• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Map
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Frontispiece
 Soem general facts about India...
 Houses
 Dress
 The baby and child
 Stories of Indians
 War
 Hunting and fishing
 The camp-fire
 Sign language on the plains
 Picture writing
 Money
 Medicine men and secret societ...
 Dances and ceremonials
 Burials and graves
 Mounds and their builders
 The Algonkins
 The six nations
 Story of Mary Jemison
 The Creeks
 The Pani
 The Cherokees
 George Catlin and his work
 The sun dance
 The Pueblos
 The snake dance
 Cliff dwellings and ruins of the...
 Tribes of the Northwest Coast
 Some raven stories
 Totem posts
 Indians of California
 The Aztecs
 The Mayas and the ruined cities...
 Conclusion
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Ethno-geograhic reader
Title: American Indians
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00088948/00001
 Material Information
Title: American Indians
Series Title: Ethno-geograhic reader
Physical Description: x, 227 p., 2 leaves of folded plates : ill., col. maps ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Starr, Frederick, 1858-1933
D.C. Heath and Company ( Publisher )
Norwood Press ( Printer )
J.S. Cushing & Co ( Printer )
Berwick & Smith ( Printer )
Publisher: D.C. Heath & Co.
Place of Publication: Boston
Manufacturer: Norwood Press ; J.S. Cushing & Co. : Berwick & Smith
Publication Date: 1899, c1898
Copyright Date: 1898
 Subjects
Subject: Indians of North America -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Indians of Mexico -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Mayas -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1899
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
United States -- Massachusetts -- Norwood
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Frederick Starr.
General Note: With the exception of chapters XXXI and XXXII, the work is devoted to Indians north of Mexico.
General Note: "This book about American Indians is intended as a reading book for boys and girls in school"--Preface.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00088948
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002237797
notis - ALH8290
oclc - 03102892
lccn - 99000099

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Map
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Dedication
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Illustrations
        Page ix
        Page x
    Frontispiece
        Page xi
    Soem general facts about Indians
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Houses
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Dress
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    The baby and child
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Stories of Indians
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    War
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Hunting and fishing
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    The camp-fire
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Sign language on the plains
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Picture writing
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Money
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Medicine men and secret societies
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Dances and ceremonials
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Burials and graves
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Mounds and their builders
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    The Algonkins
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    The six nations
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Story of Mary Jemison
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    The Creeks
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    The Pani
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    The Cherokees
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    George Catlin and his work
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    The sun dance
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    The Pueblos
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    The snake dance
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Cliff dwellings and ruins of the Southwest
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
    Tribes of the Northwest Coast
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
    Some raven stories
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Totem posts
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    Indians of California
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
    The Aztecs
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    The Mayas and the ruined cities of Yucatan and Central America
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 220a
    Conclusion
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text






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'Etbna:5cogaap bir Umabet, No, 2


AMERICAN INDIANS







BY

FREDERICK STARR














BOSTON, U.S.A.
D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS
1899











Etbno06(ograpbiRc Reabers.

BY FREDERICK STARR.


No. 1.

No. 2.

No. 3.


STRANGE PEOPLES.

AMERICAN INDIANS.

HOW MEN DO.


IN PREPARATION.

READY.

IN PREPARATION.


D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS.


COPYRIGHT, 1898,
BY FREDERICK STARR.























Norlboaoo ress
J. S. Cushing & Co.- Berwick & Smith
Norwood Mass. U.S.A.





























THIS LITTLE BOOK ABOUT

AMERICAN INDIANS

IS DEDICATED TO

BEDROS TATARIAN













PREFACE.


THIS book about American Indians is intended
as a reading book for boys and girls in school.
The native inhabitants of America are rapidly
dying off or changing. Certainly some knowl-
edge of them, their old location, and their old life
ought to be interesting to American children.
Naturally the author has taken material from
many sources. He has himself known some
thirty different Indian tribes; still he could not
possibly secure all the matter herein presented
by personal observation. In a reading book for
*children it is impossible to give reference ac-
knowledgment to those from whom he has drawn.
By a series of brief notes attention is called to
those to whom he is most indebted: no one is
intentionally omitted.
While many of the pictures are new, being
drawn from objects or original photographs, some
have already appeared elsewhere. In each case,
their source is indicated. Special thanks for
assistance in illustration are due to the Bureau
of American Ethnology and to the Peabody
Museum of Ethnology at Cambridge, Mass.





vi PREFACE.

While intended for young people and written
with them only in mind, the author will be pleased
if the book shall interest some older readers.
Should it do so, may it enlarge their sympathy
with our native Americans.

















CONTENTS.


CHAPTER PAGE
I. Some General Facts about Indians I
II. Houses 7
III. Dress .. 14
IV. The Baby and Child 22
V. Stories of Indians 31
VI. W ar 39
VII. Hunting and Fishing 46
VIII. The Camp-fire 53
IX. Sign Language on the Plains 60
X. Picture Writing 65
XI. Money 73
XII. Medicine Men and Secret Societies 80
XIII. Dances and Ceremonials 85
XIV. Burial and Graves 92
XV. Mounds and their Builders 98
XVI. The Algonkins o8
XVII. The Six Nations 115
XVIII. Story of Mary Jemison 122
XIX. The Creeks 128
XX. The Pani. 34
XXI. The Cherokees 140
XXII. George Catlin and his Work 147
XXIII. The Sun Dance 155







CONTENTS.

PAGE
The Pueblos 16
The Snake Dance. 168
Cliff Dwellings and Ruins of the Southwest 175
Tribes of the Northwest Coast 181
Some Raven Stories 189
Totem Posts 95
Indians of California 201
The Aztecs 208
The Mayas and the Ruined Cities of Yucatan and


Central America
XXXIII. Conclusion .


CHAPTER
XXIV.
XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.
XXVIII.
XXIX.
XXX.
XXXI.
XXXII.


S215
S221


















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Mandan Chief in Full Dress
Iroquois Long House
Village of Pomeiock
Winter House of Sacs and Foxes
Skin Tents
Skin Jacket
Moccasins
Moccasins
A Pueblo Woman
Cradle of Oregon Indians
Birch-bark Cradle from Yukon River
Blackfeet Cradle
Moki Cradle .
Apache Cradle
Hupa Wicker Cradle
Cree Squaw and Papoose
Group of Ball Sticks
Indian Spears, Shield, and Quiver of Arrows
Apache and Sioux Scalps
Group of Weapons.
Birch-bark Canoe
Coracle .
Smoke Signaling
Sign Language
Dakota Calendar
Indian Letter on Birch Bark
Page of Aztec Book
Wampum Belt .
Rattles and Mask .
Scaffold Burial
ix


PAGE
opp5 site I
7
8
* .10
Io
12
i6
'19
20
21
S23
S 23
24
24
S25
S25
S26
29
40
S 45
S 49
S 5
52
5. 8
62
S68
S70
S72
S75
S8
S96






LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Ojibwa Giavepost .
Great Serpent Mound
Earthworks at Newark. Ohio .
Shell Gorgets
Ojibwa Women gathering Wild Rice
Blackfoot Squaw Traveling
Indian Ball-player .
Examples of Sequoyah's Characters
George Catlin
Tortures of Mandan Sun Dance
View of Pueblo, Taos, N. M. .
Pueblo Pottery
Estufa at Cochiti, N. M.
Moki Snake Dance
Cliff Ruins at Mancos Cation .
Chinook Baby in Cradle.
Tattooing on a Haida Man
Gold Chief's House
Blanket of Chilcot Indians, Alaska.
Halibut Hooks of Wood
Indian Carrier
Chief's House
Hat of Indians of the Northwest Coast
Granary at Coahuilla
Coiled Baskets
Mission of Santa Barbara, Cal.
Calendar Stone
Stone Idol
Ruined Building at Chichen Itza


MAPS.


Former Location of Indian Groups of North America Frontisfiece
Indian Reservations, 1897 ofosie page 220









MANDAN CHIEF IN FULL DRESS. (AFTER CATLIN.)


i










AMERICAN INDIANS.


I.

SOME GENERAL FACTS ABOUT INDIANS.

WE all know how the native Americans found
here by the whites at their first arrival, came to
be called Indians. Columbus did not realize the
greatness of his discovery. He was seeking a
route to Asia and supposed that he had found it.
Believing that he had really reached the Indies,
for which he was looking, it was natural that the
people here should be called Indians.
The American Indians are often classed as a
single type. They are described as being of a
coppery or reddish-brown color. They have
abundant, long, straight, black hair, and each
hair is found to be almost circular when cut
across. They have high cheek-bones, unusually
prominent, and wide faces. This description will
perhaps fit most Indians pretty well, but it would
be a great mistake to think that there are no dif-
ferences between tribes: there are many. There
are tribes of tall Indians and tribes of short ones;
some that are almost white, and others that are
nearly black. There are found among them all





AMERICAN INDIANS.


shades of brown, some of which are reddish,
others yellowish. There are tribes where the
eyes appear as oblique or slanting as in the
Chinese, and others where they are as straight
as among ourselves. Some tribes have heads
that are long and narrow; the heads of others
are relatively short and wide. A little before the
World's Columbian Exposition thousands of In-
dians of many different tribes were carefully
measured. Dr. Boas, on studying the figures,
decided that there were at least four different
types in the United States.
There are now living many different tribes of
Indians. Formerly the number of tribes was still
greater. Each tribe has its own language, and
several hundred different Indian languages were
spoken. These languages sometimes so much
resemble each other that they seem to have been
derived from one single parent language. Thus,
when what is now New York State was first set-
tled, it was largely occupied by five tribes the
Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas
called "the Five Nations." While they were
distinct and each had its own language, these were
so much alike that all are believed to have grown
from one. When languages are so similar that
they may be believed to have come from one
parent language, they are said to belong to the
same languagefamily or stock.
The Indians of New England, the lower Hud-
son region, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Vir-





SOME GENERAL FACTS ABOUT INDIANS.


ginia, formed many different tribes, but they all
spoke languages of one family. These tribes are
called Algonkins. Indians speaking languages
belonging to one stock are generally related in
blood. Besides the area already named, Algonkin
tribes occupied New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, a
part of Canada, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan,
and other districts farther west. The Blackfeet,
Swho were Algonkins, lived close to the Rocky
Mountains. So you see that one linguistic family
may occupy a great area. On the other hand,
sometimes a single tribe, small in numbers and
occupying only a little space, may have a language
Entirely peculiar. Such a tribe would stand quite
alone and would be considered as unrelated to
another. Its language would have to be con-
sidered as a distinct family or stock.
A few years ago Major Powell published a map
of America north of Mexico, to show the distribu-
tion of the Indian language families at the time
of the white settlement of this country. In it he
represented the areas of fifty-eight different fam-
ilies or stocks. Some of these families, like the
Algonquian and Athapascan, occupied great dis-
tricts and contained many languages; others, like
the Zunian, took up only a few square miles of
space and contained a single tribe. At the front
of this book is a little map partly copied from
that of Major Powell. The large areas are nearly
as he gave them; many smaller areas of his map
are omitted, as we shall not speak of them. The





AMERICAN INDIANS.


Indians of the Pueblos speak languages of at least
four stocks, which Major Powell indicates. We
have covered the whole Pueblo district with one
color patch. We have grouped the many Cali-
fornian tribes into one: so, too, with the tribes of
the Northwest Coast. There are many widely
differing languages spoken in each of these two
regions. This map will show you where the
Indians of whom we shall speak lived.
Many persons seem to think that the Indian
was a perpetual rover, always hunting, fishing,
and making war, with no settled villages. This
is a great mistake: most tribes knew and prac-
ticed some agriculture. Most of them had set-
tled villages, wherein they spent much of their
time. Sad indeed would it havt been for the
early settlers of New England, if their Indian
neighbors had not had supplies of food stored
away the result of their industry in the fields.
The condition of the woman among Indians is
usually described as a sad one. It is true that she
was a worker -but so was the man. Each had
his or her own work to do, and neither would have
thought of doing that of the other; with us, men
rarely care to do women's work. The man built
the house, fortified the village, hunted, fished,
fought, and conducted the religious ceremonials
upon which the success and happiness of all
depended. The woman worked in the field,
gathered wood, tended the fire, cooked, dressed
skins, and cared for the children. When they





SOME GENERAL FACTS ABOUT INDIANS.


traveled, the woman carried the burdens, of course:
the man had to be ready for the attack of ene-
mies or for the killing of game in case any should
be seen. Among us hunting, fishing, and dan-
cing are sport. They were not so with the
Indians. When a man had to provide food for
a family by his hunting and fishing, it ceased to
be amusement and was hard work. When Indian
men danced, it was usually as part of a religious
ceremony which was to benefit the whole tribe;
it was often wearisome and difficult--not fun.
Woman was much of the time doing what we
consider work; man was often doing what we
consider play; there was not, however, really much
to choose between them.
The woman was in most tribes the head of the
house. She exerted great influence in public
matters of the tribe. She frequently decided the
question of peace and war. To her the children
belonged. If she were dissatisfied with her hus-
band, she would drive him from the house and
bid him return to his mother. If a man were
lazy or failed to bring in plenty of game and fish,
he was quite sure to be cast off.
While he lived his own life, the Indian was
always hospitable. The stranger who applied for
shelter or food was never refused; nor was he
expected to pay. Only after long contact with the
white man, who always wanted pay for everything,
did this hospitality disappear. In fact, among
some tribes it has not yet entirely gone. One time,





AMERICAN INDIANS.


as we neared the pueblo of Santo Domingo, New
Mexico, the old governor of the pueblo rode out
to meet us and learn who we were and what we
wanted. On explaining that we were strangers,
who only wished to see the town, we were taken
directly to his house, on the town square. His
old wife hastened to put before us cakes and
coffee. After we had eaten we were given full
permission to look around.
We shall consider many things together. Some
chapters will be general discussions of Indian life;
others will discuss special tribes; others will treat
of single incidents in customs or belief. Some
of the things mentioned in connection with one
particular tribe would be equally true of many
others. Thus, the modes of hunting buffalo and
conducting war, practiced by one Plains tribe,
were much the same among Plains tribes gener-
ally. Some. of the things in these lessons will
seem foolish; others are terrible. But remember
that foreigners who study us find that we have
many customs which they think strange and even
terrible. The life of the Indians was not, on the
whole, either foolish or bad; in many ways it was
wise and beautiful and good. But it will soon be
gone. In this book we shall try to give a picture
of it.
FRANZ BOAS. Anthropologist. German, living in America.
Has made investigations among Eskimo and Indians. Is now
connected with the American Museum of Natural History, New
York.





HOUSES.


JOHN WESLEY POWELL. Teacher, soldier, explorer, scientist.
Conducted the first exploration of the Colorado River Canon;
Director of the U. S. Geological Survey and of the Bureau of
American Ethnology. Has written many papers: among them
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico.


II.

HOUSES.

THE houses of Indians vary greatly. In some
tribes they are large and intended for several
families; in others they are small, and occupied









IROQUOIS LONG HOUSE. (AFTER MORGAN.)

by few persons. Some are admirably constructed,
like the great Pueblo houses of the southwest,
made of stone and adobe mud; others are frail
structures of brush and thatch. The material
naturally varies with the district.
An interesting house was the long house of
the Iroquois. From fifty to one hundred or more
feet in length and perhaps not more than fifteen
in width, it was of a long rectangular form. It





AMERICAN INDIANS.


consisted of a light framework of poles tied to-
gether, which was covered with long strips of
bark tied or pegged on. There was no window,
but there was a doorway at each end. Blankets
or skins hung at these served as doors. Through
the house from doorway to doorway ran a central
passage: the space
--- -on either side of
-- this was divided
.--- by partitions of
1AJ" = skins into a series
of stalls, each of
which was occu-
S V Oli pied by a family.
In the central
passage was a se-
ries of fireplaces
or hearths, each
one of which
,~- ",' ---
i served for four
ALGONKIN VILLAGE OF POMEIOCK, ON ALBE- families. A large
MARLE SOUND, IN 1585. (AFTER JOHN
WYTH: COPIED IN MORGAN.) house of this kind
might have five or
even more hearths, and would be occupied by
twenty or more families. Indian houses con-
tained but little furniture. Some blankets or
skins served as a bed; there were no tables or
chairs; there were no stoves, as all cooking was
done over the open fire or the fireplace.
The eastern Algonkins built houses like those
of the Iroquois, but usually much smaller. They,





HOUSES.


too, were made of a light framework of poles over
which were hung sheets or rush matting which
could be easily removed and rolled up, for future
use in case of removal. There are pictures in old
books of some Algonkin villages.
These villages were often inclosed by a line of
palisades to keep off enemies. Sometimes the
gardens and cornfields were inside this palisad-
ing, sometimes outside. The houses in these pic-
tures usually have straight, vertical sides and queer
rounded roofs. Sometimes they were arranged
along streets, but at others they were placed in a
ring around a central open space, where games
and celebrations took place.
Many tribes have two kinds of houses, one for
summer, the other for winter. The Sacs and
Foxes of Iowa, in summer, live in large, rectangu-
lar, barn-like structures. These measure perhaps
twenty feet by thirty. They are bark-covered and
have two doorways and a central passage, some-
what like the Iroquois house. But they are not
divided by partitions into sections. On each side,
S a platform about three feet high and six feet wide
runs the full length of the house. Upon this the
people sleep, simply spreading out their blankets
when they wish to lie down. Each person has
his proper place upon the platform, and no one
thinks of trespassing upon another. At the back
of the platform, against the wall, are boxes, baskets,
and bundles containing the property of the differ-
ent members of the household. As these plat-





AMERICAN INDIANS.


forms are rather high, there are little ladders
fastened into the earth floor, the tops of which
rest against the edge of the platform. These lad-
ders are simply logs of wood, with notches cut
into them for footholds.
The winter house is very different. In the
summer house there is plenty of room and air;

















work of the winter lodge is made of light poles
*'ied t r with n w sis of b It is
J V I' ; I -I, -




ad ten wi. Some are nearly circular ad
.i .,-' -" .,, -', "
'*V ;, '" 1- "









WINNER HOUSE OF SACS AND FOXES, 1O\VA. (FROM PHOTOGRAPHH)

in the winter house space is precious. The frame-
work of the winter lodge is made of light poles
tied together with narrow strips of bark. It is an
oblong, dome-shaped affair about twenty feet long
and ten wide. Some are nearly circular and about
fifteen feet across. They are hardly six feet high.
Over this framework are fastened sheets of mat-
ting made of cat-tail rushes. This matting is very
light and thin, but a layer or two of it keeps out





HOUSES.


a great deal of cold. There is but one doorway,
usually at the middle of the side. There are no
platforms, but beds are made, close to the ground,
out of poles and branches. At the center is a
fireplace, over which hangs the pot in which food
is boiled.
The Mandans used to build good houses almost
circular in form. The floor was sunk a foot or
more below the surface of the ground. The frame-
work was made of large and strong timbers. The
outside walls sloped inward and upward from the
ground to a height of about five feet. They were
composed of boards. The roof sloped from the
top of the wall up to a central point; it was made
of poles, covered with willow matting and then
with grass. The whole house, wall and roof, was
then covered over with a layer of earth a foot and
a half thick. When such a house contained a
fire sending out smoke, it must have looked like
a smooth, regularly sloping little volcano.
In California, where there are so many different
sorts of climate and surroundings, the Indian tribes
differed much in their house building. Where
the climate was raw and foggy, down near the
coast, they dug a pit and erected a shelter of red-
wood poles about it. In the snow belt, the house
was conical in form and built of great slabs of
bark. In warm low valleys, large round or oblong
houses were made of willow poles covered with
hay. At Clear Lake there were box-shaped houses;
the walls were built of vertical posts, with poles





AMERICAN INDIANS.


lashed horizontally across them; these were not
always placed close together, but so as to leave
many little square holes in the walls; the flat roof
was made of poles covered with thatch. In the
great treeless plains of the Sacramento and San
Joaquin they made dome-shaped, earth-covered
houses, the doorway in which was sometimes on
top, sometimes near the ground on the side. In
the Kern and Tulare valleys, where the weather




-- _







SKIN TENTS. (FROM PHOTOGRAPH.)

is hot and almost rainless, the huts are made of
marsh rushes.
Many persons seem to think that the Indian
never changes; that he cannot invent or devise
new things. This is a mistake. Long ago the
Dakotas lived in houses much like those of the
Sacs and Foxes. At that time they lived in Min-
nesota, near the headwaters of the Mississippi
River. From the white man they received horses,





HOUSES.


and by him they were gradually crowded out of
their old home. After getting horses they had
a much better chance to hunt buffalo, and began
to move about much more than before. They
then invented the beautiful tent now so widely
used among Plains Indians. The framework con-
sists of thirteen poles from fifteen to eighteen feet
long. The smaller ends are tied together and
S then raised and spread out so as to cover a circle
on the ground about ten feet across. Over this
framework of poles are spread buffalo skins which
have been sewed together so as to fit it. The
lower end of this skin covering is then pegged
down and the sides are laced together with cords,
so that everything is neat and tight. There is a
doorway below to creep through, over which hangs
a flap of skin as a door. The smoke-hole at the
top has a sort of collar-like flap, which can be
S adjusted when the wind changes so as to insure
a good draught of air at all times.
This sort of tent is easily put up and taken
down. It is also easily transported. The poles
are divided into two bunches, and these are
fastened by one end to the horse, near his neck
one bunch on either side. The other ends are
left to drag upon the ground. The skin covering
is tied up into a bundle which may be fastened
to the dragging poles. Sometimes dogs, instead
of horses, were used to drag the tent poles.
Among many tribes who used these tents, the
camp was made in a circle. If the space was too





AMERICAN INDIANS.


small for one great circle, the tents might be
pitched in two or three smaller circles, one within
another. These camp circles were not chance
arrangements. Each group of persons who'were
related had its own proper place in the circle.
Even the proper place for each tent was fixed.
Every woman knew, as soon as the place for a
camp was chosen, just where she must erect her
tent. She would never think of putting it else-
where. After the camp circle was complete, the
horses would be placed within it for the night to
prevent their being lost or stolen.

LEWIS-H. MORGAN.-Lawyer. One of America's earliest
eminent ethnologists. A special student of society and insti-
tutions. Author of important books, among them, Houses and
House-life of the American Aborigines, and The League of the
Iroquois.
STEPHEN POWERS. Author of The Indians of California.


III.

DRESS.

IN the eastern states and on the Plains the
dress of the Indians was largely composed of
tanned and dressed skins such as those of the
buffalo and the deer. Most of the Indians were
skilled in dressing skins. The hide when fresh
from the animal was laid on the ground, stretched
as tightly as possible and pegged down all around
the edges. As it dried it became still more taut






DRESS.


A scraper was used to remove the fat and to
thin the skin. In old days this scraper was made
of a piece of bone cut to proper form, or of a
stone chipped to a sharp edge; in later times it
was a bone handle, with a blade of iron or steel
attached to it. Brains, livers, and fat of animals
were used to soften and dress the skin. These
materials were mixed together and spread over
the stretched skin, which was then rolled up and
laid aside. After several days, when the materials
had soaked in and somewhat softened the skin,
it was opened and washed: it was then rubbed,
twisted, and worked over until soft and fully
dressed.
The men wore three or four different articles
of dress. First was the breech-clout, which con-
sisted of a strip of skin or cloth perhaps a foot
wide and several feet long; sometimes its ends
were decorated with beadwork or other ornamen-
tation. This cloth was passed between the legs
and brought up in front and behind. It was held
in place by a band or belt passing around the
waist, and the broad decorated ends hung down
from this something like aprons. Almost all
male Indians on the continent wore the breech-
clout.
The men also wore buckskin leggings. These
were made in pairs, but were not sewed together.
They fitted tightly over the whole length of the
leg, and sometimes were held up by a cord at the
outer upper corner, which was tied to the waist-





AMERICAN INDIANS.


string. Leggings were usually fringed with
strips of buckskin sewed along the outer side.
Sometimes bands of beadwork were tied around
the leggings below the knees.
A jacket or shirt
made of buckskin
I and reaching to
S the knees was gen-
~I. lerally worn. It was
Variously deco-
rated. Buckskin
f strip fringes bor-
S 'dered it; pictures
i ''' illn black or red or other
: c:lo:rs were painted upon
'"' I ...-. it handsome patterns
,/,e, worked into it with
Ii ,lds or porcupine quills,
,: .-' I brightly dyed; tufts of
I 'j; !,h:ir or true scalps might
b :e -ittached to it.
S' ver all these came the
Blanket or robe. Nowa-
SKIN JACKET. (FROM ORIGINAL days these are got from
IN PEABODY MUSEUM.)
the whites, and are simple
flannel blankets; but in the old times they were
made of animal hides. In putting on a blanket,
the male Indian usually takes it by two corners,
one in each hand, and folds it around him with
the upper edge horizontal. Holding it thus a
moment with one hand, he catches the sides, a





DRESS.


little way down, with the fingers of the other
_hand, and thus holds it.
Even where the men have given up the old
style of dress the women often retain it. The
garments are usually made, however, of cloth in-
stead of buckskin. Thus among the Sacs and
Foxes the leggings of the women, which used
to be made of buckskin, are now of black broad-
cloth. They are made very broad or wide, and
reach only from the ankles to a little above the
knees. They are usually heavily beaded. The
woman's skirt, fastened at the waist, falls a little
below the knees; it is made of some bright cloth
and is generally banded near the bottom with
tape or narrow ribbon of a different color from
the skirt itself. Her jacket is of some bright
cloth and hangs to the waist. Often it is deco-
rated with brooches or fibule made of German
silver. I once saw a little girl ten years old
who was dancing, in a jacket adorned with nearly
three hundred of these ornaments placed close
together.
All Indians, both men and women, are fond of
necklaces made of beads or other material. Men
love to wear such ornaments composed of trophies,
showing that they have been successful in war
or in hunting. They use elk teeth, badger claws,
or bear claws for this purpose. One very .dread-
ful necklace in Washington is made chiefly of
the dried fingers of human victims. Among the
Sacs and Foxes, the older men use a neck-ring





AMERICAN INDIANS.


that looks like a rope of solid beads. It consists
of a central rope made of rags; beads are strung
on a thread and this is wrapped around and
around the rag ring, until when finished only
beads can be seen.
Before the white man came, the Indians used
beads made of shell, stone, or bone. Nowadays
they are fond of the cheap glass beads which
they get from white traders. There are two kinds
of beadwork now made. The first is the simpler.
It is sewed work. Patterns of different colored
beads are worked upon a foundation of cloth.
Moccasins, leggings, and jackets are so decorated;
sometimes the whole article may be covered with
the bright beads. Almost every one has seen
tobacco-pouches or baby-frames covered with such
work. The other work is far more difficult. It
is used in making bands of beads for the arms,
legs, and waist. It is true woven work of the
same sort as the famous wampum belts, of which
we shall speak later. Such bands look like solid
beads and present the same patterns on both
sides.
The porcupine is an animal that is covered
with spines or "quills." These quills were for-
merly much used in decorating clothing. They
were often dyed in bright colors. After being
colored they were flattened by pressure and were
worked into pretty geometrical designs, color-
bands, rosettes, etc., upon blankets, buckskin shirts,
leggings, and moccasins. Very little of this work





DRESS.


has been done of late years: beadwork has almost
crowded it out of use.
The moccasin is a real Indian invention, and it
bears an Indian name. It is the most comforta-
ble foot-wear that could be devised for the Indian
mode of life. It is made of buckskin and closely
fits the foot. Moccasins usually reach only to
the ankle, and are tied close with little thongs of
buckskin. They have no heels, and no part is











BLACKFOOT SIOUX SIOUX
MOCCASIN. MOCCASIN. MOCCASIN.
(FROM ORIGINALS IN PEABODY MUSEUM.)
stiff or unpleasant to the foot. The exact shape
of the moccasin and its decoration varies with the
tribe.
In some tribes there is much difference between
the moccasins of men and those of women.
Among the Sacs and Foxes the woman's mocca-
sin has two side flaps which turn down and nearly
reach the ground; these, as well as the part over
the foot, are covered with a mass of beading; the
man's moccasin has smaller side flaps, and the





AMERICAN INDIANS.


only beading upon it is a narrow band running
lengthwise along the middle part above the foot.
The women of the Pueblos are not content
with simple moccasins, but wrap the leg with
strips of buckskin. This wrapping covers the
leg from the ankles to the knees and is heavy and
thick, as the strips are wound time after time
around the leg. At first, this wrapping looks
awkward and ugly to a stranger, but he soon
becomes accustomed to it.









OMAHA IROQUOIS KUTCHIN
MOCCASIN. MOCCASIN. MOCCASIN.
(FROM ORIGINALS IN PEABODY MUSEUM.)
Not many of the tribes were real weavers.
Handsome cotton blankets and kilts were woven
by the Moki and other Pueblo Indians. Such
are still made by these tribes for their religious
ceremonies and dances. Nowadays these tribes
have flocks of sheep and know how to weave
good woollen blankets. Some of the Pueblos
also weave long, handsome belts, in pretty pat-
terns of bright colors. Their rude loom consists
of just a few sticks, but it serves its purpose





DRESS.


well, and the blankets and belts (
are firm and close.
The Navajo, who are neigh-
bors of the Pueblos, learned
how to weave from them, but
are to-day much better weavers
than their teachers. Every one
knows the Navajo blankets,
with their bright colors,
'pretty designs, and texture so
close as to shed water.
Some tribes of British
Columbia weave soft capes
or cloaks of cedar bark,
and in Alaska the Chil-
kat Indians weave beau-
tiful blankets of moun-
tain-sheep wool and
mountain-goat hair.
These are a mass of
odd, strikingly col-
ored, and crowdedly
arranged symbolic
devices.
A PUEBLO WOMAN. (FROM MORGAN.)
Among some Califor-
nia Indians the women wore dresses made of
grass. They were short skirts or kilts, consisting
of a waist-band from which hung a fringe of
grass cords. They had nuts and other objects
ornamentally inserted into the cords. They
reached about to the knees.




AMERICAN INDIANS.


IV.

THE BABY AND CHILD.

INDIAN babies are often pretty. Their big
black eyes, brown, soft skin, and their stiff,
strong, black hair form a pleasing combination.
Among many tribes their foreheads are covered
with a fine, downy growth of black hair, and
their eyes appear to slant, like those of the
Chinese. The little fellows hardly ever cry,
and an Indian parent rarely strikes a child,
even when it is naughty, which is not often.
Most Indian babies are kept strapped or laid
on a papoose-board or cradle-board. While these
are widely used, they differ notably among the
tribes. Among the Sacs and Foxes the cradle
consists of a board two feet or two and a half
feet long and about ten inches wide. Near the
lower end is fastened, by means of thongs, a thin
board set edgewise and bent so as to form a
foot-rest and sides. Over the upper end is a
thin strip of board bent to form an arch. This
rises some eight inches above the cradle-board.
Upon the board, below this arch, is a little
cushion or pillow. The baby, wrapped in cloths
or small blankets, his arms often being bound
down to his sides, is laid down upon the cradle-
board, with his head lying on the pillow and
his feet reaching almost to the foot-board. He





THE BABY AND CHILD.


is then fastened securely in place by bandages
of cloth decorated with beadwork or by laces
or thongs. There he lies "as snug as a bug
in a rug," ready to be carried on his mother's
back, or to be set up against a wall, or to be
hung up in a tree.
When his mother is busy at work, the little


CRADLE OF OREGON INDIANS. BIRCH-BARK CRADLE FROM YUKON
(AFTER MASON.) RIVER, ALASKA.

one is unwrapped so as to set his arms and
hands free, and is then laid upon the blankets
and cloths, and left to squirm and amuse him-
self as best he can.
The mother hangs all sorts of beads and
bright and jingling things to the arch over the
baby's head. When he lies strapped down, the





AMERICAN INDIANS.


mother sets all these things to jingling, and
the baby lies and blinks at them in great won-
der. When his little hands are free to move,
the baby himself tries to strike .and handle the
bright and noisy things.
In the far north the baby-board is made of















It'-


BLACKFEET CRADLE, MADE OF LAT- MOKI CRADLE: FRAME OF FINE
TICE-WORK AND LEATHER. WICKER.
(AFTER MASON.)

birch bark and has a protecting hood over the
head; among some tribes of British Columbia,
it is dug out of a single piece of wood in the
form of a trough or canoe; among the Chinooks
it has a head-flattening board hinged on, by
which the baby's head is changed in form; one
baby-board from Oregon was shaped like a great






THE BABY AND CHILD.


arrowhead, covered with buckskin, with a sort of
pocket in front in which the little fellow was
laced up; among some tribes in California, the
cradle is made of basket work and is shaped
like a great moccasin; some tribes of the south-
west make the cradle of canes or slender sticks

b->. ,-j--,







"--J. 'v' -






APACHE CRADLE. HUPA WICKER CRADLE.
(AFTER MASON.)
set side by side and spliced together; among
some Sioux the cradle is covered completely at
the sides with pretty beadwork, and two slats
fixed at the edges project -far beyond the upper
end of the cradle.
But the baby is not always kept down on the
cradle-board. Sometimes among the Sacs and
Foxes he is slung in a little hammock, which
Foxes he is slung in a little hammock, which





AMERICAN INDIANS.


is quickly and easily made.
stretched side by side from


t'4"





................,......I
E A -

CREE SQUAW AND PAPOOSE.


Two cords are
tree to tree. A


(FROM PHOTOGRAPH.)


blanket is then folded until its width is little
more than the length of the baby; its ends are
then folded around the cords and made to over-





THE BABY AND CHILD.


lap midway between them. After the cords are
up, a half a minute is more than time enough
to make a hammock out of a blanket. And a
more comfortable little pouch for a baby could
not be found.
Among the Pueblos they have a swinging
cradle. It consists of a circular or oval ring
made of a flexible stick bent and tied together
at the ends. Leather thongs are laced back and
forth across it so as to make an open netting.
The cradle is then hung from the rafters by cords.
In it the baby swings.
The baby who is too large for his baby-board
is carried around on his mother's or sister's, or
even his brother's, back. The little wriggler is
laid upon the back, and then the blanket is bound
around him to hold him firmly, often leaving
only his head in sight, peering out above the
blanket. With her baby fastened upon her back
in this way the mother works in the fields or
walks to town.
Among some tribes, particularly in the south-
ern states and in Mexico, the baby strides the
mother's back, and a little leg and foot hang out
on either side from the blanket that holds him
in place. Among some tribes in California the
women use great round baskets tapering to a
point below; these are carried by the help of
a carrying strap passing around the forehead.
During the season of the salmon fishing these
baskets are used in carrying fish; at such times





AMERICAN INDIANS.


baby and fish are thrown into the basket together
and carried along.
The Indian boys play many games. When I
used to meet Sac and Fox boys in the spring-
time, each one used to have with him little sticks
made of freshly cut branches of trees. These
had the bark peeled off so they would slip better.
They were cut square at one end, and bluntly
pointed at the other. Each boy had several of
these, so marked that he would know his own.
When two boys agreed to play, one held one of
his sticks, which was perhaps three feet long and
less than half an inch thick, between his thumb
and second finger, with the forefinger against the
squared end and the pointed end forward. He
then sent it sliding along on the grass as far as it
would go. Then the other boy took his turn,
trying of course to send his farther.
The young men have a somewhat similar game,
but their sticks are carefully made of hickory and
have a blunt-pointed head and a long slender tail
or shaft. These will skim a long way over snow
when it has a crust upon it.
One gambling game is much played by big
boys and young men among the Sacs and 'Foxes.
It is called moccasin. It is a very stupid game,
but the Indians are fond of it. Some moccasins
are turned upside down, and one player con-
ceals under one of them a small ball or other
object. Another tries then to guess where the
ball lies.





THE BABY AND CHILD.


Many of the Indian tribes had some form of
ball game. Sometimes all the young men of a
town would take part. .The game consisted in
driving the ball over a goal. The players on
both sides were much in earnest, and the games
were very exciting. In the play a racket was
used consisting of a stick frame and a netting of











Sac and Fox.

Winnebago.

GROUP OF BALI STICKS.

thongs. The shape of this racket or ball stick
differed among different tribes. Sometimes one
racket was used by one player, sometimes two.
Among the Iroquois the game is called by the
French name of lacrosse. The young men of one
village often played against those of another.
They used a curious long racket consisting of a
curved stick with netting across the bend. The





AMERICAN INDIANS.


Choctaws, Cherokees, and other tribes near them
have two rackets for each player.
Catlin tells us that in -their games there would
sometimes be six to eight hundred or a thousand
young men engaged. He says: I have made
it an uniform rule, whilst in the Indian country,
to attend every ball-play I could hear of, if I could
do it by riding a distance of twenty or thirty
miles; and my usual custom has been on such
occasions to straddle the back of my horse and
look on to the best advantage. In this way I
have sat, and oftentimes reclined and almost
dropped from my horse's back, with irresistible
laughter at the succession of droll tricks and
kicks and scuffles which ensue, in the almost
superhuman struggles for the ball. Their plays
generally commence at about nine o'clock, or
near it, in the morning; and I have more than
once balanced myself on my pony from that
time till nearly sundown, without more than one
minute of intermission at a time, before the game
has been decided."
But these great games of ball with hundreds of
players are quite past, and the sport, where still
kept up, grows less and less each year.

OTIS T. MASON.- Ethnologist. In charge of the depart-
ment of Ethnology in the U. S. National Museum, Washington.
Has written some books and many articles. Among the last
is Cradles of the American Aborigines.
GEORGE CATLIN. Artist and traveler. See XXII.





STORIES OF INDIANS.


V.

STORIES OF INDIANS.

THE Indians everywhere are fond of stories.
Some of their stories are about themselves and
their own deeds; others recount the past deeds
of the tribe; many are about some wise and good
man, who lived long ago, and who taught them
how they should live and what dances and cere-
monies they should perform; some are attempts
to explain why things are as they are; others tell
of the creation of the world.
Of these many stories some may be told at any
time and anywhere, while others are sacred and
must only be told to certain persons on particular
occasions. Among some tribes the old stories "
must not be told in the summer when the trees
are full of green leaves, for the spirits of the
leaves can listen; but when winter comes, and
snow lies on the ground, and the leaves have
fallen, and the trees appear to be dead, then
they may tell their stories about the camp-fire
in safety. We can give only a few of these
stories from three different tribes.

AN IROQUOIS STORY OF THE PLEIADES.
You all know the stars that are called the
Pleiades. Sometimes, but wrongly, they are
called the Little Dipper. They are a group of





AMERICAN INDIANS.


seven little stars that look as if they were quite
close together.
The Iroquois tell this story about them:
There were once seven little Indian boys who
were great friends. Every evening they used to
come to a little mound to dance and feast.
They would first eat their corn and beans, and
then one of their number would sit upon the
mound and sing, while the others danced around
the mound. One time they thought they would
have a much grander feast than usual, and each
agreed upon what he would bring for it. But
their parents would not give them what they
wanted, and the little lads met at the mound
without their feast. The singer took his place
and began his song, while his companions started
to dance. As they danced they forgot their sor-
rows and their heads and hearts grew lighter,"
until at last they flew up into the air. Their
parents saw them as they rose, and cried out to
them to return; but up and up they went until
they were changed into the seven stars. Now,
one of the Pleiades is dimmer than the rest, and
they say that it is the little singer, who is home-
sick and pale because he wants to return but
cannot.
A STORY OF GLOOSKAP.

The Algonkin tribes of Nova Scotia, Canada,
and New England had a great many stories
about a great hero named Glooskap. They be-





STORIES OF INDIANS.


lived he was a great magician and could do
wonders. In stories about him it is common to
have him strive with other magicians to see
which one can do the greatest wonders and over-
power the other. Glooskap always comes out
ahead in these strange contests.
Usually Glooskap is good to men, but only
when they are true and honest. He used to
give people who visited him their wish. But
if they were bad, their wish would do them far
more harm than good.
One of the Glooskap stories tells of how he
fought with some giant sorcerers at Saco.
There was an old man who had three sons
and a daughter. They were' all giants and
great magicians. They did many wicked things,
and killed and ate every one they could get at.
It happened that when he was young, Glooskap
had lived in this family, but then they were not
bad. When he heard of their dreadful ways he
made up his mind to go and see if it was all
true, and if it were so, to punish them. So he
went to the house. The old man had only one
eye, and the hair on one half of his head was
gray. The first thing Glooskap did was to
change himself so that he looked exactly like
the old man; no one could tell which was which.
And they sat talking together. The sons, hear-
ing them, drew near to kill the stranger, but
could nof tell which was their father, so they
said, He must be a great magician, but we





AMERICAIJ INDIANS.


will get the better of him." So the sister giant
took a whale's tail, and cooking it, offered it to
the stranger. Glooskap took it. Then the eldest
brother came in, and seizing the food, said, "This
is too good for a beggar like you."
Glooskap said, What is given to me is mine:
I will take it." And he simply wished and it
returned.
The brothers said, Indeed he is a great
magician, but we will get the better of him."
So when he was through eating, the eldest
brother took up the mighty jawbone of a whale,
and to show that he was strong bent it a little.
But Glooskap took it and snapped it in two be-
between his thumb and finger. And the giant
brothers said again, Indeed he is a great magi-
cian, but we will get the better of him."
Then they tested him with strong tobacco
which no one but great magicians could possibly
smoke. Each took a puff and inhaled it and blew
the smoke out through his nose to show his
strength. But Glooskap took the great pipe and
filled it full, and at a single puff burnt all the
tobacco to ashes and inhaled all the smoke and
puffed it out through his nostrils.
When they were beaten at smoking, the giants
proposed a game of ball and went out into the
sandy plain by the riverside. And the ball they
used was thrown upon the ground. It was really
a dreadful skull, that rolled and snapped at Gloos-
kap's heels, and if he had been a common man or




STORIES OF INDIANS.


a weak magician it would have bitten his foot off.
But Glooskap laughed and broke off a tip of a
tree branch for his ball and set it to rolling. And
it turned into a skull ten times more dreadful
than the other, and it chased the wicked giants as
a lynx chases a rabbit. As they fled Glooskap
stamped upon the sand with his foot, and sang a
magic song. And the river rose like a mighty
flood, and the bad magicians, changed into fishes,
floated away in it and caused men no more
trouble.
SCAR-FACE: A BLACKFOOT STORY.
There was a man who had a beautiful daugh-
ter. Each of the brave and handsome and rich
young men had asked her to marry him, but she
had always said No, that she did not want a hus-
band. When at last her father and mother asked
her why she would not marry some one, she told
them the sun had told her he loved her and that
she should marry no one without his consent.
Now there was a poor young man in the
village, whose name was Scar-face. He was a
good-looking young man except for a dreadful
scar across his face. He had always been poor,
and had no relatives and no friends. One day
when all the rich young men had been refused
by the beautiful girl, they began to tease poor
Scar-face. They said to him:--
"Why don't you ask that girl to marry you ?
You are so rich and handsome."





AMERICAN INDIANS.


Scar-face did not laugh at their unkind joke,
but said, I will go."
He asked the girl, and she liked him because
he was good; and she was willing to have him
for her husband. So she said: I belong to the
sun. Go to him. If he says so, I will marry
you.
Then Scar-face was very sad, for who could
know the way to the sun? At last he went to
an old woman who was kind of heart. He asked
her to make him some moccasins, as he was going
on a long journey. So she made him seven pairs
and gave him a sack of food, and he started.
Many days he traveled, keeping his food as
long as he could by eating berries and roots or
some animal that he killed. At last he came to
the house of a wolf.
Where are you going? asked the wolf.
"I seek the place where the sun lives," said
Scar-face.
"I know all the prairies, the valleys, and the
mountains, but I don't know the sun's home,"
said the wolf; but ask the bear; he may know."
The next night the young man reached the
bear's house. I know not where he stops. I
know much country, but I have never seen the
lodge. Ask the badger; he is smart," said the
bear.
The badger was in his hole and was rather
cross at being disturbed. He did not know the
sun's house, but said perhaps the wolverine would





STORIES OF INDIANS.


know. Though Scar-face searched the woods, he
could not find the wolverine.
In despair he sat down to rest. He cried to
the wolverine to pity him, that his moccasins
were worn out and his food gone.
The wolverine appeared. "Ah, I know where
he lives; to-morrow you shall see: it is beyond
the great water."
The next morning the wolverine put the young
man on the trail, and at last he came to a great
water. Here his courage failed; he was in de-
spair. There was no way to cross. Just then
two swans appeared and asked him about himself.
When he told his story, they took him safely
over. Now," said they, as he stepped ashore,
you are close to the sun's house. Follow that
trail."
Scar-face soon saw some beautiful things in the
path, -a war-shirt, shield, bow, and arrow. But
he did not touch them.
Soon he came upon a handsome young man
whose name was Morning Star. He was the
child of the sun and the moon. They became
great friends.
Together they went to the house of the sun,
and there Morning Star's mother was kind to
Scar-face because her son told her that Scar-
face had not stolen his pretty things. When
the sun came home at night, the moon hid Scar-
face under some skins, but the sun knew at once
that some one was there. So they brought him





AMERICAN INDIANS.


forth and told him he should always be with
Morning Star as his comrade. And one day he
saved his friend's life from an attack of long-
beaked birds down by the great water.
Then the sun and moon were happy over what
he had done and asked what they could do for
him. And Scar-face told them his story, and the
sun told him he should marry his sweetheart.
And he took the scar from his face as a sign
to the girl. They gave him many beautiful
presents, and the sun taught him many things,
and how the medicine lodge should be built and
how the dance should be danced, and at last Scar-
face parted from them, and went home over the
Milky Way, which is a bridge connecting heaven
and earth.
And he sat, as is the custom of strangers com-
ing to a town, on the hill outside the village. At
last the chief sent young men to invite him to the
village, and they did so. When he threw aside
his blanket, all were surprised, for they knew him.
But he wore rich clothing, he had a beautiful
bow and arrow, and his face no longer bore the
scar. And when he came into the village, he
found the girl, and she knew that he had been to
the sun, and she loved him, and they were married.

ERMINNIE A. SMITH. A highly accomplished woman.
Shortly before her death she made a study for the Bureau of
American Ethnology upon Myths of the Iroquois.
CHARLES GODFREY LELAND. Poet, prose writer, and trav-
eler. His poems appear under the nom de plume of "Hans






WAR.


Breitmann." His Algonquin Legends of New England is
important.
GEORGE BIRD GRINNELL. -Writer. His Pawnee Hero Stories
and Folk-Tales and Blackfoot Lodge Tales are charming
works. We have drawn upon him for much material, espe-
cially here and in XVI. and XX.


VI.

WAR.

ALL Indians were more or less warlike; a few
tribes, however, were eminent for their passion
for war. Such, among eastern tribes, were the
Iroquois; among southwestern tribes, the Apa-
ches; and in Mexico, the Aztecs.
The purpose in Indian warfare was, every-
where, to inflict as much harm upon the enemy,
and to receive as little as possible.
The causes of war were numerous trespass-
ing on tribal territory, stealing ponies, quarrels
between individuals.
In their warfare stealthiness and craft were
most important. Sometimes a single warrior
crept silently to an unsuspecting camp that he
might kill defenseless women, or little children,
or sleeping warriors, and then as quietly he with-
drew. with his trophies.
In such approaches, it was necessary to use
every help in concealing oneself. Of the Apaches
it is said: He can conceal his swart body
amidst the green grass, behind brown shrubs or





AMERICAN INDIANS.


gray rocks, with
so much ad-
dress and judg-
ment that any
one but the
experienced
would pass him
by without de-
.lfI1 jl. tection at the
distance of
three or four
yards. Some-
times they will
envelop them-
selves in a gray
Sii blanket, and by
an artistic sprin-
(i kling of earth
will so resemble
a granite bowl-
i der as to be
Ii1i{ passed within
near range'
Il i, without suspi-
cion. At others,
they will cover
their person
with freshly
gathered grass,
INDIAN SPEARS, SHIELD, AND QUIVER OF ARROWS. and lying pros-
(FROM ORIGINALS IN PEABODY MUSEUM.) trate, appear as





WAR.


a natural portion of the field. Again, they will plant
themselves among the yuccas, and so closely imi-
tate their appearance as to pass for one of them."
At another time the Indian warrior would de-
pend upon a sudderi dash into the midst of the
enemy, whereby he might work destruction and
be away before his presence was fairly realized.
Clark tells of an unexpected assault made upon
a camp by some white soldiers and Indian scouts.
One of these scouts, named Three Bears, rode a
horse that became unmanageable, and dashed with
his rider into the very midst of the now angry and
aroused enemy. Shots flew around him, and his
life was in great peril. At that moment his friend,
Feather-on-the-head, saw his danger. He dashed in
after Three Bears. As he rode, he dodged back and
forth, from side to side, in his saddle, to avoid shots.
At the very center of the village, Three Bears'
horse fell dead. Instantly, Feather-on-the-head,
sweeping past, caught up his friend behind him
on his own horse, and they were gone like a flash.
A favorite device in war was to draw the enemy
into ambush. An attack would be made with a
small part of the force. This would seem to make
a brave assault, but would then fall back as if
beaten. The enemy would press on in pursuit
until some bit of woods, some little hollow, or
some narrow place beneath a height, was reached.
Then suddenly the main body of attack, which
had been carefully concealed, would rise to view
on every side, and a massacre would ensue.





AMERICAN INDIANS.


After the white man brought horses, the war
expeditions were usually trips for stealing ponies.
These, of course, were never common among
eastern tribes; they were frequent among Plains
Indians. Some man dreamed that he knew a
village of hostile Indians where he could steal
horses. If he were a brave and popular man,
companions would promptly join him, on his an-
nouncing that he was going on an expedition.
When the party was formed, the women prepared
food, moccasins, and clothing. When ready, the
party gathered in the medicine lodge, where they
gashed themselves, took a sweat, and had prayers
and charms repeated by the medicine man. Then
they started. If they were to go far, at first they
might travel night and day. As they neared their
point of attack, they became more cautious, trav-
eling only at night, and remaining concealed dur-
ing the daylight. When they found a village or
camp with horses, their care was redoubled. Wait-
ing for night, they then approached rapidly but
silently.
Each man worked by himself. Horses were
quickly loosed and quietly driven away. When
at a little distance from the village they gathered
together, mounted the stolen animals, and fled.
Once started, they pressed on as rapidly as
possible.
It was the ambition of every Plains Indian to
count coup. Coup is a French word, meaning a
stroke or blow. It was considered an act of great





WAR.


bravery to go so near to a live enemy as to touch
'him with the hand, or to strike him with a short
stick, or a little whip. As soon as an enemy had
been shot and had fallen, three or four often would
rush upon him, anxious to be the first one to
touch him, and thus count coup.
There was really great- danger in this, for a
fallen enemy need not be badly injured, and may
kill one who closely approaches him. More than
this, when seriously injured and dying, a man in
his last struggles is particularly dangerous. It
was the ambition of every Indian youth to make
coup for the first time, for thereafter he was con-
sidered brave, and greatly respected. Old men
never tired of telling of the times they had made
coup, and one who had thus touched dreaded ene-
mies many times was looked upon as a mighty
warrior.
Among certain tribes it was the custom to
show the number of enemies killed by the wear-
ing of war feathers. These were usually feathers
of the eagle, and were cut or marked to show
how many enemies had been slain. Among the
Dakotas a war feather with a round spot of red
upon it indicated one enemy slain; a notch in
the edge showed that the throat of an enemy was
cut; other peculiarities in the cut, trim, or colora-
tion told other stories. Of course, such feathers
were highly prized.
Every one has seen pictures of war bonnets
made of eagle feathers. These consisted of a





AMERICAN INDIANS.


crown or band, fitting the head, from which rose
a circle of upright feathers; down the back hung
a long streamer, a band of cloth sometimes reach-
ing the ground, to which other feathers were at-
tached so as to make a great crest As many as
sixty or seventy feathers might be used in such a
bonnet, and, as one eagle only supplies a dozen,
the bonnet represented the killing of five or six
birds. These bonnets were often really worn in
war, and were believed to protect the wearer from
the missiles of the enemy.
The trophy prized above all others by Ameri-
can Indians was the scalp. Those made in later
days by the Sioux consist of a small disk of
skin from the head, with the attached hair. It
was cut and torn from the head of wounded
or lead enemies. It was carefully cleaned and
stretched on a hoop; this was mounted on a stick
for carrying. The skin was painted red on the
inside, and the hair arranged naturally. If the
dead man was a brave wearing war feathers, these
were mounted on the hoop with the scalp.
It is said that the Sioux anciently took a much
larger piece from the head, as the Pueblos always
did. Among the latter, the whole haired skin,
including the ears, was torn from the head. At
Cochiti might be seen, until lately, ancient scalps
with the ears, and in these there still remained
the green turquoise ornaments.
While enemies were generally slain outright,
such was not always the case. When prisoners,





WAR.


one of three other fates might await them: they
might be adopted by some member of the tribe,
in place of a dead brother or son; they might
be made to run the gauntlet as
a last and desperate chance of
life. This was a severe test of
agility, strength, and endur-
ance. A man,given this chance,
was obliged to run between two
lines of Indians, all more or
less armed, who struck at him
as he passed. Usually the
poor wretch fell, covered with
wounds,long before he reached
the end of the lines; if he
passed through, however, his
life was spared. Lastly, pris-
oners might be tortured to
death, and dreadful accounts of APACHE AND SIOUX SCAPS.
such tortures among Iroquois,
Algonkin, and others exist. One of the least ter-
rible was as follows: the unfortunate prisoner was
bound to the stake, and the men and women
picked open the flesh all over the body with knives;
splinters of pine were then driven into the wounds
and set on fire. The prisoner died in dreadful
agony.





AMERICAN INDIANS.


VII.

HUNTING AND FISHING.

To the Indian hunting and fishing were serious
business. Upon the man's success depended
the comfort and even the life of the household.
Game was needed as food. The Indians had to
learn the habits of the different animals so as to
be able to capture or kill them. Boys tried early
to learn how to hunt.
Clark tells of an Indian, more than eighty
years old, who recalled with great delight the
pleasure caused by his first exploit in hunting.
"When I was eight years of age," he said, "I
killed a goose with a bow and arrow and took
it to my father's lodge, leaving the arrow in it.
My father asked me if I had killed it, and I said,
'Yes; my arrow is in it.' My father examined
the bird, fired off his gun, turned to an old man
who was in the lodge, presented the gun to him
and said, Go and harangue the camp; inform
them all what my boy has done.' When I killed
my first buffalo I was ten years old. My father
was right close, came to me and asked if I killed
it. I said I had. He called some old men who
were by to come over and look at the buffalo
his son had killed, gave one of them a pony,
and told him to inform the camp." Such boyish
successes were always the occasion of family
rejoicing.





HUNTING AND FISHING.


To the Indians of the Plains the important
game was buffalo; and for buffalo two great hunts
were made each year, -a summer and a winter
hunt. Sometimes whole villages together went
to these hunts. Few cared to stay behind, for
fear of attack by hostile Indians. Provisions and
valuables which were not needed on the journey
were carefully buried, to be dug up again on the
return. At times the people of a village went
hundreds of miles on these expeditions. Baggage
was carried on ponies in charge of the women.
At night it took but a few minutes to make camp,
and no more was necessary in the morning for
breaking camp and getting on the way.
In journeying they went in single file. Scouts
constantly kept a lookout for herds. When a
herd was sighted, it was approached with the
greatest care: everything was done according to
fixed rules and under appointed leaders. When
ready for the attack, the hunters drawn up in a
single row approached as near as possible to the
herd and waited for the signal to attack. When
it was given, the whole company charged into the
herd, and each did his best to kill all he could.
All were on horseback, and armed with bows and
arrows. They tried to get abreast of the animal
and to discharge the weapon to a vital spot.
One arrow was enough to kill sometimes, but
usually more were necessary. A single success-
ful hunter might kill four or five in a half hour.
After the killing a lively time ensued. The





AMERICAN INDIANS.


dead animals were skinned, cut up, and carried
on ponies into camp. There the skins were
pegged out to dry, the meat was cut up into
strips or sheets for drying, or made up into
pemmican. Every one was busy and happy in
the prospect of plenty of food.
Sometimes, however, no herds could be found.
Day after day passed without success. The
camp was well-nigh discouraged. Then a buf-
falo dance was held. In this the hunters dressed
themselves in the skins and horns of buffalo, and
danced to the accompaniment of special music
and songs.
In dancing, they imitated the movements of
the buffalo, believing that thus they could compel
the animals to appear. Hour after hour, even
day after day, passed in such dancing until some
scout hurrying in reported a herd in sight. Then
the dance would abruptly cease, its object being
gained.
Of course many ingenious devices were em-
ployed in hunting. Antelope were stalked; fur-
bearing animals were trapped or snared. Some-
times all the animals in a considerable area were
driven into a central space where they were killed,
or from which they were driven between lines of
stones or brush, to some point where they would
fall over a cliff and be killed in the fall. Such
drives used to be common in the Pueblo district.
To-day deer are rarer there; so are the mountain
lion and the bear. Hunts there are more likely





HUNTING AND FISHING.


nowadays to be for rabbits than for larger game.
These are caught in nets, but are more frequently
killed by rabbit sticks, which may be knot-ended
clubs or flat, curved throwing sticks, a little like
the boomerangs of Australia.
The great weapon for hunting was the bow and
arrow. Indian bows ranged from frail, weak
things, hardly suitable for a child, to the strong
bow" of the Sioux and Crows, which would send












GROUP OF WEAPONS. (FROM ORIGINALS IN PEABODY MUSEUM,
CAMBRIDGE.)
an arrow completely through a buffalo; the most
powerful Colt's revolver -so Clark says--will
not send a ball through the same animal. The
Crows sometimes made beautiful bows of elk
horn; such cost much labor and were highly
valued. Three months' time was spent in mak-
ing a single one. Arrows required much care
in their making. In some tribes each man
made all his arrows of precisely one length,





AMERICAN INDIANS.


different from all others. This was an aid in
recognizing them. Many carried with them a
measure, the exact length of their arrows so as to
settle disputes. This was necessary to determine
who had killed a given animal: the carcass be-
longed to the man whose arrow was found in it.
Among some eastern tribes, and particularly
in the south, where fine canes grow near streams,
the blow-gun is used. This consists of a piece
of cane perhaps eight or ten feet long, which
is carefully pierced from end to end and then
smoothed inside. Arrows are made from slender
shafts of rather heavy and hard wood. They are
perhaps a foot and a half long and hardly more
than a quarter or an eighth of an inch thick.
They are cut square at one end and pointed at
the other; around the shaft, toward the blunt
end, a wrapping of thistle-down is firmly secured
with thread. This surrounds perhaps three or
four inches of the arrow's length, and has a
diameter such as to neatly fit the bore of the
blow-gun. The arrow is inserted in the tube,
and a sudden puff of breath sends it speeding
on its way. An animal the size of a rabbit or
woodchuck may be killed with this weapon at
an astonishing distance.
Among inland tribes, fishing was usually a mat-
ter of secondary importance. Fish pieced out the
food supply rather than formed its bulk. But
along some seacoasts fish is a very important
food. The tribes of the Northwest Coast live




HUNTING AND FISHING.


almost entirely upon fish. The salmon is partic-
ularly important among them. These tribes
have devised many kinds of lines, hooks, nets,
fish-baskets, traps, and wiers. Everywhere the
commonest mode of securing fish is and was by
spearing.
Once I went out at night with some Indian
boys of Gay Head, Martha's Vineyard, "nee-
skotting." These boys have a good deal of
Indian blood, but they dress, talk, and act in
most ways just like white boys. I think neeskott-
ing, however, is truly Indian. We rode down





BIRCH-BARK CANOE.

to the shore in an ox-cart, carrying lanterns with
us. Each boy had a pole, at the end of which
was firmly tied a cod-hook. The tide was falling,
and the wind was blowing in toward shore.
Walking along the beach, with lantern held in
one hand so as to see the shallow water's bottom,
and with the pole in the other hand ready for
use, the boys watched for fish. Hake, a foot or
more long, frost fish, lighter colored and more
slender, and eels, are the usual prey. The hake
and eels rarely come into water less than six
inches deep. Frost fish, on the contrary, come





AMERICAN INDIANS.


close into shore, and on cold nights crowd out on
the very beach. When a fish has been seen, a
sudden stroke of the pole and a quick inpull are
given to impale the prey, and drag it in to shore.
It was an exciting scene. Hither and thither the
boys darted, with strokes and landings, with cries
of joy at success or despair at failure. Finally,
with perhaps fifty hake, twenty frost fish, and one
shining eel, the bottom of our cart was covered,
and we turned homeward."
In fishing, hunting, and journeying, the wood-








"BULL-BOAT" OR CORACLE.

land Indians needed some sort of water craft.
They had a number of different kinds of canoes.
The "dug-out," cut from a single tree trunk, is
still used in many of our Southern streams; the
Cherokees in their lovely North Carolina home
have them. Along the Northwest Coast, magnifi-
cent war-canoes, capable of carrying fifty or sixty
persons, were made from single giant logs; these
canoes often had decorative bow and stern pieces
carved from separate blocks. The birch-bark
canoes were made over light wooden frames with





THE CAMP-FIRE.


pieces of birch bark neatly fitted, sewed, and
gummed, to keep out the water. Almost all the
Algonkin tribes and the Iroquois used them upon
their lakes and rivers; they were light enough
to be carried easily across the portages. A few
tribes, the Mandans among others, had the light
but awkward bull-boat," or coracle, nearly circu-
lar, consisting of a light framework covered with
skin: such were chiefly used in ferrying across
rivers.

VIII.

THE CAMP-FIRE.

ONE of the first things after reaching camp
was to build the camp-fire. Among Indians the
camp-fire not only served for heat and cooking,
but for light, and to scare away animal foes and
bad spirits. You and I would probably have a
hard time making a fire without matches. The
Indian had no matches until he got them from
the whites. There are two ways in which the
Indians made fire. One was by striking two hard
pieces of stone such as chert or pyrites -to-
gether, which gave a spark, which was caught on
tinder and blown to a flame. Of course white
men used to make fire in much the same way -
only they had a flint and steel. When whites
first came into contact with Indians, they used
the flint and steel, and it was not long before the





AMERICAN INDIANS.


Indians had secured them from the white traders.
Many Indians still use the old-fashioned flint and
steel. Some old Sac and Fox men always carry
them in their tobacco pouch, and use them for
lighting their pipes.
Another Indian method of making fire was by
rubbing two pieces of wood together. It is said
that this is not difficult, but one needs to know
just how, in order to succeed. In the cliff ruins
of the southwest two little sticks are often found
together. One may be a foot or two long, and
the lower end is bluntly pointed, worn smooth,
and blackened as if it had been slightly burned.
The other stick is of the same thickness, but may
be only a few inches long; in it are several coni-
cal hollows, which are charred, smooth, and usu-
ally broken away at the edge. These two sticks
were used by the cliff-dwellers for making fire.
The second one was laid down flat on the ground;
the pointed end of the other was placed in one of
the holes in the lower piece, and the stick was
whirled between the hands by rubbing these back
and forth. While the upright stick was being
whirled, it was also pressed down with some little
force. By the whirling and pressure fine wood
dust was ground out which gathered at the broken
edge of the conical cavity. Soon, in the midst
of this fine wood dust, there appeared a spark.
Some dry, light stuff was at once applied to 'it,
and it was blown into a flame.
Certainly this mode of making fire was hard





THE CAMP-FIRE.


on the hands -it must soon have raised blisters.
Some tribes had learned how to grind out a spark
without this disadvantage. The lower stick was
as before. A little bow was taken, and its cord
was wrapped about the upright stick and tight-
ened. The two sticks were then put into posi-
tion, the top of the upright being steadied with
a small block held in the left hand; the bow
being moved back and forth with the right hand,
the upright was caused to whirl easily and rapidly.
This was used among many of our tribes.
Although making it themselves, many Indians
think the fire made with the bow-drill is sacred,
and that it comes from heaven. Among the
Aztecs of Mexico there was a curious belief and
ceremony. The Aztecs counted their years in
groups of fifty-two, just as we count ours by hun-
dreds or centuries. They thought the world
would come to an end at the close of one of
these fifty-two year periods. Therefore, they were
much disturbed when such a time approached.
When the end of the cycle really came, all the
fires and lights in the houses had been put out;
not a spark remained anywhere. When it was
night, the people went out along the great cause-
way to Itztapalapa, at the foot of the Hill of
the Star. On the summit of this hill was a small
temple. At the proper hour, determined by ob-
serving the stars, the priests cast a victim on the
altar, tore out his heart as usual, and placed the
lower stick of the fire-sticks upon the wound.





AMERICAN INDIANS.


The upright stick was adjusted and whirled. For
a moment all were in great anxiety. The will of
the gods was to be made known. If no spark
appeared, the world would at once be destroyed;
if there came a spark, the gods had decreed at
least one cycle more of existence to the world.
And when the spark appeared, how great was
the joy of the people! All had carried unlighted
torches in their hands, and now these were lighted
with the new fire, and with songs of rejoicing the
crowd hurried back to the city.
Boys know pretty well how Indians cooked
their food. Most of us have roasted potatoes in
the hot ashes, and broiled meat or frogs' legs over
the open fire. The Indians did much the same.
Pieces of meat would be spitted on sharp sticks,
and set so as to hang over the fire. Clams, mus-
sels, and other things, were baked among the hot
coals or ashes. One time Old Elsie," a Lipan
woman, took a land turtle, which I brought her
alive, and thrust it head first into the fire. This
not only killed the turtle, but cooked it, and split
open the hard shell box so that she could get at
the meat inside.
Over the fireplace the Indians usually have a
pot or kettle suspended in which various articles
may be boiling together. The Indians invented
succotash, which is a stew of corn and beans; we
have borrowed the thing and the name. At the
first meal I ate among the Sacs and Foxes, we
all squatted on the ground, outside the house





THE CAMP-FIRE.


and near the fire, and took a tin of boiled fish
off the coals. We picked up bits of the fish with
our fingers, and passed the pan around for every
one to have a drink of the soup.
All this is easy cooking; but how would you
go to work to boil buffalo meat if you had no
kettle, pot, nor pan of any kind? A great many
Indian tribes knew how. When a buffalo was
killed, the hide was carefully removed. A bowl-
like hole was scraped out in the ground and lined
with the buffalo skin, the clean side up. This
made a nice basin. Water was put into this and
the pieces of meat laid in. A hot fire was kindled
near by, and stones were heated in it, and then
dropped into the basin of water and meat. So
the food was boiled. A number of tribes cooked
meat in this way, but one was called by a name
that means stone-boilers Assinaboines.
Meat was often dried. In some districts where
the air is clear and dry and the sun hot, the meat
is cut into strips or sheets, and dried by hanging
it on lines near the house. At other places it
was dried and smoked over a fire. Where there
was buffalo meat, the Indian women made pem-
mican, which was good. The buffalo meat was
first dried as usual. The dried meat was heated
through over a low fire, and then beaten with
sticks or mauls to shreds. Buffalo tallow was
melted and the shredded meat stirred up in it.
All was then put into a bag made of buffalo skin
and packed as tightly as possible; the bag was














( i


SMOKE SIGNALING. (AFTER GALLERY.)


- -
"


~~ Iii





THE CAMP-FIRE.


then fastened up and sewed tight. Sometimes
the marrow-fat was also put into this pemmican,
and dried berries or choke-cherries. Pemmican
kept well a long time, and was such condensed
food that a little of it lasted a long time. It was
eaten dry or stewed up in water into a sort of
soup.
A curious use for fire among some Indians was
in giving signals. A place visible from a great
distance was selected. Upon it a little fire was
built with fuel which gave a dense smoke. Some-
times the signal depended upon the number of fires
kindled side by side. Thus when Pima Indians
returned from a war-party against Apaches, they
gave smoke signals if they had been successful.
A single fire was built first; its one smoke col-
umn meant success. Then a number of little
fires, kindled in a line side by side, indicated the
number of scalps taken. Sometimes messages
were given by puffs of smoke. When the fire
had been kindled, a blanket was so held as to
prevent the smoke rising. When a lot of smoke
had been imprisoned beneath it, the blanket was
suddenly raised so as to let it escape. It was
then lowered, held, and raised so as to cause a
new puff. These puffs of smoke rose regularly
in long, egg-shaped masses, and according to their
number the message to be sent varied. Such
signaling by smoke puffs was common among
Plains tribes.





AMERICAN INDIANS.


IX.
SIGN LANGUAGE ON THE PLAINS.

EVERY one talking with another person who
speaks a different language will, in his effort to
make himself understood, quite surely make some
use of signs. Often the signs so used will seem
naturally to express the desired idea. Once, a
Tonkaway Indian in trying to tell me that all-
white men were untruthful, put the first two
fingers of his right hand, slightly separated, near
his mouth and then moved the hand downward
and outward, at the same time slightly spreading
the fingers. By this he meant to say that white
men had two tongues, or were liars. They say
one thing and mean another.
While it is natural for all people to use signs
to convey meaning, the use of signs will be most
frequent where it is a common thing for several
people speaking different languages to come into
contact. While all American Indians use some
gestures, the Plains Indians, who were constantly
meeting other tribes, necessarily made much use
of them. In fact, a remarkable sign language had
grown up among them, whereby Sioux, Crows, As-
sinaboines, Pani, Arapahoes, Cheyennes, Kiowas,
could readily converse upon any subject.
It is not probable that the sign language was
invented by any one tribe. Many writers have





SIGN LANGUAGE ON THE PLAINS.


claimed that it was made by the Kiowas. Rather,
it grew up of itself among the tribes because
gesturing is natural to peoples everywhere.
Deaf-mutes left to themselves always use signs.
These signs are of two kinds. They either pic-
ture or copy some idea, thing, or action, or they
point out something. It is interesting to find
that the gestures made by deaf-mutes and Indians
are often the same. So true is this, that deaf-
mutes and Indians quite readily understand each
other's signs. Parties of Indians in Washington
for business are sometimes taken to the Deaf-
Mute College to see if the two -Indians and
deaf-mutes-can understand each other. While
they cannot understand every sign, they easily
get at each other's meaning. One time a pro-
fessor from a deaf-mute school, who knew little
of Indians and nothing at all of Indian languages,
had no difficulty while traveling through Indian
country in understanding and in making himself
understood by means of signs.
We will look at a few examples of Indian
signs. Try and make them from the descrip-
tion, and see whether you think they are natu-
ral or not. The signs for animal names usually
describe or picture some peculiarity of the ani-
mal.
Badger. -The right hand is held with the back
up, fingers extended, touching and pointing to the
front, in front and to the right of the body. This
shows the height of the animal. Then the first and





AMERICAN INDIANS.


second fingers are slightly separated (the rest of the
hand being closed) and drawn from the nose upward
over the top of the head. This shows the striped
face. The two
hands are then
held in front of
the body, with
fingers curved,
the backs up.
and drawn as if
pawing or
scratching.
-- This has refer-
ence to the dig-
going of the
S animal. The
complete sign
S thus gives the
( _A .). size, the most
striking mark,
S and the habit
Sc t of the animal.
Beaver.-
SH old out the
.. left hand, with
the back up,
SIGN LANGUAGE ON THE PLAINS. pointing to the
(AFTER MALLERY.) right and front,
in front of the body, with the lower part of the arm
horizontal; cross the right hand under it so that the
back of the rig/t hand is against the left pahn. Then
leaving the right wrist all the time against the left
paln, briskly move the right hand up and down so it
shall slap against the left palm. The beaver has a
broad, flat tail, with which he strikes mud or water.
The sign imitates this action.





SIGN LANGUAGE ON THE PLAINS.


Buffalo. Close the hands except the forefingers;
curve these; place the hands then against the sides
of the head, near the top and fairly forward. These
curved forefingers resemble the horns of the buffalo
and so suggest that animal.
Dog. Place the right hand, with the back up,
in front of and a little lower than the left breast:
the first and second fingers are extended, separated,
and point to the left. The hand is then drawn sev-
eral inches to the right, horizontally. I am sure you
never would guess how this came to mean dog. You
remember how the tent poles are dragged by ponies
when camp is moved ? Well, before the Indians had
horses as now, the dogs used to have to drag the
poles. This sign represents the dragging of the
poles.
Skunk. The skunk is a little animal, but it has
rather a complicated sign. (a) The height is indi-
cated as in the case of the badger. (b) Raise the
right hand, with the back backward, a little to the
right of the right shoulder; all the fingers are closed
except the forefinger, which is curved; the hand is
then moved forward several inches by gentle jerks.
This represents the curious way in which the broad,
bushy tail is carried and the movement of the ani-
mal in walking. (c) Raise right hand toward the
face, with the two first fingers somewhat separated,
to about the chin. Then move it upward until the
nose passes between the separated finger tips. This
means smell. (d) Hold both hands, closed with
backs up, in front of the body, the two being at the
same height. Move them down and outward, at
the same time opening them. This is done rather
briskly and vigorously. It means bad. Thus in the
sign for skunk we give size, character of tail and
movement, and bad smell.





AMERICAN INDIANS.


There are of course signs for the various In-
dian tribes, and some of these are interesting
because they usually present some striking char-
acteristic of the tribe named.
Crow.- Make with the arms the motion of flap-
ping wings.
Arapako.-The fingers of one hand touch the
breast in different parts to indicate the tattooing of
that part in points.
Arikara, often called "corn-eaters," are repre-
sented by imitating the shelling of corn, by holding
the left hand still, the shelling being done with the
right.
Blackfeet. Pass the flat hand over the outer edge
of the right foot from the heel to beyond the toe, as
if brushing off dust.
Comanche and Shoshone. Imitate with the hand
or forefinger the crawling motion of the snake.
Flathead.- The hand is raised and placed against
the forehead.

We will only give one more example. The
sign for crazy is as follows:-

Slightly contract the fingers of the right hand with-
out closing it; bring it up to and close in front of the
forehead; turn the hand so that the finger tips de-
scribe a little circle.

Bad boys sometimes speak of people having
wheels in their head. This Indian sign certainly
seems to show that the Indian idea of craziness is
about the same as the boys'.
Captain Clark wrote a book on the Indian





PICTURE WRITING.


sign language, in which he described great num-
bers of these curious signs. Lieutenant Mallery,
too, made a great collection of signs and wrote
a long paper about them. A third gentleman
has tried to make type which shall print the
sign language. He made more than eight hun-
dred characters. With these he plans to teach
the old Indians to read papers and books printed
in the signs. He thinks that the Indian can take
such a paper, and making the signs which he
sees there pictured, he will understand the
meaning of the article.

W. P. CLARK.- Soldier. Author of Indian Sign Language,
which not only is a convenient dictionary of signs, but contains
much general information regarding Indians.
GARRICK MALLERY. Soldier, ethnologist. Connected with
Bureau of Ethnology from its establishment until his death.
His most extended papers are : Sign Language among North
American Indians, Pictographs of the North American Indians,
Picture Writing of the American Indians.
LEWIS HADLEY.--Inventor of Indian Sign Language type.


X.

PICTURE WRITING.

THE Indians did not know how to write words
by means of letters. There were, however, many
things which they wished to remember, and they
had found out several ways in which to record
these.





AMERICAN INDIANS.


Thus among the Sacs and Foxes there is a
long legend with songs telling about their great
teacher, the good, wise, and kind Wisuka. It
is difficult to remember exactly such long narra-
tives, but with objects to remind the reciter of
each part, it is not so hard. So the persons who
are to repeat the legend have a miciim. This
is a wooden box, usually kept carefully wrapped
up in a piece of buckskin and tied with a leath-
ern thong; in it are a variety of curious objects,
each one of which reminds the singer or reciter
of one part of the narrative. Thus he is sure
not to leave out any part. In the same way
mystery men among other Algonkin tribes have
pieces of birch bark upon which they scratch
rude pictures, each of which reminds them of
the first words of the different verses in their
songs. Such reminders are great helps to the
memory. Among the Iroquois and some eastern
Algonkins, they used, as we shall see, wampum
belts to help remember the details of treaties
or of important events.
Among many tribes pictures were used for
recording matters of importance. Many Sioux
chiefs have written the story of their life in pic-
tures. They took several large sheets of paper
and gummed the edges together so as to make
one long strip. Upon this they made pictures
representing the important incidents in their
lives. Thus in one picture was shown where,
as a boy, the artist shot his first deer; in another





PICTURE WRITING.


was represented his first hunting party; in an-
other, how he went on the war-path to gain
the name of brave; in another, where he danced
the sun dance; again, how he went to Wash-
ington to see the white men's officers, on busi-
ness.
The most important record made by the Sioux
is the Dakota Calenzdar. More than a century
ago a Sioux Indian determined to keep a count
of the years and of their happenings. So he
began a record which was called a "winter
count," where the events of the different years
were shown by pictures. His idea became pop-
ular, and a number of these winter counts were
begun by other Indians. The most important
of these is one which has been called the Da-
kota Calendar. It belonged for a long time
to an Indian named Lone Dog. The one he
had was a copy on cloth from a still older one,
which had been made upon a buffalo skin. This
count appears to have begun about the year
1800.
Each year its maker selected some important
event, by which the year was to be remembered,
and made a picture for it. The first five or six
pictures run in a nearly straight line to the left;
the line of pictures then coils around and around
this, the last picture always being added, to the
end of the coiled line. The pictures are in
black and red, and while rudely drawn, most
of them can be easily recognized. In 1801 the





















1'


*' ^-A 7, \*- '
,


S ** '"- .- '\ -
.. ... -
.\ -.. v, -
iS ,gl- r


" ... -
,*. ^ 2'
'l l I' w '


THE DAKOTA CALENDAR. (AFTER MALLERY.)





PICTURE WRITING.


Sioux had a terrible attack of smallpox, and
many of them died; the picture for the year is
a man covered with red spots. Whooping-cough
is a disease of which white people have little
fear, but it is sometimes very destructive to
Indians; in 1813 it was among the Sioux, and
the picture for that year was a man coughing,
as shown by lines diverging from in front of his
mouth. In 1840 the Sioux made a treaty of
peace with the Cheyennes; the picture shows
two hands extended for a friendly grasp. In
1869 there was a total eclipse of the sun, which
is represented by a blackened sun and two stars
in red: The stars were seen in the daytime."
In 1833 was the famous display of meteors or
falling stars, which was witnessed in all parts of
the United States, causing great excitement;
many white people believed that it portended
the destruction of the world. This star shower
was noticed by the Sioux keeper of the winter
count, and is represented by a black moon and
a lot of red stars represented as falling. You
can pick out these different figures in the pic-
ture, which represents Lone Dog's winter count,
or the Dakota Calendar as it would look on a
buffalo hide.
Probably you have all seen pictures of a birch-
bark letter written many years ago by an Ojibwa
Indian. It was written by one of Schoolcraft's
guides. Mr. Schoolcraft, with a party of assist-
ants and soldiers, was on a journey of exploration





AMERICAN INDIANS.


in the Northwest. One morning as they were
leaving camp, Schoolcraft saw an Indian putting
a bit of birch bark, upon which he had drawn
some pictures in black, into a cleft at the end of
a pole. This pole was then stuck slantingly into
the ground and three notches were cut in it.
When Mr. Schoolcraft asked his guide for an
explanation, he said this letter would inform any













INDIAN LETTER ON BIRCH BARK. (FROM SCHOOLCRAFT.)

Ojibwa Indians who might pass, about their'
party. The eagle in the upper corner showed
that they were from Washington -government
people. The other pictures showed that there
were eight common soldiers each with a gun;
that there were six officers, the duty of each be-
ing indicated by something carried in the hand,
-the captain by his sword, the secretary by
his book, the geologist by his hammer, etc.; that





PICTURE WRITING.


soldiers and officers were white men, as shown
by their wearing hats; that there were two
guides, Indians, as shown by their having no
hats and carrying spears; that the night before
there were three fires in the camp, soldiers,
officers, and guides, camping separately; that
during the day there had been secured a prairie
hen and a turtle, both of which had been taken
by the officers for supper. But other facts were
shown besides those told in the pictures. The
pole stuck into the ground pointed the direction
in which the party would journey; the three
notches on the pole told that they would journey
in that direction three days.
Of all American Indians those who went
farthest in the direction of developing writing
were some of those living in Mexico and Central
America. The Aztecs had an extensive system
of picture writing. By means of pictures they
recorded their traditional history and gave full
directions regarding the worship of the gods.
They had real books written with these pic-
tures. These books were written sometimes on
skin, sometimes on paper. The Aztecs made
two kinds of paper, one of the soft inner bark of
a tree, the other from the maguey plant. The
latter sort was beaten out of the mass of leaf
fibres after they had-been soaked in water. The
maguey plant is much like the century plant
which you have seen in parks and greenhouses.
The paper or dressed skin was made into long





AMERICAN INDIANS.


narrow strips many feet in length. These strips
were folded back and forth like a screen, and the
ends were fastened to two thin boards which
served as covers for the book. Sometimes bits
of polished green stone were inlaid into these
covers to make them pretty. Some of these old
books are still in existence, though most of them
have long been destroyed. We cannot read any
of them very well because pictures are uncertain


A at ikl d;%L 4_

... "-








means of conveying information. Still we can
tell something about their meaning.
The viceroy Mendoza, the first one sent from
Spain to govern Mexico, was greatly interested
in these Mexican books. He wanted his master,
the Emperer Charles V, to know about them,
and ordered three skilled painters of the Aztecs
to prepare a book to be sent to the Emperor.
Each artist took a different subject, so the book





MONEY.


consists of three parts. The first gives a picture-
written story of the Aztecs from the time when
they began their wanderings; the second gives a
list of the towns that paid tribute to the city of
Mexico and a statement of the kind and amount
of tribute each paid; the third shows how chil-
dren were trained, how they were punished when
they were naughty, and what kind of work they
were- taught. Of course the Emperor would not
understand the meaning of all these queer pic-
tures, far different from anything he had ever
seen; so Mendoza had an explanation or trans-
lation written with all the pictures. This is as
fortunate for us as it was for the Emperor: in
this way we can learn something about the use
and meaning of these characters.



XI.

MONEY.

INDIANS have always been fond of beads and of
shells. Wampum is shell beads of an especial
shape -cylindrical, with square cut ends, and
with a length one and a half times their thickness
or more. This wampum was made from a thick
and heavy sea-shell. A piece was split off, and
then ground down until it was like a wheat straw
in shape and size. It was then cut into lengths





AMERICAN INDIANS.


and drilled. The drilling was slow and tedious
work. A point of stone, or, after the whites
came, of metal, was struck into a cane or reed.
The bit of shell to be drilled was held in the left
hand; the drill was rolled on the thigh with the
right hand. There were two kinds of wampum
--white and purple. The purple was most
valued. Thomas Morton quaintly wrote in 1630
- that is, it sounds quaint to us now, -" White
with them is as silver with us, the other as our
gould."
Originally wampum was simply ornamental.
But it is always easy for things that are prized as
ornament to be used in trade. So wampum was
used as a medium of exchange; it was really the
money of the eastern Indians. Strings of it
passed from hand to hand as coin does with us.
Sometimes the ornamental string worn a moment
before would be removed to buy some object seen
and desired. The famous New England chief,
King Philip, is said to have had a coat "made
all of wampampeog, which when in need of
money, he cuts to pieces and distributes it plen-
tifully."
Among the Algonkin and Iroquois tribes broad
belts or bands of wampum were neatly woven.
The work consisted, like all weaving, of two sets
of threads. The long warp threads were crossed
by threads laden with beads. These belts were
neat and handsome and often contained thou-
sands of beads. The differently colored beads





MONEY.


were so combined as to make striking designs
and figures.
These fine belts were often given as pledges of
faith and agreement at the making of treaties.
Some which were kept in the tribe were made
to help in remembering the terms of the treaty.
Thus, when an orator was speaking, he would
hold up a wampum belt, and in making a point
of special importance would call attention to
some figure in the belt, which would serve ever
after to remind every one present of what he had
said. Among the Onondagas (Iroquois) there





WAMPUM BELT. (AFTER HOLMES.)
was an officer known as the "keeper of the belts,"
whose business it was to know all these figures
and the different ideas connected with them, and
to make them known to the people from time to
time.
There is a common little sea-shell found in the
Pacific Ocean called the dentalium. It is pretty,
clear white, very smooth, and shaped much like
a wee elephant's tusk. The natives of the coast
are fond of it as ornament, and among them
strings of dentalium shells serve for money just
as wampum did in the east. They were secured
usually by a peculiar mode of fishing. Thus we





AMERICAN INDIANS.


are told at Forward Inlet a number of split sticks
or twigs were tied together into a bunch; this was
tied to the end of several poles lashed together
so as to reach the bottom in deep water. It was
driven down into the mud, and then brought up
with the shells caught or tangled in it. The
value of the shells depended on their length.
Little ones were good enough to be worn as
ornaments, but the larger they were, the more
value they had as money. Powers, speaking of
the Hupa (California) Indians, says: The stand-
ard of measurement is a string of five shells.
Nearly every man has ten lines tattooed across
the inside of his left arm about half way between
the wrist and the elbow; and in measuring shell-
money he takes the string in his right hand, draws
one end over his left thumb-nail, and if the other
end reaches to the uppermost of the tattoo lines,
the five shells are worth $25 in gold, or $5 a
shell. Of course it is only one in ten thousand
that is long enough to reach this high value.
The longest ones usually seen are worth about
$2, that is $1o to the string. Single shells are
also measured on the creases on the inside of the
left middle finger, a $5 shell being one which will
reach between the two extreme creases. No shell
is treated as money at all unless it is long enough
to rate at 25 cents. Below that it degenerates
into squaw money, and goes to form part of a
woman's necklace."
Shell beads are much prized among the Pueblo





MONEY.


Indians, and are sometimes in size and shape very
like true wampum. At other times they are thin,
flat, rather broad pierced disks. These Indians
also delight in ornaments made out of haliotis or
" abalone shell. This shell is a large single
valve, shaped a little like the ear of some large
animal, and hence sometimes called "ear-shell."
The outside is rough and unattractive, but the
interior is pearly and of rich colors, purple,
green, blue, red, crimson, often many of these
bright colors showing in a small space. Where
the rough outside of the shell is ground away the
whole material is found to be pearly and rich in
color. This shell is cut into elliptical, oblong, or
fancifully formed plates which are pierced and
hung by a cord. Men used to make long jour-
neys to the Pacific Coast to secure shells. Even
from the eastern pueblos on the Rio Grande such
journeys were customary, and many of the men
at Cochiti delight to tell of their journey, per-
haps the most important event of their lives.
They loaded their burros with things to trade
and with supplies, and then struck across a coun-
try, desert and hostile, in the hope of bringing
back a great load of the precious shell mate-
rial.
For another precious material they had not far
to go. Turquoise was highly prized. This is a
hard, fine-grained blue, bluish green, or green
stone, that is found at several localities in New
Mexico. It has been mined for a long time near





AMERICAN INDIANS.


Los Cerillos, and the old diggings and the old
stone tools with which they were worked may still
be seen. Modern Indians still work the same
precious veins, and bits of the rough stone may
pass from hand to hand in trade.- In drilling the
shell and turquoise beads to-day a little drill is
used which is called a pump-drill. An upright
stick bears a point of hard stone or iron at the
bottom. This passes through a hole in a little
flat board an inch or so wide and six or eight
inches long; strings or thongs pass from the ends
of this board to the top of the upright stick. On
the upright stick, not far from the lower end, is
fastened a thin, wide disk of wood, three inches
across. This serves as a fly-wheel to regulate the
whirling of the stick. When this little machine
is properly adjusted, it is made to whirl by press-
ing down on the crossbow, and then releas-
ing the pressure, pressing down again, etc. It
works very well, and drills the hard turquoise and
the softer shell neatly. These beads and orna-
ments of shell or turquoise are so highly prized
that they easily serve the purposes of trade. So
much do the Navajo desire the turquoise that
they readily exchange for it their beautiful blan-
kets, neat silver-work, or finest ponies.
Blankets have always been greatly prized by
all Indians, whether they be made out of skins,
bark, or wool. The white man has taken advan-
tage of this fact, and to-day his blankets are to be
found everywhere. In some places they have





MONEY.


become the real money and have regular set
values. In British Columbia, most of the tribes
reckon all values in Hudson Bay blankets. These
blankets are traded out by the Hudson Bay com-
pany and are of various sizes. These sizes are
always indicated by some black lines worked into
the blanket along the .edge. The largest size is
called a "four point," the smallest a one point"
blanket. One size is considered the standard; it
is the "two-and-a-half point" size. When any
one speaks of a blanket," a two-and-a-half point
blanket is meant. Skins of different animals are
said to be worth so many blankets."
The Tlingit and Haida Indians of Alaska and
Queen Charlotte Islands used to feel very proud
if they were owners of coppers." They did not
smelt copper, but they used to beat it into various
forms. The form most prized, called "a copper,"
was of no use, but indicated wealth. Coppers "
were flat sheets of equal thickness throughout
except at the edges, which were thicker than the
body; there was also upon them a raised pattern
something like a T; sometimes also a face was
scratched upon their upper part. Such coppers
were formerly worth ten slaves each. Lately,
however, the whites have taken to making them
for trade, and they have become so common that
they are much less prized. Still, until quite
lately, they were worth from forty to eighty
blankets, or from sixty to one hundred and twenty
dollars.





AMERICAN INDIANS.


WILLIAM HENRY HOLMES.- Geologist, archaeologist, artist.
At present he is at the head of the anthropological work of the
United States National Museum. Has written important works :
among them, Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans and Ar-
chceological Studies among the Ancient Cities of AMexico.


XII.

MEDICINE MEN AND SECRET SOCIETIES.

ALL Indians believe in spirits. Some are good
and help men who please them; others are bad
and always anxious to do harm. The spirits are
all about us. They are in plants, and trees, and
rustling leaves; they are in the wind and cloud
and rain; they are in the mountain and in the
brook. It is spirits that cause trouble, suffering,
and death. When a man is ill, some bad spirit
has taken away his soul or has entered into him.
It is not strange, then, that the Indians should
wish to gain power over these spirits. If a man
knows some words, the saying of which will pro-
tect him against them, he is fortunate; fortunate
is he, too, if he knows some object which, carried,
will disarm them, or if he can perform some trick
which will put them to flight. Such knowledge
is what the Indians mean by "medicine" or
" mystery." Men who spend their lives in trying
to gain such knowledge are called medicine men,
mystery men, or Shamans.
The Shaman among the tribes of the Northwest





MEDICINE MEN AND SECRET SOCIETIES.


Coast is an important person. He decided, when
a boy, that he would become a Shaman. He
selected some old Shaman for his teacher and
learned from him his secrets. By experiments,























RATTLES AND MASKS: ALASKA. (FROM ORIGINALS IN PEABODY MUSEUM.)
by dreaming, and by trading with other Shamans
he got other secrets. To help him in his dealings
with spirits the Shaman makes use of many
devices. He sleeps upon a wooden pillow, which
is carved with otter heads; these are believed to





AMERICAN INDIANS.


whisper wisdom to him while he sleeps. Upon
his dancing-dress little carved figures, in ivory,
are hung, which give him spirit influence, partly
by the forms into which they are cut, and partly
by the jingling noise they make when he dances.
He wears a mask, the animal carvings on which
control spirits. He uses a rattle and a tambourine
to summon spirits. He has a spirit pole or wand
quaintly carved, with which he fences, fighting
and warding off spirits which he alone can see.
The people sitting by see his brave fighting and
hear his shrieks and cries; in this way only they
can judge how many and how powerful are the
spirits against whom he is fighting, for their
good.
Sometimes when dancing the Shaman becomes
so excited that he falls in a fit quivering, gasp-
ing, struggling. It is believed, at such times,
either that some mighty spirit has taken posses-
sion of him, or that his own soul has gone to the
land of spirits. Sometimes when he comes to
himself he tells of his wonderful journeys and
battles.
Among the Haida of the Queen Charlotte
Islands, when a sick man is to be cured, three or
four Shamans come together at his side. All
sing and rattle until they find out where the soul
of the sick man is. It may be in the possession
of the salmon or the oolachen fish, or it may be
held a prisoner by some dead Shaman. They go
to the place where it is supposed to be, and by





MEDICINE MEN AND SECRET SOCIETIES.


singing and charms succeed in getting it into a
carved hollow bone used only for this purpose.
Various precious things are then burned and the
soul bone held in the smoke. The bone is then
laid by the side of the patient's head that his soul
may return.
Many astonishing stories are told of the powers
of medicine men. A missionary among the Crees,
Edgerton R. Young, told me of a white man who
was once out hunting. He came upon an old
medicine man, who begged him for game, as he
was hungry. The white man made sport of him,
saying, You are a great medicine man; why not
get game for yourself? The old man was en-
raged. He cried out, White man, see yonder
goose," and pointed his finger into the air. The
goose fell fluttering at their feet, and the old man
picked it up and walked away. The white man
really thought this thing happened. Perhaps the
old medicine man had hypnotized him; if so,
the only goose anywhere around was probably the
white man.
The eastern Algonkins were fond of medicine
or mystery. Two great medicine men would
have a contest to see which was more powerful.
Many of their stories tell of such contests. Two
powers, which they did seem to have, attracted
much attention and caused much terror. These
were screaming and sinking into the ground.
Leland quotes an Indian regarding these: Two
or three weeks after, I was in another place,





AMERICAN INDIANS.


we spoke of m'teoulin [mystery men]. The
white folks ridiculed them. I said there was
one in Fredericton, and I said I would bet ten
dollars that he would get the better of them.
And they bet that no Indian could do more than
they could. So the m'teoulin came, and first he
screamed so that no one could move. It was
dreadful. Then he took seven steps through
the ground up to his ankles, just as if it had been
light snow. When I asked for the ten dollars,
the white men paid."
Ojibwa medicine men have often been tested
by white men who doubted their powers. Thus
one old medicine man had two little houses built
at some distance apart. He was shut up in one,
and the whites built a ring of fire around it.
Then, no one could tell how, he appeared un-
harmed walking out of the ot/er house. These
things are no doubt tricks or delusions, but the
medicine man's apparent ability to do them
greatly increased his influence among the people.
Much use is made of words as charms and of
sacred numbers. Four and seven are sacred
numbers among the Cherokees. Once, wishing
to see his method of curing disease, I asked the
old medicine man to treat my lame arm. He
sent out for four kinds of leaves, which were to
be fresh and young, and one other sort which
was to be dry and dead. The latter had little
thorns along its edges. The old man pounded
up the four kinds in warm water. He then





DANCES AND CEREMONIALS.


scratched the arm with the other, nearly drawing
blood. The arm was rubbed with the bruised
leaves. The medicine man then blew upon my
arm seven times. He went through this opera-
tion of rubbing and blowing four times, thus
combining the numbers four and seven. He
repeated charms all the time as he rubbed.
The Shaman does business as an individual.
He expects pay from those who employ him.
His knowledge and power over spirits is indi-
vidual and for individuals. Among some tribes
we find not single medicine men, but great secret
societies which have learned spirit wisdom to use
for the benefit of the society, or for the good of
the whole tribe. Such secret societies are nota-
ble in the Southwest and elsewhere. They
may work to cure disease in individuals; they
also work for the whole tribe. Among the Moki
Pueblos, the societies of the Snake and of the
Antelope carry on the snake dance, that the
whole people may have rain for their fields.


XIII.

DANCES AND CEREMONIALS.

THE dances of Indians are sometimes, like
our own, simply social and for pleasure. They
are more frequently religious or for some im-
portant purpose.




AMERICAN INDIANS.


They are always accompanied by music. In-
dian music is in perfect swing or time. Most
Indian musical instruments are simply time
beaters. The commonest is the rattle. This
varies with place and tribe. Among Northwest
Coast tribes it is of wood, elaborately carved,
both in form and decoration. A common rattle
in that district is cut into the form of a bird -
the raven. Some of the old rattles, made and
used by Shamans a hundred years ago, are still
in existence: they were probably carved with
knives and chisels of stone, but they are better
done than most of the modern ones, which have
been cut out with metal tools. Some of the
Plains tribes had leather rattles,-balls of dried
skin fastened over the end of a little wooden
handle. Many tribes used gourds for rattles.
Some of these are round, about the size of an
apple; such were pierced and a wooden handle
thrust through. Others are flask or bottle
shaped; such need no handle beyond the one
supplied by nature.
Drums and tambourines of various kinds are
used in time beating. The beaters usually take
no other part in the dance, but sit by themselves
at one side. Frequently each dancer has a rat-
tle. Sometimes a stick notched across with
deep notches is used. Across these notches a
thin bone, usually a shoulder-blade, is rubbed
with a good deal of force. Such rubbed sticks
are very good time beaters. They are used by





DANCES AND CEREMONIALS.


Apaches, Pueblos, and Tonkaways. Among the
old Aztecs, they had a similar instrument, but
made of a long bone instead of from a stick.
Indians prepare for dances with much care.
The hair is combed and arranged. The face
and body are painted. A special dance dress
is frequently worn. This dress is often of an-
cient form and decoration. Sometimes all this
preparation is just to make the dancers look
pretty; more frequently, however, the dress and
decoration have some meaning, and often they
mimic some creature or copy the dress worn by
some great person of their legends. Thus in
the buffalo and the bear dances, skins of buf-
falo, with the head, skin, and horns attached,
or the skins of bears, were put on, to make the
dancers look like these animals.
The meaning and uses of dances differ greatly.
The war dance, in which the men are painted
as if for war and have about them everything
that can make them think of war, is intended
to influence them for battle. The music, songs,
movements, prayers, and offerings all relate to
the coming conflict. The scalp dance is in
celebration of victory. The buffalo dance is
magical and is to compel the coming of herds
of that animal. At some dances the story told
by the tribe in regard to the creation of the
world and how man learned things is all acted
out; the dancers are dressed to represent the
spirits, or beings who made, helped, or taught




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