• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 General principles
 Sources and functions of fertilizer...
 Home mixing
 Fertilization formulas
 Tilth
 Sulphur fertilization to help save...
 Soil analysis no guide to...
 Citrus fertilizer experiments
 Research aids in better fertil...
 Practicability of fertilization...
 Fertilizer consumption in the United...
 Soil orranisms - what they are...
 Uses of lime
 Index














Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Soils and fertilizers
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00088912/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soils and fertilizers
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 138 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooks, T. J ( Thomas Joseph ), b. 1870
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1940
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by T.J. Brooks
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: "July, 1940."
General Note: Revised.
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00088912
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AME7050
oclc - 41220504
alephbibnum - 002441837

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    General principles
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Sources and functions of fertilizer elements
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Home mixing
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Fertilization formulas
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Tilth
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Sulphur fertilization to help save American soil fertility
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Soil analysis no guide to fertilization
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Citrus fertilizer experiments
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Research aids in better fertilizing
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Practicability of fertilization of citrus groves
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Fertilizer consumption in the United States
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Soil orranisms - what they are and what they do
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Uses of lime
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Index
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
Full Text


New Series July, 1940 Number




SOILS AND
FERTILIZERS
(Revised)










\ STATE OF FLORIDA
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee
















CHAPTER I
General Principles ................ ........................
CHAPTER II
Sources and Functions of Fertilizer Elements .................. 1

CHAPTER III
Home Mixing ................. ............................ 2
CHAPTER IV
Fertilizer Formulas ................ ...................... 2
CHAPTER V
Tilth .................................................. 4

CHAPTER VI
Sulphur Fertilization ................ ................... .. 51

CHAPTER VII
Soil Analysis ............................................. 5'

CHAPTER VIII
Purchasing Fertilizer .................. ..................... 5!
CHAPTER IX
Citrus Fertilizer Experiments ................................ 61

CHAPTER X
Research Aids in Better Fertilizing ........................... 9(

CHAPTER XI
Practicability of Fertilization of Citrus Groves ................. 9

CHAPTER XII
Fertilizer Consumption in the United States .................... 10(

CHAPTER XIII
Useful Tables ................ ............................ 109

CHAPTER XIV
Soil Organisms ........................................... 116

CHAPTER XV
Uses of Lime ................. ............................ 123


Revised Statistics on Consumption of Fertilizer in the United
States ..... .......................................... 132











SOILS AND FERTILIZERS

By T. J. BROOKS, Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture

CHAPTER I.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES

PHYSICAL man is made up of some eighteen of the
eighty known elements composing the material uni-
verse. Man's existence is dependent upon his ability
to make the soil yield him a sustenance.
Soils are made up of small particles of different kinds
of minerals mixed with more or less organic matter. All
geologists tell us that these small mineral particles were
originally formed by the breaking down of rocks through
glacial erosion, weathering, and decomposition. The min-
eral kingdom is the basis of the vegetable and animal king-
doms. Plants and animals are partly mineral-man is no
exception.
So far, science has been able to isolate eighty distinct
physical elements. At least eighteen of these are essential
to the growth of plant life-carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
magnesium, iron, sulphur, calcium, phosphorus, and potas-
sium, are the more important.
The elements taken entirely from the soil are, calcium,
iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulphur.
Nitrogen is taken chiefly from the soil, but a group of
plants known as legumes-such as clover, peas, beans,
vetches, cowpeas, alfalfas, etc.-gather part of their nitro-
gen from the atmosphere. They accomplish this by means
of microscopic organisms which live in small nodules or
tubercles found on the roots.
Combinations of the three elements, carbon, hydrogen,
and oxygen, constitute 95% of all plants. They form the
fats and carbohydrates, including the oils and starch.
Plants obtain their supply of these from the air and water.
The carbon is derived from the carbon dioxide gas of the
air, and the hydrogen and oxygen from water, which is
itself a combination of hydrogen and oxygen absorbed
through the roots.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

So that only about five per cent of the material of plants
actually comes from the soil. Only minute amounts of
magnesium, iron, and sulphur are required and they are
present in most soils in abundant quantities. The same is
usually true of calcium, although certain crops, particularly
.lover, require this element in considerable amounts. So,
)y process of elimination, we find that seven of the eighteen
elements essential to plant growth, need give the farmer
)ut little concern.
The efficiency of soil is measured by its capacity to sup-
)ly plants with the several materials and conditions they
require for growth; these include physical support, water,
ieat, air and food. These elements of healthy plant en-
Tironment must exist in well-balanced proportion and
abundance to insure bountiful yields-even from the best
)f cultivation and the absence of disease and insect or
animal enemies. The vast variety of climates, soils, and
ioil conditions determine the kind and location of the many
varieties of plants.
Generally speaking, the water, heat, and air are fur-
iished by nature. It also furnishes the food in great
measure, but of recent years a great deal of artificial feed-
ng of plants has been practiced by farmers. This gives
ise to the manufacture and use of fertilizers.
Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are three elements
vhich in their various combinations, constitute the vast
majority of the material obtained from the soil by plants.
thesee elements do not exist in the soil as single elements,
ut are found combined with other elements, and plants
;an only appropriate their foods when they exist in cer-
ain combinations, and under certain physical conditions.
The following mineral elements are also needed by plants
n different degree and proportion: Iron. manganese,






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 7

test is the only absolutely reliable means of determining
the availability of plant food in fertilizers, as that avail-
ability is largely determined by the physical or mechanical
condition of the soil.
The Federal Bureau of Soil Surveys, of Washington, D. C.,
has found over 6,600 combinations of soils in the United
States. Florida has a hundred varieties. There is but little
information to be derived from a soil analysis that would
be of benefit to farmers. So much depends on drainage
and various physical conditions that an analysis made under
laboratory requirements is of little value.

A chemical analysis may indicate a very fertile soil, rich
in plant food, while the facts are the soils are not produc-
tive. This is instanced by the rich muck lands and river
bottoms of the State, that are fertile chemically, but not
productive until properly drained and sweetened by the
use of lime; also, by the arid lands of the west, rich in the
elements of plant food, but not productive until irrigated.
Other soils, with less plant food, but on account of proper
physical conditions are exceedingly productive.
The discovery that the kind and amount of fertilizer
which should be used on a certain soil to insure the best
result from a certain crop can be ascertained only by actual
test in growing it, was a sore disappointment to agronomists
and is disconcerting to the farmer.

There are several methods used in determining the avail-
ability of plant foods in fertilizers; the neutral perman-
ganate method, and the pepsin hydrochloric acid method
are used to determine the availability of plant foods, and
they differ so widely that 65% as shown by the latter is
equal to 85% as shown by the former. The Kjhldahl method
is also used to ascertain the nitrogen content of ingredi-
ents making up a compound fertilizer, but the availability
for plant food of the elements contained is not so easily
registered.

All the power of growth possessed by plant life is de-
pendent upon the presence and availability of the plant
foods with which the rootlets come in contact.
One food cannot take the place of another. No amount
of preparation, seed selection, or cultivation will produce
a crop when the proper plant foods are not in the soil. If






8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

two are there in superabundance, and the third totally
absent, the labor is lost. We fertilize when we apply either
ammonia, phosphoric acid, or potash in an available form.
A complete fertilizer must contain all three, but not neces-
sarily in equal parts. The food that is present in least
amounts limits the crop. Plants need a "balanced ration"
the same as animals.

Plant food is drawn in through the tiny, hair-like fibrous
rootlets. Each of these fibrous feeders is covered with a
thin skin. All the food plants get must pass through this
skin. The process is very much like that of body-building
From digested food in the stomach and alimentary canal
Af animals-including human beings. The villi of the diges-





SOILS AND FERTILIZERS

yield it up to the action of soil moisture more readily th,
others. This makes the source of nitrogen, phosphorus,
potash of importance to the farmer, who may want eith
rapid or gradual solubility to suit a quick, or slow-growil
crop.

Justice Von Liebig was the founder of Agricultui
Chemistry. It was he who discovered that plants feed i
soil chemicals, and if these are not in the soils in for
available for the growing plant to appropriate there c,
be no growth and no yield of harvest. He demonstrate
how crops depleted the soil, and how worn out soils cou
be restored to fertility by the application of artifici
fertilizers.

He announced his discovery in 1840.

Next to the knowledge of plant breeding the knowledl
of plant feeding has had the most important bearing c
modern agriculture. When we think of the magnitude ,
the commercial fertilizer business throughout the world
is indeed remarkable that the knowledge of the chemist]
of the soils came to our service at so recent a date.
the ancients had possessed this knowledge history mig]
have been different.

No iron-clad formula for commercial fertilizer can I
made to suit all soils. The available plant food in the sc
and the amounts of each of the ingredients of a mixE
fertilizer that a given crop draws from the soil per aci
is the basis for determining the formula for the crop.

The availability of plant food in soil, the chemists te
us, cannot be determined in the chemical laboratory. Sorn
chemists tell us that it is impossible to ascertain accurate]
the availability of plant foods in commercial fertilize:
The law of Florida requires that the tag state the per cei
of total ammonia, organic ammonia and inorganic an
monia, the available phosphoric acid, insoluble phosphorj
acid and water soluble potash, and the sources from which
these elements were obtained. Chlorine not more than...
moisture not more than ......, but it does not require that th
tag state the relative percentage derived from each sourc,
because of the contention of chemists that it is impossib]
to ascertain with certainty the sources from which these
elements are obtained.






.0 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

There are three forms of nitrogen in soils, and should be
n well-balanced fertilizers-organic, ammoniacal and nitric.
The last named is soluble and immediately available for
plants Ammoniacal nitrogen is converted into nitric form
)y the action of bacteria and soil chemicals in rather a
,hort period. Organic nitrogen takes somewhat longer,
lue to its process of being changed to the ammoniacal
'orm before the plants take it up. Plants get their carbon
.rom the air by way of their foliage and this combines with
,he oxygen in the water taken up by the roots to form car-
)onic acid, which in turn, desolves compounds supplied by
he soil solution. The hydrogen in the water combines with
nitrogen to form ammonia, and this combination depends
rery largely on the warmth and depth and texture of the
ioil as well as on the action of favorable bacteria. The
amount of moisture in the soil goes a great way toward
determining the action of bacteria. The tilth-depth of
villagee or amount of soil available for plant roots-of soil
s as much a determining factor as the mere presence of
)lant food elements. Oftentime the farmer will use barn-
rard manure in connection with commercial fertilizer, in
vhich case it is an indeterminate equasion as to what is the
)est formula to be used. The kind, quantity and quality
)f the manure would have to be known before the formula
mnd quantity of commercial fertilizer needed could be de-
;ermined.

HIGHER ANALYSIS FERTILIZERS

Generally speaking, the getting away from lower analysis
fertilizers to the higher analysis ones is quite a saving to
;he farmer. Some states have enacted laws fixing a min-
mum standard for total available plant food in mixed fer-
tilizers. Florida's standard is fourteen per cent minimum
:or all mixed fertilizers. The value of a ton of fertilizer
ies wholly in the number of units of plant food it contains
togetherr with the small amount of the rarer elements
which it may also carry, that are necessary to plant growth.

The higher the analysis of the fertilizer, the more eco-
lomical it is to the farmer. For instance, a fertilizer con-
:aining 20 per cent total available plant food can be had,
vhich is made from materials equally as good as one con-
:aining 14% total available plant food. There are six more
inits of plant food for the same freight; a very small
amount more profit to dealer, and the same labor of han-








dling. A twenty-eight per cent goods has an even greater
saving. However, higher analysis goods naturally contain
less of the rarer elements necessary to plant growth.
There are now appearing synthetic fertilizers, on the
market, in large quantities. These will run from twenty-
five to sixty and even sixty-five per cent total available
plant food. They are concentrated chemicals and carry
nitrogen, available phosphoric acid and potash. They do not
carry much of the other mineral elements; such as iron,
manganese, iodine, bromine, boron, lithium, copper and
magnesium; needed in small amounts for most plant life.
Cover crop and organic fertilizer will go far toward rectify-
ing this deficiency.






a-'' ujtiL I11.LVjxiii!Ji i JL WE 1ju ui- JI U Dn.

CHAPTER II.
SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS OF FERTILIZER
ELEMENTS
URE nitrogen is a gas that has no smell, color or taste.
There is plenty of it in the air, but leguminous plants
are the only ones that can extract it from the air
and store it in the soil. Modern science enables man to take
it out of the air by power process. Ammonia is a compound
of fourteen parts of nitrogen, by weight, combined with
three parts by weight of hydrogen. The Federal Govern-
ment has a large plant for extracting nitrogen from the
air, located at Sheffield, Alabama.
It is difficult to secure an adequate supply of nitrogen.
It is found in combination with other materials but these
materials are scarce and high. Nitrogen-bearing materials
are called nitrogenous or ammoniates. It is often confus-
ing to laymen to use the words "nitrogen" and "ammonia"
as synonymous, and yet speak of them as being different
elements. This is because ammonia by weight is fourteen
parts nitrogen to three parts hydrogen.
The common sources of commercial nitrogen are:
Nitrogen. Equivalent to ammonia
Nitrate of Soda ........15 to 16 18 to 191/2
Nitrate of Ammonia.... 19 to 22 23 to 26
Dried Blood ...........10 to 14 12 to 17
Tankage .............. 5 to 9 6 to 11
Fish Scrap ............ 7 to 8 81/2 to 91/2
Cottonseed M ......... 61/3 to 71/ 7 to 9
Castor Pomace ........ 5 to 6 6 to 7
Nitrate of Lime.
Horn and Hoof M.
Hair and Wool.
Leather Scrap.
Peat.
Tobacco Stems.
Air.
Its Function
Protoplasm is the physical basis of life and nitrogen is
necessary for its production. The effect of nitrogen on
plants is to build up the body, give rich, green color to
leaf, and vigorous growth.








Too little stunts growth, and too much gives rank growth
with snappy, weak stalks, and delays ripening. Large
amounts suit plants like celery, lettuce, etc., where crisp,
tender stems and leaves are wanted. For immediate re-
sults it is best to use nitrate of soda, while for seasonal
growth other forms can be used. The activity as well as
availability of nitrogen in materials like leather scrap, hair,
or peat, is but one-fifth to one-tenth as much as that in
nitrate-of soda.

No organic cell can exist without it has nitrogen in com-
bination with carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Plants
are nourished by the nitrogenous substances contained in
the soil and water, and animals by the nitrogenous sub-
stances in plants and other animals. However, neither
plants nor animals can utilize nitrogen unless it is fixed
(non-volatile) in some combination.

The world's principal source of nitrogenous material in
a commercial sense has been the nitrate beds of Chile. The
United States consumed during the year 1913-taken as a
normal rate-140,000 tons of inorganic nitrogen, equiva-
lent to 658,000 tons of ammonium sulphate, of which about
two-thirds was Chilean nitrate. This material in the raw
state is blasted from the pampas of Chile. This valley was
once part of the bed of the ocean in which floated vast
meadows of sea-grass. A volcanic upheaval formed what
is now the mountain range rising sharply from the Chilean
seaboard and created a lake between that range and the
Andes, forty-five miles inland. The sea water evaporated,
the sea-grass decomposed and hardened into a mineral soil
imprisoning the nitrogen which the sea-grass had drawn
ages before from the air. The large lumps are crushed and
boiled, the first step in concentrating into exportable form
the nitrate of soda. After the caliche is removed from the
pampas it is carried in open freight cars to the crushing
house and reduced to a form which renders it the more
readily soluble in the boilers, to which the broken caliche
is borne by an inclined conveyor belt. In the large steel
pans of the nitrate plant, exposed to the Chilean sunlight
the liquid product of the boiling vats finally yields in crys-
tals the nitrate of soda of commerce. After the mother
liquor is drawn off and relieved of iodine-one of the by-
products of the industry-and returned again to the boil-
ing vats, the nitrate of soda is left to dry and is finally
conveyed in open cars on high trestles to be dumped into
the loading platforms.








Atmospheric Nitrogen
Four-fifths of the world's nitrogen is contained in the
air. Only one-fifth is present in the soil, animal and vege-
table matter. Nitrogen in its elemental form constitutes
about four-fifths by volume or three-fourths by weight of
the atmosphere. The atmosphere covers the earth some
fifty miles in depth, and above every square mile of the
earth's surface there is estimated to be about 21,683,200
tons of nitrogen, while the total area of the earth's surface
approximates 200,000,000 square miles.
The conversion of the nitrogen of the air into compounds
available for use may be accomplished in a number of
ways, among which are the following:
1. The direct oxidation of nitrogen and its conversion
into nitric acid.
2. The combination of nitrogen with metals to form
nitrides, which may be treated to furnish ammonia.
3. The formation of cyanides or cyanogen compounds
by the combination of nitrogen with metals and carbon.
4. The formation of a compound with carbide, produc-
ing cyanamid.
5. The direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen
nitrites and nitrates, which may be treated to furnish
ammonia.
In addition to being so essential to life, nitrogen is the
chief and most used element in explosives. During the
World War when the United States found itself in need of
nitrogen for the manufacture of gun powder and other ex-
plosives the cyanamid and Haber processes-the last two
mentioned above-were recommended by scientists ap-
pointed to investigate the fixation processes. As a result,
the Government built two plants, one at Muscle Shoals and
one at Sheffield, Alabama, utilizing the falls of the Ten-
nessee River to furnish the power. Plant number one was
completed, but never came into active use until the Armis-
tice. This plant was designed to produce 60,000 pounds
of anhydrous ammonia per day. Plant number two for the
production of cyanamid was completed, but operation was
suspended pending the decision as to the final disposition
of the plant. It was designed to produce 110,000 tons per
annum of ammonium nitrate.









Under stress of war, plants were built with an annual
capacity of some 50,000 tons of fixed nitrogen. In 1917
by-product coke ovens produced 80,000 tons of nitrogen
or about 400,000 tons of ammonium sulphate.
Our grain crops, potatoes and cotton of the United
States require 6,372,000,000 pounds of nitrogen. Of this
amount not more than 2,000,000 tons are returned by le-
guminous crops, imported nitrates, coke ovens and farm
manure.
If water power can be harnessed to plants that will pro-
duce commercial nitrogen at a much lower cost than by the
old processes and in unlimited quantities to neglect to pro-
ceed with this work by the government or to lease it to
companies under proper contracts guarding the rights of
the public is beyond excuse. Public opinion should so
function as to impel a policy for the public welfare.
At the time of the World War the cyanamid process had
become fully developed, while the synthetic ammonia pro-
cess was still in the development stages. During the war
several large cyanamid plants were built both in America
and abroad. But none have been built since the war. On
the other hand, practically all of the enormous European
expansion of the nitrogen fertilizer industry has been
through the building of new or the enlargement of old syn-
thetic ammonia plants, until today these plants far out-
number the cyanamid plants and their output of fertilizer
is more than four times as great. The amount of nitrogen
fixed by the cyanamid process reached a peak in 1917, but
in 1918 it was passed by the synthetic ammonia process.
At the close of the war there were only two or three of
the synthetic ammonia plants in existence, but today there
are 35 or more. The world's production figures by the two
processes are significant of the trend in this matter.
WORLD'S FIXATION OF ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN
(Figures approximate)
By Cyanamid By Synthetic
Process Ammonia Process
Year Tons Tons
1913 .......................... 16,000 2,000
1915 .......................... 66,000 10,000
1917 .......................... 136,000 82,000
1918 .......................... 132,000 140,000
1919 .......................... 127,000 176,000
1921 .......................... 124,000 240,000
1923 .......................... 116,000 310,000
1925 ......................... 136,000 390,000
(Figures are nitrogen tonnage, not fertilizer tonnage).


6jULLi ANU IY'h1-'I'ILLZhSE






10 uriAU 1LA _iN UP' AUKHlU UL'TUKE

Phosphoric Acid
Phosphoric acid is a compound which contains 43.7%
phosphorus by weight. Nature does not isolate phosphorus;
it is always combined with something else-usually lime.
The principal commercial sources are phosphate rock, acid
phosphate, bone, and Thomas slag.

In ground phosphate rock, or floats, and bone black, the
phosphoric acid is insoluble and therefore produces effects
very slowly. These may be used for composts where im-
mediate effects are not needed. Raw phosphates and bone
black are treated with sulphuric acid, rendering them sol-
uble, and thus producing acid phosphate. When rendered
available it is of equal value, no matter from what source
obtained. Splendid results have been secured by the use
Af soft phosphate when used in sufficient quantities and
properly composed or thoroughly inoculated.

It takes 50,000 pounds of water to dissolve one pound
)f insoluble phosphoric acid. Of course, this means that
'insoluble" does not mean that which is incapable of being
dissolved, but that it is in combination of two parts of
phosphoric acid with three parts of lime. This form is
:ound in raw phosphate rock and in bones. The phos-
phorus found in bones is of greater value than that found
n rock, for the reason that bone is organic and decays
vhen put into the ground, where it rots through the work
)f bacteria. Rock phosphoric acid is of no value until
t has been dissolved into soil moisture. Even grinding
t to powder won't help much, as it must be in such solu-
:ion as to pass through the skin of the fiber rootlets. The
rock must be treated with sulphuric acid, which changes
wo of the three parts of lime into gypsum or land plaster
-sulphate of lime-these two parts kill the acid and leave
he phosphoric acid combined with only one part of lime-
,nd the product is acid phosphate or superphosphate.
methods so far used in extracting the phosphate rock from
he soil and in preparing it for fertilizer have been very
wasteful, as commercial acid phosphate made from 32 per
ent rock contains only 16 per cent of phosphoric acid. The
elaborate washing and screening process now used in pre-
iaring the rock for treatment with acid often results in a
)ss of more than half the material. A new process recently
discovered promises to save this waste. (See statement at
lose of this article.)






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 17

The combination of both water soluble and reverted
phosphoric acid is the form in commercial fertilizer. It is
a combination of two parts of phosphoric acid and one
part of lime. After soluble phosphoric acid has been in the
soil for a time it undergoes another change-the lime unit-
ing with the phosphorus becomes "reverted," which results
in a combination of two parts phosphoric acid with two
parts of lime. In this reverted form the phosphoric acid
is held in the soil, and becomes slowly available.

In making phosphoric acid the first thing necessary is
to operate an acid plant. Sulphur ore is mostly imported
from Spain. This ore is burned in furnaces, the fumes
being condensed in immense lead chambers. Some nitrate
of soda is used in the process. The acid produced is trans-
ferred to an acidulating plant.

Finely ground phosphate rock-pulverized to a fineness
of about 100 per cent through a 60 mesh screen, mixed in
equal parts with sulphuric acid at 52 (Baume)-the mix-
ing is done in flat circular pans provided with heavy stir-
rers which give a thorough mixing of the rock and acid.
From these pans the mixture, which is still liquid, is drop-
ped into closed dens and left about twelve hours, long
enough to solidify and for chemical action to render the
phosphoric acid available. It is then transferred to the
mixing plant. Acid phosphate is valuable for the percent-
age of phosphoric acid which it contains and is usually sold
on a unit basis.
Many fertilizer manufacturers are nothing more than
mixers of the fertilizer ingredients, which they buy from
plants that manufacture the separate elements. They buy
the constituents at wholesale and mix according to the
various formulas and give the product a brand name, ad-
vertising and placing on the market commercially. The
various materials for a complete fertilizer are assembled,
analyzed and run through mechanical mixers in the pro-
portion that is desired. These mixtures are then laid away
to cure in large piles-each analysis to itself. When the
shipping season opens these cured piles are again run
through pulverizing and mixing machinery, put into bags
and cars and delivered to fill orders.

A double superphosphate plant is being built on the Ala-
fia River, near Tampa. Phosphate will be bought and then
ret-dced ton np.earlv donuhle s~rp.nth f meet this dmannrl for






18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

greater acid phosphate content in fertilizer. The use of
this phosphate will affect the formulas.

Materials Furnishing Phosphoric Acid
Material Total Available Insoluble
Acid Phosphate .......... 16 to 17 15 to 17 1 to 2
Dissolved Bone Black..... 17 to 19 15 to 18 1 to 2
Bone Meal .............. 20 to 25 5 to 8 15 to 17
Dissolved Bone .......... 15 to 17 13 to 15 2 to 3
Peruvian Guano ......... 12 to 15 7 to 8 5 to 8
Thomas Slag ............ 22 to 24 22 to 24
Superphosphate.......... 18%
Triple Superphosphate .... 44%
In experiments Thomas slag, when finely ground, is found
to furnish a degree of food for growing plants-although
chemical tests do not indicate it. Bone meal is very similar,
but breaks down under bacterial action.

Functions of Phosphorus
Phosphorus is necessary for the development of straw,
seed, and good root systems. It gives stability and vigor
to plants, builds fiber, hardens and matures growth, and
is a ripening element. It is conducive to favorable and
beneficial soil bacteria.

Potash
Potassium is one of the elements. The Latin name is
Irliinm whirh ig thp exnlanation of whv K stands for Dotas-






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 19

Carolina in 1868, and later in Florida, Tennessee, Utah,
WVyoming, Montana, Kentucky, Arkansas and Virginia. It
vas not till after the Franco-Prussian War that extensive
demonstrations of the value of phosphate and potash were
arrivedd on. Germany had potash and no phosphate. America
iad phosphate and no potash. The Germans were exhaust-
ng the available phosphorus in the soils, and we were using
ip the available potash in our soils, by an unbalanced sys-
,em of plant feeding.
The discovery of the Thomas basic slag proccesses of
making steels from phosphatic iron ore greatly supplemented
,he German fertilizer needs, but it did not help America's
leed for potash. The Germans made the most of this
wonderful monopoly. The writer visited one of their largest
nines in 1913. It is a wonderful bed of crude rock salts.
'he mining is easy and simple, as no extraneous matter
ias to be removed. As it is tunneled there is no over-
wurden to remove and there is no seepage of water to in-
erfere.
The "raw deals" so often handed American dealers pro-
'oked extensive explorations to discover deposits, and ex-
ieriments to discover means of manufacturing it from
ther materials containing this element. The lakes of Cali-
ornia, Utah, and Nebraska were found to contain an
,bundance of potash and certain shales were found to be
workable for potash; the waste of blast furnaces, beet-
ugar mills, molasses distilleries, wool-washing plants and
ement works. The cost of manufacture thus far has been
oo high to compete with the German products-about
125.00 per ton.
During 1919 California had twelve plants and turned out
3,879 short tons; Nebraska, 10 plants, with 34,142 tons
utput; Utah, five plants, and 33,858 tons.
Pure potassium has peculiarities that prevent its use as
plant food. It must be combined with other elements be-
ore being suitable for fertilizer. Two parts potassium
rith one of sulphur and four of oxygen is one combina-
ion. Sulphate of potash K2S04, potassium and chlorine,
fty-fifty, is another which makes muriate of potash-
ymbol KC1. A third combination is two combining weights
f potassium, with one of carbon and three of oxygen-
arbonate of potash K2C03. A fourth combination is one
ach of potassium and nitrogen and three of oxygen. This
. 4 -e-. __ ~4-__U. - .0~1 T7XTr-






20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Potash is essential for the production of starch, fiber
and the full development of plant and seed.

Bacteria
Bacteria play so important a part in fertility of soil that
they hold an important place in the discussion of fertilizers.
Bacteria are microscopic organisms, microbes, fungi, or
parasites. An organism is either an animal or plant having
organs performing special functions.
By far the greater percentage of bacteria is vegetable,
both in soil and in animal organisms, but vegetable bac-
teria have no chlorophyl. The bacteria that thrives in the
human organism may be beneficial-as in the process of
digestion-or injurious-as in case of the various disease-
producing germs.
Bacteria live in soil. They cannot thrive where there
is no humus. There are many kinds, and each kind has
its special substances on which it thrives best. A group
known as ammonifiers, begins to grow as soon as placed
in moist soil. It lives but a short time, and the protein
which has been absorbed is changed into ammonia. When
this group dies other groups take up the ammonia, and
change it into nitrite. When it dies, another group takes
up this nitrite and changes it into nitrate. The last prod-
uct is readily soluble and is dissolved into soil moisture.
The rootlets then take it in along with the soil moisture.
Most organic and some inorganic fertilizers must be changed
by these bacteria before the plant foods become avail-
able. They need warmth, moisture, humus, and air; too
much water excludes the air and too much acid hinders
their growth.
Different kinds of bacteria are needed to dissolve dif-
ferent kinds of materials in the soil. Good results have
been secured in some soils through the use of phospho-
germs housed in humus, but with no claim of plant food
content. By housing numerous kinds of bacteria in a suit-
able medium, various materials, containing plant food ele-
ments are released by their action, which would not be
affected by'only one kind of bacteria.
Departments of Agriculture are often asked to give
opinion as to the value of advertised soil bacteria. It is
manifestly impossible to pass judgment on these bacterial
inncilpntg thli vnlup nf which dpnepnde innn tho ninmhpr






;OILS AND FERTILIZERS


)f virile organisms, adapted to the soil to which they are
;o be applied, whose mission is to transform the organic
ind mineral elements in the soil so as to render them
available for the plants to be grown.
It is also evident that this kind of soil building agency
nust be judged by an entirely different standard from
;hat of fertilizers. No chemical test would reveal anything
is to the value of these bacteria. The laws regulating the
manufacture and sale of commercial fertilizers do not touch
;he subject of soil inoculents. This phase of practical
soil improvement has not been reduced to an accepted
science. When unbiased investigation and adequate dem-
)nstration fix a standard for soil inoculation value there
should be legal regulation of the sale of soil bacteria the
same as for commercial fertilizers.
So far no attempts have been made to supply carbon in
Available form to plants, an element that constitutes an
average of 40% of the structural parts of plants. During
he carboniferous age, when the atmosphere was sur-
charged with carbon dioxide, vegetation grew so plente-
)usly and of such gigantic size as to prepare the material
'or the great coal beds of the world. Prof. Riedel has
demonstrated that artificially supplied carbon dioxide will
.. _J _ _ _ _1 _T 1 __ _1 ^ _ __ _1. _ 'L _- XT^ -






22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

They range in color from a brownish yellow to a blackish
brown, or black, and are non-volatile. They are probably
all composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
While Mulder regarded humus as the almost exclusive
source of the organic constituents of plants, Liebig, and
other chemists of today, regard the atmosphere as capable
of affording an abundant supply of all these substances.
The atmosphere consists of nitrogen and oxygen gases,
vapor, carbonic and nitric acids, and ammonia. Plants
can appropriate these from the air only by the roots or
foliage. Leguminous plants extract nitrogen from the air
by way of the roots through bacterial action in the nodules
on the roots. The air comes in contact with the roots by
'the soil being porous, which is aided by cultivation. Some
soils are closer than others, and some growths have a
tendency to impact the surface with turf-Bermuda grass,
as an example-while other plants have a loosening effect-
as the cocklebur.
Humus performs a useful function in retaining moisture,
furnishing a habitat for bacteria, and in holding potash,
soda, lime, and magnesia, and in preventing them from
being washed out of the soil.

Peat
Scientists have divided peat into several varieties. The
words, peat, muck, humus, marsh, bog, and heath are often
used synonymously, but they are far from being synony-
mous. Peat is partially carbonized vegetable matter.
There are various kinds of peat due to the vegetation of
which it is composed and the conditions under which the
formation has taken place, and the age of the deposit.
The materials contributing to peat beds are many, in-
cluding both land and aquatic vegetation, such as ferns,
mosses, grasses, roots, weeds, twigs, leaves, shrubs, etc.,
found in the presence of water. In an advanced stage of
decomposition combined with more or less dirt, shells, etc.,
it is called muck. Peat may be humus, but humus is not
necessarily peat.
Dr. William Whitney, Chief, Bureau of Soils, Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., under date of
August 6th, 1920, says:
"It is impossible to make definite statement as to the
---' J 0 ,C 4-1-- ---__ _ _,_ _-3 ;_ ___4.* T_ __-






UOIL6S AND FERTILIZERS 23

monia content at any time is low, and is considered as very
slowly available, hence commonly classed as a low-grade
nitrogenous fertilizer, especially when compared with tank-
age and dried blood. Recent observations, however, seem
to indicate that the availability is increased by proper pro-
motion of bacterial growth by inoculation, as by the use
of barnyard manure with the peat. In connection with
mineral nitrate, however, it promises to be of value in
supplying a slowly available supply of nitrogen after the
readily soluble nitrates have been used up."
Organic materials have been extensively used to secure
nitrogen but such sources as cottonseed meal, blood tank-
age, fish-scrap, ground bone, etc., are now used as feed
stuffs and the price is so high as to be almost prohibitive
as material for fertilizer. It is often desirable to derive
a part of the nitrogen from an organic source, so that
there will be a supply of nitrogen during the entire period
of growth. The present sources of supply of nitrogen-
led by the nitrate beds of Chile-are apt to remain our
dependence unless atmospheric nitrogen should be produced
cheaply enough to compete with them.

As Filler
As a filler for commercial fertilizer, peat, when properly
prepared has no superior, and few equals now in use by
fertilizer manufacturers. It has three distinct points in
its favor over other fillers extensively used: (a) it fur-
nishes a splendid habitat for bacteria; (b) it is an ideal
absorbent of excess ammonia that might escape from other
ammoniates used in the formula, holding them in as avail-
able condition as any other nitrates; (c) being a humus,
it has moisture-retaining quality that is much in its favor,
aiding drouthy soils and helping bacterial action.

As Fertilizer
The fact that peat properly conditioned before being
dug has an appreciable amount of plant food, is well
established. That this can be made available by bacterial
action, is also beyond question. That fertilizer manufac-
turers should be allowed to claim credit in their brands
for the ammonia in peat when used as a filler would seem
to follow. But there are two very essential things which
must be known before the legitimacy of this claim can be
determined. First, was the peat of proper quality and in






24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

proper condition before being dug ? Second, does the process
of treatment after being dug, in preparing it for the ferti-
lizer trade, damage it as a fertilizing material? It all
depends upon these two things. If the peat is of good
quality, sun-dried, ground, treated bacterially with numer-
ous groups of germs, the value is beyond question. On
the other hand, if the peat is of poor quality, raw, and
undecomposed, is dug and dried to 10% moisture by blast
furnace-what have you? As another proposition, if the
peat is all right as to quality, and is dried by oil blast fur-
nace to 15% moisture, what is the result?
Dr. Thomas, of the Earp-Thomas Cultures Corporation,
New York, says, under date of Oct. 14th, 1920: "When
peat of the ligneous variety is dried out with excessive
heat in a short space of time it becomes very insoluble."
The ligneous variety is not the best for fertilizer. Dr.
John N. Hoff, industrial and agricultural chemist, New
York, says under date of Oct. 22nd, 1920: "The effect of
drying peat in direct driers with oil fuel does not reduce
the availability of the ammonia. *
As peat will gasify and burn at about 414 degrees Fahren-
heit, you will realize that the partly dried peat will not
permit final drying much above the average temperature
of sterilization."
Under date of December 27, 1920, he writes: "It has
been my observation that the average peat will begin to
gasify between 300 and 400 degrees Fahrenheit and there-
fore is likely to burn, which will produce ash with con-
sequent loss of organic matter."
The heat-drying process is now carried on without the
blast coming in contact with the peat, the degree of dry-
ness is thus made optional. If the peat is rendered too
dry for bacteria to live in it, the inoculating can be done
by the farmer-the easier if he does his own mixing.






SU1LS AND rE K'I'ILIZEUL Zo

CHAPTER III.
HOME MIXING

F THE farmer would adopt and practice home mixing
of fertilizer it would save millions of dollars to the
producers of the country. Not that fertilizer mixers
make exorbitant profits, but they must charge enough to
cover their enormous overhead expenses, to which must be
added the freight on the dirt used as a filler. It is good
business, economical, educational, and a mark of individual-
ity, to buy your own ingredients, and do your own com-
pounding. The elements composing complete fertilizer can
be purchased separately. They should be bought by com-
munities in bulk, and handled on a cash basis if possible.
The reasons why the majority of farmers buy complete
fertilizers are: (a) the ease with which it can be bought
on time; (b) the desire to shun the work of buying sep-
arately the different elements and mixing them; (c) the
lack of self confidence.
The following articles constitute a fairly good equipment
for home-mixing fertilizer:
1-A screen with 3 meshes to the inch, 5 ft. long, and
2 ft. wide.
2-A shovel with square point.
3-An iron rake.
4-A pair of large scales.
5-A tight barn floor, or hard, dry, smooth ground.
6-A heavy wooden pestle for crushing big lumps of the
material.
The screening should be done first-all lumps crushed
and screened again. Then spread out the most bulky of
the element in layers--one on another-beginning with
the most bulky constituent. Shovel the heap several times,
until no streaks appear. Then sack or box and keep in dry
place until ready to use.
There are compatible and incompatible elements. Just
as a physician who knows nothing of chemistry or phar-
macy might write a prescription that could not be com-
pounded because of incompatibility of certain chemicals
included, so, in mixing the constituents of a complete fer-
tilizer, it is necessary to know the action of the different
ingredients upon each other. To mix potash salts with
Thomas slag is likely to result in hardening, and render






ZB UIJ rATIVlEtA TU AtnKIHUL'I'UKh;

it necessary to crush and pulverize before using. Certain
ammoniates contain iron, and if mixed with acid phosphate
will lose a considerable portion of its available phosphoric
acid. Sulphate of ammonia should not be mixed with
Thomas slag and Norwegian nitrate. Cyanamid should
not be mixed directly with sulphate of ammonia, but
should be mixed as per directions. Basic slag should not
be mixed with sulphate of ammonia, blood, or tankage,
as the lime affects these materials and releases ammonia.
Lime should not be mixed with guano as it causes nitro-
gen to escape. Sulphate of ammonia should not be mixed
with basic slag nor quicklime with acid phosphate. To
mix lime with superphosphate renders the phosphoric acid
less soluble-therefore, less valuable.










FERTILIZER FORMULAS
HE following table shows how to find the quantity of
each material necessary to make 1,000 pounds of fer-
tilizer of any desired analysis:


Available Available Phosphoric Acid Available
Percentage Nitrogen Potash from
Required From Nitrate From 14% From 16% Sulphate
of Soda Acid Acid of Potash
Phosphate Phosphate
1% 67 lbs. 71 lbs. 63 lbs. 19 lbs.
2% 133 lbs. 143 lbs. 125 lbs. 38 lbs.
3% 200 lbs. 214 lbs. 188 lbs. 58 lbs.
4% 267 lbs. 286 lbs. 250 lbs. 77 lbs.
5% 333 lbs. 357 lbs. 313 lbs. 96 lbs.
6% 400 lbs. 429 lbs. 375 lbs. 115 lbs.
7% 467 lbs. 500 lbs. 438 lbs. 135 lbs.
8% 533 lbs. 571 Ibs. 500 lbs. 154 lbs.
9% 600 lbs. 643 lbs. 563 lbs. 173 lbs.
10% 667 lbs. 714 lbs. 625 lbs. 192 lbs.


If a formula 4-7-5 is wanted, it would mean 267 pounds
f nitrogen, 500 pounds of 14% phosphate, and 96 pounds
f sulphate of potash, making a total of 863 pounds,
rhich contains the same amount of plant food as 1,000
ounds of 4-7-5 complete, ready-mixed, commercial fertilizer.
'o make out 1,000 pounds add dry loam as "filler."

A. B. Ross has shown that neither in the Pennsylvania
or Ohio long-time experiments did nitrogen prove profit-
ble in fertilizers for rotations containing clover. Those
experiments showed that plants got nitrogen from else-
There than legumes or from commercial fertilizers, as the
mounts taken from the soils exceeded the amount stored
y the legumes and the amount contained in the applied
fertilizer.

Legume bacteria are not the only soil organisms that
an make direct use of nitrogen from the air. A group
known as the azotobacter have this power. Perhaps there
re others. This is mentioned as a suggestion to those
rho may get results which differ from what they had a
ight to expect from regular methods.








What we all like is a "cut-and-dried" formula for doinm
things, and we do not like the formulas to disappoint u
when being put to the test. But in the use of any for
mula herewith given, it should be borne in mind that muc]
depends upon the mechanical condition of the soil, the ele
ments of available plant food already in the soil, and othe
contingencies, as to the result that will follow.

Potatoes--(Irish)
If you use complete fertilizer you might have a formula
like this:
Nitrogen ......................... 4%
Available phosphoric acid............. 6%
Potash ............................. 8%
Ammonia .......................... 5%
Phosphoric acid ..................... 8%
Potash ............................. 5%
Nitrogen ........................... 5%
Phosphoric acid ..................... 7%
Potash ............................. 8%
And use from 1,000 to 1,500 pounds per acre. Or if yoi
do your own mixing, the formula might be:
Nitrate of soda ..................... 320
Acid phosphate .................... 100
Sulphate of potash .................. 100
Dry loam .......................... 100
Stated in percentages:
Available nitrogen .................. 4.8
Available phosphoric acid............. 7.68
Available potash .................... 5.0

This is taking the 1,000-pound basis. It will need
thousand pounds to the acre, but 300 additional pounds o:
loam should be added to secure a satisfactory mechanic
condition for the fertilizer.

Potatoes-( Sweet)
Ammonia........... 4%
Available phosphoric acid............. 6%
Available potash .................... 8%






QCnTT Q A MTT 1'PTT.T7TPI


Six to eight hundred pounds per acre, applied at time of
planting.

Other formulas widely used are:
Nitrogen .................... 89 pounds
Phosphoric acid ............... 23 pounds
Potash ...................... 102 pounds
N itrogen ........................... 8%
Phosphoric acid ..................... 2%
Potash ............................. 10%

Tobacco
Available nitrogen ................... 5%
Available phosphoric acid............. 4%
Available potash .................... 8%
N itrogen ........................... 3%
Phosphoric acid .................... 8%
Potash ............................. 3%
Nitrogen ........................... 4%
Phosphoric acid ..................... 5%
Potash ............................. 9%
Kainit or muriate of potash should be avoided, as the
chlorine militates against burning well in cigars. The
sulphate form is preferred. Per acre, from 1,000 to 1,500
pounds, preferably given in three equal dressings, just
before planting and at time of first hoeing and, last, from
two to three weeks later.

Corn
Fifty bushels of corn per acre takes from the soil 67
pounds of nitrogen, 31 of phosphoric acid, and 80 pounds
of potash:

Judged by these requirements, if the land is equally
deficient in the three constituents of a complete fertilizer
the formula should be:

Nitrogen ........................... 6%
Phosphoric acid ..................... 3%
D-n'nl, Q/






fD.PARTM'ENT OF AGRTCITTRTTRE


But the following is more often used:

Available nitrogen .................. 3%
Available phosphoric acid............. 7%
Available potash .................... 6%

Cotton
Cotton is "easy" on land, but the clean cultivation results
in the leaching and washing of the soil. A crop of 300
pounds of lint removes from the soil in lint, seed, stalks,
etc., about 44 pounds of nitrogen, 49 pounds of potash, and
12 pounds of phosphoric acid.

Were all but the lint returned to the land each year, it
would show no signs of exhaustion. The relative quantities
of the various ingredients of cotton fertilizer depends
entirely upon the soil. Cotton can be grown on as great a
variety of soils as any crop of the Southern States. The
following may be used where the soil is already fairly well
balanced:
Nitrogen ........................... 3%
Available phosphoric acid............. 8%
Potash ............................. 4%

Peanuts
As this plant is a legume and gets nitrogen from the
air, acid phosphate and potash are the chief elements to
use in fertilizing it. The soil should be rich in lime. The
formula should perhaps be 8% potash, and 8% phosphoric
acid, and the amount from 500 to 800 pounds per acre.
However, this is a mere suggestion as it is entirely de-
pendent on whether or not the soil has either of these
elements in abundance; in some soils, a small per cent of
nitrogen should be used.

Sugar Cane
Ammonia .......... .......... 4%
Available phosphoric acid............. 8%
Potash ............................. 4%

Sugar cane should yield from 25 to 40 tons per acre.
The amount of fertilizer should be from 600 to 800 pounds
per acre.






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 31

Sorghum
N itrogen ........................... 4%
Available phosphoric acid ............ 6%
Actual potash ....................... 8%
Amount per acre, 600 to 800 pounds.







32 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

much with iron tooth drag in these vines-the teeth will
have to be slanted backward, so as to slide the vines, that
are left uncovered after the land is plowed.
The grain should always be treated for smut before
sowing.
Grasses
Clover and grasses for hay or pastures should be fer-
tilized according to the nature of each. Lespedeza is an
excellent legume for general use on dry hills, as pasture,
and, when soil is sufficiently fertile to produce rank growth,
yields good hay. The leading farm grasses of Florida
are Bermuda, Johnson, St. Augustine, and Carpet-others
are coming into use.
Where the soil is adapted to Johnson grass, it is well
nigh impossible to kill it. When a farm is well set to it,
the owner has a Johnson grass farm forever. Bermuda
is also very difficult to destroy. Heavy crops of cowpeas,
velvet beans, kudzu, or sugar cane will shade it and kill
it faster than any other treatment. Carpet grass is easily
destroyed and therefore, is to be recommended for lawn-
making, and also for grazing.
Nitrogen ........................... 2%
Phosphoric acid ..................... 8%
Potash ............................. 8%

Garden Crops
Good stable manure is the most valuable fertilizing
material for the growing of all classes of vegetables upon
all types of soils. It must often be reinforced with com-
mercial fertilizers. There is not enough stable manure
to supply the demand for general field crops and near
large cities it is inadequate for truck farming-since the
automobile car and truck have superseded the horse in
hauling service.
Stable manure should be well worked into the soil before
planting. The nearer planting time manure is applied, the
finer it should be pulverized.
For asparagus, beets, carrots, cauliflower, celery, cu-
cumbers, egg plants, kale, lettuce, muskmelons, onions,
English peas, peppers, radishes, spinach, squash, and to-
mTn n tp






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS


N itrogen ........................... 5%
Available phosphoric acid ............ 7%
Available potash .................... 5%

There is no iron-clad formula and this is given as an
"indicator" and guide rather than as a specific from which
there is to be no variation.

Following are two good formulas for fertilizing lettuce.

Use the one which seems to suit your soil and general
conditions best; or if preferred use some other approxi-
mating them:
1. Ammonia, 5 to 6 per cent.
Available phosphoric acid, 7 to 9 per cent.
Potash, 8 to 10 per cent.
2. Ammonia, 6 to 7 per cent.
Available phosphoric acid, 6 to 7 per cent.
Potash, 6 to 7 per cent.

Apply from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds per acre, and while
the crop is growing top-dress with about 150 to 200 pounds
of nitrate of soda per acre. It requires about three pounds
of seed to sow an acre, or one ounce to every 250 feet of drill.
Baskets for shipping can be obtained from the vegetable
crate manufacturers in any section of the State.

Egg Plant
This is one crop which requires plenty of potash ferti-
lizer, and you will find it will pay to broadcast the field
with a ton of kainit, harrowing it in. Next lay the field
off in furrows, the width you wish the rows apart, which
is from four to five feet, setting the plants about three
feet apart in the row; using 1,500 pounds of fertilizer in
these furrows which should analyze as follows: Ammonia,
5%; available phosphoric acid, 4%; potash, 9%. Cover
it well and see that you get it well mixed with the soil.

Beans
Ammonia .......................... 3%
Available phosphoric acid ............ 7%
Potash ............................. 7%






34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Or, per acre-
Bone m eal .......................... 1700
Muriate of potash ................... 300
Or, per acre-
Nitrate of soda ................ 100 pounds
Acid phosphate ............... 400 pounds
Muriate of potash ............. 100 pounds

Cabbage
Cabbage needs a very rich soil. Where stable manure
cannot be secured, 1,000 to 2,000 pounds of fertilizer may
be used in something of the following proportion:
Nitrate of soda ................ 300 pounds
Bone meal ................... 500 pounds
Muriate of potash ............. 200 pounds

It should be well incorporated into the soil before planting.

Celery
Either of the following formulas for commercial ferti-
lizer are good for celery, and the one which seems best
adapted to the soil and conditions can be used, or any
other approximately similar:
1. Nitrate of soda ................ 300 pounds
Fish scrap .................. 800 pounds
Acid phos., 16% ............... 600 pounds
Muriate potash ................ 300 pounds

2000 pounds
Yields-
Ammonia ......................... 6.9%
Available phosphoric acid .......... 5.5%
Potash ................... ..... 7.2%
2. Nitrate of soda ................ 250 pounds
Dried blood ................... 600 pounds
Acid phos., 13% ............... 850 pounds
Muriate potash ................ 300 pounds

2000 pounds






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS


I ields-
Ammonia ......................... 7.2%
Available phosphoric acid........... 5.5%
Potash ........................... 7.8%

During the growth of the crop from one to two tons
per acre of the above may be applied between the rows,
and from two to four hundred pounds of nitrate of soda
per acre as a top-dressing in four equal applications at
about four different times.

Grapes
From 500 to 800 pounds per acre of a fertilizer contain-
ing 10% of potash, 8% of phosphoric acid, and 3% of
nitrogen would be an average application.

Citrus Fruits
The experienced citrus fruit grower has learned by ex-
perience the kind, amount, and frequency of use, of fer-
tilizer for his grove. The newcomer to a citrus section
should consult growers of long experience in his locality.
Nitrogen plays an important part in the production of
iew wood and leaf growth. Excess of nitrogen produces
lie-back, which causes the bark to become thick skinned
ind puffy. Phosphorus is necessary for the proper devel-
)pment of the fruit. Sulphate of potassium is usually
)referable to the muriate as the latter sometimes has an
njurious effect on citrus trees.

Use from one to three pounds per tree for young trees,
according to age, of
Nitrogen ........................... 5%
Phosphorus ....................... 5%
Potash ............................. 3%

Apply in early spring, mid-summer, and in September.
increase this about a pound a year until the trees are five
ir six years old, and begin to bear commercial crops. Then
ise three applications per year with
Nitrogen ........................... 4%
Available phosphoric acid............. 8%
Potash ............................. 4%






36 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Apply in early spring, and mid-summer. The fall appli-
cation should be between November 15th and December
15th with the nitrogen reduced to 3% without changing
the other materials.

Trees well bearing from ten years old up should receive
from 15 to 30 pounds per year. Older and heavy-bearing
trees receive from 30 to 75 pounds of fertilizer per annum
where no green crops are turned under, and unless the
trees have a great distance between them green crops
cannot be successfully grown.

Judging by the elements taken from the soil by a citrus
grove the formula of chemical manures per acre of orange
trees, will be:

Nitrate of soda ............... 560 pounds
Superphosphate of lime (16%
soluble phosphoric acid) ...... 612 pounds
Sulphate of potash ............ 170 pounds

Obviously, however, this general formula must not be
adopted without reference to specific conditions; it must
be modified to meet the requirements of each particular
case, according to the nature of the soil and the state of
vegetation in the plantation.

When lime is needed for the element calcium, as chem-
ical analysis will show, or to correct acidity, as the litmus
paper test will indicate, apply lime carbonate or hydrate.






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 37

CITRUS FERTILIZER PROGRAMS
(The Citrus Industry, July, 1932)
Proposed and Issued by Agricultural Extension Service,
University of Florida

Fertilizer Nutrients
Chemical analysis shows that the average Florida citrus
soil (virgin) is low in the essential fertilizer nutrients-
nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Citrus production
has been obtained by adding these elements to the soil from
time to time.
Ammonia Sources
The sources of ammonia fertilizers are divided into two
general classes, namely inorganic and organic.

Inorganic Sources
Of the inorganic ammoniates, sulphate of ammonia and
nitrate of soda have been most extensively used and have
given satisfactory results in both field and experimental
observation.
The other sources of ammonia, such as nitrate of soda-
potash, calcium nitrate, urea*, ammonium phosphate, am-
monium nitrate, urea-nitrate of lime, ammonia nitrate-
sulphate mixtures have not been used so extensively as
the first two forms. But when properly applied, field ob-
servations indicate that they may be used with satisfac-
tory results.
Phosphorus Acid Sources
Superphosphate has been the most commonly used source
of phosphorus acid in ordinary grove conditions. Dtue to
the relatively low solubility of the untreated inorganic
phosphates their efficiency as a source of phosphorus is
not equal to that of superphosphate.
The organic sources of phosphorus, such as guano, fish
scrap, and steamed bone meal are usually more soluble than
the untreated inorganic forms. The efficiency of the phos-
phate fertilizer is usually in proportion to the available

*Although urea is an organic ammonia, it is made synthetically.






38 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

phosphate. These sources may be used when prices ani
conditions justify.
Potash Sources
High grade sulphate of potash has been the most corn
only used source of potash under average grove condi
tions, but muriate of potash seems practically as good s,
far as it has been tested. Other sources of potash such a
nitrate of potash, nitrate of soda-potash, sulphate of potash
magnesia, hardwood ashes, and tobacco stems should giv
satisfactory results.
Organic Matter






SOILS AND FERTILIZERJS


the above ratio compares favorably with the best grove
practice.

For a large part of the citrus belt experimental data and
field observations indicate that the most reliable results
can be obtained under general conditions with three appli-
cations of ammonia per year-spring, summer, fall. But
due to the retaining power of the soil for phosphates and
potash there is apparently little to be gained by adding
the phosphoric acid and potash three times per year.

The fertilizer should be applied evenly over the soil sur-
face, as far as the roots extend.

Local conditions, such as moisture, soil type, cover-crop,
variety, root-stocks, etc., play an important part in the
behavior of citrus trees toward fertilizer treatments. There-
fore, the fertilizer programs herein set forth are subject
to local modifications.

The following fertilizer suggestions embody three pro-
grams, namely, a mixed fertilizer program, a materials
program and a modified program, each of which is com-
plete in itself.







40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE



Tabulated Fertilizer Programs For Bearing Citrus Groves*
MIXED FERTILIZER PROGRAM (1)

Time of Application** ....... Kind and amount of fertilizer mixtures to be applied per
foot of spread (or diameter of top)

SPRING-Jan.-Feb. ........ 1 lb. mixed fertilizer, 5-6-3, or its equivalent.

SUMMER-April-June..... 1 lb. 4-6-8 or equivalent to trees under 10 years of age
-April-June 1 lb. 4-6-10 or equivalent to trees over 10 years of age

FALL-Oct.-Dec. ........ 1 lb. 4-6-5 or equivalent to trees under 10 years of age
AL ct1 lb. 4-6-8 or equivalent to trees over 10 years of age

MATERIALS PROGRAM (1)

Time of Application** ...... Kind and amount of fertilizer materials and mixtures to
be applied per foot of tree spread (or diameter or top)
f[ lb. nitrate of soda or 1-5 lb. ammonium sulphate.
Organic ammonia may be used when justified by prices
and conditions
SPRING-Jan.-Feb. ......... FOR FURTHER TRIAL BY GROWERS
1 Y4 lb. nitrate of soda-potash or nitrate of lime, or Y8 lb.
urea-nitrate of lime, or 1-12 lb. urea of equivalent
amounts from other sources.

(a) Repeat the spring application of ammonia, re-
ducing the amount-10-20% where spring culti-
vation is practiced or 20-30% following a heavy
legume cover-crop the previous year.
(b) 1 lb. superphosphate (16%) or the equivalent.
This may be reduced 50% in groves over 20
SUMMER-April-June .... years old. Other sources of phosphorus may be
used when justified by delivered unit price and
conditions.
(c) 1-6 lb. sulphate or muriate of potash to trees
under 10 years of age.
1-5 lb. to older trees or trees believed to need
more potash. Other potash materials may be
used in equivalent amounts.






SOILS ANT FERTTT,TZERSR


A Word About Formulas
A standard for designating the ingredients of complete
fertilizers by numerals has been adopted by control officials
and the fertilizer trade. The nitrogen or ammonia is placed
first, the phosphoric acid second and the potash last. The
fertilizer tags of Florida follow this standard, which means
that a numerical formula would mean that the first number
stands for ammonia or nitrogen, the second for phosphoric
acid and the third for potash.

With this understanding, a formula 5-8-3 means that
100 pounds of complete fertilizer contains five pounds of
nitrogen or ammonia, eight pounds of phosphoric acid and
three pounds of potash.

As a ton is two thousand pounds it contains twenty
times as much of each fertilizing ingredient as a hundred
pounds of the fertilizer contains.

Therefore:

To ascertain the number of pounds of each ingredient in
a ton of mixed fertilizer:

Multiply the per cent required by 20.

For instance: In the above formula, 5 multiplied by 20
equals 100; 8 multiplied by 20 equals 160; and 3 multi-
plied by 20 equals 60. Therefore one ton of this mixture
would contain:
Phosphoric acid ............... 160 pounds
Nitrogen ..................... 100 pounds
Potash ...................... 60 pounds

The remainder of the weight is extraneous matter.

To find the quantity of an ingredient needed to supply
the per cent required:
Divide the number of pounds of the ingredients in a ton
by the number of pounds of that ingredient in a hundred
pounds of the material containing it. The result will be
the number of pounds of raw material used to give the
percentage desired in the formula.






42 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

If we use acid phosphate containing 16 per cent of
available phosphoric acid, to find the quantity of raw ma-
terial needed to supply the per cent of the ingredient re-
quired we must divide the number of pounds required in
a ton by the 16.
If cotton seed meal is used to obtain the nitrogen the
number of pounds required in a ton must be divided by
6.18, as that is the per cent of nitrogen in a hundred
pounds of the meal.
If we use muriate of potash to finish the formula we
use a material that yields 51 per cent of potash; but we
can count in 1.8 per cent of potash from the cotton seed
meal that we used which would reduce the requirements
of muriate, and we deduct the number of pounds that
has been added by the meal from the number of pounds
to be added by the muriate.
In like manner if the filler that is used contains avail-
able nitrogen the per cent thus added may be deducted
from the cotton seed meal. This is seldom the case, but
it might be so if properly prepared peat is used as a filler.
In the above illustration the use of peat would lessen the
amount of cotton seed meal, which, in turn, would lessen
the amount of potash furnished by the meal. However,
it is not necessary to split hairs over such small discrep-
ancies in proportion. The rules for calculation herewith
given are approximately accurate in results, and entirely
practical but it will show a little over a ton.

To Find the Analysis of a Given Mixture
Suppose a farmer has on hand available materials which
he wishes to use in certain proportions and wants to know
the analysis of the proposed mixture. Take 1,000 pounds
of acid phosphate, 16 per cent; 800 pounds of cotton seed
meal, and 200 pounds of kainit.

One thousand pounds of 16% acid phosphate contains
160 pounds of available acid; eight hundred pounds of meal
contains eight times 618 or 50 pounds of nitrogen.

Two hundred pounds of kainit at 12.5 pounds per hun-
dred contains 25 pounds of potash. The eight hundred
pounds of meal contains 1.8 pounds per hundred, or 14.4
pounds of potash.






sOnTT. AND FERTILIZERS


Therefore the above mixture contains phosphoric acid, 160
pounds; nitrogen, 50 pounds; potash, 39.4 pounds.

To find the per cent of each of these materials in a
ton we divide each by 2,000 with the following results:
Phosphoric acid, 8%; nitrogen, 3%; potash, 2%; formula,
8-3-2.

"Converting" element into equivalents:

To illustrate: Ammonia contains 82 per cent of nitro-
gen. Therefore to "convert" per cent of ammonia into
nitrogen multiply by 0.824.

To "convert" per cent of nitrogen into equivalent in
ammonia multiply by 1.214.

Three per cent ammonia multiplied by 0.824 equals 2.47
per cent nitrogen.

Two per cent nitrogen multiplied by 1.214 equals 2.44
per cent ammonia.

To convert ammonia into protein multiply by 5.15; nitrate
of soda into nitrogen multiply by 0.1647; nitrogen into
protein multiply by 6.25; muriate of potash into actual
potash multiply by 0.632; actual potash into muriate multiply
by 1.583; sulphate of potash into actual potash multiply
by 0.541; actual potash into sulphate of potash multiply by
1.85; nitrate of potash into nitrogen multiply by 0.139;
carbonate of potash into actual potash multiply by 0.681;
actual potash into carbonate of potash multiply by 1.466;
chlorine in kainit multiply potash (KO20) by 2.33.

In calculating values you simply take the number of
pounds of each ingredient in a ton and multiply it by
the price of the materials used. The ruling price used to
be 4 cents per pound each for phosphoric acid and potash
and 18 cents for nitrogen. But 16% available phosphoric
acid was worth $28.00 a ton purchased for cash in ton
lots at Florida seaports; sulphate of potash, $180.00; nitrate
of potash, $130.00; sulphate of ammonia, $137.00. (Octo-
hpr 19290






14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Prescribing Fertilizers
Fertilizer prescriptions are at best founded on conclu-
sions drawn from generalization rather than from positive
knowledge. The chemical composition of the soil and its
mechanical condition should be known but rarely is. The
average composition of the crop to be grown, and the
relative amounts of the three principal elements-nitrogen,
)hosphoric acid and potash-which a given crop of a given
rield will extract from the soil, should be known, and
whether or not the crop is leguminous.
Whether lands are sand, clay, hill, bottom, drained or
vet, been in pasture or cultivated, plowed deep or shallow,
;rops rotated or not, etc., these items should be known:
;he results of past experience in fertilizing land under
consideration; yellow foliage indicating lack of nitrogen;
shedding of fruit indicating need of potash. Where flavor
s an item potash should be used in the sulphate form.
Vith pineapples and tobacco carbonate of potash and cotton
,eed meal are adapted.
All fertilizer tags should specify the sources from which
he ingredients are derived and the per cent derived from
!ach source. They should also state the kind of materials
ised to make up the filler and the percentage of each material
ised, and pounds of available plant food per hundred.
protein fat, sugar, starch, etc., are animal food terms and
Lo not belong in fertilizer formulas.






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 45

CHAPTER V.

TILTH
We Learn How to Speed the Work of Priceless Soil Bacteria
BY J. SIDNEY CATES, in The Country Gentleman

THE good old word "tilth" as applied to soil needs to
come back into general use. It serves to denote a
condition of the land and to set forth an ideal of
management covered by no other term. During the past
generation both biological and chemical sciences have piled
up a mass of information about the soil, and we are begin-
ning to see the seemingly inert land we walk over and plow
in a new and romantic light.

Keeping it in fettle is something more than the mere
mechanical task of tillage. In fact, the German word for
tilth, gare, is frequently interpreted as meaning fermenta-
tion. It is an interpretation which fits well, for we know
that a good soil is seething with life, pouring forth invisible
gases that leaven it and fine its texture, and leaving behind
by-products ideal for plant food. And, ranked as a chem-
ical laboratory, no learned doctor with his retorts and
bottle-arrayed walls can duplicate or even approximate the
reactions that Nature, working through this life-filled
upper eight inches of a plowed field, carries on night and
day uninterruptedly year after year.

These midget chemists of the land, the bacteria, play the
major role in promoting tilth. In teeming hordes they are
present. They often number more than three billion to
the ounce of soil, and under many conditions algae, molds
and protozoa are equally abundant. The total microscopic
life in an acre of land has been calculated as weighing from
500 to 700 pounds, or approximately the equivalent weight
of livestock that a good pasture will carry. And while
the role that this soil life plays is so complex that it will
probably take more generations of close study before the
full activities going on under the surface of the land are
clearly understood, a few broadly fundamental facts have
already been brought to light.

In the first place, it is clear that soil life is necessary for






46 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

crops. Not only must this germ life be abundant, but it
must be in a healthy well-nourished state and actively
multiplying, in order that the land may have that loose,
crumbly texture taken as a good omen by the eye of every
experienced farmer.

Tireless Nitrogen Gatherers
Bacteria, for the most part, subsists on organic matter
in the land. Not only does this teeming soil life break
down added vegetable matter, producing or setting free
mineral salts upon which crops directly feed, but one large
group of soil bacteria functions in the nitrogen-gathering
role probably with as great benefit to soil fertility and
tilth as the better-known nitrogen-fixing germs which grow
on the roots of leguminous plants. A legume crop will con-
tain from 100 to 200 pounds of nitrogen. Probably half
of this comes from nitrogen compounds already in the
land, and the remainder is gathered in from the air by the
aid of nitrogen-fixing germs with which the roots of the
legume are inoculated. We hear much of the importance
of having a legume crop in the rotation. We hear, how-
ever, but little of the other and greater source of nitrogen
supply in our soil. This other great source is through the
action of bacteria feeding on the dead vegetable matter.

One leading American bacteriologist recently gave me
the estimate that the quantity of nitrogen fixed in soils by
4.1---- 4 A _- -4 __ 4- f__;o ~r~ +- +_ -F-_+-r






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 47

must first be broken down by soil life. With the exception
of nitrate, acid phosphate and the various potash salts,
plants take no fertilizers in the form we put into the soil.
Not only are bacteria necessary in preparing the raw food
we supply in form for plants to consume, which is a mineral
form, but the bacteria themselves, thus fed, gather vast
quantities of nitrogen, the most expensive of all plant foods.
The quantity they gather seems to bear a close relation
to the provisions we make for their food supply. And this
conclusion puts the problems of the tilth of the land in a
new light.
Soil life also shows considerable preference in its diet.
It has long been observed that stable manure in many cases
exerts an effort on crop growth out of all proportion to
the plant food it contains as shown by analysis, and that
the same is true of green matter turned into the land in
the early spring. Studies during recent years have shown
that both these substances make wonderful feeding for the
bacteria flora of the soil, causing a sharp upward spurt
in soil-life activity. In pot experiments, a small quantity
of green matter chopped into one soil pot almost always
caused a sharp leaping ahead of the plant it grew as com-
pared with another plant in a similar pot where the soil
was not so treated. It seems to me there is considerable
evidence to justify us in planning cropping systems in
so far as soil maintenance goes, with a view to feeding
plenty of vegetable matter to the soil bacteria, and if a
goodly quantity of this bacteria food we offer is in a
succulent green state, there is plenty of evidence that it
will be all the more relished.
In the Middle West, farmers who turn a sweet-clover
sod very early in the spring before much growth has
been attained, yet while this growth is in a very succulent
stage, note that a fat yield of corn follows. Over in the
Connecticut Valley in New England, farmers have found
that it pays to sow timothy between rows of cultivated
crops in late summer, and to turn this feeble early spring
growth in time to plant another tillage crop the next year.
In New Jersey the truckers turn a winter cover crop of
rye or vetch or alsike clover before it has attained enough
growth to make an impressive showing. Yet they have
found that this means a saving of fertilizer bills, and a
great boost to the tillage crop which follows. A small
quantity of this succulent material greatly stimulates soil
bacteria. And it is the bacteria which make for tilth in
the land.






48 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

We passed through a state of mind not so long back
when common observation of farmers, out of line with
some half-understood but supposedly wholly elucidated
theory, was ranked as mere superstition or old women's
tales. Science is today more tolerant and less cocksure
than it used to be. In fact, some of the \vpotheses on which
learned men are now working seem more strange and
weird than what were ranked as superstitions of by-gone
times. Our thought with reference to soil problems seems
itself to be in a healthy state of ferment.
One bacteriologist, in discussing the role of this micro.
scopic life in promoting tilth in soils, called what we know
as poor land "raw," and likened it unto a green cheese, both
of which he said were prepared for real food, one for hu-
mans by the ripening action of enzymes in the milk and
the other for plants by the ripening action of bacteria]
activities.

New Light on Rotations
Take the case of the explanation of why rotation ol
crops is beneficial. The farmer has long known that by
rotation he could keep the land in better tilth, and that
he could keep both himself and the land more regularly
employed. Not long back, rotations were claimed by scien-
tists to keep up yields better than single cropping through
the fact that different kinds of plants remove plant food
elements from the soil in different proportions, and that
by changing from one crop to another, the soil supply of
plant food was kept more evenly balanced. This poini
of view has long since been pretty well abandoned. There
for a long while we looked upon rotations as being a means
of keeping up fertility through growing periodically a sod
or legume crop to boost the vegetable matter and nitrogen
supply, and beyond this shifting crops is a means of keep-
ing both land and labor the more continuously employed.
Now we are finding that different crops act on the soil
bacteria in different ways. Legumes aside from being
host plants to what we term symbiotic bacteria growing
on their roots, the bacteria being fed carbohydrates by
the plants and in turn feeding the plants with nitrogenous
material-aside from this well-known fact, it has beer
proved that legume crops specially favor the development
of bacteria in general in the soil. Fortunately most of our
cultivated crops seem friendly toward soil bacteria. Some
-r-, ,,M- V-oahlT TV>nr A h 1vr0 hpc7 n AhQt.v.7ulj f +r_ Vc n rilu





SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 4

detrimental to the nitrifying and other desirable soil bac.
teria.
Wheat does not seem to leave the bacterial flora of th(
soil in as good condition as corn or potatoes. Europear
agriculture has pretty well settled down on a system whicl
does not include the growing of wheat oftener than onc(
in two years. Fortunate it is that corn does not seem t(
have a very detrimental effect on soil bacteria.






50 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

CHAPTER VI.
SULPHUR FERTILIZATION TO HELP SAVE
AMERICAN SOIL FERTILITY

BY COURTENAY DEKALB,* in Manufacturers Record

THE shortage of fertilizers not only caused an almost
prohibitive increase in their price, but it became fi-
nancially impossible for a large proportion of our
farmers to purchase fertilizer at all. Everywhere it was
used in greatly reduced amount. Although American agri-
culturists are far behind the progressive farmers of Europe
in fertilization, the curtailment of our customary supplies
at a critical moment, when men were keenly awakened to
the need of superior effort to produce foods, threatened to
precipitate a national calamity. An alarming decrease in
the yield per acre was seen throughout all those portions
of the country where the farmers had become educated to
use fertilizers. At the same time the Food Administra-
tion posted in every conspicuous spot throughout the land
the impressive slogan: "Food Will Win the War." Thus
was the menace of serious weakening in our power to fight
officially announced.
It was during this period of need that the writer, re-
sponding to the national call for means to increase the
food supply, directed attention to the remarkable results
that had been obtained in France and in other countries
by means of sulphur fertilization. This method of aug-
menting the yield had been tested by a number of the
United States Experiment Stations. Extraordinary bene-
fits had been reported from long-continued tests in Oregon,
Utah, New Jersey, Kentucky, and elsewhere, but no wide
public notice had been taken of the fact. The masses do
not read the wonderful bulletins issued by the Agricultural
Experiment Stations; the facts recorded mainly reach the
people at the second hand through the agricultural papers,
or tardily, in isolated cases, through observation of the
results obtained by progressive neighbors who are fully
awake to the great service the United States Department
of Agriculture is doing through its systematic investiga-
*Mr. Courtenay DeKalb, distinguished engineer, chemist and technical expert, is
particularly well qualified to discuss this subject. He has had practical experience in
his professional capacity as an investigator in various places in this and other coun-
tries, and has been an educator and voluminous writer on scientific matters. He is
an honorary member of the Geographical Society of Peru, a member of the American
Tntti*tns- of Minine and MtanllurEical Engineers and of the American Chemical Society.






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 51

tions in scientific agronomy, and who read the literature
issued from the Bureaus in Washington and the co-ordi-
nated Experiment Stations in the several States.

A first article published in the Manufacturers Record,
showing enormous increases in yield-100 per cent to 1000
per cent in alfalfa (Bull. 163, Oregon Agricultural Experi-
ment Station), 300 per cent in peas (P. J. O'Gara, A. S. &
R. Agricultural Experiment Station, Salt Lake, Utah), 40
per cent in kaffir corn, and the like-aroused such keen
interest that it proved necessary to follow it by a second
article in which the reasons for the efficacious results ob-
tained with sulphur applied as a fertilizer were set forth in
detail. These explanations were later confirmed by Dr.
O'Gara and others in articles also appearing in the Manu-
facturers Record.

At a time of dire national need it meant a great deal
to be shown that it had been proved to be possible to in-
crease the yield of cereals 25 per cent to 100 per cent, even
if limited to somewhat restricted areas to which sulphur
fertilizer could be distributed economically. It was a vital
matter to be able to double and treble the acre-yield of
beans and peas at a period when the Government was con-
tracting for shiploads of beans in the Far East, and was
anxious lest the bean-line to the soldiers in training camps
and on the plains of France should be interrupted. More-
over, while the importations of Rio Tinto pyrite, formerly
our main dependence as a raw material for making sul-
phuric acid with which to prepare acid phosphate, had
been reduced for want of bottoms to a few thousand tons
per annum, and while nearly the total supply of domestic
sulphur melted from the deep wells of the Union, Free-
port and Texas Gulf companies on the Gulf of Mexico was
required to make acid for explosive manufacture, it was
pointed out that Nature had provided superficial deposits
in Culberson County, Texas, in Wyoming, in Utah, in Ne-
vada, and elsewhere in the West, where elemental sulphur
was associated with gypsum and lime and lesser amounts
of magnesia, making an ideal material to function as a
fertilizer.
As a result of these and other public announcements, sul-
phur fertilizer is taking a position as one of the most use-
ful substances for increasing the yield of many crops.
Sulphur companies East and West are distributing it in






52 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


at least twenty States are investigating the extent of its
adaptability and a large number have already made favor-
able reports. In some of the States, with intent on the
part of legislators to protect the farmer against the adul-
teration of fertilizers, laws had been passed that limited
the sale of fertilizers to those products that contained only
a few of the necessary plant foods. Changes in these laws
are being demanded. Intelligent farmers will not tolerate
laws on the statute books that put a bar to progress.
It is curious to read statutory definitions of what plant
foods are, and to find that only three are mentioned. One
of America's greatest agricultural chemists, Dr. Charles
H. MacDowell, President of the Armour Fertilizer Works,
Chicago, and President of the National Fertilizer Associa-
tion, in an address before the Chicago Section of the
American Chemical Society, September 23, 1921, said:

"For a long time it has been considered that these three
elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, were the
only plant foods necessary to supply ordinary soil. Re-
cent years have brought about some change in this belief.
Certain crops seem to demand some other element that is
ordinarily not abundant in all soils. For instance, only
within the last few weeks it seems to have been definitely
proven that the tobacco plant must have a certain amount
of magnesia in its food-supply in order that it may prop-
erly cure. It is claimed that the super-excellence of the
Hawaiian pineapple is due to the manganese present in
those soils. Are we, then, to believe that only these two
plants are peculiarly susceptible to such conditions? Can
we safely assume that every plant has a similar necessity?
Most of the experiment stations of the country are now
studying the effect of sulphur, both elemental and in
compounds, on various crops. Oregon has shown surpris-
ing results on legumes with sulphates (chiefly with sul-
phur fertilizer, now standard practice among alfalfa grow-
ers in Oregon-C. DeK.) New Jersey applies elemental
sulphur for reaction within the soil itself. What a research-
field is open to the agriculturist and to the chemist! This
further leads us to the question of the balanced ration for
plants. * *
"These problems must be solved if this country of ours
is to maintain itself in the front rank or as a leader of the
nations of the world. Our tendency has been recently to
,F'IT VIQ'rr /n-,, l' r,, ,, ,,,n 1"'*- ^-,npl, l- 14-fr.dl -,,,- ,, ., -






nIfTT Cl A .Tf lflmrr T-- Tf-fl I


e must real
soil. Our
e near futu
-supply res
)int where
similar to t
here."
sson was e:
a joint me(
olumbia Un
e shows thz
curiously e:
entries in
re moment
n to impor
n large am
ation is no
int is non-p
e primitive
ubduing a
tendency ti
)f striving
f we still I
stirred by
o buy ever


as a nat
s must
coming
dither a&
tion of
r obtain:


by Dr.
the Hor
New 5
)blem ia
s one of
agricul
e consi(
foods-
id that
ed into
e. As E
int held
>ntinent
te acrea
Lse the
united a]
gh. Ou
borate i


and co:
ion, we
solve tl
general
to qu.
the rac
ng in tl


WI. S. I
orary S
ork, on
world-i
the m(
Lure. I
ler that
-meat,
more t
cities,
nation
by the
* We s
ge on tl
output
*eas of
r farme
ind cost


must ge
ese vita
.ions wi]
.ntity o
e sets ii
.e Orien


andis ii
cholasti,
Decem
vide, bu
st back
'his is ;
already,
potatoes
han hal:
nd fron
we havi
pionee:
till havi
ie gran(
)er acre
soil tha
rs strain
.y imple


iegeneri
hose nov


forced
ting of
diversity,
t the pr
iough, i,
practicall
when w
t staple
ounts, a
wv crowd
roductiv
viewpo
virgin c
cultiva
to incre:
iad unlii
the plou
more elh


t
1
1
r
t











2
t



f


2
i
r



i


r~_ir ~L L1 a 1 1 C






54 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

amount of fertilizer used. The average return from Amer-
ican wheat fields from 1905 to 1913 was 14.6* bushels per
acre. In France it was 20.2 bushels, and the average con-
sumption of fertilizer was 111 pounds per acre; in Ger-
many the yield was 30.9 bushels with an average of 207
pounds of fertilizer; in Great Britain the figures were 33.4
bushels and 244 pounds respectively. Assuming a price
for fertilizer of $40 per ton to the farmer and a selling
price of $1 per bushel for the wheat, the British farmer
wins an extra $18.80 per acre over the American farmer's
average, at an extra cost of $4.14, giving him a net gain
of $14.66 per acre.

This is but a single instance of the great possibilities
lying before the American farmer which he can utilize
as soon as he is led to realize that, with practically the
same labor, one acre, when he goes about it rightly, will
yield a larger profit than two under his present neglect
of the advantages of fertilization. If this were borne in
upon his consciousness so that he should begin to purchase
the kinds of fertilizer needed in proportion to the amounts
employed by the British farmer, he would call for seven
times as much as is used today, and the capacity of the
existing fertilizer plants would be utterly unable to meet
the demand. Certain it is, the farmer must begin to
utilize fertilizers on a proper scale very soon or he will
be swamped and the nation will become dependent on
foreign countries for food to an alarming extent. We can-
not go on indefinitely removing five times as much plant-
food from our soils as we return to them.

Mr. MacDowell was right in insisting that it is im-
perative to provide growing plants with a balanced ration.
That means not only that a proper amount of available pot-
ash, nitrogen, and phosphorus shall be incorporated into
the soil, but that the lack of sulphur, or lime, or magnesia,
or iron shall be made good, in accordance with the special
requirements of different crops. Dr. L. W. Erdman, of
the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, in "Soil
Science" for December, 1921, (p. 433), says: "Recently
many soils have been found to be deficient in sulphur, one
of the essential plant foods, and sulphur requirements of
certain crops are apparently much greater than formerly
supposed."

*In 1921 the average had dropped to 12.7 bushels per acre.






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 55

Sulphur fertilization is specially important for plants
that normally contain large amounts of protein, for all
proteins hold sulphur as an essential constituent. C. 0.
Swanson and R. W. Miller, of the Kansas State Agricul-
tural College ("Soil Science" Vol. III, No. 2, p. 139), says:
"That sulphur is an element essential to crop production
has long been recognized by both botanists and agrono-
mists. Sulphur is indispensable in the formation of plant
proteins, and because of the intimate connection of protein
compounds with life processes, it probably serves physi-
ological functions in the formation of compounds which
do not contain sulphur." A shortage of sulphur means les-
sened crops. This applies with special emphasis to legumes,
including alfalfa, clover, beans and peas.

It is evident that the role of sulphur in the soil is com-
plex. It has been pointed out (P. E. Brown and H. W.
Johnson, "Soil Science," Vol. 1, No. 4, p. 339) that "the
total sulphur content, alone, of a soil will not show the
sulphur available for plant growth. The sulfofying or sul-
phate-producing power of the soil must also be ascertain-
ed." In other words, there are effects produced upon the
bacterial life in the soil that are of the utmost value, and
the mere presence of sulphates, or the introduction of sul-
phates in combination with potash, ammonia, or acid phos-
phate, is not equivalent to the bacterial oxidation of sulphur
in the soil in contributing to the healthy growth of plants.
Not only does this action stimulate the sulfofying bacteria,
but the ammonifying and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria as
well.

The production of sulphuric acid in the soil when free
sulphur is present, both directly and by indirect reactions,
liberates potash and phosphorus in available form from
the soil particles. It is on account of these reactions that
as two of our ablest agronomists have said, for permanent
soil fertility, the sulphur supply for crops must be con-
sidered. (Brown and Johnson, loc. cit.). It is also note-
worthy that, although small amounts of sulphur are brought
down in the rains (normally about 7 pounds per acre yearly,
and slightly more in regions where large quantities of
coal are burned in manufacturing) the losses by drainage






0 Ji ,rJ- X& 11 lI.Ji..JlJIN .J.L k X.lI.VAWJ.L .J-.LJ %J Iw.L L

noves 12 pounds of sulphur, alfalfa 26 pounds, and cabbage
,0 pounds.
There is no doubt that sulphur is of the greatest value in
ertilization to stimulate a healthy growth of plants, to
provide them with an essential plant food, and to render
availablee the plant food constituents in the soil. In this
respectt its function is unique. The American farmer must
lot only work his acres but make his acres work, and
Le must make them work to the limit. This can be done
nly by strong fertilizer, and he must bear in mind the
importance of maintaining the balanced ration. He must
provide all the foods needed, and not omit any that will
ensure healthy crops and maximum returns.








CHAPTER VII.
SOIL ANALYSIS NO GUIDE TO FERTILIZATION
BY E. J. KINNEY, in Southern Agriculturist

ARMERS frequently ask their experiment station tc
analyze a sample of soil from a certain field and or
the basis of the analysis to recommend the exaci
fertilizer needed to produce a certain crop. They are ofter
very much disappointed, and sometimes a bit angry, be.
cause the station refuses to make such recommendations

Soil analyses have been of considerable value to agri-
culture. They have given us a wide knowledge of th(
character of the various soils of the country, and have
made it possible to make general recommendations in re
gard to the necessary treatment of these soils in order t(
maintain permanent fertility. As a guide to fertilizatior
in particular instances, however, they have little value
A chemical analysis gives us fairly accurate data on th(
total amount of plant food in the soil. It tells us whether
or not the supply of phosphate or potash is sufficient t(
produce good crops under good systems of management
without buying commercial forms of these mineral element'
of plant food. It also tells us whether the soil is acid o0
alkaline, but it does not show us the crop-producing capacity]
of a certain soil at a particular time.
The samples used by a chemist are of necessity so smal
that the inaccuracy in a very careful analysis, by a skilfu
chemist, may be greater than the amount of plant foo(
contained in a very heavy application of commercial plan
food. A field that has been reduced to temporary lov
productive power by heavy cropping or bad farming ma,
show as much total plant food as another field capable,
of producing a big crop. For example, we may raise fiv
crops of corn in succession on a naturally good piece o
land. At the end of that time the ability of that field t,
produce corn will be much lessened. Yet a chemical analy
sis may show practically no difference in the amount o
plant food present between this field and one lying besid
it that has been in pasture for five years.
This is hard to believe; but such are the present limi
stations of the chemical analysis. The weight of an applica
tion of fertilizer is so small in comparison with the grea






'AI-IlVlfILN UI flL' UU.I L


weight o0 the surface loot o01 an acre oi lana (aoout 4,uuu,-
000 pounds) that the use of a ton per acre may be unde-
tected in an analysis. If in addition to the analysis, how-
ever, the soil expert has a good knowledge of how the land
has been cropped and treated, he can usually make recom-
mendations for fertilizer treatment that will meet the re-
quirements fairly well.
Take, for example, the question of fertilization for dark
tobacco on the lands of Western Kentucky. A chemical
analysis shows these soils to be rather low in phosphate,
but rich in potash. If they are handled well-that is, if
crops are rotated, legumes grown, some manure used and
possibly lime, the soil expert may recommend the use of a
phosphate fertilizer only. He knows that the phosphate
supply is too small to give maximum yields even under the
best system of soil management. Potash, on the other
hand, will become available in sufficient amounts for all
requirements on well managed soils; and if legumes are
grown often in the rotation, the nitrogen supply may be
adequate. In case of tobacco, however, which gives reIa-
tively large returns per acre, a liberal supply of nitrogen
is needed for best results and he may recommend the use
of some nitrogenous material. If the land has been cropped
fairly hard, it usually pays to use a complete fertilizer. The
expert will recommend the amounts to apply almost wholly
on the cropping practices of the past.








CHAPTER VIII.

SAVING MONEY IN PURCHASING FERTILIZER
BY R. W. RUPRECHT, in The Florida Grower


more so than the farmer who must make every dollar
count if he expects to come out ahead of the game.
One of the ways a farmer can save money is in the careful
purchase of fertilizers. There are three different and yet
closely related ways by which you can cut down your fer-
tilizer expenses. These are as follows:
1. Pay cash.
2. Buy co-operatively.
3. Buy high grade fertilizers only.
The idea of paying cash for what you buy is gradually
spreading all over the country and into all lines of business.
The cash and carry grocery stores, I believe, were the first
ones to show the savings that could be made by getting
away from a credit business. It is only within the last
two or three years that the fertilizer trade has made a
special effort to get its business on a cash basis. A few
years ago over 80 per cent of the fertilizer trade was on
a credit or time basis. Just what the figures are today I
cannot say but judging from reports I have had from sev-
eral fertilizer companies the percentage has been lowered.
All fertilizer companies will give a substantial discount
if you pay cash for your fertilizer. Some companies are
offering as much as 13 per cent discount if you send them
a check with your order, or 10 per cent for cash for 10 daye
from invoice. Others give discounts varying from 5 to E
per cent. Have you ever figured out how much you would
save if you took advantage of these discounts? Let us take
an actual case and figure out the saving.

Discounts Offer Big Savings
I have a price list showing a price of $42 per ton foi
a 5-7-5 fertilizer. Suppose you are buying 10 tons of thiE
formula. This would make a total of $420. However, il
you send a check along with your order you would onlb
have to send them $378.00, making a saving of $42, whict
is 10 per cent of $420.00. Quite worth while, is it not',






ARTMENT OF AGRICULTU


Nor is this all you would save. If you paid six months
after date of your invoice you would get a bill for $420,
plus, 8 per cent interest on this amount for 6 months, or
$16.80, so you would be paying $436, instead of $378, the
cash price. I know that for a good many farmers it would
be pretty hard to lay their hands on four or five hundred
dollars to pay their fertilizer bill. Those of you who can-
not find the money should go to your banker and borrow
the money from him. True, you will have to pay him 8
per cent interest on the money but you will still be saving
the $42.
We now come to the third class of farmers-those to
whom the local banker will not lend the money. What I
am going to say may sound cold-blooded but it is the
truth nevertheless. If your own banker who knows you


panies
One of
times t
was du
where i
Do y
bill are
who or
Some p
honest.
of peop
Some w
Probh
grocery
than t1
goods a
to pay
the wl
charge
00n 11 +


n lend
3 no bu
chief,
the fe:
this vi
d no bu
lot real
o payi]
his fe:
.e wouli
ut farir
>e they
o wronj
all of ,
res and
d time
,aid "ch
; as mu
aler as
Why c
IT- r


)u money:
iess to s
not th(
lizer indi
practice
ess doinj
that all
the bill
izer but
iave you
; as a cl;
Arks or ci

i are fan
ow that 1
ocer whE
ge it." I
for thei
oes the
they uni
irl 1-le n 1


the fertil
;er to you
ason, for
just beer
of extend

pay your
ead beat ,
ends to p;
hat all fa:
st like oth
fessors or

the cash
oods at a 1
3nt in, ord
nd carry sl
then they
cer wherE
n then? ?
+lninr+


izer com-
on time.
the hard
through
.ng credit

fertilizer
Lnd crook
ly for it?
*mers are
er groups
what not.

and carry
>wer price
ered your
;ores have
buy from
you say
limply be-
, Ar. Tah


out before, but this will be largely increased if they ever
get to the point where they do nothing but a cash business.

Co-operate in Buying
We come now to the second way in which you can save
money in buying your fertilizer: Buy co-operatively. By






6UIL6j AAN r1"KKTUAiiZlbfjtV 0I

buying co-operatively I mean buying through some farm-
ers' organization or just a group of neighbors getting to-
gether and sending their order in as one. The amount
you can save by thus lumping your orders will depend
largely upon the size of your order. Most fertilizer com-
panies will quote you a lower price on a full carload of
one brand of analysis than they will on single ton orders.
A still lower price will be quoted if you can get together
a total of 100 tons, preferably of one analysis. The cut
in price will vary from $4 per ton up. Why can the fer-
tilizer companies afford to give you this extra cut? Simply
because they can save about that much in taking care of
your order. You can readily see, I think, that it takes less
time to look after one large order than a dozen small less
than carload shipments. In many cases the less than car-
load shipments have to be hauled to the freight station
while the carloads can be loaded into the cars right from
the bagging machine. Hauling costs money as you all
know, hence the lower prices for goods that do not have
to be hauled. Another saving is made in bagging the fer-


chine running on
than to have to kei
tain amount of losi
a different formul-
the one you have '
in different factor
close to $5 or $10
that the fertilizer
storage charges.
raw material as it
of storing it in tl
passed on to farme

Going now to th
bill: Buy only high

Our last legislat
to live up to this a
bill states that no
-4-->4.- -U-11 ___-4-_ _


single fc
p changing
time beca
until the
een baggi
es but wi
per day, n
companies
t gives th
s received
eir wareh
s when th.

* third wa
Analysis gc

ire passed
Vice whet
mixed con
less thar


rmula all day or I
r. Each change me
use you cannot sta]
machine has been
ig. This lost time
11, I believe, avers
Laybe more. Anotl
make in handling o:
am an opportunity
without going to tl
house. All these st
ey buy co-operative]

7 of saving on youi
ods.

a bill which will c
her you want to or
imercial fertilizer s
1 I A -4- --P -n,1


alf a day
ans a cer-
t bagging
cleared of
will vary
ge pretty
ler saving
orders is in
to use up
ie expense
vings are
y.

- fertilizer


)mpel you
not. The
old in the
1 1 n1a.+


stood. i am rather glad tney did tnis tnougn it is going
to make. some of the farmers rather disgruntled when thev









tilizer costs $30.50 per ton. The same price list also con-
tains a fertilizer analyzing 3-9-3 at $35. This would make
a 3-12-3 fertilizer cost about $38. Now let us do a little
figuring. Three tons of the 2-8-2 fertilizer would contain
6 units of nitrogen, 24 of phosphoric acid and 6 of potash,
and at $30.50 per ton would cost you about $91.50. Two
tons of the 3-12-3 formula would give you 6 units of nitro-
gen, 24 of phosphoric acid and 6 of potash, the same as
the 3 tons of 2-8-2 and would cost you at $38 per ton $76.


you save $15.50 and the freight on one
After the first of January, 1926, you w
purchase the 2-8-2 fertilizer. To take it
recommend that you try the 3-9-3 which
give you just as good results at a substan-
how kind the legislature was. It is fore
money.

The Difference In Fertilizer
Why is it that there is such a big differ
nf ftheqp twn fPrt.iil7Pr ? T.pt usR lInk .atf


)lant food in the
ns of 2-8-2, and
ton of fertilizer.
ill be unable to
;s place I would
will, I feel sure,
tial saving. See
ing you to save


s
ence in the price
tvnir al fnrminla


for these two analyses and see what we can see:
2-8-2
110 pounds nitrate of soda.
267 pounds cotton seed meal.
1,000 pounds acid phosphate.
84 pounds sulphate of potash.
539 pounds filler.

2,000
320 pounds nitrate of soda.
267 pounds cotton seed meal.
1,388 pounds acid phosphate 17 per cent.
125 pounds sulphate of potash.

2,000
Fourteen Standard Formulas for Florida
The first column gives the per cent of nitrogen, the
second the per cent of available phosphoric acid and the
third the per cent of potash in the fertilizer.









the crops for which it is best suited, but there may be othel
crops for which it is suited. For some soils or under som(
conditions some other formula than the one indicated mighi
give better results. Consult your county agricultural agen1
if in doubt as to what formula to use.
3-9-3-General field crops, such as cotton, corn and pea
nuts.
4-8-4-Sweet potatoes. Strawberries on rich soil.
5-7-5-5-8-5-General truck crops, particularly water.
melons, cantaloupes and Irish potatoes. Strawberries or
average soil.
5-5-5-Celery, lettuce and cabbage.
4-8-3-Peas, beans, growing pecan trees, citrus nursery
stock and young grove trees.
4-8-6-Sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, tomatoes, sugai
cane, bearing pecans and peaches.
5-7-3-General truck crop or cabbage on clay soils.
3-8-5-Tomatoes on soils rich in organic matter.
Also summer and fall citrus applications:
3-8-8-3-8-10-Citrus fall and winter application.
2-8-10-Citrus fall and winter application on rich soils.
4-8-8-Citrus in spring, tomatoes and strawberries.
6-6-4-General truck and cabbage on poor soil.
In the one case you have a fertilizer containing 50(
pounds or 21/2 bags of filler of little or no value to youi
plants, yet for which the fertilizer people had to pay. Ir
the other case you have a fertilizer containing only materially
supplying plant food.
It cost the fertilizer company just as much to mix th(
low grade formula as the high grade. All of the operating
expenses are the same for both formulas. As you are get
ting six more units of plant food in the high grade formula,
your cost per unit is less. For example, say it cost $3.5(
per ton to mix these goods. In the case of the 2-8-2 thhi
means about 30 cents for each unit of plant food. In th(
case of the 3-12-3 it means only 20 cents per unit. There
fore it pays to buy high grade fertilizer.
In buying high grade fertilizers remember that we havi
in Florida a list of 14 so-called standard fertilizers. Al
of these are high grade formulas and we believe that therE
is a formula on this list that will prove satisfactory foi
all crops raised in this state. If you and other Florid,


~VIUU ~I~U ~'UlrllUILIUIVV








farmers will stick to this list of formulas when you order
fertilizers we will eventually lower the price of fertilizer.
Why? Because the fewer number of formulas the ferti-
lizer companies have to handle the smaller the expense.
If you had about 50 different lots of feed in your barn,
each of which had to be kept separate and apart from its
neighbor, and if in feeding your livestock you had to take
a little from each of the 50 lots, you know it would take
you longer than if you only had five or six different lots.
The fertilizer companies are in the same position, only with
them the longer time means more money for time is money
when you are dealing with men who get paid by the hour.
At the 1928 fertilizer conference in Shreveport, the fol-
lowing 11 fertilizer formulas were adopted for recommen-
dation in Texas, Louisiana and Arkansas: 12-3-0; 10-4-0;
8-4-4; 7-5-5; 8-7-0; 12-2-2; 12-3-3; 10-4-4; 10-4-2; 8-4-6;
and 12-0-4. The figures indicate the per cent of the
three plant foods contained in the mixture; the first repre-
senting phosphoric acid; the second, nitrogen; and the
third, potash.
In a general way, it may be suggested that the 12-3-0 anc
10-4-0 formulas be used on clay and loam soils, and sandy
soils with clay subsoils for such crops as corn and cotton.
Where the soil is known to be deficient in potash and th(
crop is cotton, either 12-3-3, the 12-4-4 or the 10-4-2 mix-
ture is usually applied. The formulas 7-5-5 and 8-4-6 are
for the truck grower, while the 8-7-0 mixture is for cane
on alluvial land. The 12-0-4 formula is supposed to supply
legumes with the required plant food.






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 65

CHAPTER IX.

CITRUS FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
BY S. E. COLLISON, in Bulletin 151 of the State University

THE judicious use of commercial fertilizers in the
orange grove has been one of the important prob-
lems confronting the Florida citrus grower. In the
expense involved and the effect upon the tree and fruit,
this problem ranks as of equal importance with any of the
other operations in the grove, such as spraying, harvesting,
pruning or cultivation. At the time when the work reported
in this bulletin was begun, practically no experimental
work in this line had been carried out in the state. The
existing knowledge of the effects of the various fertilizers
in use was entirely the result of the practical experience
of the growers themselves and was of a more or less con-
flicting nature. In order to obtain accurate knowledge of
the effects of various fertilizers over a comparatively long
period, the experimental work discussed in this bulletin
was undertaken. A young grove was located on Lake Harris,
about three miles from Tavares, in Lake county, and used
for the experiment. The piece of land was selected with
special reference to protection from cold, adaptability to
citrus culture and uniformity of type of soil. It is gen-
erally considered that the influence of the fertilizer treat-
ment given citrus trees may extend over a period of several
years after that particular treatment has been discontinued.
In order to eliminate this disturbing factor from the ex-
periment it was deemed advisable to begin with young
trees. Accordingly, one-year-old budded trees, all of the
same variety, especially selected with regard to uniformity
of size, and all from the same nursery, were used in the
work. They were set out in January, 1909, three-quarters
of a pound of bone meal being given each tree.

Plan of Experiment
The objects of the experiment were to determine the
effects of various fertilizers upon the chemical composition
of the soil, upon the growth and composition of the trees
and upon the fruit. The effects of lime and other alkaline
materials, and of various cultural treatments upon the soil
and upon the trees were also objects of study. To sup-
plement the work in the grove with fertilizers, a number






66 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

of soil tanks were made use of on the horticultural grounds
of the Experiment Station.

Plan of Experiment
The grove was divided into 48 plots of ten trees each.
These trees were Valencia Late on sour stock, and were
set 15 by 30 feet. The diagram in Figure 1 shows the
relation of the plots to each other. The fertilizer and
other treatment given these forty-eight plots is shown in
Table 1. A standard formula consisting of 5 per cent

5 13 21 29 37 45



4 12 20 28 36 44
6 14 22 30 38 46



3 11 19 27 35 43
7 15 23 31 39 47



2 10 18 26 34 42
8 16 24 32 40 48



1 9 17 25 33 41

Fig. I.-Diagram of plots in the ten year fertilizer experiment.

ammonia, 6 per cent phosphoric acid, and 6 per cent potash,
was used. In the fall this was changed to 21/ per cent
ammonia and 8 per cent potash, the phosphoric acid re-
maining the same. The standing mixture consisted of sul-
phate of ammonia, acid phosphate, and high grade sulphate
of potash. As shown in Table 1 this mixture was varied
for different plots by substituting other sources of the three
essential elements for those in the standard mixture. The







SOILS AND FERTILIZERS


ure was used at first at the ra


inruniacn En nmar 9t rno nn tT rno orno nion1 tho "araTnn-


aru piLab were reUctlvuig anll appicatuin oui lx puunll
stead of two.

TABLE 1.-FERTILIZER MIXTURES USED
An application of two pounds per tree was taken as the st
amount.
Ammonia, 5 per cent, from sulpt
ammonia.
Standard formula Phosphoric acid, 6 per cent, froi
(for young trees) phosphate.
Potash, 6 per cent, from high-gra,
phate of potash.

Variations from the Standard
Plot 1. Half the standard.
Plot 2. Standard.
Plot 3. Double the standard.
Plot 4. Four times the standard.
Plot 5. Phosphoric acid and ammonia increased by one-half.
Plot 6. Phosphoric acid and potash increased by one-half.
Plot 7. Ammonia and potash increased by one-half.
Plot 8. Phosphoric acid and potash decreased by one-half.
Plot 9. Phosphoric acid and ammonia decreased by one-half.
Plot 10. Ammonia and potash decreased by one-half.
Plot 11. Standard and finely ground limestone.
Plot 12. Standard and air-slaked lime.
Plot 13. Standard and mulch.
Plot 14. Standard.
Sources of Nitrogen
Plot 15. From nitrate of soda.
Plot 16. Half from nitrate of soda, and half from sulphate of am
Plot 17. From dried blood.
Plot 18. Half from sulphate of ammonia, and half from dried
Plot 19. Half from nitrate of soda, and half from dried blood.
Plot 20. From cottonseed meal.
Plot 21. From cottonseed meal. (With ground limestone).
Plot 22. Half from cottonseed meal, and half from sulphate of am
Plot 23. Half from cottonseed meal, and half from nitrate of si

Sources of Phosphoric Acid
Plot 24. From dissolved boneblack.
Plot 25. From steamed bone.
Plot 26. From steamed bone. (Double amount).
Plot 27. From Thomas' slag. (Nitrogen from nitrate of soda).
Plot 28. From Thomas' slag. (Double amount. Nitrogen from i


is in-




indard

ate of

a acid

le sul-




















nonia.

blood.


monia.
ida.






aitrate







68 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Plot 31. From acid phosphate. (Standard).
Plot 32. From dissolved boneblack.
Plot 33. From floats.
Plot 34. From floats. (Double amount).
Plot 35. From floats. (Four times amount).
Plot 36. From floats. (Four times amount. Nitrogen from cotton-
seed meal).
Sources of Potash
Plot 37. From low-grade sulphate.
Plot 38. From muriate.
Plot 39. From high-grade sulphate of potash. (With ground lime-
stone).
Plot 40. From kainit.
Plot 41. From high-grade sulphate of potash. (Standard).
Plot 42. From nitrate of potash. (Balance of nitrogen from nitrate
of soda).
Variations from the Standard
Plot 43. No fertilizer.
Plot 44. Standard.
Plot 45. Standard and mulch.
Plot 46. Standard and clean culture.
Plot 47. Nitrogen from dried blood. Clean culture.
Plot 48. Nitrogen from nitrate of soda. Clean culture.
TABLE 2.-COMPOSITION OF GROVE SOIL, ANALYSIS OF
COMPOSITE SAMPLE
Soil Subsoil
Insoluble matter ........................ 49.09 94.81
Volatile matter ......................... 2.55 1.71
Nitrogen .............................. .033 .018
Phosphoric acid .................. ..... .10 .09
Potash..................... .......... .047 .025
Soda ...................... .......... .134 .115
Lime .................................. .13 .17
Magnesia ............................. 14 .09
M agnesia oxide .................. ...... .10 .14
Ferric oxide ............................ .98 .96
Aluminum oxide ........................ 2.30 2.40
Sulphuric oxide ......................... trace trace
Carbon dioxide ........................ none none

P205 N
1st foot ...................... ......... .12 .030
2nd foot..................... ......... .10 .015
3rd foot...................... ......... .09 .013
4th foot...................... ......... .09 .012
5th foot.................................... .09 .009

Plots 46, 47 and 48 were cultivated during the entire
year. Plots 13 and 45 were mulched with a mixture of
forest leaves, grass, etc. The remainder of the grove was
cultivated up to the rainy season (about June 1), and then
a cover crop allowed to occupy the land until in September,
when it was either turned under or cut for hay and the





BU1LB AND ) E'1'1L1Zk;UK6


stubble plowed unoer. tuning tne early years oI tne ex-
periment this cover crop consisted of beggarweed. The soil
finally became too acid to support a good crop of the beg-
garweed, and was at first supplemented with cowpeas, and
later on with velvet beans.

TABLE 3.-NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORIC ACID IN SOIL

A B C D E F G Ave.
N .029 .040 .033 .033 .037 .030 .028 .033
P205 .09 .12 .08 .11 .12 .10 .09 .10
SUBSOIL
N .018 .018 .015 .020 .019 .018 .016 I .018
P205 .09 .12 .08 .09 .011 .08 .08 .09
The effects of the various treatments on the trees were
measured by taking at regular intervals the diameter of
the trunks six inches above the bud. Notes on the size,
general appearance and character of growth of the trees
were taken from time to time.

Composition of Soil
The soil on which the grove is located is a rather coarse
reddish sand of the hammock type, verging on high pine,
and rather dry in character. At the time that the trees
were set out composite samples of the soil (0.9 inches)
and of the subsoil (9-21 inches) were taken and analyzed.
In one place in the field samples of the first five feet
were taken and the phosphoric acid and nitrogen con-
tained in the samples were determined. These analyses
are given in Table 2. Samples of the soil and subsoil were
also taken in seven different places in the field and analyzed
for phosphoric acid and nitrogen. These analyses are
given in Table 3. They show that the soil over the field





TABLE 4.-LOSS OF NITROGEN FROM SOIL TANKS

Sulphate of Nitrate of Dried Blood
Ammonia Soda
Sampled
Water 0S 0 0 S




July 13.... 74.74 .63 74.11 .85 2.28 72.46 3.05 1.47 73.27 1.96 M
Aug. 23.... ..... 1.18 72.93 1.59 11.32 61.14 15.63 4.16 69.11 5.68 -3
Sept. 5.... ..... 4.66 68.27 6.39 20.34 40.79 33.28 11.98 57.13 17.24
Nov. 22.... 18.69 8.46 78.49 12.40 22.07 37.41 54.21 16.59 59.22 29.05
Jan. 8.... ..... 8.12 70.36 10.35 13.26 24.15 35.44 9.35 49.87 15.80 Z
March 12 ... 37.37 5.72 64.64 8.13 2.56 21.59 10.59 2.06 47.81 4.13 -
April 13.... ..... 3.91 98.09 6.05 3.46 55.50 16.04 .43 84.75 .90
June 10.... 37.37 10.14 87.95 10.34 11.63 43.87 20.95 2.10 82.65 2.48 O
July 16.... ..... 9.64 115.68 10.96 7.94 73.29 18.10 1.99 118.02 2.41 y
Aug. 23 .... ...... 6.43 109.25 5.55 ..... 73.29 ..... ..... 118.02 .....
Oct. 21... 18.69 3.19 124.75 2.92 3.46 88.52 4.72 1.38 135.33 1.17 n
April 1.... 37.37 .65 161.46 .52 4.23 121.65 4.78 .97 171.72 .72 w
July 14.... 37.37 1.61 159.85 1.00 2.38 119.28 1.95 .27 171.45 .16 -
Aug. 9 .... ...... 197.23 ..... 156.65 ... 208.82 ...
Oct. 31.... 18.69 2.53 213.38 1.28 2.17 173.16 1.39 .22 227.28 .11 '
Jan. 3.... ..... 1.72 211.66 .80 .43 172.73 .25 .16 227.12 .07
Jan. 24.... ..... .56 211.09 .27 .29 172.44 .17 .27 226.85 .12
Feb. 11.... ..... .59 210.50 .28 .84 171.60 .48 .32 226.53 .14 3
March 6.... 37.37 .79 247.08 .38 .93 208.04 .54 .34 263.57 .15 -
Aug. 8.... 37.37 2.33 282.12 .94 4.25 241.16 2.05 .27 300.66 .10
Oct. 10.... ..... 3.12 279.00 1.11 1.20 239.96 .50 300.66
Oct. 23.... 18.69 279.00 ..... ..... 239.96 .25 300.41 .08
Dec. 21.... ..... "2.26 295.42 .81 2.22 256.42 .92 .41 318.69 .14
Jan. 6.... ..... 2.28 293.13 .77 1.52 254.90 .59 .25 318.44 .08
Jan. 25.... ..... 2.03 291.10 .69 1.63 253.27 .64 .52 317.92 .16
April 5.. 37.37 1.49 289.60 .51 .86 252.41 .34 .45 317.47 .14
M ay 17.... ..... 11 1.02 288.58 .35 ..... 252.41 i ..... I ..... 317.47






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 71

has been conducted on the scale necessary in field experi-
ments. Accurate estimates of the losses of fertilizing ma-
terials in the drainage water under different systems of
fertilizing and the effect of long continued use of fertilizers
on the soil have been possible. In this way much interest-
ing light has been thrown upon the question of the capacity
of the average sandy Florida soil for retaining the ferti-
lizing ingredients added to it and which of these materials
are most subject to leaching.
The tanks were constructed of heavy galvanized iron,
painted inside and out with a chemically-resistant paint.
Each tank had an inside diameter of 5 feet 31/4 inches,
with a maximum depth of 414 feet, and a surface area of
one two-thousandth of an acre. As shown in the diagram,
the bottom of the tank slopes to one side, where there is a
strainer opening into a two-inch tin-lined iron drainage
pipe, the length of which is a little over 4 feet. Four such
tanks open into a central collecting pit as shown in Figure
3. Under the ends of the drainage pipes entering at the
four corners of the pit were placed large galvanized cans
for collecting the drainage waters. These cans were coated
on the inside with paraffine to prevent any chemical ac-
tion of the drainage water upon the metal. The collecting
pit, which is about 8 feet square inside, is built of brick,
with a concrete bottom, and is covered. The soil tanks
were sunk in the ground to within a few inches of the
tops and were filled with soil to within 3 inches of the
rims. The soil used was a rather coarse, gray sand of
high hammock type. It is described by the Bureau of Soils
as Norfolk sand. In filling the tanks a layer of quartz
pebbles was first placed over the sloping part of the bottom
in order to provide adequate drainage and to prevent the
soil from sifting through the strainer and filling the drain-
age pipe. Above the layer of pebbles was placed 45 inches
of soil. In excavating for the tanks the soil was removed
in layers. First a 9-inch layer was removed and placed at
one side by itself. Then the soil was removed in one-foot
layers, each foot being kept separate from the remainder.
The last foot of excavated soil was placed in the bottom of
the tank, then the remaining sections ending with the top
9 inches. Thus the soil rested in the tank as it was in the
original state. Each layer of soil was well packed as it
was placed in the tank, the same weight of dry soil, 8,625
pounds, being used in each. The tanks were then exposed
to natural conditions, the drainage water leaching through
the soil beino collected from time to time as it became





A T m hffTY1Tm IX1 A d-ITITrTTT mTY


necessary, and analyzed. This treatment was continued
for a period of 10 months during which time the soil re-
ceived no fertilizer, the results obtained representing the
losses of plant food from a bare, unfertilized soil. The
results show that by far the greatest loss of plant food
falls on the nitrogen of the soil. The thorough aeration
which the soil received when the tanks were filled would
lead to more rapid nitrification of the soil organic matter
and thus to somewhat larger losses of nitrogen in the drain-
age water at first, than would occur under natural con-
ditions. Allowing for this factor, however, the losses of
nitrogen still remain very large. During the 10 month
period a loss of nitrogen equivalent to over 800 pounds
nitrate of soda per acre were noted. The losses of potash
and phosphoric acid were much smaller, in fact, almost
negligible. The loss of potash per acre amounted to about
14 pounds, and phosphoric acid to about a half pound.
These figures show that these two elements of plant food
are locked up in the soil in relatively insoluble forms which
become only slowly available. At the end of this period of
10 months, an orange tree was placed in each tank and
fertilized with a fertilizer of the same formula as that used
in the grove experiment. The trees in all the tanks received
the same amounts of phosphoric acid and potash in the
form of acid phosphate and high grade sulphate of potash,
the source of nitrogen only being varied. The trees in tanks
1 and 2 received sulphate of ammonia, the tree in tank 3
nitrate of soda, the tree in tank 4, dried blood, the same
amount of actual nitrogen being used for each tree. The
same amount *of fertilizer as was used in the grove was
applied to each tree three times per year. The results of
the analyses of the drainage water collected from these
tanks from time to time are given in Table 4. These figures
indicate the extent to which the nitrogen of the three
materials used leaches through the soil. These losses are
stated here in percentages of the total amount of nitrogen
applied less the amounts lost on preceding dates. For
example, the table shows that on November 22, 1911, the
drainage water from the nitrate of soda tank contained
an amount of nitrogen equivalent to over 54 per cent of the
total nitrogen which had been applied up to that date,
less the quantity of nitrogen already leached out up to the
same date. In other words, the percentage of loss for
each date was figured on the amount of nitrogen still re-
maining in the soil at that date, and not on the total amount
which had been applied.






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 73

Loss of Nitrogen
A study of the table brings out a number of interesting
and important facts. It will be noted that while the loss
of nitrogen varies with the material used, the percentages
lost with all three materials increase from the beginning
up to November 22, and continue large until August, 1913.
For the period from July 13, 1911, to July 17, 1913, 41
per cent of the sulphate of ammonia applied to the soil
leached through and was lost in the drainage water; 72.5
per cent of the nitrate of soda, and 38.3 per cent of the
dried blood were lost. This interval of about two years
. . . . J. . . _ J ._ 1 . ... 2_ l_ ..1_ --.. ._ -- . . --___ __





TABLE 5-LOSS OF POTASH BY LEACHING


Water
Sampled



July 13....
Aug. 23....
Sept. 5....
Nov. 22....
Jan. 8....
March 12....
April 13....
June 10....
July 16....
Aug. 23....
Oct. 21....
April 1....
July 14....
Aug. 9....
Oct. 31....
Jan. 3....
Jan. 24....
Feb. 11....
March 6....
Aug. 8....
Oct. 10...
Oct. 23....
Dec. 21....
Jan. 6....
Jan. 25. ...
April 5....
May 17....


0


.10
.10

.70
1.30
2.40
3.50
2.90
9.60
11.80
10.80
11.10
7.10
6.50

10.10.
16.00
7.50
7.00
8.30
13.40
19.80

14.60
12.40
13.40
16.50
9.60


Tank 1




9s


108.76
108.66
107.96
179.23
176.83
173.33
224.86
215.26
257.89
247.09
308.56
355.89
349.39
403.82
466.29
450.29
442.79
435.79
481.92
522.95
503.15
503.15
561.12
548.72
535.32
518 82
273.25


.09
.09
.64
1.20
1.34
1.98
1.67
4.27
5.48
4.19
4.49
2.30
1.83

2.50
3.43
1.66
1.58
1.90
2.78
3.79

2.90
2.21
2.44
3 08
1.85


0


.30
.70
1.20
2.30
4.20
3.90
4.10
8.40
4.30

12.20
6.80
6.60

17.00
22.50
14.70
11.20
10.20
11.20
6.20

13.40
11.40
11.80
13 90


Tank 3


9.



108.56
107.86
106.66
176.93
172.73
168.83
219.16
210.76
260.89
260.89
321.26
368.89
362.29
416.72
472.29
449.79
435.09
423.89
468.12
511.35
505.15
505.15
564.32
552.92
541.12
527.22
581.65


108.86


72.57

54.43

54.43


72.57
54.43
54.43

72.57


54.43
54.43

72.57


54.43


.27
.64
1.11
2.15
2.37
2.26
2.43
3.83
2.04

4.68
2.11
1.79

4.08
4.76
3.27
2.57
2.41
2.39
1.21

2.65
2.02
2.13
2.57


Tank 4

r1
.E



108.46
107.96
107.16
178.93
177.83
175.63
228.06
222.66
273.19
273.19
340.66
388.49
381.59
436.02
505.39
498.69
487.79
474.19
518.42
567.35
567.35
263.45
625.72
617.32
609.22
597.22
651.65


.40
.50
.80
.80
1.10
2.20
2.00
5.40
3.90

5.10
5.60
6.90

3.20
6.70
10.90
13.60
10.20
5.50

3.90
10.30
8.40
8.10
12.00






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 75

Because of this, some of the nitrogen of dried blood, or for
that matter, any similar organic material, will remain in
the soil a considerably longer time and be available to the
crop over a longer period, than nitrate of soda. This is
especially true where heavy rains occur after the latter
has been applied to the soil.
The behavior of sulphate of ammonia in the soil is dif-
ferent from either of the two materials already discussed.
While this substance is readily soluble in the soil water
the soil has the power of fixing or absorbing at least a
portion of the ammonia, thus preventing it from leaching
away. This takes place through chemical means and is
common to all soils. Very sandy soils can absorb only a
small amount of ammonia; loam and clay soils are able
to absorb much larger quantities, due mainly to the clay
content of these soils. Therefore, when sulphate of am-
monia is applied to the soil at least a part of the ammonia
is absorbed by this clay present and fixed in a form which
is not readily washed out. This ammonia must be changed,
through the agency of the nitrifying bacteria of the soil,
to the nitrate form. Then it gradually becomes available
to the plant and, of course, is then subject to leaching.
These facts account for the smaller loss of nitrogen as
noted in the table, from the soil receiving sulphate of am-
monia as compared with that receiving nitrate of soda.

It should be remembered that the three sources of ammo-
nia here discussed were used side by side, in the same equiv-
alent amounts, on the same type of soil and under identical
conditions so far as these could be brought about in the
experimental work. Accordingly, the behavior of each of
these materials in the soil as compared with the others
may be taken as strictly comparative not only in this ex-
periment but under all usual conditions where they are
used. The actual amount of each which might be lost in
the drainage on different types of soil and under varied
conditions would in all probability differ more or less from
the results given in the table. However, the fact that
nitrate of soda, for instance, leaches through to a much
larger extent than sulphate of ammonia, would hold true
under all ordinary conditions. The important facts brought
to light in the experimental work here described regard-
ing these nitrogenous materials and which have a practical
application in grove fertilization are as follows: Nitrogen,
the most expensive ingredient of fertilizers under normal
_,-,14./-.--- ...-,,1 11 ,,4 ,-1 l, -, -n + A rl G + ,f V1n r _






76 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ida soils, is the element which is lost in the largest amounts
by leaching.
The various sources of nitrogen differ greatly in their
tendency to leach out of the soil, much more of the nitro-
gen of nitrate of soda than of sulphate of ammonia being
lost in this way.
The greatest losses take place when heavy rains occur
soon after an application of nitrogenous fertilizers.
These losses decrease to a great extent as the trees be-
come older and more of the soil becomes permeated with
tree roots.

Loss of Potash
Table 5 shows that a considerable loss of potash has
taken place. The figures in the potash column represent
the average losses for three soil tanks. The losses for the
first two years are small, after which they increase consid-
erably. This would indicate that during the first period
part of the potash applied was absorbed by the soil, but
that after the second year the soil had reached its maxi-
mum capacity for holding the potash and became saturated,
so to speak, so that succeeding applications were not ab-
sorbed to any extent.
It is well known that practically all soils have some
power to retain soluble potash. Sandy soils exhibit this
capacity in the least degree, while heavy clay soils will ab-
sorb large amounts. The power of a soil to fix or absorb
potash depends largely upon the presence of certain sili-
cates which are associated with the clay present. When
absorbed by the soil, watersoluble potash assumes a form
which is not easily leached out by water but which is still
generally regarded as being more available to plants than
the potash combinations originally present. Since Florida
soils as a general rule contain very little clay their power
to absorb potash is limited. In the work here described it
was found that at the end of four years about 30 per cent
of the potash applied had leached out, the remaining 70
per cent being used by the trees or absorbed by the soil.
In bearing groves the loss by leaching would undoubtedly
be under rather than over the 30 per cent found here.







qnTT.Q A"'n PiIT TT.T7'IVQ


TABLE 6-INCREASE IN PHOSPHORIC ACID CONTENT OF SOIL


Source of P205 P205 Increase Increase
Plot Phosphoric Acid in in in in Acid
Plot Check Total Soluble
1...... Acid phosphate. .............. 2859 2633 226 200
2...... Acid phosphate ............. .3601 3002 599 480
3...... Acid phosphate .............. 4532 3449 1083 850
4. ..... Acid phosphate ............. 4750 3037 1713 1660
5...... Acid phosphate ............. 3701 3037 664 750
6...... Acid phosphate. ............. 4080 3449 631 720
7...... Acid phosphate .............. 3513 3002 511 450
8...... Acid phosphate .............. .3082 2633 449 300
9...... Acid phosphate .............. 3720 3238 482 320
10...... Acid phosphate .............. 3213 2895 318 310
11 ...... Acid phosphate ............. .3783 3356 427 390
12 ...... Acid phosphate .............. .3357 3177 180 380
13...... Acid phosphate ............. .3916 3177 739 630
14...... Acid phosphate. ............. 3659 3356 303 440
15...... Acid phosphate. ............. 3396 2895 501 530
16...... Acid phosphate .............. 4372 3469 903 600
17...... Acid phosphate. ............. 4286 3794 492 290
18 ...... Acid phosphate .............. 3861 3554 307 280
19...... Acid phosphate ............. 3598 2959 639 450
20...... Acid phosphate .............. 3472 2839 633 310
21 ...... Acid phosphate .............. .3456 2839 617 410
22...... Acid phosphate. ............. 3516 2959 557 630
23...... Acid phosphate. ............. 4210 3554 656 370
24...... Dissolved bone black ......... 4115 3794 321 430
25...... Steamed bone ............... 3609 3098 511 230
26 ...... Steamed bone ............... 4524 3651 873 510
27 ...... Basic slag .................. 3643 3033 610 340
28 ...... Basic slag .................. 3901 3236 665 630
29...... Acid phosphate ............. 3559 3236 323 340
30...... Acid phosphate. ............. 3434 3037 397 400
31...... Acid phosphate. ............. 4145 3651 494 440
32...... Dissolved bone black ......... 3530 3098 432 450
33 ...... Floats ...................... 3197 2904 293 330
34 ...... Floats. ..................... 4095 3191 904 650
35 ...... Floats ..................... 4091 3035 1056 1010
36 ...... Floats ...................... 4466 2795 1671 1400
37...... Acid phosphate. ............. 3270 2795 475 420
38...... Acid phosphate. ............. 3877 3035 842 540
39 ...... Acid phosphate .............. 3507 3191 316 420
40 ...... Acid phosphate ............. 3529 2904 625 510
41...... Acid phosphate. ............. 3432 2997 435 300
42 ...... Acid phosphate. ............. 3510 2820 690 520
43...... No fertilizer ................ 3348 3348 0 -30
44 ...... Acid phosphate .............. 3815 3142 673 380
45 ...... Acid phosphate ............. 3735 3142 593 490
46 ...... Acid phosphate ............. 3716 3348 368 320
47 ...... Acid phosphate ............. 3192 2860 332 400
48...... Acid phosphate. ............. 3529 2997 532 460







78 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Loss of Phosphoric Acid
No table is included to show the loss of phosphoric acid
since this loss has been extremely small. At the end of


lbsorb
iis is 1
Ad 50 p(
s than i


Lcid


position of the soil, especial attention was given to the
phosphoric acid. Work at the Experiment Station with
soil tanks has shown that the loss of phosphoric acid in the
drainage water where acid phosphate was used was so
small as to be negligible, and that practically all the phos-
phoric acid applied was retained by the soil. The work
with the grove soils confirmed these results. Samples of
soil from the fertilized plots and from the middle of the
tree rows were taken from time to time to a depth of 9
inches, and determinations made of the phosphoric acid.
Work elsewhere has shown that the greater part of the
phosphoric acid absorbed by soils is retained in the upper
plowed soil, so in this work sampling to a depth of 9 inches
was considered sufficient. The difference between the
amount of phosphoric acid in the soil of the plot and that
in the corresponding middle would show the quantity fixed
by the soil. These results for the different plots are given
in Table 6. In order to make the results easily comparable
they have been calculated to pounds per acre. The figures
in the table represent in every instance the average of the
results obtained from three different samplings of soil,
the third being taken in July, 1915. The second column
from the right shows the increase in phosphoric acid con-
tent, due to the absorption by the soil of the phosphate
fertilizer applied. It will be noted that these figures vary
considerably among themselves, even where the amount
and form of phosphoric acid applied has been identical.
This variation can be accounted for by the difficulty of
obtaining samples of soil which are perfectly representative
of the plots. However, it will be noted that those plots
receiving the largest applications of fertilizer also show the






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 79

receiving four times the standard quantity of fertilizer,
shows the greatest fixation, an increase of 1713 pounds
per acre being noted. The source of the phosphoric acid
on this plot was acid phosphate. Plot 36, receiving the
same amount of actual phosphoric acid as plot 4, but in
the form of floats, shows a gain practically the same as
plot 4. Both these plots show an increase of over 50 per
cent. Although five different sources of phosphoric acid
were used on the plots, the form in which it was used does
not appear to have had any influence on the power of the
soil to absorb this material, the water-soluble form being
retained as thoroughly as the insoluble forms.

Changes of Phosphoric Acid in Soil
It is believed that the figures in the last column of Table
6 throw some light on the question as to what forms the
phosphoric acid assume after being incorporated with the
soil. It is generally agreed upon among soil investigators
that the phosphoric acid of the soil exists mainly in three
forms, namely, the phosphates of lime, iron, and alumina.
It is generally considered that the last two forms are much
less available to plants than the first form. Indeed it is
held by many that the phosphates of iron and alumina
are but slightly available because of their practical in-
solubility in the soil water. Phosphate of lime, on the
other hand, dissolves slowly in the soil water containing
carbonic acid gas and other weak acids and is thus con-
sidered more available to plants. The fixation of soluble
phosphoric acid in the soil is explained by the fact that it
combines with one or more of the compounds of iron,
aluminum or lime present and thus assumes an insoluble
form. It then becomes a matter of some practical impor-
tance to know whether the phosphoric acid added to the
soil assumes the form of the insoluble iron and aluminum
phosphates or the more readily available phosphate of
lime. A method of treatment which it is believed will
distinguish between the different forms has been developed
by soil chemists and has been used to some extent. It de-
pends upon digesting the soil in a weak solution of nitric
acid, which will dissolve the phosphate of lime present but
which has no effect upon the phosphate of iron and
alumina. A given weight of soil was treated with fifth-
normal nitric acid (about 1.26 per cent acid) and the
amount of phosphoric acid dissolved out determined, this
dissolved phosphoric acid being regarded as coming en-
-iraIv lf rnm tfli nhnrnhntp nf limp nrp.qnt_ Thp soil su.mnies






80 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

used were those on which the total phosphoric acid had
been determined as shown in the table. The results given
in the table represent the difference between the amounts
dissolved from the plot soils and those of the correspond-
ing middles, thus representing the increase in the acid
soluble phosphoric acid of the fertilized plots, and are
calculated to pounds per acre.
Some interesting facts are brought out by comparing
these results with the figures representing the increase in
total phosphoric acid. Those plots showing the greatest
increase in total phosphoric acid also show the greatest
increase in acid-soluble. Plot 4 again shows the greatest
increase, followed by plot 36. The average increase in
acid-soluble phosphoric acid for all the plots (omitting
plot 43) is 494 pounds, as compared with an average in-
crease in total of 586 pounds. Assuming that the acid
used dissolved out only phosphate of lime and no iron or
aluminum phosphate, these figures indicate that about
80 per cent of the increase in phosphoric acid content in
the plots has been fixed in the form of phosphate of lime.
Table 7 gives the amount of nitrogen in pounds per
acre to a depth of 9 inches. The soil samples taken from
the plots and from the middles at the end of the experi-
ment in 1918. One fact brought out here is the consider-
ably smaller amount of nitrogen in the clean culture plots,
46, 47 and 48, as compared with the remaining forty-five
plots. The average amount of nitrogen in these three
plots is 740 pounds per acre, as compared with an average
for the others of 1220 pounds an acre, indicating a loss
of 480 pounds or 39 per cent. This loss must be attributed
largely to the effects of the continuous cultivation. This
practice leads to more rapid nitrification of the organic
nitrogen of the soil, changing the insoluble nitrogen to the
soluble nitrogen form which is easily leached out. This loss
of organic matter also means a decrease in the capacity of
the soil for holding moisture and soluble fertilizer added
to it.
The average of the forty-eight soils taken from the






OVk L -IIN .lX) lj .J. IL.Jl Jl,O 0-


was 1080 pounds per acre. This is so close to the average
for the middles (1030 pounds) at the end of the experi-
ment that it is reasonable to assume that the unfertilized
soil between the tree rows neither gained nor lost in nitrogen
during the ten years. In other words, the loss of nitrogen
through leaching was counterbalanced by the addition of
nitrogen by means of the leguminous cover crop. The
fertilized plots have gained slightly in nitrogen as com-
pared with the soils from the middle of the rows. Omit-
ting the clean culture plots and the no fertilizer plot, the
average is 1220 pounds per acre, a gain over the middles
of 190 pounds.

TABLE 7.-NITROGEN CONTENT OF PLOT SOILS

Nitrogen Nitrogen Nitrogen Nitrogen
Plot in Plot in Middle Plot in Plot in Middle
1 1140 780 25 1350 1020
2 1170 990 26 1080 930
3 1080 1050 27 1110 1080
4 810 1140 28 1140 1140
5 870 1140 29 1290 1140
6 1170 1050 30 1020 1080
7 1140 990 31 1230 930
8 1140 780 32 1440 1020
9 1080 840 33 1200 1050
10 990 1110 34 1140 1050
11 1170 990 35 1170 1140
12 1140 1020 36 1230 1050
13 1410 1020 37 1320 1050
14 1440 990 38 1410 1140
15 1410 1110 39 1080 1050
16 1230 840 40 1110 1050
17 1170 960 41 1230 810
18 1260 1080 42 1380 1140
19 1260 1080 43 900 990
20 1230 990 44 1230 1290
21 1320 990 45 1920 1290


23 1260
24 1440




The amount of
the end of the e
The results are ca
9 inches, and re
the soil at that di


1080 47
960 48


'otash in Grove Soi
tash present in t]
eriment in 1918 i
elated in pounds p(
sent the total ai
h. The unfertiliz(


780 1140
720 810




different plots at
given in Table 8.
icre to a depth of
umt of potash in
middles were also






82 DJJFAItI'VMEINT O' AjRIIUULT'IUKRE


sampled, and potash determined in seven of these soils.
The average of these seven soils amounts to 1140 pounds
per acre. By comparing this figure with those for the
various lots. the increase in the latter due to the notash


inI Li lerunizer may 1u
all the fertilized plots sl
soil, thus indicating tl
least a portion of the s
increase for the forty-
per acre, or an increaw
years of the experiment

A large portion of tl
a very insoluble form, I
ment of these soils wit
on the average only 15

TABLE 8.-POTASH CC
EXP


Plot P

1 .................. .
2 ................. .
3 .. ...................
4 .................. ..
5. ................... 1
6. ................... 1
7. ................... 1
8. ................... I
109. ................... .
11 ................. 1
12 ................. .
13.. ......... ..... 1
14 ...................
145 ................ . .
15.................... 1
167 ................... 1
18 ..................... 1
19.. .................. I
20 ..................... 1
21 ....................
22 ..................... 1
23 ..................... 1
)A


an incre
this soil
le potas:
n plots
f over I


ase over the
was able t
i applied. .
amounts to
0 per cent


unfertilized
o retain at
.he average
660 pounds
for the ten


ash in the plot soils is held in


iluuculy 1aU.1
h strong hy
per cent of

INTENT OF I
ERIMENT II


otash

1620 25...
1800 26...
2010 27...
2040 28...
1740 29...
1830 30...
1740 31...
1740 32...
1830 33...
1530 34...
.740 35...
.950 36...
830 37...
.950 38...
.620 39...
.740 40...
530 41...
.740 42...
!160 43...
950 44...
2250 45...
950 46...
440 47...
r040 4g


;Uly aa iemIU
drochloric ao
the total pot

'LOT SOILS i
F 1918


Plot


;id dissolved
ash present.

IT END OF



Potash

2160
1530
2070
1950
1620
2040
1950
2040
1440
1950
1530
1830
1830
2160
1440
1680
1950
1830
1140
1830
1620
1620
1440
1510


Unfertilized soil 1140.






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS


Use in New Territory
The use of superphosphate and of fertilizers of high
phosphoric acid content has increased very rapidly in new
fertilizer territory during the past 10 to 15 years. The
increases have been very pronounced in Illinois, Wisconsin,
Iowa, Minnesota, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Ken-
tucky, Tennessee, Texas, California, Washington and Ore-
gon. The tonnage sold in these States in 1920 and in 193C
was as follows:
Fertilizer Sold
(tons)
State 1920 1930
Illinois ..................................... 15,000 40,818
Wisconsin .................................. 12,000 51,222
Iowa .................. ...................... 3,500 24,597
Minnesota .................................... 5,000 16,254
Kentucky ..................................... 90,000 114,000
Tennessee .................................... 98,535 163,909
Mississippi .. ................................. 131,084 403,718
Louisiana ................................. 110,765 175,560
Arkansas ..................................... 77,550 157,648
Texas ..................................... 55,405 145,218
California .................................... 66,380 142,489
Washington ................... ............. 6,000 21,500
Oregon ..................................... 6,000 12,500
Total, 13 States.............................. 677,219 1,469,433
There were very significant increases in many other
States which are even more noteworthy when it is re-
membered that 1920 was the peak year of consumption up
to that date and was not exceeded until 1925. The increase
of 117 per cent in the 13 States named above takes no
account of the increased plant food content in 1930 as
compared to 1920. Such an increase certainly speaks well
for the educational work among farmers that has been
carried on by extension agencies and by the fertilizer
industry.
Within the past five years a good beginning in the
use of fertilizer has been made in Montana, Wyoming,
Idaho, Colorado, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. In 1920
these States used less than 100 tons of fertilizer and in
1925 only 2,950 tons. But in the depression year of 1931
their combined consumption was 14,920 tons. Further-
more a large portion of this tonnage consisted of triple
superphosphate and the average plant food content was
probably nearly double that of the average fertilizer sold
in thpe astern States. As a result of exnpriments. carried






84 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

on by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the beet
sugar companies, the use of superphosphate on sugar beets
is rapidly becoming standard practice.

Effect of Fertilizers on Growth
The effect of the various fertilizer treatments used in
producing growth was measured each year by taking the
diameter of the tree trunks. Table 9 gives the average
measurements of the trees in the various plots at the end
of the experiment. The measurements are given in thirty-
o nnnnl -C. n4 n 4n ni- ~non ,.nc.n urarmn rhn~l-on~ nA1.r on 1h


ent materials. The results of this work emphasize the fact
that the citrus grower need not be restricted in his choice
of fertilizers to one particular material, but that there are
a number of sources of the three essential elements which
can be used to advantage. It should be stated that the soil
on which this experiment was located was somewhat above
the average in fertility, especially in phosphoric acid con-
tent. This fact has served to minimize differences which
might otherwise have developed between the fertilizers
used and especially the sources of phosphoric acid. The
behavior of plot 43, which received no fertilizer during
the time the experiment continued, brings out the fact
that the soil was unusually well supplied with plant food.
However, a study of the table brings out the fact that the
plots making the best growth have received the standard
mixture of sulphate of ammonia, acid phosphate and high
grade sulphate of potash. Of the best 16 plots, all but one







SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 85


TABLE 9.-GAIN IN DIAMETER OF TREES FOR 10 YEARS

Plot Gain Fertilizer Treatment


1 138 One-half standard.
1 183 One-half standard.
12 136 Standard and air-slaked lime.
13 134 Standard. Mulched.
47 133 Nitrogen from dried blood. Clean culture.
46 132 Standard. Clean culture.
16 130 Nitrogen, '/ nitrate of soda, '/ sulphate of ammonia.
45 130 Standard. Mulched.
31 128 Standard.
48 127 Nitrogen from nitrate of soda. Clean culture.
37 127 Potash from low-grade sulphate.
25 127 Phosuhoric acid from steamed bone.


114 Twice s-


3Z 11Z 'nospnorlc acia irom aissoiveu uone uIuacK.
34 111 Phosphoric acid from floats. (2 times amt.)
42 111 Potash from nitrate of potash. Balance nitrogen, ni-
trate of soda.
19 110 Nitrogen, % nitrate of soda, 1/2 dried blood.
11 110 Standard and ground limestone.
24 110 Phosphoric acid from dissolved bone black.
15 109 Nitrogen from nitrate of soda.
27 109 Phosphoric acid from Thomas slag. Nitrate of soda.
7 108 Nitrogen and potash increased by one-half.
33 107 Phosphoric acid from floats.
18 106 Nitrogen, Y2 sulphate of ammonia, % dried blood.
29 105 71 per cent potash in June, 71/2 in October, 3 in February.
40 104 Potash from kainit.
14 103 Standard.
10 102 | Nitrogen and potash decreased by one-half.
43 101 No fertilizer.
28 96 Phosphoric acid from Thomas slag. (2 times amt.) Ni-
trate of soda.
17 90 1 Nitrogen from dried blood.
39 88 I Standard. Ground limestone.
5 | 75 1 Phosphoric acid and nitrogen increased by one-half.
4 65 1 Four times standard.






86 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

iave received acid phosphate as the source of phosphoric
icid. The one exception is plot number 25, receiving
;teamed bone and ranking twelfth in the list. All but
;wo plots in these sixteen have received high grade sul-
)hate of potash as the source of potash. The two excep-
tions are plot number 37 receiving low grade sulphate of
)otash and plot number 30 receiving hardwood ashes and
;he best 10 plots. Sulphate of ammonia, nitrate of soda,
tanking eleventh and fifteenth, respectively. Of the five
different sources of nitrogen used, all are represented in
;he best 10 plots. Sulphate of ammonia, nitrate of soda,
ind the nitrogen of steamed bone have all produced good
growth. It will be noted that plot number 2, receiving the
standardd mixture, stands at the head of the list. As stated
elsewhere, this standard mixture consisted of sulphate of
ammonia, acid phosphate, and high grade sulphate of
)otash. This mixture was applied at the rate of 2 pounds
per tree three times per year. The amount was increased
is the trees increased in size, the application finally being
it the rate of 6 pounds three times per year.
Plot number 1, receiving one-half the standard amount,
)r at the beginning 1 pound per tree three times per year,
howss practically the same increase in growth as plot 2.
'lot number 3, receiving twice the standard amount, or
I pounds per tree at the beginning, ranks twenty-fifth,
vhile plot number 4, receiving four times the standard
amount or 8 pounds per tree ranks at the foot, having made
ess growth than any of the plots. The standing of this
seriess of four plots brings out the fact that in this experi-
nent plot 1 was receiving about the optimum amount of
fertilizer which it would pay to apply to trees of this age,
mnd that plot number 2 received the maximum amount
vhich could be applied without inducing injury. The fact
;hat plots 2 and 1 made practically the same amount of
growth indicates that the former was receiving more ferti-
izer than the trees could profitably use, although not enough
;o injure them in any way. The appearance of these two
)lots was very similar, the eye not being able to detect
mny difference in size, character of growth, or appearances
)f the leaves. Plot number 3, receiving twice the standard
Amount of fertilizer, has developed considerable injury.
[his injury was shown soon after the beginning of the
experiment, was quite severe for several years, but finally
became much less apparent. This would indicate that 4
pounds per tree three times per year was about the maxi-
num amount of fertilizer which could be applied to young







ROTT.S AND fTFRTTTT.T7FRS.q


TABLE 10.-RANK OF PLOTS


Rank 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918


I 'U W '0)
2 30 47 47 46
3 47 35 35 36
4 41 41 41 37
5 29 44 48 13
6 24 36 2 41
7 26 48 36 48
8 5 37 37 12
9 13 43 22 22
10 35 16 44 2
11 q1 22 a0 35


12 22 2
13 23 8
14 43 42
15 47 6
16 19 30
17 36 45
18 42 26
19 17 25
20 30 38
21 21 12
22 49 11
23 37 19
24 14 34
25 15 31
26 8 33
27 27 39
28 44 20
29 32 24
30 34 29
31 6 1
32 38 7
33 35 13
34 4 27
35 3 9
36 25 32
37 16 14
38 10 23
39 18 21
40 40 3
41 11 5
42 21 28
43 9 17
44 12 10
45 28 40
46 2 15
47 1 18
48 7 4


43 30
42 31


25 9
7 11
21 39
39 24
9 19
24 7
14 3
27 10
3 15
28 18
10 14
40 27


1 47 1
17 1 4(
[6 13 13
.3 12 12
16 48 44
d1 36 .4A
2 37 41
17 46 2,
5 22 37
8 30 22
!2 41 3(
10 25 3C
A4 35 31
!1 31 41
18 21 E
S3 44 39
15 38 11
8 45 t
9 11 c
!9 6 16
i1 43 21
!3 9 2(
Af oQ 9C


;Y 15 34
14 20 1i
13 42 43
!6 28 28
5 10 42
7 3 1I
3 33 27
9 39 33
.0 19 7
4 27 1C
:0 7 14
7 14 1s


1 1
47 12
48 13
12 47
13 46
25 16
46 45
8 31
31 48
37 37
9 25
36 22
11 8
35 30
6 41
22 6
30 36
44 35
45 9
16 38
20 44
24 21
23 23
32 3
29 20
26 26
21 32
38 34
42 42
3 19
19 11
15 24
10 15
14 27
34 7
27 33
33 18
43 29
18 40
7 14
40 10
41 43
28 28
17 17
39 39
5 5
4 4


-I I I I I






88 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

trees and not kill them outright. The injury was severe
during the first few years but the trees managed to survive
and finally to overcome the injurious effects. The behavior
of this plot in thus overcoming the injurious effects of too
much fertilizer is shown in Table 10. It will be noted that
in 1911 and 1912 this plot ranked number forty in the list.
In 1913 and 1914 it rose to thirty-eighth; in 1915 to thirty-


e in rank indicates that


be replaced by others. In the spring of 1913 the excessive
applications were discontinued and from that time on only
one pound per tree was used three times per year. The
new trees used to replace those killed by the fertilizer have
failed to make much growth. At the end of the experiment
this plot was less than one-fourth the size of plots 1 and 2
and consisted of almost worthless trees which will probably
never amount to much.
The behavior of plots numbers 5, 6 and 7 is interesting
in this connection, because of its bearing on the question as
to which of the fertilizing elements used was chiefly re-
sponsible for the injury produced. In this series of three
plots two of the elements were increased by one-half, the
third being used in the standard amount. In the mixture
applied to plot 6 the acid phosphate and high grade sul-
phate potash used was one and one-half times the amount
used in the standard mixture, the sulphate of ammonia
remaining the same as in the latter. Plot 7 received 11/2
times the nitrogen and potash of the standard and plot
5 received 11/2 times the nitrogen and phosphoric acid of
the standard. It will be noted that the least amount of
growth was made by plot 5 which ranks forty-seventh in
the list. This plot showed all the signs of severe injury
caused by too much fertilizer. In the table showing the
rank of the plots by years plot 5 stood forty-first in 1911
and dropped still lower from year to year, until for the last
thr.e vpars it stond next to the lowest.





SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 89

Plot 7, where the nitrogen and potash were increased,
has made a better growth than plot 5 but not as much
as plot 6. The latter shows no injury from the increased
phosphoric acid and potash used. The trees in plot 7
show some injury caused by too much fertilizer but the
injury is not quite so marked as in plot 5. The behavior
of these three plots brings out the fact that excessive
quantities of nitrogen are much more injurious than simi-
lar quantities of phosphoric acid and potash and that in-
creased ratios of nitrogen and potash are less injurious
than similar increases of nitrogen and phosphoric acid.
The mulched plots and the plots which received clean
cultivation the entire year are among the best in the grove.
This treatment has been of benefit in two ways: by con-
serving moisture and supplying additional nitrogen. The
cultivation through the year has led to increased nitrifica-
tion of the organic matter of the soil thus liberating a sup-
ply of available nitrogen in addition to that supplied in the
fertilizer. Determinations on several occasions during the
early years of the experiment have shown that these plots
contained more nitrates in the soil than was found in the
soil of adjacent plots. The soil on which the plots were
located was naturally a rather dry soil so that the continu-
ous cultivation and the mulch of dry leaves and weeds have
aided in conserving moisture during dry periods. Table
10 shows that the clean culture plots made more growth
than any others during the early years of the experiment
but that after 1913 they did not do quite so well. This
would indicate that for young trees continuous clean culti-
vation is of benefit in promoting good vigorous growth,
but after a few years it is possible to cultivate too much.
Determinations made at the end of the experiment show
that the soil of the clean culture plots has lost about 18
per cent of the organic matter due to the continuous culti-
vation as compared with the soil of adjacent plots.






90 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

CHAPTER X.
RESEARCH AIDS IN BETTER FERTILIZING
Sources of Nitrogen for Hastings-Area Potatoes
BY R. V. ALLISON*
OTATO fertilizer experiments affording direct com-
parison of certain nitrogen sources and combinations of
sources in a complete fertilizer were conducted in the
Hastings area through the three seasons 1936-1939. These
tests were carried out on typical soils of the region, Bladen
fine sand and fine sandy loam for the most part. One series
of plots was located on Portsmouth fine sand. Methods of
planting and cultural treatments were essentially those of
the grower-cooperators in whose fields the plantings were
located.
In comparing the limited number of nitrogen sources in-
volved in the study, a 5-7-6 fertilizer mixture was used
throughout at the rate of 2,000 pounds per acre. The essen-
tial variations in the four different mixtures used in the tests
are shown in the table below. Phosphoric acid for all mix-
tiures was derived from superphosphate, and potash was
supplied as equal parts from the muriate and sulphate forms.
Dolomite was included at the rate of 150 pounds per ton.
All trinl inalnrldrl rnmnTari.nn with, snnnlemrnta.rv tren.t-






ZUILio AINU r MllI ijiJnIL 1I6 J



SUMMARY OF AVERAGE POTATO YIELDS FOR EACH TREAT.
MENT OF ALL EXPERIMENTS FOR THE THREE SEASONS
1936-1937 TO 1938-1939

Total Yields in Bushel Per Acre (No. 1 Tubers)

Season 1936-37 Season 1937-38 Season 1938-39 Averages General
(24 Replications) (17 Replications) (6 Replications) Averag(


a E E
054 a Op *t p Op p. Ca aw



Treatment No. 1: 50% Insoluble Organic*, 150% Nitrate of Soda, 35% Sulfate of Ammonia.
135.9 134.9 170.3 172.8 137.5 130.8 148.4 147.8 148.1
(81.5)*** (81.6) (86.0) (86.2) (84.1) (81.3)
Treatment No. 2: 50% Urea, 15% Nitrate of Soda, 35% Sulfate of Ammonia.
137.4 128.9 170.8 176.6 131.4 140.3 148.5 147.6 148.1
(81.2) (80.7) (86.4) (87.1) (82.6) (83.7)

Treatment No. 3: 50% Urea, 50% Sulfate of Ammonia.
140.8 150.8 163.0 160.3 129.2 133.0 147.1 151.4 149.3
(81.1) (87.5) (88.7) (86.0) (81.9) (81.3)

Treatment No. 4: 20% Insoluble Organic*, 40% Urea, 40% Sulfate of Ammonia.
141.5 130.7 161.7 174.3 129.6 133.9 147.0 147.4 147.2
(81.6) (80.7) (85.2) (86.2) (81.6) -82.4)

The natural organic nitrogen was derived in equal amounts from fish meal, cotton-
seed meal and high grade animal tankage.
** During the 1936-37 season the supplement consisted of sulfate of copper, man-
ganese and zinc at the rate of 25 pounds of each per acre and of borax at 10 pounds
per acre. Subsequently copper was omitted and the borax application reduced to 5
pounds per acre.
*** Percentage the yield of No. 1 tubers was of total yield.



(Nos. 2 and 3), though it did favorably influence the physical
condition and drill-ability of the mixture.

No stimulation in growth of vine or consistent increase
in yields of tubers could be attributed to the use of a mineral
supplement consisting of manganese, zinc, and boron.

The results of these tests appear to point to a rather
definite saving that might be effected in fertilizer costs for
potatoes in the Hastings area through a judicious use of
urea as a partial source of nitrogen. The chief arguments
C





92 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Supplementary observations and study seemed to show
that a sub-optimum water supply is rather commonly the
limiting factor in potato production in the Hastings area.
From the records of weather and crop performance, it ap-
pears that most importance is to be attached to the rainfall
in April unless satisfactory irrigation facilities are available.
In the preliminary tests referred to, irrigation showed very
striking results. This emphasizes the importance of con-
sidering the adequacy of the water supply in the soil and its
distribution through the season before undertaking to im-
prove the yield of potatoes alone through the use of greater
quantities of fertilizers.






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 93

CHAPTER XI

PRACTICABILITY OF FERTILIZATION OF CITRUS
GROVES
From "Citrus Leaves", California
ERTILIZER experiments planned and executed by
various members of the Citrus Experiment Station
staff and several individual growers on four differ-
ent citrus growing centers through five separate field trials
over a period of some fifteen years have enabled R. S. Vaile,
of the station, to give growers eleven definite recommenda-
tions resulting from the work.

Location of Experiments
The five field trials were conducted at Rubidoux, near
Riverside, begun in 1907; Arlington, begun in 1915 and
closed February, 1920; Ontario, begun in 1915 and closed
in February, 1921; Chula Vista, begun in 1915 and closed
December, 1920, and at Naranjo, where the trials begun
in March, 1915, and continued until December of 1920.

Several Conclusions Reached
The basic conclusion resulting from this extended work,
is that citrus groves in Southern California must be ferti-
lized if they are to be profitable. "But little definite in-
formation was obtained concerning either the specific kinds
and amounts of fertilizer or the time and method of ap-
plication, from which the greatest returns may be ex-
pected," states Mr. R. S. Vaile in his report. "Certain
points of emphasis are consistently shown by each of these
experiments," he advises, and points out the following con-
clusions:
1. There is a positive value to be derived from fertilizing
citrus trees on any of the soils involved in these trials, as
measured by increased crop yield.
2. This value seems to be associated primarily with the
use of nitrogen.
3. No definite value can be attached to the use of potash
or phosphoric acid in any of the trials reported, either
when used in conjunction with nitrogen or when used alone.






94 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

4. Lime, when applied as ground limestone, has not been
of value in the trials reported except at Chula Vista on the
Kimball sandy loam soil.
5. Bulky organic material has been of large importance
in citrus fertilization.
6. Specific fertilizing materials have given different
results in different locations, so much so that findings
from one set of field trials should not be too liberally in-
terpreted for any other set of conditions.
7. Trials with fruit trees are generally designed to
measure the effect of contrasting systems of orchard man-
agement and cannot furnish exact answers to specific
questions concerning the economy of any certain kind,
amount, or method of application of fertilizer.
8. The field trials and orchard surveys reported upon
indicate clearly that fertilization is required for the eco-
nomical production of citrus fruits under usual Southern
California conditions. That the application of fertilizer is
often delayed too long after the planting of an orchard
and that larger applications might be used with profit, are
points that are also indicated.
9. Groves that have been allowed to deteriorate through
lack of fertilizer may be greatly improved by the use of
nitrogenous fertilizer materials. Where deterioration is
manifested by typical mottle leaf and attendant character-
istics, it appears that a correction of this particular trouble
is not found in the use of commercial fertilizers, particularly
inorganic fertilizers.
10. Covering the ground with a straw mulch, thus
eliminating the necessity for any tillage operations, may
be expected greatly to improve rundown citrus groves. This
method of culture is likely to be limited in effectiveness to
a period of two or three years, following which ordinary
tillage should again be resorted to. This system of man-
agement is not well adapted to clay loam soils.

11. The use of winter green-manure crops has been
followed by conflicting results, in different trials. In one
case a marked increase in yield and an improvement in tree
condition resulted; in a second case there was a slight de-
crease in yield; in a third case the results seemed to be
negative. The failure of the cover crop to always produce






6VIL6 AiND P'E;KATILILEKb Vy

increased yields can' be apparently accounted for in som(
cases, but has not been in other cases.

Practical Results
So far as the average grower of citrus fruits is con-
cerned, the most valuable deductions resulting from thief
long and tedious experimentation are the unqualified con-
clusions that fertilization is required for economical pro-
duction; that the value of both potash and phosphoric acid
have been apparently greatly overestimated of late by
some growers; that nitrogenous fertilizers will greatly aid
in the rejuvenation of rundown groves; that straw mulches
by eliminating the necessity of tillage operation also assist
in this rejuvenation and that the use of winter green-
manure crops is not yet proven to be a definite factor ir
fertilization, either positively or negatively.

Rubidoux Experiments
In April, 1907, field trials were laid out at Rubidoux t(
test the effect of various fertilizers on oranges and lemons
Twenty major plots were used, each containing 6 Wash-
ington Navel orange trees, 6 Valencia orange trees, E
Eureka lemon trees, all budded on sweet orange root stocks
and planted 20 feet apart in squares, giving 108 trees pel
acre.
Table one shows the plot arrangement and fertilizers
used. The applications in detail were:
Plot A, nitrate of soda, blood, bone and sulfate of potash
(known as complete commercial fertilizer); plot B, nc
fertilizer; plot C, dried blood; plot D, sulfate of potash;
plot E, steamed bone; plot F, stable manure; plot G, nitrat(
of soda, blood and bone; plot H, nitrate of soda; plot I
muriate of potash (sulfate of potash 1920-1921); plot J,
superphosphate; plot K, steamed bone and sulfate of potash;
plot L, nitrate of soda, blood, and sulfate of potash; plol
M, no fertilizer; plot N, superphosphate and blood to equa
nitrogen in bone plots (blood was added in 1914); plot 0
stable manure and rock phosphate; plot P, steamed bone
plot Q, nitrate of soda, blood, superphosphate and sulfat(
of potash; plot R, sulfate of potash; plot S, dried blood
plot T, unfertilized. Plot U and V contain trees on sweel
orange stock, Eureka lemons, Valencia and navel oranges
and were treated with manure covercrops.







A11MlVlilNI V1 ur nU1LULj 1L


Total Yield in Pounds Per Tree, Averaged for Each Plot. Nine Seasons
With Oranges, 1912-1920, Inclusive. Six Seasons With
Lemons, 1915-1920, Inclusive.*



U Plot

882 Navel

1134 Valencia

1219 Eureka

Lisbon


E D C B A Plot
216 36 342 36 441 Navel
387 90 576 36 432 Valencia
169 52 400 75 340 Eureka
173 21 396 19 209 Lisbon



J I H G F Plot
72 36 252 387 378 Navel
279 153 234 414 837 Valencia
318 162 121 269 529 Eureka
256 196 171 230 726 Lisbon




0 N M L K Plot
378 153 90 406 252 Navel
756 378 225 486 576 Valencia
503 305 186 268 341 Eureka
800 350 180 487 366 Lisbon



V T S R Q P Plot
423 108 522 99 603 198 Navel
648 261 756 252 630 468 Valencia
630 99 500 173 530 409 Eureka
39 608 92 714 535 Lisbon


*In December, 1911, and January, 1913, the lemon yields were seri-
ously affected by frost, so that no data are submitted prior to the
1914-15 season.






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS


TABLE 2.-RUBIDOUX TRIALS
Yields by Plots in Pounds Per Tree. (1). Average for Year by Three-
Year Periods.

1912-1914 1915-1917 1918-1920
Plot Age 5, 6, 7 Age 8, 9, 10 Age 11, 12, 13
Navel Val. Navel Val. Navel Val.
A 36 53 67 75 39 17
B 11 9 0 3 0 1
C 34 72 63 104 24 49
D 13 12 0 17 0 1
E 41 47 31 65 0 17
F 31 53 65 128 27 98
G 29 55 70 71 30 12
H 40 59 34 17 9 1
I 11 27 0 23 0 2
J 13 33 12 49 0 10
K 31 45 45 116 2 30
L 29 57 77 77 27 26
M 20 33 10 38 0 2
N 28 36 21 66 1 24
0 28 57 73 124 24 72
P 22 44 44 91 1 16
Q 34 52 122 130 44 24
R 24 40 9 38 0 6
S 49 56 108 135 17 62
T 27 40 9 42 0 6
U 58 95 173 146 63 138
V 36 47 75 83 30 88
(1)-Lemon yields are not included in this table because of frost
injury during the first three-year period.

Applications Used
The trees were first fertilized in 1907, when small ap-
plications were made. The amounts were increased until
in 1914 when the following annual applications were de-
cided upon:
1.34 pounds actual nitrogen per tree
2.70 pounds actual phosphoric acid per tree
1.35 pounds actual potash per tree
which means approximately 25 pounds per tree of 5-10-5
formula fertilizer on the complete fertilizer plots A and Q.
10 pounds per tree of dried blood on C and S
9 pounds per tree of nitrate of soda on H
14 pounds per tree of steamed bone on E, K, P
21/2 pounds per tree of sulfate of potash on D, I, R
13 pounds per tree of superphosphate on J
10 cubic feet per tree of manure on F and 0
8 cubic feet of manure per tree on U and V.






ARTMF.NT OF AGRTCTJLTUT.


Yields Secured
Accompanying Tables No. 1 and No. 2 clearly indicate
the exact yield returns in pounds and percentage of good
fruit:
TABLE 3.-RUBIDOUX TRIALS
Summary of Yields by Groups of Plots
Average Annual Yield Per Tree in Three-Year Periods

ORANGES
1912-1914 1915-1917 1918-1920
Group Treatment
Navel Val. Navel Val. Navel Val.
U, V..... 27 71 124 115 46 113 Cover crop and manure.
F, 0..... 20 55 69 126 26 85 Manure.
C, S..... 42 64 86 120 20 56 Dried blood.
i........ 40 59 34 17 9 1 Nitrate of soda.
A, Q..... 35 52 94 102 42 20 Complete.
G, L..... 29 56 74 74 28 19 Two elements with
nitrogen.
E, K, P.. 31 45 40 91 1 21 Steamed bone.
D, I,R... 16 26 3 26 0 3 Potash.
J........ 13 33 12 49 0 10 Superphosphate.
B, M, T.. 19 27 6 28 0 3 Unfertilized.
LEMONS

Eureka Lisbon Eureka Lisbon Eureka Lisbon
U, V............. .. ... 184 ... 124 ...
F, 0............... ... .. 139 115 33 115
C, S............ .. ... 126 99 23 68
H .............. ... .. 40 56 0 1
A, Q............ ... ... 134 128 9 26
G, L............ ... ... 85 98 4 26
E, K, P ........ ... ... 89 90 3 31
D, I, R ......... ... ... 40 33 3 2
J............... .. .. 99 34 7 2
B, M, T ......... 37 25 2 2

Additional Data
Other data besides yields may be of value in comparing
the effects of different treatments. The accompanying
Table No. 4 gives a comparison of fruit quality for the year
1914 and for the navel crop of 1921.
Other Trials
Space will not permit of an exhaustive survey of the
other trials. The above tables and charts give a graphic
insight into the methods employed and the general results
obtained from the Rubidoux experiment. The general con-






SOILS AND FERTILIZERS


clusions drawn at the beginning of this article are based
on all experiments, and represent the sum total of all
deductions made. Fertilization investigation is a long,
comparatively expensive and not highly satisfactory en-
deavor.
General Results
The net results to the grower of the years and money
expended in carrying out these experiments cannot be
measured by any existing standards. The average grower
is not in a position to carry on such extensive work and he
naturally must rely upon state and federal organizations
to protect his interests. Thousands of dollars have been
invested in either worthless or over-valued fertilizers dur-
ing the last few years, and the grower must have some
authentic source of information for his guidance. Many
become dissatisfied with the apparently slow progress made
by official state representatives, but it must be borne
in mind that such experiments as these in question neces-
sarily require many months of careful study and applica-
tion, and those responsible for the work deserve great
credit.
TABLE 4.-RUBIDOUX TRIALS
Grade and Size of Fruit






100 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

CHAPTER XII

FERTILIZER CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES
100,000 Ton Increase in 1939 Over 1938
ERTILIZER consumption in 1939 was moderately
larger than in 1938 and with the exception of 1937 was
the largest for any year since 1930. The upturn last
year followed the dip which had come in 1938 after five con-
secutive years of tonnage increases. There is some indica-
tion that another increase will take place in the current year,
with tax tag sales in 17 States in the first quarter of the year
registering a 4 per cent gain over the corresponding period
of 1939.
The amount of fertilizer used in the United States in 1939,
which moved through regular commercial channels, is placed
by The National Fertilizer Association at 7,589,000 tons, an
increase of 100,000 tons over the preceding year. This does
not include 122,298 tons of concentrated superphosphate,
containing from 45 to 48 per cent of available phosphoric
acid, and 34,650 tons of 20 per cent superphosphate which
were furnished to farmers by the Agricultural Adjustment
Administration under the grant-of-aid project. Neither
does the total figure include 50,000 tons of ground phosphate
rock used in Illinois. Since 1939 was the first time in many
years that data had been available on phosphate rock sales
in that State they are excluded from the tonnage com-
parisons.
In addition to the amount of fertilizer used in continental
United States substantial quantities of fertilizers and ferti-

TABLE 1.-FERTILIZER CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED
STATES
1880 ....... 1,150,000 1912 ........ .5,767,000 1926 ....... 7,329,000
1890 ........ 1,950,000 1913 ........ 6,337,000 1927 ........ 6,844,000
1900 ........ 2,200,000 1914 ........ 7,100,000 1928 ........ 7,986,000
1901 ....... 2,500,000 1915 ........ 5,324,000 1929 ........ 8,012,000
1902 ....... 2,770,000 1916 ........ 5,125,000 1930 ........ 8,222,000
1903 ........3,075,000 1917 ...... 5,926,000 1931 ........ 6,354,000
1904 ........ 3,360,000 1918 ........ 6,467,000 1932 ........ 4,385,000
1905 ........ 3,850,000 1919 ........ 6,626,000 1933 ........ 4,908,000
1906 ....... 4,450,000 1920 ........ 7,177,000 1934 ....... 5,583,000
1907 ........ 4,452,000 1921 ........ 4,863,000 1935 ........ 6,274,000
1908 ........ 4,525,000 1922 ........ 5,671,000 1936 ........ 6,902,000
1909 ........ 4,912,000 1923 ....... 6,443,000 1937 ........ 8,196,000
1910 ........ 5,453,000 1924 ....... 6,826,000 1938 ....... 7,489,000
1911 ........ 6,024,000 1925 ........ 7,334,000 1939 ........ 7,589.000




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