Royal children of English history


Material Information

Royal children of English history
Series Title:
RT&S Artistic series
Physical Description:
94 p. : ill. (some col.) 25 cm. ;
Nesbit, E ( Edith ), 1858-1924
Brundage, Frances, 1854-1937 ( Illustrator )
Bowley, May ( Illustrator )
Raphael Tuck & Sons ( Publisher )
R. Tuck & Sons
Place of Publication:
London ;
New York
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Princes -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Princesses -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1899
collective biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York


Statement of Responsibility:
by E. Nesbit ; illustrated by Frances Brundage and M. Bowley.
General Note:
Date from inscription.
General Note:
"No. 2091"--t.p.
General Note:
Color illustrations pasted on, with floral borders

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002224303
notis - ALG4564
oclc - 269467494
System ID:

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Full Text


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illustrated by

France5 Brur)dage
and M.Bowley.

London, Paris, New York.

No. 2091.

Black & White Drawings e- Letterpre55 printed

to the QUEEN.

in England

WTTHEN I was very, very little, I hated history more than all my other
lessons put together, because I had to learn it out of a horrid
little book, called somebody's Outlines of English History" ; and it
seemed to be all the names of the kings and the dates of battles, and,
believing it to be nothing else, I hated it accordingly.
I hope you do not think anything so foolish, because, really, history
is a story, a story of things that happened to real live people in our
England years ago; and the things that are happening here and now,
and that are put in the newspapers, will be history for little children one
of these days.
The people in those old times were the same kind of people who live
now. Mothers loved their children then, and fathers worked for them,
just as mothers and fathers do now, and children then were good or bad,
as the case might be, just as little children are now. And the people you
read about in history were real live people, who were good and bad, and
glad and sorry, just as people are now-a-days.


You know that if you were to set out on a journey from one end of
England to another, wherever you went, through fields and woods and
lanes, you would still be in the kingdom of Queen Victoria. But once
upon a time, hundreds of years ago, if a child had set out to ride, he might
have begun his ride in the morning in one kingdom, and finished it in the
evening in another, because England was not one great kingdom then as
it is now, but was divided up into seven pieces, with a king to look after
each, and these seven kings were always quarrelling with each other and
trying to take each other's kingdom away, just as you might see seven
naughty children, each with a plot of garden, trying to take each other's
gardens and spoiling each other's flowers in their wicked quarrels. But
presently came one King, named Egbert, who was stronger than all the
others; so he managed to put himself at the head of all the kingdoms,
A.D. 827. and he was the first King of all England. But though he had got the
other kings to give in to him, he did not have at all a peaceful time.
There were some very fierce wild pirates, called Danes, who used to come
sailing across the North Sea in ships with carved swans' heads at the
prow, and hundreds of fighting men aboard. Their own country was
bleak and desolate, and they were greedy and wanted the pleasant
English land. So they used to come and land in all sorts of places along
the sea-shore, and then they would march across the fields and kill the
peaceful farmers, and set fire to their houses, and take their sheep and
cows. Or sometimes they would drive them out, and live in the farm-
houses themselves. Of course, the English people were not going to
stand this; so they were always fighting to drive the Danes away when
they came here.
Egbert's son allowed the Danes to grow very strong in England, and
when he died he left several sons, like the kings in the fairy tales; and
the first of these princes was made King, but he could not beat the Danes,
and then the second one was made King, but he could not beat the Danes.
In the fairy tales, you know, it is always the youngest prince who has
all the good fortune, and in this story the same thing happened. This
A.D. 871. prince did what none of his brothers could do. He drove out the Danes
from England, and gave his people a chance of being quiet and happy
and good. His name was Alfred.
Like most great men, this King Alfred had a good mother. She


used to read to him, when he was little, out of a great book with gold
and precious stones on the cover, and inside beautiful songs and poetry.
And one day she said to the young princes, who were all very fond of
being read to out of this splendid book-
"Since you like the book so much, I will give it to the one who is
first able to read it, and to say all the poetry in it by heart."
The eldest prince tried to learn it, but I suppose he did not try hard
enough; and the other princes tried, but I fear they were too lazy. But
you may be quite sure the youngest prince did the right thing. He learnt
to read, and then he set to work to learn the poems by heart; and it was
a proud day for him and for the Queen when he was able to say all the
beautiful poetry to her. She put the book into his hands for his very
own, and they kissed each other with tears of pride and pleasure.
You must not suppose that King Alfred drove out the Danes with-
out much trouble, much thought, and much hard work. Trouble, thought,
and hard work are the only three spells the fairies have left us, so of
course he had to use them. He was made King just after the Danes had
gained a great victory, and for the first eight years of his reign he was
fighting them continually. At one time they had conquered almost the
whole of England, and they would have killed Alfred if they could have
found him.
You know, a wise price
always disguises himself when /
danger becomes very .crat. I, S .
Alfred disguised him-lf I a fnllm .
labourer and went to liv, with aI
farmer, who used t.., mhake him /.
feed the beasts and h:.lp al,.,ut Ith.
farm, and had no idea that
this labourer was the t ve;it
King himself.
One day the
farmer's wife went
out perhaps she
went out to milk
the cows ; at any


rate it was some important business-and she had made some cakes for
supper, and she saw Alfred sitting idle in the kitchen, so she asked him
to look after the cakes, to see that they did not burn. Alfred said he
would. But he had just received some news about the Danes, and he
was thinking and thinking and thinking over this, and he forgot all
about the cakes, and when the farmer's wife came in she found them
burnt black as coal.
Oh, you silly, greedy fellow," she said, you can eat cakes fast
enough; but you can't even take the trouble to bake them when other
people take the trouble to make them for you."
And I have heard that she even slapped his face. He bore it all
very patiently.
I am very sorry," he said, "but I was thinking of other things."
Just at that moment her husband came in followed by several
strangers, and, to the good woman's astonishment, they all fell on their
knees and greeted her husband's labourer as their King.
"We have beaten the Danes," they said, "and everyone is asking
where is King Alfred? You must come back with us."
Forgive me," cried the woman. "I didn't think of your being
the King."


Forgive me," said Alfred, kindly. I didn't think of your cakes
being burnt."
The Danes had many more fighting men than Alfred; so he was
obliged to be very cautious and wise, or he could never have beaten them
at all. In those days very few people could read; and the evenings
used to seem very long sometimes, so that anybody who could tell a
story or sing a song was made much of, and some people made it their
trade to go about singing songs and telling stories and making jokes to
amuse people who could not sing songs or tell stories or make jokes them-
selves. These were called gleemen, and wherever they went they were
alwayseowelcomed and put at a good place at table, and treated with
respect and kindness; and in time of war no one ever killed a gleeman,
so they could always feel quite safe whatever was going on.
Now Alfred once wanted to know how many Danes there were in a
certain Danish camp, and whether they were too strong for him to beat.
So he disguised himself as a gleeman and took a harp, for his mother had
taught him to sing and play very prettily, and he went and sang songs to
the Danes and told stories to them. But all the time he kept his eyes
open, and found out all he wanted to know. And he saw that the Danes
were not expecting to be attacked by the English people, so that, instead
of keeping watch, they were feasting and drinking
and playing all their time. Then he went back to
his own soldiers, and they crept up to the Danish
camp and fell upon it while
the Danes were feasting
and making merry, and as
the Danes were not ex-
pecting a fight, the
English were easily
able to get much
the best of it. ,
At last, after THERE .
many fights, King sow
Alfred managed to No 5
make peace with CLOCKS
the Danes, and then A CANDLE.


he settled down to see what he could do for his own people. He saw
that if he was to keep out the wicked Danes he must be able to fight
them by sea as well as by land. So he learned how to build ships
and taught his people how to build them, and that was the beginning
of the great English navy, which you ought to be proud of if you are
big enough to read this book. Alfred was wise enough to see that know-
ledge is power, and, as he wanted his people to be strong, he tried to
make them learned. He built schools, and at University College, Oxford,
there are people that will tell you that that college was founded by
Alfred the Great.
He used to divide up his time very carefully, giving part to study
and part to settling disputes among his people, and part to his shipbuilding
and his other duties. They had no clocks and watches in those days, and
he used sometimes to get so interested in his work as to forget that it was
time to leave it and go on to something else, just as you do sometimes
when you get so interested in a game of rounders that you forget that it
is time to go on with your lessons. The idea of a clock never entered
into Alfred's head, at least not a clock.with wheels, and hands on its face,
but he was so clever that he made a clock out of a candle. He painted
rings of different colours round the candle, and when the candle had
burnt down to the first ring it was half an hour gone, and when it was
burnt to the next ring it was another half-hour, and so on. So he could
tell exactly how the time went.
He was called Alfred the Great, and no king has better deserved
such a title.
So long as I have lived," he said, I have striven to live worthily."
And he longed, above all things, to leave to the men that came after a
remembrance of him in good works."
He did many good and wise things, but the best and wisest thing he
ever did was to begin to write the History of England. There had been
English poems before this, but no English stories that were not written
in poetry. So that Alfred's book was the first of all the thousands and
thousands of English books that you see on the shelves of the big libraries.
His book is generally called the Saxon Chronicle, and was added to by
other people after his death.
He made a number of wise laws. It is believed that it was he who


first ordained that an Englishman should r '7i*-~
be tried not only by a judge but also by a C MoY -
jury of people like himself.
Though he had fought bravely when fighting was needed to defend
his kingdom, yet he loved peace and all the arts of peace. He loved
justice and kindness, and little children; and all folk loved and wept for
him when he died, because he was a good King who had always striven A.D. 901.
to live worthily, that is to say, he had always tried to be good.
His last words to his son, just before he died, were these-" It is
just that the English people should be as free as their own thoughts."
You must not think that this means that the English people should
be free to think as they like or to do as they like. What it means is,
that an Englishman should be as free to do good deeds as he is to think
good thoughts.

THE Danes never succeeded in conquering England and in making it
their own, though many of them settled in England and married
English wives. But some relations of the Danes, called the Normans,
were bolder and stronger and more fortunate. And William, who was
A.D. 1066. called the Conqueror, became King of England, and left his son to rule
after him. And when four Norman Kings had reigned in England, the
Count of Anjou was made the English King, because his mother was the
heiress of the English crown.
His great-grandfather, Ingeger, the first Count of Anjou, must have
been a very brave man. When he was quite a boy he was page to his
godmother, who was a great lady. It was the custom then for boys of
noble family to serve noble ladies as pages.
One morning this lady's husband was found dead in his bed, and the
poor lady was accused by a nobleman, named Gontran, of murdering him.
Gontran said he was quite sure of her guilt, and that he was ready to
stake his life on it, that is to say, he offered to fight anyone who should
say that the lady was innocent. This seems a curious way of finding out
a person's innocence or guilt, but it was the custom of the times.
The poor lady could find no one who believed in her enough to risk
his life, and she began to despair, when suddenly her boy-page rushed
forward and begged that, though he was not yet a knight, and so had


r,_.lly ,-i ri..d it to tight, vet that Le m i.-ht .i, ;,ll,, ,l < I
to d, i :.mbil:tat in her ,l,:tf-n:.:. The whole Court I"
W.- l, Z-1.tat,:,rs. Th' I Du1 k:. (iciar-le wu-, onu his -.'-

1vith I1 l:i._k. 1-rav r w,; r,.? ,. trI,.-,l tlih t 4-1,,, v,,,l .
aid thi, ri._hi. Th,. tri ,nilt. s,.,lur eh.,l a ,d th,: -.+c. ',,
chai1m' i..-i' i '-.l in lull .arl,-r :.r. iun t ea-h other At
the first ,_, :t l- ,ut ral's h l .:- pi-r'-e:l hi nI;, l: ,ry's
shite:ld o that he ,c.,ol l n.i.t i. i ,.\s -.i e it, tt'l Itlj'^ ',.i.'r "*l
w as tlu-'; enial_, t i.-l, -..- w ith hirn, hurl tin t,_,1 ti h .:1L-
gri-,nn1, Mand il,-lp:.t':hi h.lin with a lagg r. Tlhin, whii. -
the lists rang with applause, the brave boy rushed up
to his godmother and threw himself into her arms in a transport of joy."
When William conquered England he became King of England and
still owned his own possessions in Normandy, and the Count of Anjou,
when he became King, still held the lands he had held as Count, so that
the Kings of England held a great part of France as well as England.
The Counts of Anjou used to wear a sprig of broom, or plant genista, in
their helmets, and from this they were called the Plantagenet Kings.
The first of them was brave and clever, and the second was brave,
but the third, John, was mean and cruel and cowardly, and had really no
right to the throne at all. His nephew, Prince Arthur of Brittany, ought
to have been King, because he was the son of John's elder brother. But


John wanted the kingdom for himself, and though the King of France
tried to help Arthur to get his rights, John would not give up the crown
he had stolen. He managed to take Prince Arthur prisoner, and then
pretended to be very fond of him. All this quarrel has been a mistake,"
he said; "come with me and I will give you a kingdom."
So Prince Arthur went with him, and in the dark night, as they
passed along by the river, the wicked King stabbed the young Prince
with his own hand, and pushed him into the swift-flowing water.
" There," he cried, "that is the kingdom I promised you."
And the poor young Prince sank into the dark flood, never to rise again.
Shakespeare tells another story of Prince Arthur's death, which you
will read for yourselves one day; and this is the story:-
After King John had taken the young Prince prisoner, he shut him
up in the Castle of Northampton, and ordered Hubert de Burgh, the
Governor of the Castle, to put poor Arthur's eyes out, because he thought
that no one would want a blind boy to be King of England. So Hubert
went into the room where the little Prince was shut up.
Good morning," said the Prince. "Y6u are sad, Hubert."
"Indeed, I have been merrier," said Hubert, who, though he did
not like to disobey the King, was yet miserable at the wicked deed he
had been asked to do.
"Nobody," said Arthur, "should be sad but I. If I were out of
prison and kept sheep I should be as merry as the day is long. And so
I would be here but for my uncle. He is afraid of me and I of him. Is
it my fault that I was Geoffrey's son ? Indeed it is not, and I would to
heaven I were your son, so you would love me, Hubert."
"If I talk to him," said Hubert to himself, "I shall never have
the courage to do this wicked deed."
Are you ill, Hubert ? Arthur went on. You look pale to-day.
If you were ill I would sit all night and watch you, for I believe I love
you more than you do me."
Hubert dared not listen. He felt he must do the King's wicked
will, so he pulled out the paper on which the King had written his cruel
order, and showed it to the young Prince. Arthur read it calmly and
then turned to Hubert.
So you are to put out my eyes with hot irons ? "


YOU A- ~
:1r SAID
f e1.. _AV ~

"Young boy, I must," said Hubert.
And you will ? asked Arthur.
And Hubert answered, And I will."
"Have you the heart ?" cried Arthur. "Do you remember when
your head ached how I tied it up with my own handkerchief, and sat up
with you the whole night holding your hand and doing everything I could
for you Many a poor man's son would have lain still and never have
spoke a loving word to you; but you, at your sick service, had a prince.
Will you put out my eyes-those eyes that never did, nor never shall, so
much as frown on you ? "
"I have sworn to do it," said Hubert. He called two men, who
brought in the fire and the hot irons, and the cord to bind the little Prince.
"Give me the irons," said Hubert, "and bind him here."


For heaven's sake, Hubert, let me not be bound," cried Arthur.
" I will not struggle-I will stand stone still. Nay, hear me, Hubert,
drive these men away and I will sit as quiet as a lamb, and I will forgive
you whatever torment you may put me to."
And Hubert was moved by his pleading, and told the men to go;
and as they went they said-" We are glad to have no part. in such a
wicked deed as this."
Then Arthur flung his arms round Hubert and implored him to
spare his eyes, and at last Hubert consented, for all the time his
heart had been sick at the cruel deed he had promised to do. Then
he took Prince Arthur away and hid him, and told the King he
was dead.
But King John's lords were so angry when they heard that
Arthur was dead, and John seemed so sorry for having given the
order to Hubert, that Hubert thought it best to tell him that Arthur
had not been killed at all, but was still alive and safe. John was
now so terrified at the anger of his lords on Arthur's account that
Arthur might from that time have been safe from him. But the
poor boy was so frightened by what he had gone through that he
made up his mind to risk his life in trying to escape. So he decided
to leap down from the top of the tower as his only means of escape.
Then he thought he could get
Saway in disguise without being
6' recognized.
S"The wall is high, and yet
will I leap down," he said.
Good ground, be pitiful and
hurt me not."
So he leaped, but the tower
was high, and the fall killed
yI him. And before he died, he
Smurmured Heaven take my
Ssoul and England keep my
That is the story as Shake-
speare gives it.


Almost everyone in
England hated IKing John,
even before this dreadful
affair of Prince Arthur's
death. The King of France
took Normandy away from him, and his own people would not help him
to fight for it.
He was very cruel and revengeful, and often put people in prison
or killed them without giving any reason for it, or having them
properly tried. So the great nobles of England joined together and said
that they would not let John be King any longer in England unless
he would give them a written promise to behave better in future.
At first he laughed at the idea, and said he should do as he chose,
and that he would fight the lords and keep them in their proper
place. But he had to give in when he found that only seven of
the lords of England were on his side and all the rest against him.
So then he asked the barons and the bishops to meet him at Runnymede
and there he put his big seal to a writing, promising what they wished.
He did not sign his name to it, but you can see that very parchment MIagna charta,
sealed in the British Museum with the King's big seal to it. A.. 1215.
But though he fixed his seal to the paper he did not keep the


Promises that were in it, and the
S barons grew so angry that they
S.asked the King of France to help
them to fight John, and to turn
him out.
John ran away when he heard
/that the French were coming. He left his
friends to fight his battles, and went off,
wrecking the castles of the barons who had
asked the French Prince to come over, and
who were now with him. Then someone
told the barons that the French Prince was
determined to cut off all their heads as soon
as he had got England for his own. So
S they saw how foolish they had been to ask
him to come and help them. John was in
Lincolnshire, and was coming across the
sands at the Wash, but the tide suddenly
ROBIN came in and swept away his crown, his
SHoD treasure, his food, and everything was lost
in the sea. King John was very miserable
at losing all his treasures, and he tried to
Sdrown his sorrows by drinking a lot of beer
and eating much more than was good for
him. This brought on a fever, and he
A.D. 1216. died miserably, with no one at all to be sorry for him.
He was and is the best-hated of all our English kings.
There was much danger in travelling in those days, for robbers
used to hide in the woods and lonely places, and to attack and
rob travellers. Many of the nobles themselves who were in attendance
on the King, being often unable to get their proper pay, either belonged
to these robber bands or secretly helped them, and shared with them
the plunder they took from those they robbed. The best known of these
robbers was the famous, Robin Hood, who lived in the time of King
Richard and King John. He is supposed to have been a nobleman,
and to have had his hiding place in Sherwood Forest, and he is


said to have been- kind and merciful to the poor, and to have helped them
out of the money and good things he stole from the rich. Many
songs about him have come down to us. The poor suffered in those old
days many and great hardships at the hands of the nobles of England,
who indeed robbed and oppressed them very cruelly. Sl they were
ready enough to sing the praises of one who stole only from the rich and
who gave to the poor.


) ,r




" 7 -

A.D. 1216. H ENRY THE THIRD was crowned at Gloucester when he was only
nine years old. You remember that King John's crown had been
lost in the Wash with his other treasures, so they crowned Henry with a
gold bracelet of his mother's. The lords who attended the coronation
banquet wore white ribbons round their heads as a sign of their homage
to the innocent, helpless child. They made him swear to do as his father
had promised in the great charter sealed at Runnymede; and the Earl of
Pembroke was appointed to govern the kingdom till Henry grew up.
Henry grew up unlike his cruel father. He was gentle, tender-
hearted, fond of romance, music and poetry, sculpture, painting and
architecture. Some of the most beautiful churches we have were built in
his reign. But, though he had so many good qualities, he had no bravery,
no energy and perseverance. He was fond of pleasure and of the beauti-
ful things of this world, and cared too little for the beautiful things of
the soul. He was fond of gaiety, and his young queen was of the same
disposition. She was one of four sisters. Two of these sisters married
kings and two married counts, and the kings' wives were so proud of
being queens that they used to make their sisters, the countesses, sit
on little low stools while they themselves sat on handsome high chairs.


Henry's time passed in feasts and songs and dancing. Romances and
curious old Breton ballads were translated into English, and recited at
the Court with all sorts of tales of love and battle and chivalry.
The object of chivalry was to encourage men in noble and manly
exercises, and to teach them to succour the oppressed, to uphold the
dignity of women, and to help the Christian faith. And chivalry was
made attractive by all sorts of gay and pretty devices. Knights used to
wear in their helmets a ribbon or a glove that some lady had given them,
and it was supposed that, while they had the precious gift of a good lady
in their possession, they would do nothing base or disloyal that should
dishonour the gift they carried.
Each young noble at twelve years old was placed as page in some
other noble household. There, for two years, he
learned riding and fencing, and the use of arms.
When the lord killed a deer the pages skinned
it and carried it home. At a feast the pages
carried in the chief dishes and poured the wine
for their lords to drink. They helped the ladies
of the house in many ways, and carried their
trains on state occasions.
At fourteen a page became a squire. He
helped his lord to put on his
armour, carried his shield to
battle, cleaned and polished his
lord's armour and sharpened his :
sword, and he was allowed to
wear silver spurs instead of .
iron ones, such as the common
people wore.
When he was considered
worthy to become a knight he
went through a ceremony which
dedicated him to the service of
The day before he was to
become a knight the young man


stripped and bathed. Then he put on a white tunic-the white as a
promise of purity ; a red robe-the red meant the blood he was to shed in
fighting for the right; and he put on a black doublet (which is a sort of
jacket), and this was black in token of death, of which a knight was never
to be afraid. Then he went into the church, and there he spent the night
in prayer. He heard the priests singing their chant in the darkness of the
big church, and he thought of his sins, and steadfastly purposed to lead a
new life. In the morning he confessed his sins, walked up to the altar,
laid down his belt and sword, and then knelt at the foot of the altar
steps. He received the Holy Communion, and then the lord who was to
make him a knight gave him the accolade-three strokes on the back of
the bare neck with the flat side of the sword-and said:
In the name of Saint George I make thee a knight,"-and bade
him take back his sword-" in the name of God and Saint George, and
use it like a true knight as a terror and punishment for evil-doers, and a
defence for widows and orphans, and the poor, and the oppressed, and the
priests-the servants of God."
The priests and the ladies came round him and put on his gilt spurs,
and his coat of mail, and his breastplate, and armpieces, and gauntlets,
and took the sword and girded it on him. Then the young man swore to
be faithful to God, the King, and woman; his squire brought him his
helmet, and his horse's shoes rang on the church pavement and under the
tall arches as his squire led the charger up the aisle. In the presence of
priests, and knights, and ladies assembled, the young knight sprang upon
his horse and caracoled before the altar, brandishing his lance and his
sword. And then away to do the good work he was sworn to.
Many, of course, forgot their promises and broke their vows, but in
those wild times many a rough man was made gentle, many a cruel man
less cruel, and many a faint-hearted one made bold by the noble thoughts
from which the idea of chivalry sprang.
Now, you know, England is governed by the Queen and Parliament.
But in those old days England was ruled by the King and by such nobles
as had money and strength enough to be able to rule by force. These
nobles were indeed a terror to the people. They lived in strong, stoutly-
built castles, with a great moat or ditch round them, and having always
many retainers and armed servants, they were often able to resist the


.- e t B t t aini.. It v i .,-

noble, unselfish man, who loved
his fellow countrymen, and who saw, that to make people rich, andthe
of the country in wKi hihich they li ty t noble Englishman, Simon de
10., f:,r ,:1 ,ild d. thIII, h.rm .
otfot, was called the great Earl, and- it was he who headed the

resistance to enry the Third, when that tried to escape from
-..plk,, th t, thl. .,a .,ns rrA
,F;i-i'.t J-1h alnd ll -I. th ll, H,- W.
""I.. t. a 11t ---,n th j 11 N!s 'It

noble, unselfish man, who loved
his fellow countrymen, and who saw, that to make people rich, and
happy, and prosperous, they must be allowed to share in the government
of the country in which they live. This noble Englishman, Simon de
Montfort, was called the great Earl, and- it was he who headed the
resistance to Henry the Third, when that King tried to escape from


keeping the promises contained in the Great Charter which he had bound
himself to obey.
The resistance grew so strong that at last there was war in England.
At the Battle of Lewes, Simon de M1ontfort defeated Henry and took him
prisoner, and with him was his son, Prince Edward. Then at last a
Parliament was called. Two knights were sent to it from each county,
and from every town two citizens. It was chiefly to get these towns
represented in Parliament that the great Earl opposed the King.
Prince Edward was very anxious to escape and fight another battle
for his father. So he pretended to be very ill. When he got better he
asked his gaolers to let him go out riding for the benefit of his health.
They agreed, but of course, they sent a guard of soldiers out with him
to see that he did not escape. Prince Edward rode out for several days
with them and never even tried to get away. But one day he begged
them to ride races with each other, while he looked on. They did so,
and when their horses were quite tired, he shouted, I have long enough
enjoyed the pleasure of your company, gentlemen, and I bid you good-
day," put spurs to his horse, and was soon out of their reach. His friend,
the Earl of Gloucester, joined him, and they soon raised an army and
A.). 126.5. defeated the great Earl at Evesham.
"Let us commend our souls to God," said Simon, as Prince Edward
and his men came down upon him and the little band of knights who
stood by his side. One by one the knights fell, till Simon only was left.
He hacked his way through his foes, and had nearly escaped when his
horse was brought to the ground, and a death wound was given him from
behind. "It is God's grace," he said, and died. But though the leader
died, the work was done, and a Parliament established in England.
Some of the priests in England had grown very wicked and greedy.
They neglected their duties and thought only of feasting and making
themselves comfortable. But some good monks came over from Rome,
and determined to try to show the English priests what a Christian's
duty was. They made a vow to be poor, and to deny themselves
everything, except just enough food to keep body and soul together.
They would not even have books at first, but spent all the money they
could collect on the poor. They nursed the sick and helped the
unfortunate. They would not wear pretty clothes or beautiful vestments,


but were dressed in plain grey or black serge, with a rope round the
waist, and bare feet. Although they were foreigners and could speak
but little English, they encouraged people to write in the English
language instead of in Latin or French.
It was a favourite dream of the early English and French kings to
take Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the hands of the Saracens, and
to let Christians be the guardians of the place where Christ lived and
died. To do this they were constantly making war on the Saracens, and
these wars were called Crusades, and the knights who went to them
Crusaders. Crusaders carried a red cross on their banners and on their
shields. The Saracens' banners and shields had a crescent like a new
moon. For two hundred years this fighting went on, and the last of
our English princes to take part in it was Prince Edward. He had only
three hundred knights with him, and was not able to attack Jerusalem,
because he could not get together more than seven thousand men.
His knights went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, but he stayed in his
camp at Acre. One day a messenger came into his tent with letters,
and while he was reading them the wicked messenger stabbed him. He
had been sent to do so by the Saracens, because they were afraid of this


brave prince. The prince caught the blow on his arm, and kicked
the messenger to the ground, but the man rose and rushed at him
again with the knife. The dagger just grazed the prince's forehead,
and seizing a wooden footstool Prince Edward dashed out the messenger's
brains. His wife, the Princess Eleanor, was afraid the dagger was
poisoned. So she sucked the blood from his wound with her own
lips, and so most likely saved his life. But he was very ill in spite
of this, and England nearly lost one-of her best and bravest princes.
As soon as he was well enough to travel, he set out for England,
and on the way he was met with the sad news that his father and two
A.D. 1272. of his children were dead. So he became King of England, and he was
the father of the first Prince of Wales.

-- -----s---, g --a- -_

Kifl Ke i i

T1HERE were Welsh princes long before there were English kings, and
the Welsh princes could not bear to be subject to the kings of
England. So they were always fighting to get back their independ-
ence. But the English kings could not let them be free as they wished,
because England could never have been safe with an independent king-
dom so close to her. So there were constant wars between the two coun-
tries, and sometimes the fortune of battle went one way and sometimes
the other.
But at last the Welsh Prince Llewellyn was killed. He had gone
to the south of Wales to cheer up his subjects there, and he had crossed
the river Wye into England, when a small band of English knights came
up. A young knight named Adam Frankton met with a Welsh chief
as he came out of a barn to join the Welsh army. Frankton at once
attacked him, and after a struggle, wounded the Welsh chief to
death. Then he rode on to battle, and when he came back he tried
to find out what had become of the Welshman. He heard that
he was already dead, and then they found that the dead man was
the great Welsh Prince Llewellyn. His head was taken off and sent
to London, where it was placed on the battlements of the Tower and
crowned, in scorn, with ivy. This was because an old Welsh magician,
years before, had said that when English money became round, the
Welsh princes should be crowned in London. And money had become
round in this way:-


Before this there were silver pennies, and when anyone wanted
a half-penny, he chopped the silver penny in two, and if he wanted
a farthing he chopped the silver penny in four, so that money was
all sorts of queer shapes. But Edward the First had caused round
copper half-pennies and farthings to be made, and when the Welsh
prince had heard of this he had believed that the old magician's
words were coming true, and that he should defeat Edward and become
king of England himself. Instead of this, the poor man's head was
cut off, and, in mockery of his hopes and dreams, they crowned the
poor dead head with the wreath of ivy.
Now the Welsh wanted another prince, and King Edward said:
" If you will submit to me and not fight any more, you shall have
a prince who was born in Wales, can speak never a word of English,
and never did wrong to man, woman, or child." The Welsh people
agreed that if they could have such a prince as that, they would be
contented and quiet, and give up fighting. And so one day the leaders
of the Welsh met King Edward at his castle in Caernarvon and asked for
the Prince he had promised them, and he came out of his castle with his
little son, who had only been born a week before, in his arms.
Here is your Prince," he said, holding up the little baby. He
was born in Wales, he cannot speak a word of English, and he has never
done harm to man, woman or child."
Instead of being angry at the trick the king had played them,
the Welsh people were very pleased. Welsh nurses took care of the baby,
so that he really did learn to speak in Welsh before he could speak in
English. And the Welsh were so pleased with their baby king that from
that time Edward the First had no more trouble with them.
There are many stories told of this prince's boldness as a child. He
promised them to grow up as brave as his father, and it would have been
better for him if he had done so. He was always very fond of hunting,
and once when he was quite young, he and his servants were hunting the
deer. His servants lost the trace of the deer, and presently, when they
reined up their horses, they found that the young prince was no longer
with them. They looked everywhere for him, very frightened lest he
should have fallen into the hands of robbers; and at last they heard
a horn blown in the forest. They followed the sound of it and presently


found that the young prince had
seen which way the deer went, and
had followed it and killed it all by
C "himself.
% 'Now King Edward the First
had great trouble with his Scotch nobles, and many were the battles he
fought with them, until at last he forced the Scottish king Balliol to
declare himself his vassal, and he became the over-lord of Scotland.
But there arose a brave Scot named William Wallace, who longed to see
his country free from England, and he drove the English back, and
again and again he beat them.
But in a few years Edward got together another army, and leading
them into Scotland he beat the Scots and took Wallace prisoner.
Wallace was tried and found guilty of treason, and when he had been
beheaded, they crowned his head with laurel and placed it on London A.D. 130s.
Bridge, for all the passers-by, by road or river, to see.
Then two men claimed the Scottish crown, Robert Bruce and John,
who was called the Red Comyn. They were jealous of each other, and
Bruce thought that Comyn had betrayed him. They met in a church
to have an explanation.
"You are a traitor," said Bruce.


S"You lie,"
said Comyn.
And Bruce
in a fury struck
at him with his
dagger, and
S then, filled with horror, rushed from the church.
"To horse, to horse," he cried. One of his
attendants, named Kirkpatrick, asked him what
was the matter.
S"I doubt," said Bruce, "that I have
slain the Red Comyn."
"You- doubt "
said Kirkpatrick. "I,
Swill make sure."
So saying, he
ng hurried back into the
church and killed the
wounded man.
And now the task
of defending Scotland
e e S against Edward was
left to Robert Bruce.
King Edward was so
Angry when he heard
.0t t ,. .. of this murder, that
at the feast, when
his son was made a
knight, he swore over the swan, which was the chief dish and which
was the emblem of truth and constancy, that he would never rest two
nights in the same place till he had chastised the Scots. And for some
time the Scots and English were at bitter War, and when King Edward
A.D. 1307. died, he made his son promise to go on fighting.
But Edward the Second was not a man like his father. He was
more like his grandfather Henry the Third, caring for pretty colours and
pretty things, rich clothes, rich feasts, rich jewels, and surrounding himself


with worthless favourites. Robert Bruce said he was more afraid of the
dead bones of Edward the First than of the living body of Edward of
Caernarvon, and that it was easier to win a kingdom from his son than
.a foot of land from the father. Gradually the castles the English had
taken in Scotland were won back from them. For twenty years the
English had held the Castle of Edinburgh, and at the end of that time,
Randolph, a Scottish noble, came to besiege it.
The siege was long, and the brave English showed no signs of giving
in. Randolph was told that it was possible to climb up the south face of
the rock on which the castle stood, and steep as the rock was, Randolph
and some others began to climb it one dark night. When they were
part of the way up, and close to the wall of the castle, they heard a
soldier above them cry out-" Away, I see you," and down came stone
after stone. Had many more been thrown Randolph and his companions
must have been dashed to the ground and killed, for it was only on a
Very narrow ledge that they had found a footing. But the soldier was
only in joke, trying to frighten his fellows. He had not really seen them
at all, and he passed on. When all was quiet again, the daring Scots
climbed up till they reached the top of the wall, and when they had
fixed a rope ladder the rest of their men came up. Then they fell upon
the men of the garrison and killed them, and thecastle was taken by the
But a greater loss awaited the English. Edward led an English
army to battle in Scotland; and at Bannockburn they met the force of A.D. 1314.
the Scots king. They fought till the field was slippery with blood, and
covered with broken armour and lances and arrows. Then at the last, as
the English began to waver, Bruce charged down on them with more
soldiers and utterly routed them. Edward with difficulty saved his life,
and throughout England there were bitter lamentings at the loss and
shame the country had suffered. Scotland was free from the English
yoke, and of all the great conquests the first Edward had won, only
Berwick-on-Tweed remained to the English.
Edward II. was never loved by his subjects. He made favourites
of silly and wicked persons, and so gave much offence to good folk. He
was wasteful and extravagant, and did not even try to govern the
country wisely and well, while his favourites made themselves hated


More and more
by their dishon-
esty and wicked-
'3. ness. The last
of his favour-
ites was named
Despenser, and
g. on he was as much
hated by the
Queen Isabella
as by the lords
..- .and people of
England. De-
spenser not only
made himself
Sahated by the
o E a a queen, but he
4 managed also to
make her dislike
her husband, the
king, with whom
.: she had long
been on un-
friendly terms.
0 At last Isabella,
disgusted with
3a her husband and.
his favourite,
ran away to France, and there, with the help of the Count of Hainault
and other friends in England, she raised an army and attacked and
defeated her husband and his favourite. The young Despenser was
hanged on a gibbet fifty feet high, and a Parliament was called to decide
what should be done with the king.
The Parliament declared its right to make or unmake kings, and
ordered that Edward should not be king any more. Some members went
to Edward at Kenilworth to tell him what they had decided, and Edward


clad in a plain black gown, received them and quietly promised to be
king no more. Then he was taken to Berkeley Castle, and a few months
after the people learned that he was dead.
There has always been much doubt whether he died a natural death
or was murdered. The Bishop of Hereford, who had always been on the
queen's side, is said to have sent to two
wicked men the following message written :
in Latin-" Edwardum occidere nolite timere ..
bonum est." Now this message had two
meanings according to the way the stops were
put in. The first was "Be unwilling to
fear to kill Edward-it is good." The other
was-"-Be unwilling to kill Edward-it is
good to fear."
So you see that, if this message fell into
anyone's hands for whom it was not intended,
the bishop would have been able to say he
meant to warn people not to kill the king,
while Gurney and Maltravers, who received
the message, could say that the paper was an
order to kill him. The story goes, that they
came to the castle and there found the poor
king in a dungeon. He was standing in mire
and puddle, and, although he was a king, they
gave him only bread and water. Then he'
thought of his former greatness and how
brave and gallant a show he had made as a
knight, and he cried out--
"Tell Isabel, the queen, I looked not thus
When for her sake I ran at tilt in France
And there unhorsed the Duke of Cleremont." J
He was too weak to resist these wicked.
A.D. 1327. men, and they had no mercy in their hearts,
but murdered him.

it- ;w



(See page 47.)

THE name of Edward the Black Prince will always be remembered
with love and admiration by all young Englishmen, because he was
by all accounts a very brave, gallant, and courteous prince, feared by his
foes and by his friends beloved. His father, Edward the Third, had not
given up his hopes of regaining his lost possessions in France, so he spent
two long years in getting together money and ships and an army. He
fought the French fleet near Sluys. Both sides fought fiercely, and at A.D. 1340.
last the English won. The French had thought that they were quite
sure to get the best of it, and they were afraid to tell the King of France
how the English had beaten them, for hundreds of the French had been
either killed or been forced to jump into the sea to escape the swords of
the English.
Now, at this time every king kept a jester to make jokes and amuse
him and his friends at their feasts, and the jester was a privileged person,
who could say anything he liked. So now they told the jester of the
King of France that he must tell the king the bad news, because he could
say what he liked and no one would punish him for it. So the jester
Oh what dastardly cowards the English are "
"How so ? said the king, who expected to hear that the cowardly
English had been driven away by his men.


SING.- answered the
-DW D-t jester, "they
Orr NcL h a v e n ot
Jumped intothe
sea as our brave
men had to do."
So then the
king asked him
what he meant,
and then the
a but. courtiers came
forward and
told the sad
story of the En-
glish victory.
Then Ed-
ward besieged a town called Tournay, but he had not enough money
to get provisions for his men, so he had to make friends with the king of
France for a little while and go back to England.
Six years later he pawned his crown and his queen's jewels, and at
last got together enough money to go and fight with the French again.
He landed at La HIogue, and as he landed he fell so violently that his nose
began to bleed.
Oh, this is a bad sign," said his courtiers, "that your first step on
French soil should be a fall."
"Not so," said the king. It is a good sign. It shows that the
land desires me: so she takes me close to her."
He had thirty-two thousand men with him, and his son, the Black
Prince. Some say he was called the Black Prince because he wore black
armour, but others say it was because he made himself as great a terror-to
the French as a black night is to foolish children.
Edward marched towards the French and the French marched to
meet him, and as they marched they broke down all the bridges, so that
the English could not advance by them. BuBt Edward had made up his
mind to get across the river Seine and fight with his enemies; and he was


no more to be stopped by the water than a dog would have been who
wanted to get over to the other side to fight another dog. He got a poor
man to show him a place where the river was shallow at low tide, and
there he plunged into the river, crying, "Let him who loves me follow
me," and the whole army followed and got safely to the other side.
Edward arranged his soldiers well, and went himself to the top of a
little hill where there was a windmill. From' this he could see every-
thing that went on. The French had a far larger army than the English,
and when they came in sight of Edward's army and saw how well placed
it was, the wiser Frenchmen said, "Do not let us fight them to-day, for
our men and horses are tired. Let us wait for to-morrow and then we
can drive them back." So the foremost of the French army turned back,
but those behind were discontented and thought the fighting had begun
and that they had not had a chance. So they pushed forward till the
whole French army was close to the English.
King Edward had made all his soldiers sit on the grass and eat and
drink. Mounted on his horse he rode among them telling them to be
brave, for that they were now going to win a
glori,:us vict.:,ry anld i:.:i.\-r thl.-~nmedv,1 i with l i
eternal glory. At thr,:e- in thef,:-riu:i.,u the --
first Frenh- i :ul i n.' t: t,' f'. L witl thi:e "
A.D. 1346. English meu, ;ndl th. :I- .ttle lt Si:' -



soldiers from Genoa who had been paid to fight for the French king,
said they did not want to fight, they were too tired and could not
fight as good soldiers should, but the men behind pressed them on
and they were beaten. A heavy rain fell, with thunder, and. a great
flight of crows hovered in the air over all the battalions, making a loud
noise. Shortly afterwards it cleared up and the sun shone very bright.
But the French had it in their faces and the English at their backs.
When the Genoese drew near, they approached the English with a
loud noise to frighten them; but the English remained quite quiet, and
did- not seem to attend to it. They then set up a second shout and
advanced a little forward. The English never moved. Still they hooted
a third time, and advanced with their crossbows presented and began to
shoot. The English archers then
moved a step forward and shot
their arrows with such force and
quickness that it seemed as if it
snowed. The fight raged furiously,
and presently a knight came galloping up to
tthe windmill and begged the king to send
help to his son, the Black Prince, as he was
sore pressed.
Is my son in danger of his life ?" said
the king.
No, thank God," re-
turned the knight, but in
great need of your help."
Then the king an-
S.._ swered: "Return to them
that sent you and say that
S I command them to let the
boy win his spurs, for I am
iV,- determined that, if it please
"-h ` God, all the glory of this
li'^ y / day shall be given to him
L' and to those to whose care
I have entrusted him."


This message cheered the Prince mightily,
and he and the English won the battle of Crecy.
And the battle of Crecy, one of -the most
glorious in English History, was won by the -
common people of England, yeomen and
archers, foot soldiers against the knights and
squires of France with their swords and
In this battle the blind king of Bohemia ~-"
took part with the French.
"I pray you," he said to his friends, "lead me into the battle
that I may strike one more stroke with this good sword of
So they led him in and he was killed.
The battle of Poictiers was fought entirely under the direction .D. 1356.
of the Black Prince, and this-was another splendid victory to England;
and in this battle the French king was taken. The king was brought
to the Black Prince as he was resting in his tent, and he behaved
like the true gentleman he was. He showed the deepest respect
and sympathy for his vanquished foe. He ordered the best of suppers
to be served to the king, and would not sit with him to eat, but
stood behind his chair and waited on him like a servant, saying-




I am only a prince. It is not fitting I should sit in the presence of
the king of France." And King John said-
"Since it has pleased Heaven that I am a captive, I thank
my God I have fallen into the hands of the most generous and valiant
prince alive."
King John was taken as a prisoner to London. They rode into
the city, King John mounted on a beautiful white horse that belonged
to the Black Prince, while Prince Edward himself, riding on a black
pony, was ready to wait on him, and to do his bidding.
It was this generous temper which made the Black Prince beloved
by all who knew him; it was only during his last illness that his cha-
racter seemed to be changed by the great sufferings that he underwent,
and it was only during the last year of his life that he did anything
of which a king and an Englishman need be ashamed.
He seems to have inherited his skill in war from his father, and
from his mother, Queen Philippa, he inherited gentleness, goodness, and
true courtesy. There are many stories told of the goodness and courage
of this lady. Among others, this :-
When Edward the Third had besieged Calais for a year, the good
A.D. 1347. town which had held out so long was obliged to surrender, for there was
no longer anything to eat in the city, and the folks said: It is as good
to die by the hands of the English as to die here by famine like rats in a
hole." So they sent to tell the king they would give up the town to him.
But Edward the Third was so angry with them for having resisted him
so long, that he said that they should all be hanged. Then Edward the
Black Prince begged his father not to be so hard on brave men who had
only done what they believed to be their duty, and entreated him to
spare them. Then said the king-
"I will spare them on condition that six citizens, bare-headed and
bare-footed, clad only in their shirts, with ropes round their necks, shall
come forth to me here, bringing the keys of the city."
And when the men of Calais heard this, they said: No; better to
die than live a dishonoured life by giving up even one of these our
brothers who have fought and suffered with us." But one of the chief
gentlemen of Calais-Eustace de S. Pierre-said:
It is good that six of us should win eternal glory in this world


and the sunshine of God's countenance in the next, by dying for our town
and our brethren. I, for one, am willing to go to the English king on
such terms as he commands."
Then up rose his son and said likewise, and four other gentlemen,
inspired by their courage, followed their example. So the six in their
shirts, with ropes round their necks and the keys of the town in their
hands, went out through the gates, and all the folk of Calais stood
weeping and blessing them as they went. When they came to the king,
he called for the hangman, saying-"l Hang me these men at once."
But Queen Philippa was
there, and though she was ill,
she left her tent weeping so .:
tenderly that she could not J. ,
stand upright. Therefore she
cast herself upon her knees be-
fore the king, and spoke thus :-
"Ah, gentle sire, from the
day I passed over sea I have
asked for nothing; now I pray
you, for the love of Our Lady's son
Christ, to have mercy on these." -.
King Edward waited for a .
while before speaking, and looked i-
at the queen as she knelt, and he '
said-" Lady, I had rather you
had been elsewhere. You pray
so tenderly that I dare not refuse "
you; and though I do it against' -
my will, nevertheless take I'
them. I give them to you." ,
Then took he the six
citizens by the halters and
delivered them to the queen,
and released from death all I'" .i
those of Calais for the love j l
of her.

'3; <3r thei1nF^ T
anrd ~eC

HI ENRY the Fourth was the Black Prince's nephew, and he came
A.D. 1399. to be king of England. His son was Henry the Fifth, the
greatest of the Plantagenet kings. When he was a young man, and
only Prince of Wales, he was very wild and fond of games and jokes.
They used to call him Harry Madcap.
Once, when he got into some trouble or other, his father, who was ill,
sent for him, and he went at once in a fine dress that he had had made
for a fancy dress party. It was of light blue satin with odd puckers in
the sleeves, and at every pucker the tailor had left a little bit of blue
thread and a tag like a needle. The king was very angry with the prince
for daring to come into the royal presence in such a silly coat. Then
Prince Harry said-
"Dear father, as soon as I heard that you wanted me, I was in such a
hurry to come to you that I had no time to even think of my coat, much
less change it."
And so the king forgave him.
Another time one of his servants got into trouble and was taken
before the Chief Judge Sir William Gascoyne. The Prince went directly
to the Court where the judge was and said-


Lord Judge, this is my servant, and .you must let him go, for I am
the king's son."
No," said the judge, "I sit here in the place of the king himself, to
do justice to all his subjects, and were this man the Prince of Wales him-
self, instead of being his servant, he should be punished in that he has
offended against the law."
The prince was so angry that he actually forgot himself so far as
to strike Sir William Gascoyne. The good judge did not hesitate a
You have insulted the king himself," he said, "in my person, since
I sit here in his place to do justice. The common folks who offend
against the law offend merely against the king; but you, young man, are
a double traitor to your king and your father."
And he sent the prince to prison.
Henry begged the good judge's pardon afterwards, and when he came
to the throne he thanked him for having behaved so justly and wisely,
and gave him great honour because he had not been afraid to do his duty
without respect of rank, and Henry behaved to the judge like a good son
to a good father.
No king of England was ever more wise or brave or just than Henry
the Fifth; and even now he is remembered with, affection. One of
Shakespeare's most splendid plays is written about him, and, when you
have once read that, you will always remember and love Henry the Fifth
as all Englishmen should do.
At the very beginning of his reign the wars with France began
again. The king sent to France and claimed some lands that had .D. 1413.
belonged to Edward the Third; and the young prince of France sent
back the message-" There is nothing in France that can be won with a
dance or a song. You cannot get dukedoms in France by playing and
feasting, and the prince sends you something that will suit you better
than lands in France. He has sent you a barrel of tennis balls, and bids
you play with them and let serious matters be." Then King Henry was
very angry, and said-" We thank him for his present.
When we have matched our rackets to these balls,
We will in France, by God's grace, play a set
Shall strike his father's crown into the hazard.


T *

Before I was King of England I was wild and merry because I knew not
how great and solemn a state waited for me. I have played in my
youth like a common man because I was only Prince of Wales; but now
that I am King of England I will rise up with so full of glory that I will
dazzle all the eyes of France."
Henry sailed over to France and besieged a town called Harfleur.
He spoke to the soldiers before they attacked the town.
"Break down the wall and go through," he said, or close the wall
up with our English dead.
Bend every spirit
To his full height. On, on, you noblest English,
Whose blood is fetched from fathers of war proof.
Be copy now to men of grosser blood
And teach them how to war. And you, good yeomen,
Whose limbs were made in England, let us swear
That you are worth your breeding, which I doubt not;
Cry God for Harry, England and Saint George."
The Englishmen answered nobly to his appeal, and Harfileur was taken.
Then the English advanced to a place called Agincourt, a name
fated to be linked with splendid glory for ever in the hearts of all
English folk. The French had a very large army, and the English
soldiers were tired with their long march. Many of them were ill and
many were hungry; but they loved the king, and for his sake, and for


the sake of their country, they were brave in spite of hunger and cold.
Though they were in a strange country and many times outnumbered by
-their foes, they kept up a brave heart as Englishmen have done, thank
God, many's the good time, all the world over. So few were they that
the Earl of Westmoreland said, just before the battle,-
"Oh, that we now had here
But one ten thousand of those men in England
That do no work to-day !"
The king came in just as he was saying this, and said-
No, if we are marked to die, we are enough for our country to lose.
If we are to live, the fewer there are of us the greater share of honour. I
do not covet gold or feasting, or fine garments, but honour I do covet.
Wish not another man from England. I would not lose the honour of
this fight by sharing it with more men than are here, and if any among
our soldiers has no desire to fight, let him go. He shall have a passport
.and money to take him away. I should be ashamed to die in such a
man's company. We need not wish for men .from England. It is the
men in England who will envy us when they hear of the great crown of
honour and glory that we have won this day. This is Saint Crispin's
day. Every man who fights on this day will remember it and be honoured
to the last hour of his life. Crispin's day shall ne'er go by from this day
to the ending of the world,
But we in it shall be remembered,
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers,
For he to-day that sheds his blood with me
Shall be my brother, be he ne'er so vile.
And gentlemen in England now abed
.Shall thinkthemselves accursed they wer.. i,:. I :! .,
And hold their manhood cheap while an!\ ...i;
That fought with us upon St. Crispin's i3.' .
Lord Salisbury came in as th.- kiun A-
was saying this.
" The French are t.
in battle order," he
said, "and ready to /_
charge upon our /
men." _,. .-


"All things are ready," said the king quietly, "if our minds are-
Perish the man whose mind is backward now," said Westmoreland.
You wish no more for men from England then," said the king smiling.
And Westmoreland, inspired with courage and confidence by the
king's brave speech, answered-" I would to God, my king, that you and-
I alone without more help might fight this battle out to-day."
"Why, now you have unwished five thousand men," said the king
laughing, and that pleases me more than to wish us one more. God be
with you all."
So they went into battle tired as they were. The brave English let
A.D. 1415. loose such a shower of arrows that, as at Crewy, the white feathers of the
arrows filled the air like snow, and the French fled before them.
The Earl of Suffolk was wounded, and as he lay dying, the Duke of
York, his great friend, wounded to death, dragged himself to Suffolk's
side and took him by the beard and kissed his wounds, and cried aloud-
"Tarry, dear Cousin Suffolk,
My soul shall keep thine company to heaven.
Tarry, sweet soul, for mine, then fly abreast,
As in this glorious and well-foughten field
We kept together in our chivalry."
Then he turned to the king's
i ncle the Duke of Exeter, and
took his hand and
'. said: Dear my lord,
commend my service
to my sovereign."
Then he put his
two arms
round Suf-
S, folk's neck,

Friends died
But the bat-
tle was won.


Peace was made with France, and to seal the peace Henry married
the French princess, Katherine. A little son was born to them at
Windsor, and was called Henry of Windsor, Prince of Wales; he was
afterwards Henry the Sixth. When Henry the Fifth knew he was going
to die, he called his brothers together and gave them good advice about
ruling England and France, and begged them to take great care of his
little son. Henry the Sixth was not a year old when his father died, and
he was crowned at once.
One of the finest English poems we have, was written about the
Battle of Agincourt.

Fair stood the wind for France
When we our sails advance,
Nor now to prove our chance
Longer will tarry;
But putting to the main
At Caux, the mouth of Seine,
With all his martial train,
Landed King Harry.

And turning to his men,
Quoth our brave Harry then,
Though they be one to ten,
Be not amazed.
Yet have we well begun ;
Battles so bravely won
Have ever to the sun
By fame been raised.

And for myself (quoth he)
This my full rest shall be,
England ne'er mourn for me,
Nor more esteem me.
Victor I will remain,
Or on this earth lie slain,
Never shall she sustain
Loss to redeem me.

Poitiers and Cressy tell
When most their pride did swell,
Under our swords they fell;
No less our skill is
Then when our grandsire great,
Claiming the regal seat,
By many a warlike feat
Lopped the French lilies.

They now to fight are gone,
Armour on armour shone,
Drum now to drum did groan,
To hear was wonder;
That with the cries they make,
The very earth did shake,
Trumpet to trumpet spake,
Thunder to thunder.

With Spanish yew so strong,
Arrows a cloth-yard long
That like to serpents stung,
Piercing the weather;
None from his fellow starts,
But playing manly parts,
And like true English hearts,
Stuck close together.

-r-. 3 ~.C ~ ,/~~~~~~
i" f' 2;.-.


W\\en dowJ n theit l'b,:s they thie
Audl forth their bill,::i drew,
An.l i._n the French they flew,
N,-t on:ic wa; tatly ;
Armi wee i from shlid:iier, Stnt,
S:clp-z to the teeth weie rent,
Down the Fienchl p:ea-iiiuts went-
Our men wei e Ihar'ly.

Thii while :'iur noble kin2.
His broa:lwo'rl I. hinz.'
Down the Frenih hi.:.t 'lid dlins,
A., to o'e!rwhelm.! it.

Anil nimanv a deep w..uirin ler
Hi- armi with l:i,.:.I bespien
And a ctui.l dJent.
Br.uii v. hi; heluit.


It,. G


:,pon Saint C 'ipin' iav
Fr.i ght wa's this n:'oblle fray,
W\-hich faole dilhi rnot dlela\
To En-.lanii to carry.
I whien .ihail En.-li;shmeu
With su.b ar:t fili a pIen,
I'.r En-laud:l hree:i a.,in
Such a Kit.g Ha yi I

* .- r. r-Ar -*~** ..rr.A'~ .


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