It was this:
"You may be whatever you resolve to be."
We shall see that this was indeed the
guiding star of his life. Whatever he willed to
do he always did by sheer force of endeavor.
At this time it is plain that it was his
purpose to place his name high up on the






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


roll of earthly honor. Beneath his shy and
modest manners, there burned the wish to be
truly great. His life was not yet ruled by
love of Christ, but it shows some of the
highest and noblest aims.
Jackson was twenty-two years old when
he left West Point, June 30, 1846. He
then took the rank of second lieutenant of
artillery in the United States army. The
artillery is that branch of an army which
fights with cannon, or big guns. At that
time a war was going on between the United
States and Mexico. General Scott was then
going to the seat of war to take the chief
command of the army of the United States;
and Jackson, the young lieutenant, was sent
to join him in the south of Mexico.


Ca-det' (ka-det'), a military pupil.
Warrant (wor'-rant), a certificate.
Max'-im (maks-im), a wise saying.
Mor'als (mor-als), conduct.
Waive (way), to give up.






32 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON,

Tell what you remember about-
Jackson's going to West Point.
His life at West Point.
The cadet who stole his musket.
The important maxim.
His age and rank when he left West Point.
The war which was going on at that time.






THE LIFE OF SGEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


CHAPTER III.

A Major of Artillery.

ON the 9th day of March, 1847, thirteen
thousand five hundred troops were landed in
one day from the American fleet upon the
sea-shore near Vera Cruz (VS-ra Kroos).
This fine army, with its waving flags and
bright guns, presented a scene of splendor
which Lieutenant Jackson never forgot.
General Scott's plan was to take the city
of Vera Cruz by storm, and then march over
the hills and valleys and lofty mountains to
the City of Mexico.
This was a hard task, and cost many lives,
as I will show you.
On the 13th of March, General Scott had
placed his men all around the city of Vera
Cruz and was ready for battle. On the 29th
of March, after a fierce battle, the city was






























all. ,;-


Biri's-E1ye View of City of Mexico.

(34)






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON


taken by the Americans. This was the first
battle in which our hero, took part, and it is
said that he fought bravely.
From Vera Cruz, the army marched on
until it came to a mountain, on the crest of
which was the strong fort of Cerro Gordo
(Ser'-r G6r'-do). Here, our troops were led
by Captain Robert E. Lee, of the engineers,
over a rough road planned by him, to the
rear of the Mexicans. The Americans being
in front of the Mexicans and also behind
them, the latter were soon put to flight,
leaving many men and guns on the battle-
field.
After this battle, Jackson was placed in
the light artillery, which used small cannon
and moved rapidly from place to place.
This change was just what young Jackson
wished, for though more dangerous, the light
artillery service gave him a better chance to
win the honors for which his soul thirsted.
Santa Anna, the general of the Mexicans,
now brought forward another large-army-and






36 THE LIFE OF EN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
placed it on the mountain heights of
Cherubus'co. Here, a fierce fight took place,
and the Mexicans were again driven back.
As a reward for his brave conduct in this
fight, our hero was given the brevet rank of
captain of artillery. The army then marched
on over the mountains to the strong castle
of Chapultepec (Chii-pool'-ta-p~ k'). This cas-
tle was built upon a high hill guarding the
plain which led to the City of Mexico. The
level plain at the foot of the mountain was
covered with crops of corn and other grain,
and with groves of trees. Here and there
were deep and wide ditches which the farm-
ers had dug for drains. These ditches the
artillery and horsemen could not cross; in
fact, the growing crops so concealed them
that the men could not see them until they
had reached their brinks.
Within the castle of Chapultepec were
swarms of Mexican soldiers, while around its
base were cannon, so placed as to sweep
every road that led up to it.






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


On the 13th of September the assault was
made on three sides at the same time. Jack-
son was sent with his men and guns to the
northwest side. Two regiments of infantry,
or footmen, marched with him.
They pushed forward, pouring shot and
shell at the foe, until they were quite close
to their guns, and at so short a range that
Jackson in a few moments found a number
of his horses killed and his men struck down
or scattered by the storm of grapeshot.
Just at this time, General Worth, seeing
how closely Jackson was pressed, sent him
word to fall back. Jackson, however, replied
that if General Worth would send him fifty
more men he would march forward and take
the guns which had done such deadly work.
While the troops were coming up, it is said
that Jackson lifted a gun by hand across a
deep ditch, and began to fire upon the Mexi-
cans with the help of only one man, the rest
of his command being either killed, wounded,
or hidden in the ditch.


































s
.:
~r~
.:

It
.'~L7~,.,.. -~
''
.n~ i-


Jackson moving cannon across a ditch.


9- /


~;i~c-g~c~:
i
-
a.
~Vl~f.;
~






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


Soon another cannon was moved across
the ditch, and in. a few moments the foe
was driven back by the rapid firing of these
two guns.
By this time, the men storming the castle
on the other two sides had fought their way
in, and the Mexicans began to fall back
upon the City of Mexico.
Orders had been given that when this
move took place, the artillery must move for-
ward rapidly and scatter the ranks of the foe.
In an instant Jackson's guns were thunder-
ing after the Mexicans, fleeing through the
gates into the city.
The next morning, September 14th, the
gates were forced and the Americans marched
into the city of Mexico.
For his brave conduct in the battle of
Chapultepec, Jackson was raised to the-rank
of major.
In after years, when he was modestly tell-
ing of this battle, a young man cried out,
"Major, why did you not run when so many






40 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON

of your men and horses were killed?" He
replied, with a quiet smile, "I was not
ordered to do so. If I had been ordered to
run I should have done so."

















T. J. Jackson at the age of twenty-four.
Once, when asked by a friend if he felt no
fear when so many were falling around him,
he said that he felt only a great desire to
perform some brave deed that would win for
him lasting fame. At that time, his thoughts






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


were chiefly fixed upon the faithful perform-
ance of his duty, and gaining honor and
distinction thereby.
In the beautiful City of Mexico, the Ameri-
can army now rested from warfare. Some
months passed before Jackson's command
was ordered home. His duties being light,
he began the study of the Spanish language,
and was soon able to speak it well. He
greatly enjoyed the fine climate of Mexico, and
admired the beauty and grace of her women.
For the first time in his life, he began to
think of religion and to study the Bible in
search of -the truth.
On May 26th, 1848, a treaty of peace was
made between the United States and Mexico,
and the war being over, the American troops
were sent home.
Major Jackson's command was sent to
Fort Hamilton, about seven miles from the
city of New York. While there, he was bap-
tized and admitted to his first communion
in the Episcopal Church.






42 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.

After he had been at Fort Hamilton two
years, Major Jackson was sent to Fort
Meade, near Tampa Bay, on the west coast
of Florida. While at this place, on the 28th
of March, 1851, he was elected professor of
natural and experimental philosophy and
artillery tactics in the Military Institute at
Lexington, Virginia.


Bre-vat', a commission which gives an officer a
rank above his pay.
As-sault', an attack, a violent onset.
Cli'mate, the prevailing state with regard to
heat and cold, &c.
What do you remember about-
The landing of troops at Vera Cruz ?
The assault upon the castle of Chapultepec ?
The taking of the City of Mexico by the
Americans ?
The new rank of Jackson?
His life in the City of Mexico ?
What he once said about running?
What happened at Fort Hamilton?
The position which he accepted March 27th,
1851 ?






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


CHAPTER IV.

A Professor.

IN writing of Major Jackson as a pro-
fessor, it seems highly appropriate to mention












Entrance to the Virginia Military Institute Grounds.

the circumstances leading to his appointment
to that position.
Reared in adverse circumstances, which
prevented him in early youth from receiving
the benefits of a good common-school educa-





44 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
tion, by his own efforts, mainly, he fitted
himself to enter the United States Military
Academy at West Point, and his first year's
course would have discouraged him in prose-
cuting his studies had he not been conscious
that there was that within, which, if properly
nurtured, would lead to ultimate success.
In his second year, he raised his general
standing from 51 to 30; in the third, from
30 to 20, and in the fourth, his graduating
year, from 20 to 17. His upward progress
attracted attention, and one of his associates
remarked: "Had Jackson remained at West
Point upon a, course of four years' longer
study, he would have reached the head of his
class."
His advancement in the Mexican war,
rising rapidly from brevet second lieutenant
of artillery to brevet major, was no less
marked than that at the academy, and his
gallant and meritorious services had been
heralded to the world through the official
reports of his superiors.






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


General Francis 1. Smith, superintendent
of the Virginia Military Institute, in "Insti-
tute Memorial," writes:
"It is not surprising that, when the Board
of Visitors of the Virginia Military Institute
were looking about for a suitable person to
fill the chair of Natural and Experimental
Philosophy and Artillery, the associates of
this young and brave major of artillery
should have pointed him out as worthy to
receive so distinguished an honor. Other
names had been submitted to the Board of
Visitors by the Faculty of West Point, allof
men distinguished for high scholarship and
for gallant services in Mexico. McClellan,
Reno, Rosecrans, afterward generals in the
Northern army, and G. W. Smith, who after-
ward became a general in the Confederate
army, were thus named. But the peculiar
fitness of young Jackson, the high testi-
monials to his personal character, and his
nativity as a Virginian, satisfied the Board
that they might safely select him for the






46 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKhON.
vacant chair without seeking candidates
from other States. He was, therefore, unani-
mously elected to the professorship on the
28th of March, 1851, and entered upon the
duties of his/ chair on the 1st of September
following:
"The professorial career of Major Jackson
was marked by great faithfulness, and by an
unobtrusive, yet earnest spirit. With high
mental endowments, teaching was a new pro-
fession to him, and demanded, in the impor-
tant department of instruction assigned to
him, an amount of labor which, from the
state of his health, and especially from the
weakness of his eyes, he rendered at great
sacrifice.
"Conscientious fidelity to duty marked
every step of his life here, and when called
to active duty in the field he had made con-
siderable progress in the preparation of an
elementary work on optics, which he pro-
posed to publish for the benefit of his classes.
"Strict, and at times stern, in his disci-













>1'
~q 17


Virginia Military Institute Barracks (fore-shortened).
(47)





48 THE LIFE OF G7EN THOMAS J. JACKSON.
pline, though ever polite and kind, he was not
always a popular professor; but no professor
ever possessed to a higher degree the confi-
dence and respect of the cadets for his
unbending integrity and fearlessness in the
discharge of his duty. If he was exact in
his demands upon them, they knew he was
no less so in his own respect for and sub-
mission to authority; and, thus, it became a
proverb among them, that it was useless to
write an excuse for a report made by Major
Jackson. His great principle of government
was, that a general rule should not be violated
for any particular good; and his animating
rule of action was, that a man could always
accomplish what he willed to perform.
"Punctual to a minute, I have known him
to walk in front of the superintendent's
quarters in a hard rain, because the hour had
not quite arrived when it was his duty to
present his weekly class reports.
"'For ten years, he prosecuted his unwearied
labors as a professor, making during this





THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


period, in no questionable form, such an
impress upon those who from time to time
were under his command, that, when the
war broke out, the spontaneous sentiment of
all cadets and graduates was, to serve under
him as their leader."
An incident is related by General Smith
in the same work, which shows clearly how
Jackson was looked upon in the community
in which he resided:
"He left the Virginia Military Institute
on the 21st of April, 1861, in command of
the corps of cadets, and reported for duty
at Camp Lee, Richmond. Dangers were
thickening rapidly around the State. Inva-
sion by overwhelming numbers seemed immi-
nent. Norfolk, Richmond, Alexandria, and
Harper's Ferry were threatened. Officers
were needed to command at these points.
The Governor of Virginia nominated Major
Jackson as a colonel of volunteers. His
nomination was immediately and unani-
mously confirmed by the Council of State,





50 2HE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
and sent to the Convention then in session.
Some prejudice existed in that body from
the supposed influence of the Virginia Mili-
tary Institute in these appointments, and
the question was asked by various members,
' Who is this Thomas J. Jackson' ? A member
of the Convention from the county of Rock-
bridge, Hon. S. McDowell Moore, replied:
' I can tell you who he is. If you put Jack-
son in command at Norfolk, Ie will never
leave it alive unless you order him to do so.'
Such was the iimpriss made upon his neigh-
bors and friends in his quiet life as a pro-
fessor at the Military Institute."
In accepting the position of professor, he
was again stepping higher. In active war-
fare aft officer may advance rapidly, but in
times of peace he lives quietly at a military
post and simply rusts out. Ill-health, brought
on mainly by exposure in the Mexican War,
caused Major Jackson to resign his commis-
sion in the army; but in all probability, had
this not been the case he would have aban-





THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


doned army life, because he felt that by
close study and application, he could reach
a much higher degree of mental excellence
than he had attained; and the position of
professor would enable him to do this, for he
knew that the best way to learn was to
teach.
In consequence of the weakness of his
eyes, his great will-power had now to be
exerted to the utmost, because he could not
use his eyes at night. In order to do himself
and his classes justice, each morning after
class hours, he would carefully read over the
lessons for the next day, and, at night after
his simple supper, he would quietly sit with
his face to the wall and go over in his mind
the lessons read that day. In this way he
made them his own, and was prepared to
teach the next day. This training was of
great use to him in his after life as a soldier.
The power of his mind was such that while
riding, in later years, at the head of his army,
he could study the movements of the foe, and





52 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON
plan his own with as much care and skill as
in the quiet of his study at home.
The statement made by General Smith
respecting the desire of the cadets to serve
under Major Jackson in the war shows how
popular he was, and this estimate of his
powers could have been produced only by
their knowledge of his great worth.
"Old Jack" was the name given to the
Major by the cadets, but it was never used
derisively. Pranks were played in Major
Jackson's section room by the cadets, but
more for their own amusement than for any
other purpose. They well knew the conse-
quences if caught, but were willing to run
the risk for the sake of fun.
Cadet Abe Fulkerson once wore a collar
made out of three fourths of a yard of linen,
(for no other purpose than to produce a laugh)
and it made even "Old Jack" laugh-that
is, smile, which he would not have done if
the size, shape, or color of collars had been
fixed by the Institute regulations.






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


Cadet Davidson Penn, with an uncom-
monly solemn face and apparently in good
faith, once asked Major Jackson, "Major, can
a cannon be so bent as to make it shoot
around a corner?" The Major showed not
the slightest sign of impatience or of merri-
ment, but after a moment of apparently
sober thought, replied, "Mr. Penn, I reckon
hardly."
It has been said that Major Jackson never
smiled or laughed. It has just been shown
'that he smiled once, and there is no doubt
but that if he could have been seen when he
read the excuse mentioned below, not only
would another smile have been seen, but a
good, hearty laugh heard. At artillery drill
one evening Major Jackson had given the
command, "Limbers and caissons pass your
pieces, trot, march!" Cadet Hambrick failed
to trot at command and was reported. The
next day the following excuse was handed
in: Report, "Cadet Hambrick not trotting
at artillery drill." Excuse, "I am a natural






54 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON,

pacer." These three incidents are recounted
by Dr. J. C. Hiden, of Richmond, Virginia.
Cadet Thos. B. Amiss, who was afterwards
surgeon of one of Jackson's Georgian regi-


Professor Jackson's Class-room, Virginia Military Institute.

ments, tried a prank for the double purpose
of evading a recitation and creating a laugh.
He was squad-marcher of his section, and
after calling the roll and making his report
to the officer of the day, he turned the sec-
tion over to the next man on the roll, took his





THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


place in ranks, and cautioned the new squad-
marcher not to report him absent. While
the squad-marcher was making his report
to Major Jackson whose eyes seemed always
riveted to his class-book when this was be-
ing done, Amiss noiselessly climbed to the
top of a column that stood nearly in the
center of the room. Having received the
report, Major Jackson commenced to call the
names of those whom he wished to recite
at the board, commencing with Amiss; not
hearing Amiss -respond, he asked, "Mr.
Amiss absent?" The squad-marcher re-
plied, "No, sir." The Major looked steadily
along the line of faces, seemed perplexed
and cast his eyes upwards, when he spied
the delinquent at the top of the column.
The Major, for a moment, gazed at the
clinging figure and said, "You stay there,"
and Amiss had to remain where he was
until the recitation was over. He was
reported, court-martialed, received the maxi-
mum number of demerits, and had a large





56 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
number of extra tours of guard duty as-
signed him, during the walking of which
in the lone hours of the night, he had am-
ple time to repent of his folly.
When the class that graduated in 1860
commenced its recitations under Major Jack-
son, a sudden end was made to all kinds of
merriment in his class-room. A member of
the class, who is now a member of Congress
from Virginia, concealed a small music-box
under his coatee and carried it into the
class-room. After the recitation had com-
menced he touched a spring and the room
was filled with sweet, muffled strains of
music. Major Jackson did not hear, or if
he did, took no notice of it. The cadet, find-
ing that his music was not duly appreciated,
commenced to bark, in very low tones, like a
puppy, and this meeting with the same fate
as the music he became emboldened and
barked louder. Major Jackson, without
changing his countenance, turning his head,
or raising his voice above an ordinary tone,






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 57
said, "Mr. C., when you march the section
in again, please leave that puppy outside."
The laugh was on the young cadet, and the
result stated followed.
The following incident illustrates clearly
how regardless Major Jackson was of public
opinion or personal feeling when in conflict
with duty. A young cadet was dismissed
through a circumstance that occurred in
Major Jackson's class-room, and he became
so enraged that he challenged the Major to
fight a duel, and sent him word that if he
would not fight he would kill him on sight.
Major Jackson, actuated solely by conscien-
tious motives, took the necessary precautions
to prevent a conflict, and informed the young
man, through his friends, that if he were
attacked he would defend himself. The
attack was not made, notwithstanding the
fact that the Major passed back and forth as
usual. This cadet, during the Civil War,
learned to know Major Jackson better, was
under his command, and before the close of
5






58 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
the war commanded the "Stonewall Bri-
gade," which was rendered so famous by
Jackson; and in later years, when asked his
opinion of this great man, said that he was
the only man ever born who had never been
whipped.
Major Jackson seemed to enjoy the duty
of drilling the artillery battery more than
any other duty he had to perform, and it
was natural that he should, for he had won
fame as an artillery officer in the Mexican
War.
Near the close of every session of the In-
stitute, Major Jackson was required to drill
the battery before the Board of Visitors; and
in order to make it more interesting to the
public, always present in large crowds, blank
cartridges were fired, and the drill had really
the semblance of a battery in actual battle.
An impressive scene was witnessed at this
drill in 1860. It commenced at 5 P. M.
Major Jackson had put the battery through
its various evolutions, and as the time ap-












A-i/


Where TMajor Jackson trained artillerymen (Virginia Military Institute Parade-Grounds).


I oc I






60 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
preached for the firing to commence, seemed
more and more interested in his work. His
old professor of engineering at West Point,
Dennis Mahan, and the commandant of cadets
of that institution, Colonel Hardee, witnessed
the drill. Ever since the commencement of
the evolutions, a dark cloud had been gather-
ing in the west and the rumbling of thunder
could be heard. The firing commenced and
all was excitement. Closer and closer came
the cloud, and the artillery of heaven seemed
replying to the discharges of the battery.
Major Jackson had been slowly retreating
before the imaginary foe, firing by half bat-
tery. The cloud came nearer and nearer,
unheeded by Jackson. Suddenly his voice
rang clear and sharp, "Fire advancing
by half battery"-the foe were retreating-
"right-half battery advance, commence
firing!" New positions were rapidly taken,
and the firing was at its height. Then the
storm broke in all its fury. Up to that time
the Major had seemed oblivious to all save






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 61
the drill. The bursting storm brought him
to himself and he dismissed the battery,
which at once went to shelter. Major Jack-
son remained where he was, folded his arms
and stood like a statue in the driving storm.
An umbrella was sent him from a house
close by with an invitation to come to cover.
He replied, "No, thank you;" and there he
stood until the storm was over, doubtless
thinking of the hard-fought fields of Mexico
and the havoc he had there wrought.
In November, 1851, Major Jackson con-
nected himself with the Presbyterian church
at Lexington, then in charge of the Rev. Dr.
W. S. White. It now seemed his chief
desire to do good. He was made a deacon
and given a class of young men in the Sun-
day school. Some of them still live and
remember how faithfully he taught them.
He also gathered together the African slaves
of the town every Sabbath evening for the
purpose of teaching them the truths of the
Bible. He soon had a school of eighty or a






62 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
hundred pupils and twelve teachers. This
school he kept up from 1855 to 1861, when
he left Lexington to enter the army; and
until his death it was always a great pleasure
to him to hear of his black Sunday school.
Duty became now more than ever the
rule of his life-duty to God and duty to
man. So great was his regard for the Sab-
bath that he would not even read a letter,
or mail one which he knew would be carried
on that day.
The Rev. R. L. Dabney tells us that one
Sabbath, when a dear friend, who knew that
the Major had received a letter from his lady-
love late on Saturday night, asked, as they
were walking to church, "Major, surely you
have read your letter ?" Certainly not;" said
he. What obstinacy! exclaimed his friend.
"Do you not think that your desire to know
its contents will distract your mind from
divine worship far more than if you had
done with reading it?" "No," answered
he, quietly, "I shall make the most faithful





THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS JACKSON


effort I can to control my thoughts, and as I
do this from a sense of duty, I shall expect
the divine blessing upon it."
When a single man, he made it a rule to
accept, if possible, all invitations, saying
that when a friend had taken the trouble to
invite him it was his duty to attend.
Major Gittings, once a cadet, and a rela-
tive of Major Jackson, says: "Speaking from
a social standpoint, no man ever had a more
delicate regard for the feelings of others than
he, and nothing would embarrass him more
than any contretemps that might occur to
cause pain or distress of mind to others.
Hence, he was truly a polite man, and while
his manner was often constrained, and even
awkward, yet he would usually make a
favorable impression, through his desire to
please."
When Major Jackson first came to Lexing-
ton he was in ill-health, and many things he
did were looked upon as odd, which were
really not so. He had been at a famous





64 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.

water-cure hospital in the North, and had
been ordered to live on stale bread and but-
termilk and to wear a wet shirt next to his


Major Jackson's Home in Lexington.


body. He was also advised to go to bed at
9 o'clock. If that hour found him at a party
or lecture, or any other place, in order to
obey his physician, he would leave.
The dyspepsia with which he suffered





THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


often caused drowsiness, and he would some-
times go to sleep while talking to a friend
or while sitting in his pew at church.
General Hill says of him: "I have seen
his head bowed down to his very knees
during a good part of the sermon. He
always heard the text of our good pastor,
the Rev. Dr. White, and the first part of
the sermon, but after that all was lost."
Before leaving Lexington, he seemed to have
gained complete control over his muscles,
even while asleep, for no one, in the few
years preceding his departure, ever saw "his
head and his knees in contact," but it was
a common thing to see him sound asleep
while sitting perfectly upright.
Before marriage, Major Jackson had his
room in barracks, but took his meals at a
hotel in Lexington, and it has been said by
some that his eccentricities caused much
comment; more than that, he was laughed at
and insulted by rude, coarse persons. This
could hardly have been true, for an insult






66 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
offered to "Old Jack" would certainly have
been found out in some way, and if not re-
sented personally, it would have been by the
cadets to a man. One who lived in Lexington
during four years of Major Jackson's resi-
dence there, and more than a quarter of a
century after the war, never heard of these
insults, and, surely, had they ever been given
they would have been talked of, for Jackson's
name was on every tongue, and the incidents
of his life, from boyhood to death, were
almost a constant subject of conversation.
Though Major Jackson was very modest,
no man ever relied more fully upon himself.
Mentioning one day to a friend that he was
going to begin the study of Latin, he received
the reply that one who had not studied the
forms of that language in youth could never
become master of it in later years. To this
Jackson replied, "No; if I attempt it, I shall
become master of the language. I can do
what I will to do."
This stern will-power came to the aid of






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 67
his ambition many times. He found it dif-
ficult to ,speak in public, and in order to ac-
quire the art, he joined a literary club called
the "Franklin Society." He was always at
the meetings, and spoke in his turn; but, at
first, his efforts were painful both to himself
and to his hearers. His health was poor, his
nerves were unstrung, and sometimes he was
so confused that he would break down in the
middle of a sentence for want of the right
word. When this happened, he would quietly
sit down, and when his turn in the debate
came again would rise and make another at-
tempt. Thus, before the close of the debate,
he would succeed in telling what was in his
mind. By thus trying time after time, he be-
came a good speaker.
Soon after joining the Presbyterian church,
good Dr. White, his pastor, called upon him
to pray in public. He prayed in such a
halting way that Dr. White told him that he
would never again ask him to perform so
hard a task. Major Jackson replied that it





68 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
was a cross to him to pray in public, but
that he had made up his mind to bear it,
and did not wish to be excused. So he kept
on trying, and soon became a leader in
prayer.
General Hill, speaking of this incident,
says: "I think his conduct in this case was
due to his determination to conquer every
weakness of his nature. He once told me
that when he was a small boy, being sick, a
mustard plaster was placed upon his chest,
and his guardian mounted him upon a horse
to go to a neighbor's house, so that his mind
might be diverted and the plaster kept on.
He said that the pain was so dreadful that
he fainted soon after getting off his horse.
I asked him if he had kept it on in order to
obey his guardian. He answered, 'No, it
was owing to a feeling that I have had from
childhood not to yield to trials and diffi-
culties.' "
The same close friend also writes: "Dr.
Dabney thinks that he was timid, and that





THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 69
nothing but his iron will made him brave.
I think this is a mistake. The muscles of
his face would twitch when a battle was
about to open, and his hand would tremble
so that he could hardly write. His men
would see the working of his face and would
say, 'Old Jack is making faces at the Yan-
kees.' But all this only showed weak nerves.
I think he loved danger for its own sake."
Like St. Paul, "he kept his body under,"
and would not let any appetite control him or
any weakness overcome him. He used neither
coffee, tobacco, nor spirits, and he would go
all winter without cloak or overcoat in the
mountains of Virginia, giving as a reason
that he "did not wish to give way to cold."
For a like reason, he never drank spirits
of any kind. It is told of him that once
during the Civil War, when he was too near
the outposts of the foe to have fire, and
being greatly chilled, he was advised by his
surgeon to take a drink of brandy. He at
length agreed to take some, but made such a





70 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON
wry face in swallowing it that some one
asked him if it choked him. "No," he re-
plied, "I like it. That is the reason I never
use it." Another time, being asked to take
a drink of brandy, he said, "No, I thank
you; I am more afraid of it than all the
Federal bullets."
The immortal Jackson afraid of strong
drink! What a lesson to people who have
not the courage to say "No," when tempted
to do wrong!
In the midst of this busy life as professor,
Major Jackson was married, on August 4th,
1853, to Miss Eleanor Junkin, the daughter
of the president of Washington College, Lex-
ington, Virginia. This lovely lady lived only
fourteen months after her marriage. Major
Jackson's grief at her death was so great as
to alarm his friends. His health, never good,
suffered seriously, and his friends induced
him in the summer of 1856 to take a trip
to Europe, hoping that "the spell might be
broken which bound him to sadness."






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON


His European trip benefited him very
materially in health and spirits, and on his
return he, with great zeal, resumed his
labors in his classes at both the Military
Institute and the Sunday School.
He had started on his return trip in ample
time to reach the Institute at its opening,
September 1st, which he had promised to do;
but storms had prevented this and he was
behind time.
A lady friend, knowing what a slave he
was to his word, asked him if he had not
been miserable at the delay. The answer
was characteristic of the man. He had
done his part, Providence had intervened,
and he had not worried in the least. No
man ever trusted Providence more implicitly
than Jackson, and when he went to God in
prayer he knew that his fbet would be guided
in the right way.
Dr. Dabney tells us that one day, when a
friend said that he could not understand
how one could "pray without ceasing," Jack-






72 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON
son replied that he had, for some time, been
in the habit of praying all through the day.
"When we take our meals," said he, "there
is grace, and when I take a draught of water,
I always pause to lift up my heart to God
in thanks for the water of life'; and when
I go to my class-room and await the coming
of the cadets, that is my time to pray for
them. And so with every other act of the
day." Thus we see that Jackson was truly
a "praying man."
His pastor, Rev. Dr. White, once said that
Major Jackson was the happiest man that
he had ever known. This happiness came
from his faith in the saving care of God.
We are told that a friend once said to him,
"Suppose you should lose your eyesight and
then, too, be very ill, and have to depend on
those bound to yoh by no tie, would not
this be too much for your faith? Do you
think you could be happy then?" He
thought a moment and then said, "If it
were the will of God to place me on a sick






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


bed, He would enable me to lie there in
peace a hundred years."
Such was the faith of this great man!
As he grew older his spirit became more
saintly until, when called upon to go up
higher to meet his Lord, his end seemed
more like a passing over than a death.
Major Jackson was married again, on July
15th, 1857, to Mary Anna Morrison, the
daughter of Dr. R. H. Morrison, a Presbyte-
rian minister, of North Carolina. This lady
is now living, and has quite lately written a
life of her husband, in which she gives beau-
tiful glimpses of their home life in Lexington,
and also extracts from his letters written to
her during the Civil War, of which I must
so soon tell you.
Shortly after his second marriage, Major
Jackson bought a house and a few acres of
land, and soon all of his spare time was
spent in working in his garden and fields.
We are told that his little farm of rocky
hill-land was soon well fenced and tilled, and
6






74 THE LIFE OF GEN THOMAS J. JAGESON

that he used to say that the bread grown
there by the labor of himself and slaves
tasted sweeter than that which was bought.
He liked to have his friends visit him, and


















Mrs. T. J. Jackson in 1899.

nowhere else was he so easy and happy as
with his guests at his own table.
In his home, military sternness left his
brow and the law of love took its place.
This story is told of him, which shows how






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


gentle and tender a soldier may be. "Once
a friend, who was taking his little four-year-
old girl on a journey without her mother,
called on the way to spend the night with
Major Jackson. At bed-time, when Mrs.
Jackson wished to take the child to her
room for the night, the father replied that
his little one would give less trouble if he
kept her with him. In the still watches of
the night, he heard a soft step, and felt a
hand laid upon his bed. It was Major Jack-
son, who, fearing that the little girl would
toss off the covering, had come to see that
all was safe."
This good and peaceful life at Lexington
was short. The black cloud of war was
hovering over our land and ere long the
storm burst in great fury, sweeping Major
Jackson away from his quiet life, his prof-
essorial duties, and his loved wife and
friends, into the midst of carnage and death,
and to deeds that made his fame world-wide
and immortal.






76 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
Major Jackson had but one more duty to
perform as a professor and officer of the Vir-
ginia Military Institute. He had been left
in charge of the corps of cadets when the
superintendent had been called to Richmond.
Early on the morning of Sunday, April 21st,
1861, an order was received by Major Jack-
son from Governor John Letcher, directing
him to leave with his command for Rich-
mond at 12:30 P. M. that day. Major
Jackson's arrangements were promptly made,
and he sent a request to his pastor, good
Dr. White, to come to the Institute and hold
religious services for the young men prior to
their departure. These services were held
in front of the barracks. The battalion was
drawn up in line of battle, Major Jackson
at the head and venerable Dr. White in the
front and center. All, with bowed heads,
were devoutly listening to the invocations
speeding heavenward. The clock in the
Institute tower gave the signal for departure,






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON


and, without a moment's pause, Jackson took
up the line of march and left his beloved
pastor praying.
The key-note of his great success as a sol-
dier was prompt obedience to orders and
requiring the same of others.


Me-mo'ri-al, something designed to keep in
remembrance a person, place, or event.
Fac'ul-ty, the body of instructors in a school.
Prof-es-so'ri-al, pertaining to a professor.
Coat-ee' (co-te'), a short military coat.
Con'sci-en'-tious, governed by conscience.
Ob'sti-na-cy, stubbornness.
Tell about-
Major Jackson's appointment as professor in
the Virginia Military Institute.
His reasons for resigning his position in the
army and accepting a professorship.
His life at the Institute.
His method of studying.
His Sunday school for negroes.
His strict observance of the Sabbath.
His home life.






78 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


CHAPTER V.

A Confederate Colonel.

BEF6RE going on with the life of our hero,
I must tell you, in a few plain and truthful
words, the causes of the Civil War which in
1861 broke out between the States.
You remember that, after the Revolution-
ary War, the thirteen colonies agreed to form
a Union, and adopted a set of laws called the
Constitution of the United States.
From the very first, however, the States
did not agree; in fact, laws which suited
one section did not suit the other, so that
there was always some cause for a quarrel.
At last, the question of slavery seemed to
give the most trouble. You have been told
that African slaves were first brought to Vir-
ginia in 1619 by the Dutch, and that after-
wards English and Northern traders brought
others, until all of the colonies held slaves.






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 79
But the cold climate of the North did not
suit the negroes, who had been used to the
hot sun of Africa. So, by degrees, they
were sold to Southern planters, who put
them to work in cotton and tobacco fields.
In the sunny South the blacks throve
well, and in 1861 numbered about four mil-
lions.
Having sold their slaves to Southern
planters, some of the people at the North
and West began to think that it was a sin to
hold the negroes in bondage, and began to
make laws hurtful to the people at the South.
They insisted that slaves should not be
brought into the new States as they came
into the Union; while the South demanded
that a slave-holder should be free to move
from one State into another with all his
property, just as a Northern man could do.
Southern people also believed that the
negroes were the happiest and best cared for
working people in the world, and that the
North was trespassing upon their just rights.






80 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
So the quarrel went on until October, 1859,
when an event happened in Virginia which
greatly increased the hatred of both parties.
A man named John Brown laid a plot for
freeing the negroes, first in Virginia and
then in the whole South.
For two years, he sent men through the
South secretly to stir up the negroes and incite
them to kill the whites. He bought long
iron pikes for the negroes to fight with, as
they did not know how to use fire-arms.
When he thought that all was ready, he
entered Harper's Ferry by night, with only
eighteen men, and seized the arsenal there,
sending out armed men into the country to
capture the principal slave-owners and to
call upon the slaves to join him. This was
done secretly during the night, and the next
morning every white man who left his home
was seized, and imprisoned in an engine-
house near the arsenal. Only a few negroes
came in, and they were too much scared to
aid in the deadly and dastardly work.






THE LIFE OF GEN THOMAS J. JACKSON.


As. soon as the news of this raid spread
over the country, angry men came into town
from all sides, and before night John Brown
and his men were shut up in the engine-
house.


Harper's Ferry, Virginia.


Soon a band of marines, under the com-
mand of Colonel R. E. Lee, was sent out
from Washington by the Government, and
as John Brown would not surrender, the
soldiers at once stormed the engine-house.





82 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
Ten of John Brown's men were killed by the
soldiers, and all the rest, including Brown
himself, were wounded. Six of the storm-
ing party were killed and nine wounded.
John Brown and seven of his men were
brought to trial at Charles Town, Virginia,
and being found guilty of treason, were
hung.
The cadets of the Virginia Military Insti-
tute were ordered to Charles Town to protect
the officers of the law. Major Jackson com-
manded a section of light artillery accom-
panying the battalion, and was present at
the death of Brown. He afterwards gave
his friends a graphic account of this dread-
ful scene.
This event cast great gloom over the
country. Many persons at the North thought
that John Brown had died a martyr to the
cause of slavery, while the people at the
South saw that they could no longer enjoy
in peace and safety the rights granted to
them by the Constitution.






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


Major Jackson was truly Southern in feel-
ing. He believed in the "Rights of States"
and also that the South ought to take her
stand and resent all efforts to coerce and
crush her. He, however, dreaded war and
thought it the duty of Christians throughout
the land to pray for peace.
A month before South Carolina went out
of the Union, Major Jackson called upon his
pastor, Dr. White, and said: It is painful to
know how carelessly they speak of war. If the
Government insists upon the measures now
threatened, there must be war. They seem
not to know what its horrors are. Let us
have meetings to pray for peace." Dr. White
agreed to his request, and the burden of
Major Jackson's prayer was that God would
preserve the land from war.
After 'the election of Mr. Lincoln, in No-
vember, 1860, to be President of the United
States, the Southern States saw no hopes of
getting their rights and resolved to secede,
or withdraw from the Union of the States.





84 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
South Carolina took the lead and seceded
on the 20th of December, 1860. She was
quickly followed by Mississippi, Alabama,
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
On the 9th of January, 1861, these States
united and at Montgomery, in Alabama,
formed a government called "The Confeder-
ate States of America," with Jefferson Davis
as President.
Virginia was slow to withdraw from the
Union formed by the States; but, when Presi-
dent Lincoln called for seventy-five thousand
soldiers to invade the Southern States, she
delayed no longer. On April 17th, 1861, she
seceded and began to prepare for war.
"In one week," says Dabney, "the whole
State was changed into a camp." The sons
of Virginia rushed to arms, and soon the
city of Richmond was filled with men drill-
ing and preparing to fight.
At daybreak on Sunday morning, April
21st, 1861, an order came to Lexington from
the Governor of the State (Governor Letcher)

















1 *1 '1 'I
rsIt i


View of the Business Portion of Richmond, Va., after the Evacuation Fire of 1865.






86 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J JACKSON
to march the cadets that day to Richmond.
As the senior officers were already in Rich-
mond, Major Jackson at once prepared to go
forward with his c,'rpi.
At eleven o'clock A. M. he went to his
home to say good-bye to his wife. They
retired to their own room, where he read the
5th chapter of Second Corinthians, which
begins with these beautiful words: "For we
know, if our earthly house of this tabernacle
be dissolved, we have a building of God, an
house not made with hands, eternal in the
heavens."
He then knelt and prayed for themselves
and for their dear country, imploring God
that it might be His holy will to avert war
and bloodshed. He then said good-bye to
his wife and left his dear home, never more
to return to it. After a few days, his wife
went to live at the home of a friend-his
house was closed.
Major Jackson and the cadets marched
forward to Staunton, whence they went by





THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


train to Richmond, and at once went into
camp on the Fair-Grounds.
From Richmond, Major Jackson wrote
thus to his wife: "Colonel Lee, of the army,
is here and has been made Major-General of
the Virginia troops. I regard him a better
officer than General Scott."
After a few days, on April 21st, Major Jack-
son was made colonel of the Virginia forces
and ordered to take command at Harper's
Ferry, a town on the Potomac river where
the United States Government had had a
great number of workshops and fire-arms.
This important place had already been cap-
tured by Virginia troops, and it was necessary
to hold it until the arms and machinery could
be moved away.
Just here it may be well to give you a
word-picture of our hero as he began a career
which was to fill the world with his fame.
Jackson was tall and very erect, with large
hands and feet. His brow was fair and
broad; his eyes were blue placid and clear


























~ 7.,


Colonel Thomas J. Jackson.






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


when their owner was calm, but dark and
flashing when he was aroused. His nose
was Roman, his cheeks ruddy, his mouth
firm, and his chin covered with a brown
beard. His step was long and rapid, and if
he was- not a graceful rider, he was a fearless













one. In battle, or as he rode along his col-
umns, hat in hand, bowing right and left to
his soldiers, whose shouts arose on high, no
figure could be nobler than his. Few, even
of his intimate friends, were conscious of his
military genius, so he burst upon the world
as a meteor darts across a star-lit sky.






90 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.

On his way to Harper's Ferry, he wrote
thus to his dear wife:

"WINCHESTER, April 29th, 1861.
"I expect to leave here about two P. M. to-day
for Harper's Ferry. I am thankful to say that an
ever-kind Providence, who causes 'all things to
work together for good to them that love Him,'
has given me the post which I prefer above all
others. To His name be all the praise. *
You must not expect to hear from me very often,
as I shall have more work than I have ever had
in the same time before; but don't be troubled
about me, as an ever-kind Heavenly Father will
give me all needful aid."

"This letter," says a friend, "gives a true
idea of his character. He feels within him-
self the genius and power which make him
long to have a separate command; but he
also feels the need of resting upon his Heav-
enly Father for aid and support."
Colonel Jackson had been ordered by Major-
General Lee to organize and drill the men
who had gathered at Harper's Ferry and to






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JAGKSON.


hold the place as long as possible against
the foe.
He went to work with great zeal and, aided
by Colonel Maury and Major Preston, soon
had the men organized into companies and
regiments. As Colonel Jackson was known
to have been a brave soldier in the Mexican
War, he was readily obeyed by the soldiers
in his little army, which soon numbered
forty-five hundred men.
But on the 2nd of May, Virginia joined the
Southern Confederacy and handed over all of
her soldiers to that government, which bound
itself in return to defend Virginia and to pay
her troops.
General Joseph E. Johnston was sent on
the 23rd of May by the Confederate Govern-
ment to take command at Harper's Ferry
and Colonel Jackson at once gave up his
trust to General Johnston.
The Virginia regiments at that place-the
Second, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Twenty-
seventh, and a little after, the Thirty-third,






92 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.
with Pendleton's battery of light field-guns-
were now organized into a brigade, of which
-- Jackson was made the comn-
'" ':: mander. This was the bri-
.. J gade which afterwards became
S famous as the "Stonewall
., Brigade," and which, we shall
Ssee, did much hard fighting,
Gfen. J. E. Johnston.
en E Johnton. and was to the Southern army
what the "Tenth Legion" was to the great
Casar.
General Johnston soon found out that he
could not hold Harper's Ferry against the foe
which was now coming up under General
Patterson. He, therefore, burnt the great rail-
road bridge over the Potomac river at Har-
per's Ferry and moved away all his guns and
stores; then on Sunday, June 16th, he with-
drew his little army to Bunker Hill, a place
about twelve miles from the city of Winches-
ter. There he offered battle to General Pat-
terson, but the latter refused to fight and
withdrew to the north bank of the Potomac.





THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


On June 19th, Colonel Jackson was ordered
to march northward and watch the foe, who
was again crossing the river. He was also
ordered to destroy the engines and cars of the
Baltimore and Ohio railroad at Martinsburg.
This he did, though he writes of it in the
following words: "It was a sad work; but
I had my orders, and my duty was to obey."
Until July 2nd, Colonel Jackson, with his
brigade, remained a little north of Martins-
burg, having in his front Colonel J. E. B.
Stuart with a regiment of cavalry. On that
day General Patterson advanced to meet
Jackson, who went forward with only one
regiment, the Fifth Virginia, a few companies
of cavalry, and one light field piece. A
sharp skirmish ensued. At last, the foe
coming up in large numbers, Jackson fell
back to the main body of his troops after
having taken forty-five prisoners, and killed
and wounded a large number of the enemy.
Jackson's loss was only two men killed and
ten wounded.






94 THE LIFE OF GEN THOMAS J. JACKSON.

In this battle, which is known as that of
Haines's Farm, Colonel Jackson was, no
doubt, the only man in the infantry who
had ever been under fire, but they all
behaved with the greatest coolness and
bravery.
Jackson, in this first battle, showed such
boldness, and at the same time such care for
the lives of his men, that he at once gained
a hold upon their esteem.
General Patterson now held Martinsburg;
while General Johnston, having come up
with the whole army, offered him battle each
day. But Patterson had other plans, and
soon moved away.
While General Johnston was at Winches-
ter watching his movements, Colonel Jackson
received this note:
RICHMOND, July 3rd, '61.
My Dear General.
I have the pleasure of sending you a commis-
sion of Brigadier-General in the Provisional Army;






THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


and to feel that you merit it. May your advance-
ment increase your usefulness to the State.
Very truly,
R. E. LEE."

General Jackson, for so we must now call
him, was much pleased at this promotion,
and wrote to his wife thus:

Through the blessing of God, I have now all
that I ought to wish in the line of promotion.
May His blessing rest on you is my fervent prayer."


Ar'se-nal, a storehouse for arms and military
stores.
Ma-rines', soldiers doing duty on a ship.
Mar'tyr, one who is put to death for the truth.
Sen'ior (sen-yur), one older in age or office.
V6l-Un-teer', one who enters into any service of
his own free will.
Me'teor, a shining body passing through the
air.
Cae'sar (s6-zar), a great Roman general.
Do you remember-
What happened in October 1859?
When Virginia seceded from the Union?






96 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.

When Major Jackson left Lexington with the
cadets ?
Of what place Colonel Jackson first took
command ?
About Jackson's first battle?














































General Robert E. Lee.






(97)






98 THE LIFE OF GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON.


CHAPTER VI.

A Brigadier-General.

DURING the spring of 1861, the States of
North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas,
also left the Union and joined the new Con-
federacy, the capital of which was now Rich-
mond, Virginia.
The great object of the North was to cap-
ture Richmond. For this they raised four
large armies to invade Virginia. The first
was to go by way of Fortress Monroe; the
second, by way of Manassas; the third was
to march up the Shenandoah Valley; and the
fourth was to come from the northwest.
Turn to the map of Virginia on the oppo-
site page and find the places which I have
mentioned, and you will understand the plan
at once.
Now, the Confederate army was much
smaller than the Federal army, because the











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79 A/VOTUTH CAIROI-l A




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