Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents

Group Title: Bulletin. Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Title: Citrus growing in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00088906/00001
 Material Information
Title: Citrus growing in Florida
Alternate Title: New series bulletin - Florida State Department of Agriculture ; 2
Physical Description: 98 p. : ill., map : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Publisher: Florida State Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla
Publication Date: August, 1935
Edition: reprint
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: "Aug., 1935"
General Note: "Prepared and published in cooperation with the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00088906
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ALQ1533
oclc - 16648863
alephbibnum - 002298274

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
Full Text


i --~i-
i~ c



Citrus Growing

In Florida


NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner

I , __ ^^..^

-.- -----------__ ____ _~_ _


Introduction ................................
Development of the Citrus Industry in Florida .......
Citrus Production in Florida ......................
Citrus Plantings in Florida:
Bearing Trees by Counties ....................
Non-Bearing Trees by Counties ................
Sum m ary ................................. .
S... -.-A. 1 Irh0n ,f0.1; A- -_ro o n-F f-h TTnrl -+f+oc 1

ils for Citrus .........
brus Growing on the Mu
.rieties ...............
Id Protection .........
irsery Stock ..........
laptability of the Princil
Groves .............
hinting the Trees ......
uning ................
rtilizing Citrus .......
Iture ................
ver Crops ............
st of Grove to Bearing A
-igation of Citrus Grove
eld ..................
:king ................
ading ...............
king ...............
irketing .............
Grapefruit ..........
Oranges ............
ipping ...............
mes and Lemons ......
;rons ................
tsuma Oranges .......
world Production of Citru,
inual Plantings .......
inning ................
seases and Insects ....
nerica's First Citrus Grc
trus Fruit Figures for Y,
)rida Citrus Shipments,
)rida Citrus Estimate as
1PndRar SnravinG with Li

(Keprint oI rress njuneun

ck Soils ..............

)al Citrus Stocks for Flor

ge ...................

s Fruits ...............

ve. ..................
ear Issued..............
Valuations, and Other D;
of March 1, 1935.......
me-Sulphur for Pest Coni

Citrus Qrowing in Gflorida

By John eX5'. Scott*

With Contributions by E. F. DeBusk, R. W. Rupreeht, Frank Stirling,
L. M. Rhodes and H. G. Clayton

5 "HIS bulletin is not a scientific treatise on citrus
culture. It does, however, present facts about
the citrus industry in Florida that the more
successful and practical growers of citrus
have found to exist.
To the prospective settler and newcomer to Florida, the
growing of citrus is usually very attractive. This is es-
pecially true if the first trip to the State happens to be in
late fall or early winter when the citrus trees are well
loaded with golden fruit. It is, to say the least, an ex-
ceedingly attractive sight.
Citrus growing in Florida, however, is in many respects
like apple growing in other sections of the United States.
That is, it requires close attention to details. Particularly
is this true in citrus growing, for it is necessary that the
citrus grower give systematic attention to fertilizer and
spraying operations. In other words, citrus growing to be
successful, requires intelligent, systematic work and ever-
lasting vigilance.
That citrus growing has been successful in Florida is
shown by the fact that the value of the crop has increased
each year since 1896. The returns to Florida from the
1927-28 crop have been estimated at $51,000,000.** The
acreage of citrus in Florida in 1928 is estimated at 154,-
956 acres of orange trees of bearing age, 40,191 acres of
orange trees of non-bearing age, 74,138 acres of grape-
fruit trees of bearing age, and 5,750 acres of grapefruit
trees of non-bearing age, or a total of 275,035 acres. Any
industry that produces a gross return of $40,000,000 to
$50,000,000 a year to one state is worthy of the considera-
tion and attention of the best people in the United States.
Prepared and published in cooperation with the College of Agriculture, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville.
** Florida State Marketing Bureau.

SriJT.nll vIrmIi ur A rI.U.IiIu.L.ujL

Development of the Citrus Industry
In Florida

r ITRUS growing in Florida dates back about two
"D hundred years. William Bartram,* in an ac-
count of his travels in Florida in 1773, often
mentions the orange groves along the St. Johns river from
owford (Jacksonville) as far south as DeLand. Bar-
ram also mentions passing orange groves on his trip from
he St. Johns river to the Alachua savanna. At all of these
laces he speaks of the magnificent orange trees covered
dth golden fruit and fragrant blossoms. At the time of
lartram's travels, there were but few white people in Flor-
ia, and citrus was not grown commercially. The only meth-
d of transportation was by water, and even for this pur-
ose only a few boats were available. The demand for
itrus fruit was apparently very slight in the early days.

Citrus growing did not reach a commercial scale until
bout 1870, or something like one hundred years after Bar-
ram's travels in Florida. By 1884 production had in-
reased to approximately 600,000 boxes per year. The only
itrus fruit planted during 1870 to 1880 was oranges, and
lantings were made mainly in the territory that is now
omposed of Duval, St. Johns, Volusia, Putnam, Alachua
nd Marion counties. In fact, up to about 1894 the terri-
ory around Orange Lake is said to have produced ap-
roximately 20% of the orange crop in the State. This
section not only produced a large amount of the fruit but
; also supplied a good portion of planting stock and buds
or areas farther south. These plantings were confined to
)calities close to rivers, as there were few, if any, other
means of transportation. The method of culture, picking,
nd packing used by the pioneer grower were very crude
7hen compared with the present equipment used in hand-
.ng the crop.

Some of our present citrus growers may perhaps think
hat the early orange growers did not have any setbacks or
discouragements. However, the first freeze in Florida of
rhich definite record can be obtained occurred in 1835. At
* Bartram, Wrn., Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and
Test Florida. 1791.

JI .L .L% U I\.I.' Y I .Ii. J.'T JJJVi,.LLX1

this time it was cold enough at St. Augustine to kill matui
seedling trees to the ground. A second freeze occurred '
1886, at which time the crop was injured and many your
trees killed. Then came the two freezes of 1894 and 18f
that killed a great many orange trees. The next sevei
freeze occurred in 1899, at which time a number of your
trees were killed.
As a result of these freezes, citrus growing has been pra
tically abandoned in the northern part of the State. During
the past thirty years, the citrus section of Florida h
been moving southward, and citrus growing in Central an
South Florida has been a rapid development.
The experience of citrus growers with the freezes in tU
northern part of the State had a tendency to cause them I
try other crops. Truck crops of various kinds were trie
and many of them have become important crops in th
State. In addition to truck crops, many staple farm crop
such as corn, cotton, peanuts, velvet beans, various ha
crops, etc., were tried and found to grow successfully. Oni
crop farming has never been entirely satisfactory to tl
farmers who have tried it. Where there is a diversity c
crops, the labor and equipment can be much more efficiently
employed throughout the year than where only one crop i
The citrus industry has profited by the experiences c
the early growers, and today has been placed on a moi
stable basis. Many improvements have been made in cu
tural methods and in controlling diseases and insects. Pei
haps the greatest improvements have been in harvesting
packing and shipping the crop. These improvements hav
made it possible to put the fruit into the northern market
with minimum loss in transit.


Citrus Production in Florida

Records of yields of citrus crops in Florida have been
At since the season of 1884-85. Since that time there has
mn a steady increase in production each year, except those
irs following frost injury. The following table gives the
)duction in boxes of fruit from 1884 to 1927, and the
lue from 1904. For later data see page 87.
Year Valuation** Boxes
1884-85 ................ 600,000
1885-86 ................ 900,000
1886-87 ................ 1,260,000
1887-88 ................ 1,450,000
1888-89 ................ 1,950,000
1889-90 ................ 2,150,000
1890-91................. 2,450,000
1891-92. ............... 2,713,180
1892-93. ............... 3,450,000
1893-94. ............... 5,055,367
1894-95. ............... 2,808,187
1895-96 ................ 147,000
1896-97 ................ 218,379
1897-98. ............... 358,966
1898-99. ............... 252,000
1899-00 ................ 274,000
1900-01. ............... 352,600
1901-02 ................ 974,033
1902-03 ................ 1,147,491
1903-04. ............... 1,954,954
1904-05. ............... $ 4,688,683 2,961,192
1905-06. ............... 5,463,561 3,794,133
1906-07 ............... 5,663,719 3,801,101
1907-08 ................ 4,807,500 3,250,000
1908-09 ............... 7,229,040 4,634,000
1909-10 ................ 8,174,000 6,100,000
1910-11 ................ 7,590,000 4,600,000
1911-12 ................ 10,497,000 4,750,000
1912-13 ................ 15,925,000 8,125,000
1913-14 ................ 14,541,180 7,946,926
1914-15 ................ 13,774,000 9,700,000
1915-16 ............... 16,405,200 8,370,000
1916-17. ................ 15,678,000 7,649,049
1917-18................ 19,030,000 5,581,309
1918-19................ 35,732,640 8,900,000
1919-20................ 27,675,000 12,500,000
1920-21 ................ 29,550,000 13,200,000
1921-22 ................ 22,450,000 13,300,000
1922-23 ................ 31,860,000 16,900,000
1923-24 ................ 27,759,052 20,400,000
1924-25 ................ 23,190,000 19,200,000
1925-26............. .. 35,550,000 14,700,000
1926-27 ................ 30,900,000 16,600,000
1927-28 ................ 33.698.130 13.625.360

tables Nos. 1, 2, and 3 give interesting information in regard to the number of differed
rus trees in the State. These tables also show the distribution by counties of bearing ai
rg trees, thus making it easy to see where the larger citrus centers are located.
Totnl Bearing Trees by Counties-July 1, 1928.
Statistics compiled by State Plant Board in actual inspection of Citrus Trees, 1925-26-27-!


County & O '

OH UE E 6E Sr fPl r Mt m

ua .............. 75,358 4,551 4,402 76 65 167 3,357
................. 164 60 15 .......... .... .. 23 1,756
. ........... 5,188 1,274 72 10 40 70 38,064
ord ............. 1,523 34 4 ........ ......... 6 1,011
Ird ............. 510,888 160,480 28,154 1,244 2,218 508 ........
ard ............. 16,877 17,396 443 1,166 1,287 69 ........
Run .............. 94 10 23 ........ 13 7 1,363
otte............. 33,182 15,222 3,533 100 317 69 ........
s ... ............ 18,631 1,707 0 7 38 ........ ........
................ 4,753 278 59 ........ 3 83 1,007
r. ............. 12,735 13,106 235 155 175 ........ ........
abia............. 774 36 9 ........ 3 4 234
................ 157,336 443,029 18,460 6,181 7,118 570 ........
)to ............. 304,568 106,054 36,111 139 714 97 ........
1,158 33 13 ........ 23 ........ 8
i................ 13,371 827 249 8 33 12 997
nbia ............. 341 329 47 11 22 225 52,005
r. ............... 9,364 3,043 5,504 ........ 11 ...... .. ...
dlin ...... ....... 162 8 2 ........ 8 .............
ien ............ 90 15 ............... ............ 5 250
rist............. 1,031 60 19 ....... 13 1 24
!s ............... 2,751 3,027 110 299 421 ................
1,358 46 16 3 5 55 575
Inn -Q 9a 1 8 9

607 21 8 ........ 2 1
499,253 76,853 110,629 256 1,592 1,837
42 20 ............... .... . .. ....
525 200 3 ........ 96 96 2
015 A') '4 2 Sf


Total Non-Bearing Trees by Counties-July 1, 1928.
Statistics compiled by State Plant Board in actual inspection of Citrus Trees, 1925-26-27-28

County bc


Alachua .............. 12,878
Bay. ................ 250
Bradford ............ 227
Brevard .............. 124,645
Broward.............. 22,440
Calhoun.............. ..........
Charlotte ............ 10,675
Citrus............... 8,449
Clay.................. 1,776
Collier............... 2,841
Columbia ............ 34
Dade................ 22,319
De Soto .............. 62,186
Dixie. ................ 192
Duval. ............... 1,609
Escambia............. 420
Flagler ................ 6,440
Franklin ............. ...........
Gadsden .............. 15
Gilehrist .............. 196
Glades ............... 1,555
G ulf ................. 850
Hamilton............. ..........
Hardee............... 82,682
Hendry.............. 4,695
Hernando ........... 23,119
Highlands ............ 110,026
Hillsborough.......... 243,636
H olm es............... ..........
Indian River .......... 39,054
Jackson. .............. 50
Jefferson ............. 2,200
Lafayette ............. ..........
Lake................. 242,130
Lee. ................. 17,837
Leon................. ..........
Levy................. 630
Liberty .............. ........ .
M adison .................. .....
Manatee ............. 32,842
Marion .............. 160,071
M artin............... 11,118
Monroe** ........... ..........
Nassau............... 26
Okaloosa ......................
Okeechobee........... 7,392
Orange....: ............ 461,716
Osreola .............. 50,237
Palm Beach.......... 38,535
Pasco ................ 71,628
Pinellas ............... 63,061
Polk.. ............... 382,407
Putnam .............. 58,882
St. Johns ............. 1,928
St. Lucie............. 73,233
Santa Rosa........... 19
Sarasota.............. 75,304
Seminole .............. 69,719
Sumter .............. 37,827
Suwannee .....................
Taylor. .............. 4
Union................ 32
Volusia .............. 171,448
Wakulla ............. ..........
W alton .............. 44
W ashington........... ..........












be )
0s, 5.
*5, ,E
I-I .1-



















































S..... :14:

























Total ........ 2,813,529 402,508 527,552[ 2,299 299,868 2,638

Monthly Bulletin of the State Plant Board of Florida, August, 1928.
** See Table No. 1.

v.jIt-U13 jrxnU'Yvl _r LItN rjLU i'UA l


Showing Total Number of Bearing and Non-Bearing Orange, Grape-
fruit, Tangerine, Satsuma and Miscellaneous Trees, July 1, 1928.

Bearing Non-Bearing Total Percent of Total
Trees Trees Trees Citrus Trees
I I in State
Orange ............... 10,846,9321 2,813,5291 13.660,4611 62%
Grapefruit ............I 5,189,6791 402,508 5,592,1871 25%
Tangerine ............ 1,149,4901 527,552 1,677,042 8%
Satsuma ............. 235,503 293,320 528,823 2%
Other Citrus .......... 263,396 304,805 568,201 3% _
Total ............. 17,685,0001 4,341,7141 22,026,7141 100% ~

Counties Having One-Third of a Million (or More) Orange Trees
Polk ...................................... 3,445,242
Orange ................................... 1,704,006
L ake ..................................... 1,102,255
Hillsborough .............................. 837,613
V olusia ................................... 670,701
Brevard ................................... 635,533
Highlands ................................. 542,096
M arion ................................... 478,018
Pinellas .................................. 455,601
H ardee .................................... 436,363

St. Lucie ........... .... .............. 56,174
DeSoto .................................... 63,769
Putnam ................................... 52,1565
Total ................................. 1,360,198
or 81% of total number of
tangerine trees in Florida.
From the foregoing table it will be observed that Polk, Orange, Volusia and Laki
Counties contain 50% of the total number of tangerine trees in Florida.
Monthly Bulletin of the State Plant Board of Florida, August, 1928.


Orange and Grapefruit Acreage As Given In
The 1927-28 Annual Report of Florida
Citrus Exchange

Bearing Non-Bearing Total
Acres Acres Acres
Oranges ............ 154,956 40,191 195,147
Grapefruit .......... 74,138 5,750 79,888

Oranges ............ 185,543 15,366 200,909
Grapefruit .......... 6,223 4,419 10,642

Oranges ............ 2,300 22,500 24,800
Grapefruit .......... 6,200 52,500 58,700

Oranges ............ 1,000 1,700 2,700
Grapefruit .......... 1,200 2,000 3,200

Oranges ............. 4,030 7,120 11,150

Grapefruit .......... 1,000 200 1,200

Grapefruit .......... 3,145 615 3,760
TOTAL ACRES ..................... 592,096
Florida estimates from Monthly Bulletin of the State Plant Board of Florida,
August, 1928.


Soils for Citrus
SITRUS trees are able to adapt themselves to
wide range of soil conditions. In Florida, citru
Streets are producing profitable crops on sand:
soils, flatwoods soils, hammock soils, and muck soils. Thi
does not mean that citrus trees will grow on all soils. The;
will not grow successfully on poorly drained land or th
heavy clay types of soil, although Satsumas have bee:
grown with a fair degree of success on some of the cla;
soils. The wet, poorly drained land may, however, be drair
ed so that citrus will grow very successfully. Many case
are on record where this has been accomplished.
Citrus trees will grow on any of the well-drained loam
soils of Florida. These soils may be classed as follows
High pine, flatwoods, high hammock, low hammock, an



Fig. 1.-Trees Grown on Good Citrus I
and Cultivation Produce Abundant Ci
High pine land, as the term
good elevation and with a well-di
original growth consisted largely

nd with Liberal Fertiliza
ps.-Courtesy W. E. Sexi
would indicate, is lal
ined, sandy subsoil.
)f long-leaf pine.



Lly 0u wllen uiatnuu no ,ic 111gig pinel lllIu. ine Suriace o011
s of a dark color, and not quite as sandy as the high pine.
'he sub-soil may be either sand, clay or hardpan. The
original growth on the land was long-leaf pine, with pos-
ibly an undergrowth of palmetto and gallberry. A large
mount of the flatwoods soil in Florida has not been drained.
,ome of it cannot be drained without excessive cost, but
iuch of it can be easily and cheaply drained. In some cases
he hardpan is too near the surface for citrus trees to make
heir best growth. Often, however, the hardpan can be
roken up by the use of dynamite so that citrus may be
rown with some degree of success.
High hammock land is similar to high pine land in many
aspects. The surface soil of the high hammock land often
contains a little more humus. The original growth usually
insisted of oak, hickory, magnolia, dogwood, or perhaps
ome pine trees or an occasional cabbage palmetto.
The low hammock land closely resembles the high ham-
iock, except that it may not be naturally as well drained
s the high hammock, or perhaps a denser growth of oak
nd cabbage palmetto may have been on it. The soil usually
contains more humus than the high hammock. When the
>w hammock can be thoroughly drained, it is very desira-
le for the growth of citrus.
Muck lands are those that contain a large amount of
rganic matter (humus). Ordinarily they are not well
rained. When drainage is possible, either by ditching or
wedding up the land, very good crops of citrus fruits may
e produced. However, the muck soils are, as a rule, colder
nd therefore subject to frost more frequently than the
andy soils.


Citrus Growing on the Muck Soils
General Manager, Flamingo Groves, Davie, Florida
~ ANY pages have been written on the gener.
subject of citrus growing, but when an attempt
is made to prepare an article on the subject
of citrus growing on the muck lands, one must take int
consideration all of the characteristics pertaining to th
area in question, such as climate, moisture, location, etc.
It is a well known fact that the most profitable crops ca
be produced in an area provided with a fertile soil, suff
cient moisture and plenty of sunshine. In the Everglad
muck lands, nature has been most kind in supplying th
soil with favorable qualities for growing citrus. The so
contains 75 percent organic matter, which will enable
tree to grow continually and produce fruit of an excelled
quality at early maturity.
To any horticulturist, the history of citrus growing i
Florida has been exceedingly interesting. When one trave:
over the various producing sections of the State, attention
is frequently called to the profitable returns derived froi
late types of oranges. On muck lands where a combination
of late varieties and preferred rootstocks and other coi
editions occur, the profitable returns from practically mi(
summer oranges appear most outstanding. Investigation
have shown that on muck soils, in sections proper]
drained, trees will produce regular crops of a splendid qua
ity returning a profitable revenue to the grower, and i
a cost of production per box less than that from any other
section or soil known to the industry. Further research h,
proved the truth of these assertions, and has made eve
more clear the fact that nature has supplied the Everglac
soils with practically all of the requirements for the satit
factory production of citrus fruits.
We have all learned that in order to be successful froi
an agricultural standpoint, several important condition
must be secured. The principal ones are fertile soil, sufl
cient moisture, and a congenial climate. We find these coi
editions prevalent in the soils of the Everglades, especial]
near the edges of the Glade lands in the Davie are.
Pioneering along citrus lines has been carried on over
period of fifteen years in this section. In the Davie sectic
many outstanding results have been obtained by such pi,
neer growers as Messrs. C. A. Walsh, J. C. Lange, Cha
Stoddard, and others. These growers have put out planting

Air-nIV ivirjiM i V &IUn1UULj1ujvjr

ii late oranges ana nave Drougnt the groves into lull bear-
ng without fertilization and without cultivation. At the
ame time, the fruit they produced has been of excellent
qualityy and has brought the highest prices on the Northern
Ordinarily the muck land is not naturally as well drained
s the rolling sandy land in the ridge section of the State.
'or that reason it is advisable to plow the land in beds.
'he beds are generally thirty feet wide. The idea is to get
he tops of these beds from twelve to eighteen inches above
he average land level. The bedding up of the land is for
he purpose of giving better drainage during extremely
7et periods.
It may be necessary to plow the land twice. A "V"
haped drag is used to advantage in ridging up the beds.
'he trees are planted in the center of each ridge. This
lakes the tree rows thirty feet apart, and the trees are
et twenty feet apart in the row.

It is interesting to note that cost of production per box
as been kept at a minimum in the Everglades; in fact,
records show that fruit has ordinarily been produced at
cost not exceeding 17 cents per box on the tree. While
his may sound astounding, yet, when one realizes that
hie cost of planting, tillage, etc., are cut to the bone, it
Snot at all out of line. To begin with, there is no cost of
tearing the land, for all that is necessary is to plow the
pen glades with a tractor, stake the land and plant the
rees. This involves a total cost of approximately $80 per
cre when using trees of five-eighths to three-quarter inch
aliper. In the Davie area, by planting large acreages, this
ost has been cut per acre by fifteen percent. The trees
?em to thrive without any plant food other than that
whichh is in the soil.
The Glades soil analyzes, according to the State Chem-
t, 3.17 lime, 2.17 nitrogen, 0.18 phosphoric acid, 0.13
otash, 1.47 iron oxide, 0.18 magnesia, 0.38 soda, 0.51 sul-
huric acid, 75.65 organic matter, and 16.84 moisture.
[any fertilizer tests have been conducted on the Ever-
lades land during the past ten years, and even the most
discriminating citrus men could hardly detect any differ-
nce in the growth of the trees by the use of fertilizer.

it may be profitable to add potash in order to increase t:
size and quality of the fruit.
As the level of the average land is not exceedingly hij
and as the average water table remains around three
four feet below the surface of the land, a steady moistu
condition exists, giving the trees ample water and prever
ing damage by drought. This results in an almost co
tinual growth of the tree and gives a bearing tree in le
time than usual.
During the past several months considerable planting:
have been made in the muck lands adjacent to Lake Oke
chobee, west of Fort Lauderdale, and in Dade county nort
west of the city of Miami. At present there are betwe,
four and five thousand acres of citrus groves planted i
Everglades muck soils. Interest in citrus groves on mu,
land is growing rapidly. So it seems to me that here m;
be a thing developed which will benefit all, for if an i
dustry develops in the Glades, it will mean that our citr
marketing organizations may carry on throughout pra
tically the whole year, handling mid-winter types in t]
north and central portion of the State and mid-summ
types from the Everglades, placing fruit on the market
times that will not interfere competitively with either se
tion. One may hope and expect to see a new citrus sectii
that will materially aid in developing the rich muck lance
To the uninitiated or even to practical citrus growers
other sections, the statements made may seem Utopian, b
to the growers who have investigated the possibilities
growing citrus on muck land they are obviously true.


SHE practical grower has found from experien
that no one variety of citrus is grown successful
in all sections of the world where citrus frui
are grown.
A good example of this is the Washington Navel oranl
which is extensively grown in California and is well adapt,
to California conditions, but in Florida this variety h.
but little commercial value. Several of Florida's best vari
ties of grapefruit are of little commercial value in Ca
Varieties best adapted to Florida for commercial gro'
ing may be classed as early, mid-season, and late.


id-season varieties are Seedlings, Pineapple, Enterprise
endlesss and Jaffa; and late varieties are Valencia and Leu
.m Gong.
Kid glove oranges are Dency Tangerine, Mandarin, King
anges and Satsuma (Owari).
The early varieties of grapefruit are Duncan; mid-season,
orida Common and Walters; and late, Marsh Seedless.

Cold Protection

SHE larger lakes in Florida afford a certain amount
of protection from cold. The small lakes are not
of sufficient size to have much influence.
In addition to the protection obtained from lakes, the
gher elevations possess quite an advantage over lower
ies. This is due to the fact that the higher elevations have
uch better air drainage. The question of air drainage is
ceiving much more consideration today than in former
!ars. Air drainage is thought by many people to be just
important as water protection.

Fig. 2.-Fire Pots Used for Cold Protection.
-Courtesy of Florida Citrus Machinery Co.



In those sections of the State where citrus groves a
subject to cold injury, a large number of the best citri
growers plan to protect their groves by the use of oil po
or grove heaters. Where cheap wood is available, woc
fires are often used between the rows of trees to keep tl
temperature above the danger point. Under ideal cone
tions, the temperature in a grove may be raised fro:
two to five degrees by the use of fire pots or open fire
This in many cases may be sufficient to protect the trei
from frost injury.

Nursery Stock
SOUR orange and rough lemon are the most con
mon citrus stocks in use in Florida. Grapefruit ar
Several other stocks are used to a limited exten
Sour orange stock is best adapted for plantings on fla
woods, hammock, or muck soils. Rough lemon is adaptE
to the lighter sandy soils and rocky types of soil whei
a heavy feeding root system is necessary.

Ji ^^^ .. f S

As Rated by


Planting the Trees

SHE best time to transplant citrus trees is during
December, January and February. During this se;
son of the year the trees are dormant, or nearly s
and for that reason stand transplanting much better. Occ;
sionally trees are transplanted in June or July, although tl
percentage planted in Florida during these two months
very small. When transplanting is done during June c
July, it must be done when the trees are not putting out
new flush growth. Trees transplanted when in flush c
growth are not likely to live.
The distance apart to set trees is somewhat debatabl,
Some growers are of the opinion that 30 by 30 feet is tl
most desirable distance. Others advise 25 by 25 feet, whi]
still others claim that 25 by 30 feet is the proper spacing
The exact distance for setting the trees will depend som<
what on the character of the soil in which they are plante(
If the planting is to be made in a sandy soil, such as i
found in what is called the "ridge section of the State,
plantings should be 30 by 30 feet. If plantings are mad
on hammock or muck land, the plantings may be 20 by 3
or 20 by 35 feet.
The land should be staked off before transplanting i
started, as this will facil tate the actual setting out of th
trees. As soon as actual transplanting starts, plans muw
be made for watering the trees when set. It is also impol
tant to make provisions for keeping the roots of the tree
covered and moist from the time they are dug or unpacke
until they are planted. A few minutes of direct sunshine o
the roots of the trees may cost the price of the trees e)
posed. The trees should be set in the grove at the sam
depth at which they grew in the nursery row.
After setting the trees, soil conditions should be observe
frequently. Whenever the soil around the trees become
dry, it will be necessary to water the trees so as to kee
the soil moist until there is sufficient rain.
It is important to give the young trees sufficient cult:
vation to keep down weeds and grass. Weeds and grass wi
take from the soil both plant food and moisture that should
go to the young trees. The general practice is to keep tl
trpe rows well cultivated the first fivp or ix years.



SITRUS trees require much less pruning than do
most other fruit trees, such as peaches, apples,
etc. Very little pruning is required after the
citrus trees are set in the grove.
When the citrus trees are taken from the nursery they
should be cut back to a height of eighteen to twenty-four
inches. The chief reason for this is to have the trees headed
low. Low-headed citrus trees have several advantages.
First, fruit is more easily picked from low-headed trees;
second, there is apt to be less damage from winds; and
third, the low-headed trees shade the ground more com-
pletely, thereby checking evaporation of moisture. It is also
much easier to spray and fumigate the low-headed trees.
After the young trees are pruned back and set in the
grove, they should require little or no pruning for a year
or a year and a half. If any new growth is put out below the
bud union, this should be pruned off. The only other trim-
ming the young trees require is to trim just enough to
properly shape the trees, that is, properly balance the top.
The lower limbs should be trimmed up just high enough to
keep them off the ground when they are loaded with fruit.

Fertilizing Citrus
Chemist, Florida AgBriculturnl Experiment Station
SHE question as to how to perfectly feed or fertilize
citrus trees has been studied for a good many years
Snot only by scientific workers, but also on a large
scale by intelligent growers. Despite the years of study,
however, one is a long way from being able to state, just
what combination of fertilizer element is necessary in order
to produce best results. This is largely due to the fact that
citrus trees are grown on a very wide variety of soils.
In all fertilizer practices, the action of various fertilizer
ingredients must be borne in mind. It must be remembered
that ammonia or nitrogen is the material that stimulates
leaf and branch growth, that phosphoric acid stimulates
root growth and helps in fruit formation, and that potash
is essential for the formation of sugars and similar prod-
ucts. Potash also helps to keep the tree in a healthy con-
dition. Of course, in addition to these three elements, there
are a number of others that are necessary for normal


growth, such as lime, sulphur, magnesium, etc. Howev
practically all of these last are present in the fertilize
that are used or are in the soil, so that ordinarily it is r
necessary to add them to the soil.
Citrus trees are generally fertilized three times a ye;
in the early spring, midsummer, and late fall. Some gro
ers prefer to fertilize their young trees four times a yeJ
and still others fertilize their bearing grapefruit trees
fourth time.
In the spring, as soon as danger of cold is past, the tre
should be fertilized so as to start them off quickly. This
also the time the bloom appears and the fruit is set. Their
fore the fertilizer at this time should contain a good p(
centage of ammonia and at least two-thirds of it should
derived from inorganic sources, such as nitrate of soc
sulphate of ammonia, Leunasaltpeter, or calcium nitral
As a general rule, four percent ammonia in this applicati,
is sufficient, with six or eight percent of available phc
phoric acid, and about four percent of potash. In order
insure having plenty of ammonia available before the bloc
appears, it is desirable to get the first application on ear]
It must be borne in mind that if the tree is suffering frc
a lack of ammonia when the bloom comes out, it cann
set a full crop of fruit. Ammonia is not the only require
ment at this time, for lack of moisture may have the sar
detrimental effect.
In the summer application on bearing trees, it is safe
reduce the ammonia content to three percent, provided t]
trees are in a good, thrifty condition. For young trees,
four percent formula would be better, as these trees shou
be encouraged to make a good growth. Since this time
year is the rainy season, it is advisable to have the amm
nia derived about equally from organic and inorgan
sources in order to cut down the loss from leaching. Un
more is known in regard to the phosphoric acid needs
the tree, a six or eight percent formula should be used. TI
potash content should be fairly high; a five or six perce:
formula should provide a sufficient amount. The quest(
comes up as to whether too heavy an application of potaw
at this time may not delay the maturity of early fruit
There is a possibility that this might be the case if tl
summer application is put on too late, but if put on in Mi
or early June, it is doubtful if this danger exists.
For the fall application, a fertilizer low in ammonia
generally found best. This is especially true for citrus
thu nnr\P*hr an c nn n -P +-V1-f n+-i l#-i Qnn 1- I

'PT A l C"l 'XTr fV A rPTTTT TTTP'

ir as to recommend a formula containing no ammonia at
iis time. Such a formula could safely be used on the bet-
er or richer types of soil if the trees are in very good
)ndition. In general, however, it will be found that a for-
lula carrying two percent of ammonia will be safe to use,
specially if all of the ammonia is derived from inorganic
)urces. In the central section of the citrus belt, the am-
lonia can be safely left at three percent, while in the ex-
reme southern territory where freeze danger is at a mini-
lum even four percent could be used if the trees show the
eed for it. The phosphoric acid content should be six or
.ght percent as in the previous applications. The potash
should be the highest of the year, but eight percent is be-
eved to be high enough. It must be borne in mind that a
ell-fed tree will withstand more cold than an underfed
The amount of fertilizer that should be applied at each
fertilization will depend largely on the type of soil and the
)ot stock on which the tree is grown. A safe rule to follow
to put on one pound of fertilizer at each application for
ich year that the tree has been set in the grove. For in-
;ance, a two-year-old tree should receive two pounds of
:rtilizer at each application, while a four-year-old tree
should receive four pounds of fertilizer at each application.
f it is found that the leaves of the trees turn light green
r yellow before the next application of fertilizer, the
mount of fertilizer should be increased. If, on the other
and, the leaves are a rich, deep green color and the tree
making a very vigorous growth, it might be advisable
Reduce the amount. After the trees reach bearing age,
ie amount of fertilizer to use should be gauged by the
mount of fruit the tree is capable of producing.
The best growers in the State are now fertilizing the
reducing tree according to the amount of fruit the tree is
expected to bear. The general opinion is that about four
pounds of fertilizer are required to produce a box of fruit.
1 addition, the tree is expected to make more or less new
rowth each year, which calls for still more fertilizer. The
ew growth put on by the tree each year will ordinarily
require an amount of fertilizer equal to that required to
reduce the fruit. This means that an amount of fertilizer
iould be applied for new growth equal to that applied for
reduction of the fruit. This makes a total of eight pounds
! fertilizer for each box of fruit the tree is capable of pro-
icing. A tree capable of producing five boxes of fruit
iould be given forty pounds of fertilizer a year, applied


in three or four applications. Should the trees be fertiliz
four times a year, about ten pounds of fertilizer would
applied at each application. If the trees do not present
healthy, dark green color, it is an indication that they ne
more fertilizer, especially more ammonia. On soils that q
very fertile, the amount of fertilizer may be reduced. Ali
where heavy cover crops, especially legumes are grow
the amount of fertilizer may be reduced. No definite ri
can be laid down to cover all conditions, as the general -
pearance of the tree and seasonal conditions must be tak
into consideration by the grower. Therefore, the amour

trees for food and moisture, and is especially benefici;
during the spring months when moisture is not so plentifu
In many localities the conservation of the soil moistui
is an important consideration during certain seasons of tl
year. Since cultivation loosens the surface soil so thi
more of the rainfall will sink into the ground to be use
by the plants at a later time, it is of prime importance
In short, cultivation puts the soil in the best possible coi
edition for citrus trees to grow.
In Florida there are many different types of soil, an
naturally the growers have never agreed on any one pla
of cultivation as best for all orange groves. A number of tl
better grove owners are inclined to insist on a thorough
preparation of the soil before planting the young tree
During February or March the land is usually plowed and
good seed bed prepared. Some good legume cover crop


hen planted, such as velvet beans, cowpeas, crotalaria, or
eggarweed. The cover crop selected will be largely a mat-
3r of personal choice, depending somewhat upon which
ne is best adapted to your particular soil. In the fall, gen-
rally September or October, the cover crop is plowed under.
b may be necessary to go over the crop with a disc harrow
nce or twice before plowing. After the cover crop is plowed
nder, go over the ground frequently with either a tooth
r acme harrow. This will put the soil in best possible
condition, and at the same time conserve the soil moisture
or the young trees when set out.
In cultivating a mature grove, that is, a grove that is
eight to ten years old, or older, there is more or less differ-
nce of opinion. A number of good growers in the State
re inclined to think that cultivation of a mature grove is
ot necessary. In fact, some go so far as to say that it is
waste of time and money. However, different soil types
nd other local conditions must be taken into consideration
nd studied before definite recommendations can be made.
here are numerous groves in the State that have not been
iltivated in several years which are still producing satis-
ictory crops of fruit.
The question of cultivation or non-cultivation of the
nature grove is receiving more thought and consideration
)day than ever before. It is hoped that in the next few
ears the question may be more satisfactorily settled.


L:: I




Cover Crops
"Would'st have abundant crops reward thy toil
And fill thy barns, 0 tiller of the soil?
Then ever keep in mind this maxim true,
Feed well the land, and 'twill in turn feed you."
-Author unknown.
IF a large number of citrus groves are examined,
it will generally be found that the groves which
have made the best growth and look the best are
te ones that have received the most careful attention.
hese groves are most likely to be the ones in which cover
*ops have been grown almost continuously.
The feeding of the citrus tree is quite similar to the feed-
Ig of other plants, such as corn, cotton, or apple trees. That
, if citrus is grown on soils that do not supply all of the
necessary plant foods for maximum growth, it is neces-
iry to add the deficient food to the soil. The growing of
cover crop in the citrus grove each year, especially if it
a legume, is one of the most practical ways of increas-
.g the efficiency of the fertilizer that is applied from
ear to year.
Cover crops increase the humus of the soil, and in this
ay increase the water holding capacity of the soil, which
often an important factor in the growth of a young
rove. Then, too, during the rainy season the cover crop
imps a lot of surplus water out of the soil.
The experience of many successful citrus growers has
een that citrus trees do best, that is, make the best
growth, look more healthy, produce better fruit, and in
meral have a much better appearance when grown on
)ils well supplied with humus. Our hammock soil is an
ccellent example of land well supplied with humus. Very
ttle of the high pine land contains a sufficient amount of
imus for the best growth of citrus trees. When a liberal
nount of humus is added from year to year, the soil is
ept supplied with the bacterial life which is so very es-
'ntial to plant growth.
A sand soil on which clean culture is practiced does not

~llnUD ~nVVVIIYLr IIY ~UVl~lur

inereiore, every enorl snoulu uDe Maeut LU rsee[J Lind iUiiu 1
such condition that best results will always be obtained e
far as crop production is concerned.
Sunshine and cultivation tend to destroy or burn out tl
humus from the soil faster than any other factor. By keel
ing the ground shaded with a cover crop during the sun
mer, the humus content of the soil will be conserved.

The choice of a cover crop will depend largely upon tf
preference of the individual grower. A number of leguir
crops are suitable to Florida and are satisfactory to use f
cover crops in citrus groves. The legumes that have gene
ally given the most satisfactory results are velvet bean
cowpeas, beggarweed, and crotalaria. In addition to tl
legumes, one has the choice of a number of non-legume
such as crab grass, Natal grass, sand burs, Mexican clov(
(which is not a legume), and other grasses and weeds th,
might grow.
Velvet beans, an annual, is one of the oldest and be
known legume crops. There are four or five varieties, suc
as Florida velvet, Chinese velvet, Osceola velvet, and bunch
Ninety-Day velvet, all of which are suitable to plant in ci
rus groves. The velvet bean may properly be classed as
tropical plant, and requires a long season to produce ii
mqximlm urnwt.h of vinp. nnd nrnduction of seed. The fai


at it requires a long season for its growth is a decided
[vantage here in Florida. For best results, velvet beans
lould be planted before the middle of May. The objection
sometimes raised that velvet beans are not desirable for
trus groves because they make such a rank growth and
imb up in the trees, particularly young trees. To elimi-
ite this objection, it is often advisable to go over the young
cove and cut back the velvet bean vines two or three times
They will not interfere with the growth of the young
Beggarweed, also an annual, is another legume adapted
conditions in Florida, and it fits in well as a cover crop
r the citrus grove. Its habit of growth is quite different
om that of velvet beans. Beggarweed is an upright grow-
g plant that reaches a height of four to eight feet. When
e stand is thin, the plants branch freely, but when the
and is thick, the plants make a straight slender growth
ith many leaves. Beggarweed seed should be sown broad-
st the last of May or early in June.
Cowpeas is another annual legume very commonly grown
Florida. It is a crop that matures in from 65 to 85 days,
id can be termed a short season crop. There are a large
lmber of varieties to choose from. The best varieties for
orida are the Brabham and Iron. Both of these varieties
,e more or less vining in habit of growth, but cowpeas do
it make as much growth of vines as the velvet beans. If
e cover crop is not planted until the middle of June, cow-
*as are likely to give better results than velvet beans as
cover crop. Cowpeas may be planted any time from April
Crotalaria is an annual legume that makes an erect
-owth of three to six feet in height. The legume seems to
Gaining in favor as a cover crop for citrus groves. When
e stand is thin, the plants branch freely; when planted
ick, the plants make an upright growth with few branches
Id a good percentage of leaves. Crotalaria may be planted
ly time from March to the middle of June.

When planting a cover crop, care and judgment must be
:ercised. In young groves one to four years old, it will be
und best not to plant the cover crop up near the trees,
it a space should be left on each side of the tree row from
K to eight feet wide. This means that if your tree rows
e 30 feet apart, you will have a space 14 to 16 feet wide
i which to plant the cover croo. There are two main rpea-


sons for leaving the space on each side of the tree ro\
The first one is that in planting the cover crop, there shoi
be no excuse for injuring the trees with any implement
tillage that might be used. The second is to leave spi
enough on each side of the tree row to allow cultivate
of the young trees during the entire summer if necessa
As the trees become larger and occupy more of the grou
with root growth and spread of limbs, it will not be possi
to use as much of the ground for cover crops. In the you
groves it may be possible to have four or five rows ol
cover crop between each row of trees, but in the ol(
groves only one or two rows of a cover crop may be adv
It will be found more satisfactory to plant velvet beE
and cowpeas in rows. The rows of velvet beans should
about four feet apart and the seed dropped about a f(
apart in the row. Planting in this way, one bushel of gc
velvet bean seed should plant about three acres of gro,
Cowpeas should be planted in rows two and a half to thi
feet apart, and the seed drilled in the row. It will requ
about one bushel of good seed to every two acres of gro
Velvet beans and cowpeas should be given one or two c
tivations after planting. The cultivation will hasten t
growth of the plants and give them a chance to get ahe
of the grass and weeds.
Beggarweed seed should be sown broadcast on a w
prepared seed bed and covered lightly with a harrow. I
from 15 to 20 pounds of re-cleaned seed per acre.
Crotalaria should be sown broadcast at the rate of abc
eight to ten pounds of seed to the acre. Prepare a good se
bed before sowing the seed. Cover with a light tooth harrc
None of the above mentioned legume cover crops m
grow satisfactorily in the shade of the citrus trees. Ho
ever, the citrus grower should continue to grow a cover cr
in his grove as long as shade does not make it impossible.
Table I gives the yield of hay in tons of four legumes I
each of three years, and the average for the three yea
when grown at Gainesville, Florida. The variation in t
vield of the legumes i.S hlinwn tn ho rather lafrrr

TABLE I.*-Yields of Four Leguminous Cro
Material Per Acre at Gainesville
Crop 1924 1925
Beggarweed ........ 10. 79 0.92
Velvet Beans ....... 0.98 0.82
Cowpeas ........... 1.48 1.30
Crotalaria .......... 2.59 1.90

in Ton


The yield of the same legume crops when grown at Lake
lfred, Florida, is shown in Table II, although at Lake
[fred records of the yield were obtained for only two years.
ie average of the two years at Lake Alfred is much better
an the three-year average at Gainesville.
ABLE II.*-Yields of Four Leguminous Crops in Tons of Air-Dry
Material Per Acre at Lake Alfred, Florida.
Crop 1925 1926 Average
ggarweed .................... 2.29 1.78 2.03
Ivet Beans ................... 1.27 1.53 1.40
wpeas ....................... 1.27 1.01 1.14
A 0O ) nc7 0 00


Tables IV and V show how the yield of corn and swe(
potatoes was increased when different legume crops wei
plowed under in comparison with a non-legume. These tv
tables are given here so that an idea may be obtained as 1
the value of legumes in increasing yield of crops. No dal
of this nature is available as to the yield of citrus, but it
reasonable to expect that results with citrus fruits would I
somewhat similar to the tests with corn and sweet potato
On a two-year average the legume cover crops plowed
under increased the yield of corn all the way from 3.7 1
8.0 bushels an acre. When sweet potatoes were grown, tl
legume cover crops, when plowed under, increased the yield
of potatoes from 9.3 to 27 bushels an acre.
TABLE IV.-Corn Yields in Bushels Per Acre Following Non-Legun
and Legumes Turned Under.*
Non- Velvet Begga
Year Legume Crotalaria Beans Cowpeas we,
1925 ........ 15.13 21.71 22.99 22.28 19.,
1926 ........ 8.40 17.65 16.66 12.90 11.'
Average ..... 11.76 19.68 19.82 17.59 15.
TABLE V.-Sweet Potato Yields in Bushels Per Acre Following No
Legumes and Legumes Turned Under.*
Non- Velvet Begga
Year Legume Crotalaria Beans Cowpeas we
1925 ........ 37.50 78.00 54.50 61.00 55.
1926 ........ 26.09 39.72 34.33 33.75 27.
Average ..... 31.79 58.86 44.41 47.37 41.
The yield of hay per acre, percentage of nitrogen in tl
crop, and the total pounds of nitrogen produced per ac:
by each of the four legumes grown at Gainesville are shov
in Table VI. A cover crop that will add from 17 to 1,
pounds of nitrogen per acre each year will necessarily i
crease the fertility of the soil from year to year. The citri
grower knows from actual experience the value of nitroge
He knows that it is the most expensive fertilizer eleme
that he purchases.
TABLE VI.-Yields of Hay From Four Legumes Grown at Gainesvil
Fla., and Estimated Amount of Nitrogen in Crops Per Acre.
Yield in Tons, Pounds of
Three-Year Percentage Nitrogen
Crop Averaget of Nitrogen** Per Acre
Beggarweed ........... 0.62 1.443 17,890
Velvet Beans ........... 0.85 2.208 37,536
Cowpeas ............... 1.10 2.015 44,330
Crotalaria ............. 2.89 2.446 141,378
t See Table I.
** Air-dry basis.
*Stokes, W. E., Agronomist. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Journal
the American Society of Agronomy. Vol. 19, No. 10, October, 1927.


Table VII shows how cover crops, when plowed unaer,
crease both the nitrogen and organic matter in the soil.
he results shown in Table VII were not secured in Flor-
a, it is true, but the test was carried on at Cairo, Georgia,
1 Norfolk fine sandy loam. Since there are hundreds of
trus trees in Florida growing on Norfolk fine sandy loam
dil, the results obtained in Georgia are applicable to Florida
@il of this same type. If such results can be obtained on
orfolk fine sandy loam, it is reasonable to expect similar
sults on any good soil throughout Florida. Table VII
rings out the fact that by plowing under the cover crops,
1 of which were not legumes, the percentage of organic
matter in the soil was more than doubled in five years, and
ie nitrogen content was also doubled.

Fig. 6.-A Good Cover Crop of Crotnlario.


TABLE VII.-Analysis of Soil From a Pecan Orchard on Norfolk Fi
Sandy Loam at Cairo, Georgia, on Which Cover Crops Were
Grown at Different Seasons of the Year.*

Percentage of
Spring and Summer Fall and Winter Constituents
Cover Crop Cover Crop organic Nitro
Organic Nitro
Matter gen

1918 Fallow ............. Bur Clover ...... 0.64 0.(
1919 Cowpeas ............ Oats ............ I......... ...... .
1920 Beggarweed ........ Rye .............................
1921 Cowpeas ............ Rye ............. 0.90 0.(
1922 Velvet Beans ........ Rye and Oats .... 1.23 0. (
1923 Velvet Beans ....... Rye and Oats .... 1.39 0.(

Organic matter and nitrogen are two very importa
factors to have in the soil, and it is to the advantage
every citrus grower to see that the percentage of these t,
constituents is kept as high as possible in all of his land.
Table VIII shows how the water-holding capacity of t
soil is increased when organic matter is added. The tal
shows that when 5 percent of organic matter is added
coarse sand, the water-holding capacity is increased 40 p(
cent. When 10 percent of organic matter is added, t
water-holding capacity is increased 85.7 percent.
TABLE VIII.-Effect of Organic Matter on Retention of Moistur,
in Sand.t

Grams of Increase
Soil Material Water Retained Pecent
by 100 grams Percent

Coarse Sand .................... 13.3
Coarse sand with 5 percent peat.. 18.6 4(
Coarse sand with 10 percent peat.. 1 24.71 8
Coarse sand with 20 percent peat. 1 40.0 20(
Peat ............................ 1 184.0 1,28;
U. S. D. A. Department Bulletin No. 1378. Pages 4-5.
t Soil Physics and Management, by J. G. Mosier and A. F. Gustafson, Page 149.


Fig. 7-A Good Cover Crop of Cowpeas. The Growillg of a Cover Crop
ill the Grove Eachl Year is Desirable.

Cost of Grove to Bearing Age

JT usually takes about five years to bring a citrus
grove up to. bearing age. The cost to do this, how-
ever, varies so greatly in different sections of the
State that it is impossible to give exact figures. The chief
reason for this great variation in cost is due to the differ-
ence in cost of land, difference in cost of clearing the land,
and difference in cost of day labor, team hire, or tractor hire.
The price of land may vary from $25.00 to $200.00 an
acre, depending upon the location and character of the land.
The better types of soil located on a paved road and close
to a shipping point will naturally cost more per acre than
a poorer grade of soil four or five miles from a paved road
and a like distance from a shipping point. The transporta-
tion of fruit by truck over an unimproved road to the ship-
ping point reduces the profits very materially.
The cost of clearing land may vary anywhere from $15.00
to $75.00 or more per acre. This depends on the number of
trees, stumps, and amount of underbrush per acre that
must be removed.


The cost of day labor varies in different parts of th{
State from $1.50 to $4.00 a day. Team and tractor hirn
varies in about the same proportion; that is, from $3.5(
to $7.00 a day for a team, and from $15.00 to $30.00 a da3
for tractor hire.

40 acres of land at $125 ...................... $ 5,000.00
Clearing at $25 per acre ...................... 1,000.00
Fencing 320 rods at 60c ...................... 192.00
528 fence posts split at 25c .................... 132.00
Digging post holes at 21/2c .................... 13.20
Setting posts at 2'2c ........................ 13.30
Stretching and putting up wire ............... 21.00
1 man at $3.00 per day for three days
2 men at $2.00 per day for three days
$ 6,371.5(
Breaking land, 40 acres at $5.00 an acre........ $ 200.00
Discing land twice at $1.00 an acre ............. 80.00
Laying off and staking land for trees .......... 44.00
1 man at $5.00 per day for four days
2 men at $3.00 per day for four days
Stakes at 50c per hundred ................... 11.20
2,240 trees (set 25 by 30 feet) at 75c ........... 1,680.00
Setting trees and watering at 10c each ......... 224.00
Banking trees at le each ..................... 22.40
Fertilizer, 3 lbs. per tree, 6,720 lbs. at $42.00 per
ton .................................... 141.12
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton ............ 16.80
4 waterings (wagon, pair mules, and 3 men at
$12.00 per day; 2 days each watering, or 8
days at $12.00) ......................... 96.00
Plowing out middles in fall at $3.25 per acre .... 130.00
Pulling down banks at Ic each ................. 22.40
Four cultivations at $1.00 per acre each cultiva-
tion .................................... 160.00
Two hoeings of trees and sprouting, 5 men at
$2.50 a day for 2 days .................... 25.00
Replacing dead trees, 112 at 75c each .......... 84.00
$ 2,936.9!
Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre ...........$ 130.00
Fertilizer, 6 lbs. per tree, or 13,440 lbs. at $42.00
per ton ................................ 282.24
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton............ 33.60
25 bushels of cowpea seed for cover crop at $2.25 56.25
Replacing dead trees, 56 at 75c ................ 42.00
Planting cover crop, one man and one mule with
nlanter for 5 days at $4.00. ................ 20.00


Cultivating cover crop, one man and one mule 5
days at $4.00 a day for two cultivations.... $ 40.00
15 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow at
50c per acre each cultivation .............. 300.00
3 hoeings and sprouting at 50c an acre for each
hoeing ................................. 60.00
Banking trees at 2c each ..................... 44.80
Discing cover crop at $2.00 an acre ............ 80.00
$ 1,088.89

Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre........... $ 130.00
Fertilizer, 9 Ibs. per tree, or 10.08 tons at $42.00
per ton ................................ 423.36
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 a ton.............. 50.40
Pulling down banks at Ic each ................ 22.40
15 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c an acre, each cultivation ........... 300.00
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50c an acre.......... 60.00
Pruning at $3.25 a day, 6 days ................ 19.50
Banking trees at 3c each ..................... 67.20
300 Ibs. beggarweed seed at 50c ............... 150.00
Planting beggarweed seed, 2 days at $2.25 ...... 4.50
Discing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre....... 80.00
$ 1,307.36

Discing middles at $3.25 an acre.............. $ 130.00
Fertilizer, 12 Ibs. per tree, 13.44 tons at $42.00
per ton ................................ 564.48
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton ............ 67.20
Pulling down banks at 1/2c each .............. 33.60
12 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow at
50c an acre ............................. 240.00
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50e an acre ........... 60.00
Pruning, 8 days at $3.25 ...................... 26.00
3 sprayings, each spraying 2 days at $30.00 per
day for spraying outfit, crew and material. 180.00
Discing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre....... 80.00
Banking trees at 3c each .................... 67.20
$ 1,448.48
Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre ...........$ 130.00
Fertilizer, 15 pounds per tree, 16.8 tons at $42.00
per ton ................................ 705.60
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton ............ 84.00
Pulling down banks at 2c each ................ 44.80
12 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow at
50c an acre ............................. 240.00
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50c an acre.......... 60.00
Pruning, 12 days at $3.25 ................... 39.00


3 sprayings ................................$ 200.00
Discing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre ....... 80.00

$ 1,583.40
Less estimated returns from crop for fifth year. .$ 1,480.00

Net cost for fifth year .................. .... $ 103.40

AVERAGE COST PER ACRE ................ $ 331.41

Note: Beginning with the sixth year, under ordinary conditions
the returns from the citrus crop will more than pay operating expenses.

1Fig. S.-An Ideal Setting for a Home. A Young Grove ait This Stage
Will Begin to Bear Fruit in Two or Three Years.


Irrigation of Citrus Groves in Florida
Extension Specialist in Citrus Culture, Agricultural Extension Division
SITRUS grove irrigation in Florida is rapidly be-
Scoming one of the major operations in citrus fruit
Culture. More progress has been made along this
line during the twelve-month period ending April, 1928,
than during any five-year period of the last twenty years.
The reason for such unusual activity and interest is seen
in the unprecedented drought.
While the citrus belt of Florida has a normal annual
rainfall of around fifty inches, which is in excess of the
total annual needs of citrus trees, a large percentage of
the groves suffer from lack of moisture at some time or
other during the spring or fall of five years out of seven
because of inadequate monthly distribution of this total
annual rainfall. A study of the rainfall records of the
Weather Bureau of the past 35 years brings out the fact
that during that period the number of months with insuf-
ficient rainfall was as follows:
January .............. 10 September ........... 2
February ............ 16 October .............. 10
March ............... 24 November ............ 23
April ................ 25 December ............ 10
M ay ................ 15
The tangible results of this deficiency of moisture are
dropping of bloom and young fruit and dropping of fruit
in the fall and winter. But the real effects go farther than
that. We are beginning to take into consideration the effect
upon size and quality of the fruit, upon the economic uses
of fertilizers, upon the cover crop and the consequent effect
upon the organic content of the soil, the permanent effect
upon the tree as manifested in dead branches and suscep-
tibility to disease and insect attacks. Correcting this defi-
ciency of moisture is, therefore, a problem of very great
economic importance to many citrus fruit growers of the
Any method of applying water to an agricultural soil by
artificial means may be termed irrigation. As a guide to
proper grove irrigation, a few fundamentals should be kept
in mind. In the first place, the soil is the reservoir that
holds the water for the tree. The water-holding capacity
of a soil, its field capacity, is in direct proportion to the


fineness of the soil particles and to its organic content.
In order to apply irrigation water effectively and econom-
ically, the water-holding capacity of the soil and the per-
centage of moisture present at the time of irrigation, or
when irrigation is contemplated, should be known. (A prac-
ticable method of making soil moisture determination in
the grove may be obtained from the Experiment Station.
Gainesville.) The depth of the tree root system and the
depth of greatest root concentration should be determined.
This mav be done bv divvinv a ditch or a few holes in the


ture-holding capacity of a larg

J:tLW 'Vor hIIap eLVItjU0 0UILit 111 lteU ;uu'IIz lalllliog lnIe waier
.able or perhaps creating a water-l1Pcpd Pmditfiln iniiri-

without being diverted or spread over the entire si

CCll IIUV V:;U LIU IIUVV LllU ll 111 l ll iIIIrau lu ll UIIUVV .I.
hirty minutes no appreciable increase of moisture was
)resent six inches from the edge of the furrow and eleven
nches below the bottom. A strip less than twice the width
if the furrow had been wetted through the area of greatest
-oot concentration. As only one furrow to the middle was
ised we can readily see that this was very poor irrigation.
The furrow can be used satisfactorily in distributing water
*rom the main when the slope is not great enough to result
n washing and where a large volume of water is discharged
Ind an effort is made to flood the entire area penetrated
by the root system of the trees.
The desirable sources of irrigation water are the thou-
;ands of fresh water lakes scattered throughout the citrus
)elt as well as the entire State; artesian wells 75 to 700
eet deep in the coastal region, around the large interior

Vl~lrV)cl UlrVIIII~U I)~ IYV~~IUI~

belt alone are capable of supplying enough pure irrigation
water to irrigate 500,000 acres of grove without reducing
their level to the extent of affecting their beauty or use-
fulness in other ways. Flowing wells of the artesian belt
furnish an ample supply of water for irrigation by natural
flow or by the use of low-head pumping units, operating
at a very low cost per acre-inch. Irrigation water can be
delivered to more than 75 percent of the groves of the State
under a total working head of less than 100 feet, thus
assuring irrigation at a low cost.

Economy in irrigation demands constant adherence to
the thought of delivering to the tree the required amount
of water at the lowest cost per gallon or acre-inch. The
application of this principle begins with the selection of
the material and equipment, and installation of the plant.
To move a given amount of water with the minimum horse-
power and at the lowest cost per acre-inch, the pump and
engine or motor must be matched for the highest efficiency
under the given conditions. A 3-inch pump should not
be used where a larger one will deliver water at a lower
cost per unit because of higher efficiency. Strict attention

my attention and efforts toward finding a desirable sub-
stitute for iron piping and at a lower cost. An investiga-
tion of concrete pipe for irrigation under pressure brought
out sufficient merit to warrant laying a demonstration

line. This was done in a grove on Lake Harris in Lak

and possible irregular settling of the line. The cement c(

closed, the centrifugal pump started, and when going a


ith a
ch an

ig up
o un-

wers about concrete



a I 1H:I-'A HI, lIVI VN I Ikir flIxjulj U-j LJLbf




SARE and judgment must be exercised in pick-
ing citrus fruits. The fruits are very easily
injured by rough or careless handling during
the picking operation. The fruit must not be pulled from
the trees, as this causes the peel, or rind, to break so
that mold and decay start very quickly. When the rind is
broken, a large amount of the fruit will decay in transit.
Citrus fruit should be cut off with clippers. It is im-
portant to clip the fruit with very short stems. If a long
stem is left on the fruit, there is danger of other fruits
being injured by the long stem. One must also be careful
not to injure the fruit with the clippers. Clipper cuts on
fruit will cause the fruit to rot just as quickly as any other
Picking is usually paid for at so much per box. The
price varies somewhat from year to year, and is also partly
governed by the yield of fruit in the particular grove.

L(J1{IIA bi


Fie. 1|.-Picking the Crop.



Fig. Th.-tn~1

Si I ^
^. ^.. **


I- 1a

v .,w ._


*~' I

FTER the fruit has gone through the washer, dryer,
and polisher, it passes over the grading belt. Here
trained graders separate the fruit according to
texture and color. The usual grades are Brights, Goldens,
and Russets. All culls and bad fruit are thrown out.
The graded fruit then goes to the sizer, where it is me-
chanically separated into the various sizes. From the sizer
bins the fruit is wrapped and packed into crates by experi-
enced packers. Each grade and size is packed separately.
The eating quality of the Bright, Golden, and Russet
grades may be practically the same; however, in appear-
ance the Bright and Golden fruit is more attractive to the
eye and consequently brings a better market price. The
smallest and largest fruits usually sell at a lower price than
medium and large fruit. Bright fruit that is of good tex-
ture and quality, which is medium to large in size, and
attractively packed, is the fruit that commands the best
market price.

Fig. 18.-Grading Fruit.

I a~lY

akCai m


uu -1I nouxe i-..wor



SHERE is more to the packing of citrus fruit tha
merely putting the fruit into a box or crate.
Certain number of oranges or grapefruit ai
packed in each container. The number of fruit in eac
depends entirely upon the size of the fruit, as the boxes i
which the fruit is packed are all of uniform size. The ii
side measurements of the containers are 12 by 12 by 2
The number of oranges in a box or crate varies from
to 324. When the oranges are three and a half inches i
diameter, they are packed in four layers with 96 orange
to the crate. Oranges two inches in diameter will pack si
layers of fruit, or 324 oranges to the crate. The average
size oranges pack from 126 to 216 to the crate.
As grapefruit are much larger than oranges, it is nece;
sary to pack a smaller number in a crate. The number (
grapefruit per crate varies from 28 to 96, the most con
mon sizes packing 46, 54, 64, 72, and 80 to the crate.
Mandarin, tangerine, King and Satsuma oranges ai
packed in half boxes, or "straps." It takes two half box(
to equal one ordinary. The number of fruit in a box vari(
from 48 to 216, the common sizes packing 60, 76, 90, 12'
144, 168, and 216 per box.
There is an art in the commercial packing of citrus
fruit. A certain number of fruit of uniform size must t
packed in each container. In addition, packing must I
done so that the fruits will keep their original position i
the box. If the fruit is loose in the box, it will become moi
or less bruised in transit, which will mean a heavy loss i
market value.


No. and size 96; No. and size 112; No. and size 126;
Dia. 3Y in,; Layers 4 Dia. 34 in.; Layers 4 Dia. 3% in.; Layers 5

No. and size 150; No. and size 176: No and size 200:
Dia. 3 1 in.; Layers 5 Dia. 2f in.; Layers 5 Dia. 2f in.; Layers 5

No. and size 216; No. and size 226: No. and size 252:
Dia. 2A in.; Layers 6 Dia. 2A in.; Layers 5 Dia. 2_i in.: Layers 6


No. and size 28; No. nnd size 36; No. and size 46:
ia. 5y in.; Layers 3 Dia. 5 in.: Layers 3 Dia. 4% in.; Layers 3

m^ -ww




~lrr~ w.

Fig. 22.Fron Siz'er, Fruit is Wrapped 1:

Fig. 23.--PaFked for Shipmnlent.

By L. M. RHODES, Stnte lMnrketing Coiunlissioner.
UMEROUS marketing agencies are available to
growers of citrus fruit. There are a large
number of independent shippers scattered
throughout the State, and packing houses are available at
practicallyy all shipping points in the citrus belt. The Flor-
da Citrus Exchange, with headquarters in Tampa, Florida,
s a growers' cooperative marketing organization that has
)een functioning since 1909. This organization at pres-
nt has a membership of five or six thousand growers with
.25 local associations and twenty or more sub-exchanges.
The exchange maintains branch packing houses in nearly
dll citrus centers and handles approximately one-third of
;he citrus crop.
The Florida Citrus Exchange takes complete charge of
:he fruit of all of its members on the tree, and gathers,
packs, and markets the fruit at a stipulated rate per box.
The independent shippers will either buy the fruit from
;he grower while it is on the tree or f. o. b. the shipping
point. Should the grower prefer, however, he may sell his
fruit on a commission basis through one of the independent
shippers, or, if he chooses, he can market his own fruit
ind ship it himself.
In the early part of 1928 a movement was initiated by
nany leading citrus growers to organize the Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Association, with headquarters
it Winter Haven, Fla. At the time this bulletin is being
written, the Clearing House has signed up approximately
35 percent of the total citrus crop, and all preliminary re-
quirements for organizing the Clearing House have been
fulfilled. The Clearing House provides that growers join-
ng shall sell their fruit only through sales agents of the
Clearing House. The sales agents of the Clearing House
ire those shippers who have signed up for membership in
,he association, agreeing that not more than 49 per cent
)f their business will be with non-member growers of the
Clearing House Association.
The purpose of the Clearing House Association, as set
forth in its charter, is to "better promote the general in-
;erest of Florida citrus growers: (1) By, improving the
quality, grade and pack; (2) By promoting a wider dis-
;ribution of the volume of Florida citrus fruit through ad-
vertising, through more equitable freight rates, and through

__T__~I m_~__


systematic flow of Florida citrus fruit from producers
consumers as efficiently and directly as possible."
Any grower of citrus fruit can become a member of tl
Clearing House. Under the plan of organization, membe
growers may still market through their favorite shipped
provided the shipper has joined the Clearing House. T1
Florida Grower for August, 1928, published the latest ava&
able information on the status of the independent shipper
"The dream of Florida fruit growers for many years-
marketing organization large enough to control and pr
mote the distribution and to get them a profitable price fi
their crops-apparently has become a reality with the e
tablishment of the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing Hou!
Association. Practically every large independent citri
sales agency in the State, as well as a substantial majoril
of the smaller independent shippers, have become affiliate(
by contact with the Clearing House Association. With tl
added tonnage of these independent shippers, it is now est
mated that the Clearing House will control at least 85 pe
cent of Florida's 1928-1929 fruit crops."

Florida Monthly Farm Price of Grapefruit
(Dollars Per Crate)

Season 0 C Z

1918-1919 $1.501 $1.801 $2.30 $2.421 $2.261 $2.17 $2.581 $3.,
1919-1920 2.16 2.111 2.00 1.88 1.93 1.98 1.601 2.1
1920-1921 2.88 2.061 2.761 2.76 2.30 2.421 2.211 2.'
1921-1922 1.35 1.481 1.601 1.55 1.45 1.581 2.281 3.E
1922-1923 2.001 2.00 2.00 1.95 1.651 1.701 2.10 2.t
1923-1924 1.081 1.18 1.08 .95 .95 .95 .851 1.:
1924-1925 1.20 1.30 .951 1.05 1.25 1.25 1.251 1.(
1925-1926 2.30 2.30 1.80 1.95 1.70 2.451 2.601 2.(
1926-1927** 2.20 2.00 1.551 1.40 1.65 2.00, 2.10 L.
1927-1928** 2.26 2.17 2.30 2.26 2.66 2.94 2.94 2.
Average Monthlyl
Price Over
Period 1$1.89 $1.84 $1.83 $1.81 $1.78 $1.94 $2.06 $2.

U. S. D. A. Statistical Bulletin No. 16, June, 1927. Table 50, p. 112, "The
prices are the estimated prices received by producers on the 15th of the month
currently reported in the supplements to Crops and Markets."
"Prices for 1926, 1927 and 1928 were furnished by Mr. H. A. Marks, Agricultur
Statistician, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Orlando, Florida.


Estimated Percentage
of crop shipped each
Month Month*
O ctober ................................. 8
N ovem ber ............................... 12
D ecem ber ............................... 10
January ................................ 14
February ............................... 14
M arch .................................. 15
A pril ................................... 13
M ay .................................... 8
Other m months ............................ 6
Calculated from monthly shipment as currently reported in Crops and Market.
ver a five-year period, 1923-1928.
Florida Monthly Farm Price of Oranges*
(Dollars Per Crate)

Season ci d F
0 a

918-1919 .............. $2.68 $3.04 $2.70 $2.60 $2.64 $2.92 $3.00
919-1920 ............. 2.41 2.45 2.40 2.26 2.48 3.02 2.72
920-1921 ............ 2.58 2.48 2.82 2.69 2.28 2.77 2.96
921-1922 ............. 1.45 1.58 1.82 2.08 2.42 3.18 4.62
922-1923 ............ 2.28 2.35 2.40 2.45 2.35 2.78 3.50
923-1924 ............ 1.25 1.30 1.20 1.10 1.30 1.05 1.35
924-1925 ............ 1.30 1.50 1.40 1.75 2.25 3.25 4.25
925-1926 ............ 2.50 3.25L 2.50 2.35 2.35 2.75 3.40
926-1927** .......... 2.45 2.20 1.65 1.55 2.00 2.20 2.90
927-1928** .......... 2.75 2.46 2.65 2.78 3.22 4.02 3.94
average Monthly
Price Over Ten-
Year Period .......... $2.161 $2.26! $2.151 $2.161 $2.33! $2.791 $3.26
U. S. D. A. Statistical Bulletin No. 16, June, 1927, Table 50, p. 111, "These prices
re the estimat-d prices received by producers on the 15th of the month as currently
reported in the supplements to Crops and Markets."
'* Prices for 1926, 1927, and 1928 were furnished by Mr. H. A. Maiks, Agricultural
tatistician, U. S. D. A., Orlando, Florida.
Estimated Percentages
of crop shipped each
Month Month*
O ctober ................................. 2
N ovem ber ............................... 17
D ecem ber ............................... 21
January ................................. 17
February ............................... 15
M arch .................................. 14
A pril ................................... 7
Other m months ............................ 7
Calculated from monthly shipments as currently reported in crops and markets



5 HE marketing of citrus fruit may begin as eai
as September 10th or 15th, although only a sm
percentage of the crop, perhaps about one percei
is marketed in September. From two to eight percent
shipped in October, while about sixty percent goes to mark
during November, December, January and February.
other words, the bulk of the citrus crop of Florida is shipp.
between November 15 and March 1.
The citrus fruit crop of Florida finds its way to mark
by various routes. The bulk of the fruit is shipped by r
to Northern markets in carload lots, and in many cases
trainloads. The boxes are packed in both ventilated a:
refrigerated cars. Small shipments go by express, and a
usually for nearby markets. Water transportation is al
used to some extent. This method will no doubt increa
very materially with improved refrigeration on boats.

** ^----


'~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I .J^~~~=t ^^^^W^~~aM^Se~^^^m^^^^^^
'*''^ ^ ^**''"!^i- -^ ^^^B~i i^B B
''*f ^^"^^S^^^^BBB BSPMHH

Fig 2B-orc odiKo h r IsE etilo od


Limes and Lemons

~ OST early writers on citrus have placed lira
f and lemons in the same class. This is prc
ably due to the fact that limes and lemons a
used for the same purposes; that is, for the making
beverages and for seasoning.
Limes and lemons were probably introduced into Fl(
ida by the Spaniards. Whether these two fruits came dirE
from Spain or by the way of the West Indies makes b
little difference for they were first grown in Florida a gre
many years ago.
Quite an extensive lemon industry had been develop
in Florida prior to the freeze of 1894 and 1895. Eai
records show that as many as 140,000 boxes of lemons we
shipped in a single season.
The lime and lemon are both much more sensitive to cc
than oranges. Therefore, after the freeze the acreage
lemons decreased and the acreage in oranges increase
Scab, a disease of citrus, is more severe on lemons th:
oranges, which is another reason the lemon acreage in tl
State has decreased.
Nearly all of the limes grown in Florida are produce
on the Florida Keys south of the mainland. They gr(
and produce better on the rocky soils of the Keys than al
of the other citrus fruits. The limes grown on the Keys a
known as Key limes and have been propagated from se(
As a result the fruit from different trees varies widely
size, shape, flavor, and the percentage of juice in the fru
On some trees, the fruit may not be larger than a medium
sized plum, while on an adjoining tree the fruit may be
large as a good-sized lemon.
The Tahiti, a budded variety of the lime, is probal
more hardy than the Key lime and seems to be bett
adapted to the mainland. The fruit of this variety is abo
the size of the ordinary lemon.
The growing of limes and lemons in Florida will u
doubtedly be very limited. Anyone thinking of taking
the growing of either should investigate thoroughly befc
making any definite move in that direction.
The cultivation of the lime and lemon is almost identi(
with that of oranges. The most important fact to keep
mind is that they are more easily injured .by cold th,
oranges or grapefruit and can therefore be grown succe,
fully only in very favorable locations.


5 HE citron is one of the few fruits mentioned by
early writers on Florida agriculture. It is difficult
to say just when it was first introduced into Flor-
[a, but no doubt it was brought here by the early Spanish
The citron has never become of commercial importance
i Florida. This is due to the fact that the chief value
e the citron is for the candied peel, and the demand for
ie candied peel is more or less limited.
Large quantities of citron peel are imported into the
united States from other countries where it is possible to
row citrons much cheaper than can be done in Florida.
because of this cheap supply, it is very doubtful if citron
rowing will ever become of commercial importance in
lorida. The peel is brought in both as candied peel and in
rine. The brine may be steeped out and the peel candied
hen needed.
The,citron is more sensitive to cold than either the lemon
r lime, and can be grown only in those sections of Florida
iat are seldom visited by cold weather. The culture of
itrons is very much the same as for oranges.

~--~IL-rull. VL ~~U~I~VVYLVIIY

dJJ. . I LiJ k. 'J t TVj SN 1.1 12 fl.Ji j tL.l I

Satsuma Oranges in Northern and
Western Florida
t'HE satsuma orange is adapted to a wide range c
soils throughout northern and western Florid,
Climatic conditions in these sections are favoi
able to the growing of this orange, although until recently
only little attention had been given to it, except in sma
plantings. The satsuma has been planted in practical
every county in Florida, but has not been a successful con
mercial crop in the main citrus belt of this State. While
good satsumas have been produced in southern Florid,
this variety does not grow as successfully in that section
as do other citrus varieties. Therefore, it has but little con
mercial importance in central and southern Florida, bu
in northern and western Florida it is the leading citru
variety. The satsuma of this area is of excellent quality
and colors better and earlier than that of southern Florid,
The satsuma usually is ripe and has sufficient sugar cor
tent for shipping during October and November, before
large part of the round oranges of central and souther
Florida are ripe. At this time there is a ready sale in man
markets for the satsuma. However, in order to gain corr
mercial importance, this fruit must be produced in suff
cient quantities to justify carlot shipments, although their
is always a limited local demand for it and at a fa'r pric(
When ripe the satsuma has a fine flavor and good tei
ture, and is of a very fine quality. When well colored it i
especially attractive. A demand has been created for it i
Southern cities, also in Chicago and surrounding market,
which up to the present have been only partially supplies
It, therefore, seems advisable to increase the plantings c
satsumas in northern and western Florida, in order to sul
ply distant markets and local demands.

In setting a satsuma grove, considerable care should b
taken to secure a favorable site. Suitable soils and frost
protection are very important considerations, and in th
large territory to which this fruit is adapted it is an eas
matter to pick out a location that has these advantages.
Reprint from Bulletin 41, University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Wor
in Agriculture and Home Economics.


50ILS.-Z-atsumas ao well on a variety oi sons. ine sons
st desirable in the territory referred to are: The rolling
Le lands with a clay subsoil 20 to 30 inches from the sur-
:e, and well-drained high hammock lands. The better
ides of flatwoods land can be made suitable, if proper
linage is provided. However, the average flatwoods pal-
tto land is not likely to produce a good satsuma grove.
intings made on low wet soils have not been successful;
y may start off nicely and look promising for the first
v months but will later turn yellow and quit growing.
,r are sandy oak ridges likely to produce good groves, as
-h lands are too loose and the trees will suffer for lack
moisture during dry weather. Low hammocks usually
itain good citrus soil. However, such land is not recom-
nded for satsumas, due to the probability of too fre-
mt injury by cold. Particularly should one avoid the
orer types of loose sandy soils, as satsuma trees will
)w slowly unless the soil is fairly compact and retains
iisture during drought periods.
FROST PROTECTION.-There are many locations through-
t the territory referred to where frost protection is nat-
ally available. A difference of 5 or 10 degrees in tem-
rature is frequently recorded in a small locality, due to
vation, nearness to a body of water, or the character of
e soil. Satsuma trees planted on high rolling land are less
ble to be injured by cold than trees planted on level or
t lands, because of the better air drainage and air cir-
lation of the higher land. This is due also to a somewhat
er growth during the early spring months, which pre-
nts the appearance of bloom and new growth until after
nger of frost is passed. It is desirable to hold back the
ring flush of growth as late as possible in order to escape
ring frosts.
We are able to secure a certain amount of frost protection
cleaning up the ground, by plowing in November and
mn leaving it bare through the winter, giving no further
ltivation unless weed growth becomes heavy.
In dry weather, citrus trees are more subject to cold in-
ry than when there is plenty of moisture in the soil, as
eezing is first a drying process. Therefore, a soil well
ed with water in winter is in itself a real help.
Windbreaks or bodies of timber adjoining a satsuma
ove on the north and west should be opened up to allow
* drainage, because the cold air is likely to pass over this
aber and to settle in any depression or pocket formed in
e timber. Northern slopes usually hold back spring
owth a little longer than southern slopes.


Water protection is afforded to groves in this secti(
by lakes, large ponds and streams (although small bodi
of water do not offer a great amount of protection) ai
by proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and its bays. Citri
groves planted on low lands, having little or no water pr
tection, are quite liable to be frozen back or have their fru
buds injured by cold too frequently to prove profitable i
BANKING TREES.-It is advisable to mound or bank i
the earth around the base of young trees for the wint,
season. These banks should be well up above the poin
where the buds were inserted. This should be done :
November or December. Only dry, clean soil, free of tras
should be used in order to avoid injury to the tree trun]
by wood lice.
Avoid making the banks out of heavy clay, as growe:
in Escambia County have observed that this type of bar
is packed as a result of the movement of the tree by win
Because of this movement a space into which cold air se
ties is left between the tree trunk and the bank. Sandy sc
will settle around the tree trunk and leave no air space fi
the cold air. It is a good idea to go over the grove with
hoe or a rake and freshen up the earth in the banks befoi
a freeze. Allow the banks to remain until March whe
usually, danger of frost is passed. This banking will pr
vent the freezing of the trunk of the tree and save the bt

BUDS.-The Owari is the only kind of satsuma recom-
lended. This is a hardy strain and a satisfactory bearer.
'he trees are thornless and grow upright. The fruit is of
excellent quality.
STOCK.-Citrus trifoliata is the only stock, so far known,
pon which satsumas should be budded. It is the hardiest
Lock of the citrus group. The fruit does not dry out on
trees budded on this stock as readily as it does on trees
udded on other stock. It colors fairly well as soon as ripe,
nd remains in good condition for a reasonable period after
icking. This stock requires a constant supply of moisture
1 the soil and, therefore, is not well adapted to high dry
andy lands, which must not be overlooked in the selection
f soils for satsumas. Trifoliata stock does not recover
s readily when severely injured by cold as do the sour
range and lemon stocks used in the citrus belt. Trifoliata
;ock grows faster than the bud, the result being an enlarged
runk at the bud union and below.
BUYING TREES.-In purchasing young trees it should be
remembered that Florida still maintains a quarantine
against the importation of citrus trees from outside the
tate. This quarantine is primarily for protection against
itrus canker. There are in the state a number of nurseries
whichh handle satsuma trees, and while unable to care for
ie heavy demands of the past few years, these nurseries
re preparing to take care of future demands. To buy from
nly reputable concerns is as pertinent to the citrus grower
s to any other business man. In most cases we must rely
)lely upon the honesty of the nurseryman in securing true-

In view of this one can readily see that it will cost more
to care for 1,000 trees planted over 14 acres of ground
than to care for them in 1-10 acre of nursery. Then on the
small area they are more likely to get proper attention and
the poor trees can be eliminated, leaving only good sound
trees for setting in grove formation.
In actual results as seen in the field, trees with year-old
buds make a grove cheaper, more uniform and of equal or
better size at a given age than do dormant buds.

PLANTING.-Satsuma trees may be planted at two sea-
sons of the year. The most advisable time is when the trees
are dormant, between December 15 and March 1. They
also may be planted during the rainy season in July, but
the winter season is decidedly better. The trees should be
set not closer than 22 feet; and a preferred distance is 25
feet each way, which gives 69 trees to the acre. While sev-
eral systems of arranging the trees may be used, the most
common method is to plant in squares.
SOIL PREPARATION.-Soil should be prepared properly be-
fore fruit trees of any kind are planted. Wherever possible
the land should be cleared, stumped, thoroughly plowed and
grown to some crop like velvet beans or cowpeas the year
before the trees are to be set out. Raw land contains little
or not bacterial life, which is necessary to plant growth, and
almost any crop that will grow on it will improve the soil
for the succeeding citrus crop.
Where it is not possible to follow the above plan and
trees must be planted on newly cleared land, the soil should
be plowed thoroughly; or, better, plowed thoroughly, cross
plowed and then harrowed both ways. This will put it in
good condition for the young trees.
Before planting begins the ground should be measured
off carefully and a stake set where each tree is to be planted.
This will insure, first, proper distance between the trees
and, second, straight rows, both of which give the grove a
better appearance and make it more convenient to cultivate.
The trees should be set at the same depth or a little shal-
lower than they grew in the nursery. Planting too deep will
result in slow growth. This point in particular should be
emphasized, as there is a tendency in setting trees in loose
soil to set them too deeply. The holes should not be dug
until the trees are ready to be planted. If they are opened
much in advance of planting, the soil will dry out. In dig-

i UDilAnjliVlJiN1J Ur tl HUULJi Uf-ld

ng the holes keep the top soil separate from the subsoil;
en, when filling in around the roots, use the top soil. The
gging of big holes is to be avoided, as the soil about plants
such a hole is likely to settle and carry the tree down-
ard with it. This may place the tree too low. A planting
lard will be found convenient in setting the trees in their
'oper places.
SETTING TREES.-If the trees must be kept out of the
ound several days, they should be heeled-in. To do this,
Pack the plants, place their roots in a furrow and cover
.th moist soil. They may remain in this condition several
weeks if necessary. However, the sooner they are planted
e better. Never leave the roots exposed to the sun and
.nd. As soon as the trees are unpacked, cover their roots
th moist sacks. All bruised or broken roots should be cut
before the trees are set. Where large plantings are
ide a good method is to haul the trees to the field in a
rrel with the roots in water; this will keep trees in fine
In setting the tree it is important to keep the bud well
ove the ground. Set the tree straight (see Fig. 4) and
)rk the soil around and among the roots. When the hole
filled carefully pack the soil over the roots and pour a
il of water around the base of the tree. After the water
iks into the ground, dry earth should be raked over the
!t surface to act as a mulch and prevent evaporation. If
soil is poor, one pound of a complete fertilizer may be
xed in with the earth at planting. This, however, is not
zessary if the soil is naturally fertile.

C"ULTURE.-The object of the grower for the first few

aier produce Iruit.


fertility which should go to the trees. This is particul;
true of the first two years. Plowing in the young gi
should be done early in the fall, care being taken nol
cut the tree roots. The grove can then be harrowed
left until spring.
Under certain conditions it may be desirable in the
to plow only a strip of land near the trees, leaving the n
dles (to prevent soil from blowing) until spring. Tr
crops can be grown in the middles for the first few ye
and will not injure the trees unless planted too close to
tree row or unless they take too much moisture or ferti
from the trees. Avoid such crops as sweet potatoes, wa-
melons and peanuts as in intercrop. Some cover crop shc
be grown during the summer months. Bunch velvet be,
cowpeas and beggarweed, etc., are good and crotalarik
new cover crop, looks very promising.
CULTURE OF BEARING TREES.-After trees get to be f
or five years of age all the ground should be allotted
their use, truck and other intercrops should be discontini
Such trees should have clean, shallow cultivation ui
the rainy seasons gets well started along in June or July ,
the grove should then be laid by, allowing the cover c:
to grow until fall. This cover crop may be mowed in S
tember and the grove plowed and harrowed as soon as
fruit is picked. Cultivation of a bearing grove if contini
too late in the summer may delay the maturing of the fi
two or three weeks.
WATERING.-The roots of young trees should be kept
moist soil. Early planting is advisable in order that
roots may be established before the dry season. If 1
soil becomes very dry before the roots are established w
some of the trees are likely to die, particularly during
first and second years. It is a good practice to water
trees as often as is necessary in order to keep the soil fai
moist. This will not be necessary some seasons, while d
ing others a number of trees are liable to die unless tl
are watered regularly. It is not likely that after the fi
year watering will be necessary, only in exceptional cas
as the moisture can be retained by frequent and shall
PRUNING.-Heavy pruning and severe cutting-back
a young tree is not desirable. Allow the tree to form 1
heads, as it is advantageous to have the growth near I
ground. Low heads also afford some protection agaii


ranches those left on it at the nursery, as other branches
lay come out and make a more vigorous growth.
Do not, by pruning, try to confine the growths of the tree
o its original nursery form but rather give the young tree
chance to show how it is inclined to grow and then train
accordingly. Dead growth and undesirable branches
should be cut out. Observation has indicated that trees so
handled produce more fruit than those which have had
heir lower branches pruned enough to make them head
ather high. Long weak limbs may be headed back in order
) keep the trees compact and symmetrical. Do not leave
Lubs in pruning, but cut close to the trunk or branch so
iat the cut surface will heal over readily. Each tree
should be developed with three or four main branches as
In case of cold injury prune the trees back to good sound
rood. Do this within a few weeks after the freeze, or as
)on as the extent of the damage or injury can be deter-
During the second year after the trees are transplanted
Sis advisable to go through the orchard and set new trees
)r any dead unpromising ones. A tree once stunted or
weakenedd seldom recovers; such a tree should be replaced
y another, unless it promises to recover quickly.

STABLE MANURE.-Stable manure can be used more lib-
-ally with satsumas than with many other varieties of
ranges. It is particularly valuable for satsuma plantings
n new land. If applied too early in the spring, it will tend
)open the soil and make it too dry. It should be avoided
Lte in the fall also, as an application at this time may in-
uce a growth to come on too early in the spring, subject-
ig the trees to frost injury. Stable manure may be used
i larger quantities on heavy soil than on light, sandy soil.
COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS.-No hard and fast rule can
e laid down for fertilizing citrus trees. Different soils and
previous treatment of these soils, kind of cover crops
rown, condition of the trees, etc., are all factors to be con-
dered in selecting a fertilizer. A young orchard should
ave two or three applications of a complete fertilizer each
?ar, depending upon the needs of the soil; a total of about
vo or three pounds to the tree for the first year is usually
efficient. This fertilizer should analyze about 4 percent


ammonia, 6 to 8 percent phosphoric acid and 3 to 5 pe
cent potash. The first application should be made in Febr
ary or March and the second in June or July. Sometim
it is advisable to make a third application about Augu,
In such cases it would be best to put on the second app]
cation in May or early June. In the last application tl
percentage of ammonia should be either reduced or omi
ted entirely, as it will tend to induce early growth an
therefore, subject the trees to greater danger of cold i:
On bearing groves the ammonia content of the fertilize
may be reduced and the potash raised to 6 or 8 percent.
The foregoing recommendations are for average co:
editions, but exceptional cases may arise where the trei
can use more fertilizer. On the lighter soils of south Flo
ida, young citrus trees are fertilized with a light applic
tion about every two months of the growing season.


APPLICATION OF LIME on citrus groves should not be
lade without some consideration for the need of lime in
ie soil. Lime has been found beneficial in some instances
id extremely detrimental in others. A large quantity of
me applied in a single application is likely to be detri-
iental and may injure the grove for several years. Sat-
ima trees do best on a slightly acid soil.


The ideal of the satsuma grower should be to produce
ily high quality fruit. To do this requires constant
ought and effort. Diseases and insects of both trees and
*uit must be kept under control. Good cultivation and
*rtilization are also essential. Too much ammonia in the
!rtilizer usually will cause coarse, rough fruit, and may
ruse ammoniated fruit. Cultivation too late in the season
mnds to delay maturity of fruits and retards coloring. The
rst fruit produced by young trees is apt to be rather coarse
id of relatively poor quality.
The best citrus growers in Florida follow a rather sys-
!matic plan of culture and fertilization; they do not con-
;antly keep changing fertilizers and other cultural prac-
ces. A citrus tree is a long-lived tree and a grower should
e careful to do nothing which might react unfavorably on
is trees the following year.


Handle the fruit from the tree to the car with grea
care, being careful not to bruise it. Once decayed frui
may cause many others to decay. In clipping oranges fror
the trees clip the stems very close. A long stem may in
jure the fruit with which it comes in contact.
Picking bags and good field boxes for handling the frui
in the grove will enable the grower to get the fruit to th
packing house in first-class condition.
Grade the fruit carefully; consider every doubtful orang
as a cull. Make two classes of fruit-brights and russets-
and two grades of each class. Clean the fruit before pack
ing; use good paper; put up a good, solid, uniform, full
packed box. Stencil each box true to name, quality and size
It is a common practice through the citrus belt to spra,
with oil emulsion a few weeks before shipping from grove
heavily infested with whitefly; this loosens the sooty molh
and makes the fruit much easier to clean.
Satsumas are shipped in half boxes, or straps, the sami
as tangerines. It was formerly the practice to fasten twi
straps together for shipping, but this practice has beei
Crate material and tissue wraps should be ordered wel
in advance of the time actually needed. It is necessary to d(
this in order that hasty, short-order printing and the con
fusion often arising therefrom may be avoided. In addition
to this, early ordering insures having these things read
when packing time arrives.


World Production of Citrus Fruits

SHE following tables taken from the May, 1930,
issue of the "Florida Grower" give some interest-
ing information that should be of value to all
trus growers at the present time and to the prospective
rowers as well.
From this it will be seen that the United States, Spain
nd Italy are the three main citrus producing countries. At
ie present time the United States seems to produce about
5 percent of the citrus crop of the world. Whether or not
ie United States will continue to be the largest producer
'ill depend upon the increased planting in other countries
s compared with the increase here in the United States.
Coming closer home the production of oranges and tan-
erines in the United States shows that on an average for
ie ten-year period, 1919 to 1928, Florida growers produced
0.7 percent grown in the United States.
In the production of grapefruit in the United States, Flor-
la takes a long lead, producing 90 percent.
The farm price of Florida oranges and grapefruit for the
eriod, 1919-20 to 1928-29, has averaged for oranges $2.52
er box and for grapefruit the average was $1.90 per box.
On first thought no doubt the question will arise, "Why
row grapefruit when oranges command a higher price on
he market?" Perhaps the best answer would be that the
market price is only one of several factors that must be
aken into consideration. The type of soil, the age of the
rees, and the production per tree will all have an influence
n the returns that may be expected.
Average Annual Production of Citrus Fruits in 14 Leading Citrus-
'roducing Countries of the World for Which Data Are Available.-
'aken from Florida Grower, May, 1930.
(In thousands of boxes)
No. Period Grape-
Country of Years Ending Oranges fruit Lemons Total
united States ........ 5 1929 38,463 9,483 6,930 54,876
pain ............... 4 1928 28,715 ..... 1,322 30,037
;aly ................ 14 1928 7,432 ..... 11,368 18,800
apan ............... 6 1927 8,330t ..... ..... 8,330
.ustralia ............ 9 1928 1,826 ..... 313 2,139
alestine* ........... 9 1929 1,354 ..... ..... 1,354
Igeria ............. 7 1928 943 ..... 218 1,161
'orto Rico* ......... 8 1929 585 ..... 585
Tnion of So. Africa*.. 9 1929 553 20 ..... 573
irazil* .............. 4 1926 394 ..... ..... 394
sle of Pines* ........ 7 1929 182 ..... 182
'unis ............... 7 1922 38 ..... 35 73
'rance .............. 15 1928 19 ..... 33 52


Production of Oranges and Tangerines in the United States for
Ten-Year Period, 1919 to 1928.*--Taken from Florida Grower, 1V
(In thousands of boxes)
Other % f
Year California Florida States Total Floi
1919 ................ 15,265 7,000 198 22,463
1920 ................ 21,296 8,100 292 29,688
1921 ................ 12,640 7,300 325 20,265
1922 ................ 20,106 10,200 540 30,846
1923 ................ 24,137 12,900 672 37,709
1924 ................ 18,100 11,600 148 29,848
1925 ................ 24,200 9,100 423 33,723
1926 ................ 28,167 10,700 437 39,304
1927 ................ 23,000 8,200 504 31,704
1928 ................ 31,000 13,000 420 44,420
Average ........... 21,791 9,810 396 31,997

For the season beginning in the fall of the year shown.

Production of Grapefruit in the United States for the Ten-Year Pe:
1919 to 1928*-Taken from Florida Grower, May, 1930.
(In thousands of boxes)
Cali- Other % fi
Year Florida fornia Texas States Total Floi
1919 .............. 5,500 263 3 29 5,795
1920 .............. 5,100 304 ... 35 5,439
1921 .............. 6,000 360 ... 36 6,396
1922 .............. 7,600 394 35 45 8,074
1923 .............. 8,400 363 65 66 8,894
1924 .............. 8,600 387 211 67 9,265
1925 .............. 7,300 600 200 91 8,191
1926 .............. 7,800 650 340 76 8,866
1927 .............. 7,200 720 490 176 8,586
1928 .............. 9,000 800 750 186 10,736
Average ........ 7,250 484 209 81 8,024

For the season beginning in the fall of the year shown.

Annual Plantings

HE plantings of citrus in Florida from 1921-22 to
1926-27 show that in 1922-23 and 1923-24 there
was a very marked increase in the number of trees
nted. During the remainder of the period, the plantings
re nearly the same each year.
n Texas things were different in that there was an in-
ase in plantings each year, the plantings in 1926-27 being
en and a half times those in 1921-22.
n California the plantings were nearly the same each
'hese figures are of great importance in that they show
re are a lot of citrus trees that will come into bearing
ing the next three or four years.
Vill our demand for citrus fruits keep pace with the
spect of our increased production? Prospective citrus
wers should study these figures and determine for them-
res the facts in the case.

Farm Prices of Florida Oranges and Grapefruit for the Seasons
1-1920 to 1928-1929.-Taken from Florida Grower, May, 1930.
(Price per box)
Season Oranges Grapefruit
1919-20 .................... $2.64 $1.99
1920-21 .................... 2.70 2.47
1921-22 .................... 2.88 1.87
1922-23 .................... 2.74 2.00
1923-24 .................... 1.31 1.02
1924-25 .................... 2.58 1.23
1925-26 .................... 2.80 2.21
1926-27 ................... 2.19 1.83
1927-28 ................... 3.35 2.55
1928-29 ................... 2.01 1.80
Average ................. 2.52 1.90

Annual Plantings of Citrus Trees from the Nursery to the Grove in
'ida, Texas and California.-Taken from Florida Grower, May,
(In thousands of trees)
Season Florida Texas California
1921-22 .............. 1,591 200 404
1922-23 .............. 2,884 244 478
1923-24 .............. 2,663 440 378
1924-25 .............. 1,665 1,000 365
1925-26 .............. 1,519 1,200 572

Tlm-nl~-Llm r\-~ I ~TIT~~TT m~~T~T~


5 HE progress made during the past ten years in th
canning of grapefruit and grapefruit juice to sa:
T the least has been a wonderful development. I
fact, most of this progress has been made during the pas
five years.
Prior to the canning of grapefruit, there was always
certain percentage of the crop that had little real market
value. This does not mean that poor quality fruit is use(
for canning, for such is not the case. It does mean tha
fruits of large size, fruits that are misshapen, and tha
may be disfigured in some way have a low market value
yet at the same time they are of good quality and whei
placed in a can have a market value.
Everyone familiar with growing citrus fruit knows thern
is always a certain amount of so-called cull fruit. There ii
nothing unusual about this. The apple grower or the peacl
grower each has a certain amount of cull fruit that mus
be disposed of in someway. Prior to the canning of grape
fruit, a large amount of this cull fruit was hauled to .
waste nile. This is not onlv a loss of the fruit itself but alsi

_______ _________I ___ __ ____ _


The canners of grapefruit and grapefruit juice will have
much larger territory in which to market their product
han is possible for the shipper of fresh fruit. These can-
ied products can be put into any country and the remote
arts of our own country wherever transportation is avail-
,ble. Refrigeration is not necessary during transportation
ir when stored in the warehouse.

Diseases and Insects

No attempt has been made in this bulletin to discuss in-
ects and diseases of citrus. First-hand information can
>e secured from those who are actively engaged in research
vork on the insects and disease of citrus. Bulletins on
insects and diseases can be obtained from the Florida
agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla., and the
Jnited States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.


Amari -a'c Pirt ('litrlne (_rxTuP

Columbus Dis

first in
bus himself. E
of the import, i

A cru
may ne
years a
The q
when it
Mr. Clh
makes t
date of
Hume i
"The di

ide orc'
'ds, and
ver be ;
after its
Lrk Pov
;he posi
the fir
n the "'
atfP nf t

closed A,
lorer Plar


the unkn
ported cit
I. It is n
ven the d;
iave been

st plantii
rd it mus
whether i
rst settle
f who fir
Ive arrive
ire write
11 in his
7e staterr


First (
ed Firs


vn and
is fruit
ie othe
:e of th


have been,
grew to be
as the site
brought c:
has been
have ofte:
iook "Cult
it: "No re,
ion of citi
If Citrus F
inn nf rif.r

Is Imporl
ove In 14


terious p
an Christ
)ort, and
Mll as the

found lai
idged by
fruit for
vas abanc

-us to our
-e Orange
rd exists
s to Ame
lits," (19
i.g a Tn M

, ot citrus
'as unable
first impor
ting facts
ae course
I out by TI
;a came to
r, in a tot
onists witt
in Spain,

fruits in tl
to add to (
station of ci
about the

of a Surve
ie New Yo
light. Th(
ally new li
,, pondering
i the foods

L- u U., tf 1t
our knowled
citrus to Ami
fruit, and

y on Raw :
rk City Dep
e research ri
ght. He is
, over the di
i to which t
ig the plan'

C, --- -t .L... 11. C45
Ige of the exact da
erica, but cited mar
its early growth

Products, now beir
lartment of Market
eveals Columbus, tl
shown as a growe
fficulties of providir
,hey had been accu
ting of gardens ar

orchards, vineyards and wheat fields.
The book in which this material is recorded was writtc
in Spain over a period of years, from 1527 to 1559, bi
remained unpublished until 1875, when it was finally print(
in Spanish. Certain historians visiting in Spain have hE
access to the manuscript, but it has never been translatE
into English in its entirety. It is Bartholome de las Casa


rsonage w
ias been d
pher Colu
Iter the d,
:xact snot

present d
the colo
loned a fi

shores, a:
)n for ma:
the matt
es," (193
of the exE
*rica." 1I
26) write
ttpr nf or

zine, i
of the
In I
the da
and h(
his co

te of f in nf eif

j-rAItlVlPI1I UPr A".KL'IUU.li' U,

Capitulo 83, page 3.
Las Casas refers to Columbus' second voyage to the New
world and describes the departure as follows:
"Wednesday, the 25th day of September, of the same year,
[93, before the sun had risen, he had the sails loosened,
id seventeen caravels and loads of provisions went out of
ie Bay of Cadiz; he ordered them to steer the boats to the
uthwest, in the direction of the Canary Islands; and on
ie arrival at the shore of the Grand Canary Island, which
the principal one of the seven. But he did not wish to
op there and therefore, at midnight, he again had the sails
.ised, and the following Saturday, on the 5th of October,
e took the direction of the Island of Gomera, where he was
*r two days.
"During this time, with great haste he provided himself
ith some cattle, which he and those who came there with
m, bought, such as yearling calves, and goats, and sheep;
id among other things, certain ones of those who came
lere, bought eight pigs at 70 maravedis apiece.
"From these eight pigs, there have multiplied all the pigs,
which unto this day inhabit the infinite Islands of all these
Idies. They bought hens, and also grains, and seeds of
-anges, lemons, citrons, melons, and all kinds of garden
!getables; and this was the origin of everything that is
.ere today of the things of Castile."
So from the mythical Hesperides of Ferrarius the "Golden
pples" were carried by this Renaissance Perseus in his
white winged caravels to the shores of the New World. The
cident is strikingly similar to the old Greek Myth.
Thus the exact date, and the exact spot in the Old World
*Gomera-in the Hesperides, the Fortunate, or Canary
lands, is given as the place from which our citrus came.
ie varieties are mentioned-oranges, lemons and citrons.
lere are very few fruits indeed about which we can ascer-
in such definite information.
Columbus, on this second voyage, left Spain September
, 1493. He awaited favorable winds at the Island of
)mera, and finally set sail October 13th.
On the 22nd day of November, 1493, he sighted the Island
Hispaniola, now Haiti-San Domingo, and found the fort
had left at La Navidad burned to the ground, and not
.e colonist remaining. He decided to build a second fort,
.d started a new colony, "Isabella," on the north side of


between Haiti and San Domingo, not far from the present
town of Monte Cristo.
Las Casas relates:
"Here he unloaded his ships of provisions, live stock, and
materials, built a fort, storehouse and church, set out or-
chards, planted gardens, and with great diligence erected
the new city."
Thus we are assured that Columbus not only imported
the seeds, but he actually planted and "set the orchards"
with them, we have a list of the seeds, three of them being
citrus, we may assume that this was America's first citrus
orchard, and Columbus the first citriculturist on this side
of the Atlantic.
Columbus himself referred to this orchard by inference,
as well as his other plantings, in which he took keen interest,
in a letter which he wrote to their Majesties from the Islands
in February, 1494:
". .. the preservation of health depends upon this people
being provided with the food to which they are accustomed
in Spain . and the provisioning should continue until a
supply can be secured from that which is here sown and
planted. I mean from wheat, barley and grapes . they
have sown seeds and we are very sure that in this country
wheat as well as vines will grow very well. But it is neces-
sary to wait for the fruit, and if it be such as the rapid
growing of the fruit, and some few vines, which have been
planted, suggests, it is certain that there will be no need of
Andalucia or of Sicily. And the same applies to sugar canes,
judging from the way in which some few that have been
planted here taken root."
The Majesties upon receiving this letter ordered that the
land should be sown as soon as possible with many things,
and all that was needed be sent at once for this purpose.
The sowings prospered and it was recorded that wheat
sown in January was cut in March, fruit stones sprouted
in seven days and sugar canes grew with equal rapidity.
In 1496, others state 1498, the site of Isabella was aban-
doned as unhealthy, and a new fort San Domingo, which still
retains this name, was established. An old print of this
Spanish city, published in 1671, pictures a walled, fortified
town, on the bank of a river. Outside the walls on the
opposite shore of the stream, what appears to be an orchard,
with trees set in rows, is shown. It may be stretching the
imagination to suppose these to be citrus trees, but they dc
indicate some sort of cultivated fruit orchard, and a record
of what they were may someday be found.


Was citrus of some sort growing in America previous to
the discovery? If it was, it is odd that Columbus made no
mention of it in his Journal, which recounts in great detail
the enchanting flora and fruit of the Islanda which he says
is as different from that of Spain as day is from night. He
does, however, recognize and mention palm-trees, forests of
pine, spices, cotton, aloe, mastick rhubarb and cinnamon, and
adds that undoubtedly countless other things will be found.
But he does not refer to oranges, which would surely have
attracted his attention, if he had seen them.
Half a century later, the fruits of Columbus, efforts at
cultivation are noticed, and Old World travelers begin speak-
ing if citrus fruits. In 1555 the "Decades of the West Indies"
refers to the "the kynde of citrous which are commonly called
lemones," which are plentiful in the Islands. A passage in
the "Discovery and Conquest of Terra Florida," published
in 1557, in describing the Island of Cuba, states:
"Of the fruites of Spaine there figges and oranges and they
beare fruite all the year because the soile is very ranke and
In 1587 Thomas Cavendish, the third man to circumnavi-
gate the globe, refers to an orchard of lemon and orange trees
at Puna, on the West Coast of South America, now in
Ecuador, and also states that when at San Blas, on the West
Coast of Mexico, lemons and oranges were brought to his
ships by the natives. Acosta, in the "History of the Indies,"
written in 1598, mentions the growth of oranges and lemons
in America. By 1799, during Humboldt's travels in the
Antilles, the citrus had become an integral part of the Island
vegetation, causes Humboldt to remark:
"It would seem as if the whole Island of Cuba had been
originally a forest of palm, lemon and wild orange trees,"
and he ventures the opinion that the oranges, which bear a
small fruit are probably anterior to the arrival of Euro-
peans. Caldouch states that Brazilians believe their small
bitter orange to be of native origin, and Phillips, 1693,
speaks of the wild orange as apparently indigenous to Mex-
ico, Porto Rico, Barbados, and Bermuda.
A close scrutiny of these references will show, however,
that every place where citrus fruits were observed, the
Spanish explorers had preceded the travellers; and Herrera
in a most enlightening passage compares the imported fruits
to the imported Africans in the following manner:
"The Africans prospered so much in the Island of His-
paniola, that it was the opinion, unless a negro should hap-



eir nutritive qualities as a supplementar:
voyages appears to have been recognize
i-scorbutic properties were unknown.
s groves that began with Columbus' first
West Indies and spread to Florida, today,
the Gulf States to Mexico and turn nort
following the very paths of early Spanish i
re is no fruit which is so closely wove:
speditionary history as the orange.
few seeds imported, and the crude orchard
her Columbus in Hispaniola in 1493 we
Ihat is today a one billion, five hundred r
try, with an annual crop of from $148,0O
,000 and over, depending on varying fi
)her Columbus, the planter and horticul
our gratitude and thanks.



Shipments for 1934-35 Season Slightly Under Preceding
Year's Total.

WINTER HAVEN, June 13 (AP)-H. F. Willson, manager
of the Federal-State marketing service of the Department
of Agriculture, said today that "reliable tabulations" showed
Florida shipped 23,133,828 boxes of citrus fruits from Sep-
tember 26 until June 1.
Last year, he said, the State shipped during the same
period 23,859,130 boxes, but added that no records were
available for the 1935 truck movements after May 15. He
said he believed that if all the records were available the two
years' shipments would be about equal.
Willson said a freeze in December did considerable damage
to the citrus industry. Earlier in the season the size of the
crop had indicated shipments of thirty-five to forty million
boxes, he continued.
Records in Willson's office showed that on leading markets
Florida oranges sold at an average of $2.60 a box, as com-
pared with $2.63 last year, while grapefruit prices dropped
from $2.37 to $2.02 and tangerines from $1.22 for four-fifths
bushel boxes to $1.18.
They showed that 38 States, the District of Columbia, and
Canada received one or more cars of Florida oranges, one
less State than during the 1933-34 season. Last year citrus
cars went to 488 cities and towns, as compared with only
381 during 1934-35--Florida Times-Union, June 14, 1935.

4 UijLAlhiVsIALN I Ul. Ivr fltjIlfjJLjI UIxVfi

Florida Citrus Shipments, Valuations, and Other Data for 9 Years
Records Total Portion Portion Total
and Carloads of such with No. So-called
estimates Reported Carloads Rail Haul Commercial
Season Shipped Shipped Shipped Shipments
11 Citrus Carloads By Rail By Boat Boxes
925-26 ......... 40,812 40,754 58 14,694,120
926-27 ........... 46,082 45,962 120 16,588,800
927-28 ........... 37,876 37,680 196 13,635,360
928-29 ........... 63,673 62,996 677 23,239,645
929-30 ........... 39,485(4) 39,231 254(4) 14,214,600
930-31 ........... 74,645 72,949 1,696 27,229,945
931-32 ........... 49,235 44,996 4,239 18,914,165
932-33 ........... 55,501 44,456 11,045 20,176,750
933-34 ........... 53,311 32,288 21,023 20,884,890
Averages ....... 51,180 46,812 4,368 13,842,031

Cost of Estimated
Cost of Prod- Picking, Estimated Net on Estimated
Records uction(2) Hauling, Gross F.O.B. Tree(l) F.O.B.
and on Trees, Preparing, Returns Returns to Returns
Estimates Before Packing, Florida Florida "Commercial
Season Picked Selling. Points Growers Shipments."
.11 Citrus Per Box Per Box Per Box Per Box Gross Value
925-26 $0.79 $1.30 $3.31 $1.22 $48,658,032
926-27 .64 1.30 2.59 .65 42,887,340
927-28 .63 1.28 3.77 1.84 51,424,100
928-29 .64 1.25 2.11 .22 49,035,794
929-30 .71 1.29 3.19 1.19 45,399,313
930-31 .43 1.10 1.86 .33 50,569,525
931-32 .53 .92 1.95 .50 36,948,352
932-33 .45 .90 1.36 .011/2 27,465,441
933-34 .44 .87 1.65 .331/2 34,451,906
Averages .53** 1.10** 2.23* .60* 42,982,200

Estimated Data for
Records on Tree Estimated Estimated Estimated Estimated
and Return (1) Trucked (3) Canned(3) Consumed(l) Florida
Estimates Commercial Out of in in Production
Season Shipments Florida Florida Florida Utilized
Lll Citrus Net Value Boxes Boxes Boxes Total Boxes
925-26 $17,926,826 300,000 Negligible 1,500,000 16,494,120
926-27 10,721,124 500,000 Unimportant 1,500,000 18,588,800
927-28 25,151,097 800,000 600,000 1,000,000 16,035,360
928-29 5,038,712 1,500,000 1,527,320 2,250,000 28,516,965
929-30 16,942,604 (4) 100,000 1,710,000 1,200,000 17,224,600
930-31 8,920,949 2,640,000 2,954,056 2,180,970 35,004,971
.931-32 9,442,872 2,525,520 966,533 2,040,000 24,443,523
.932-33 309,774 3,010,180 2,800,000 2,422,700 28,409,630
.933-34 7,022,618 3,249,000 2,667,397 2,475,000 29,276,287
Averages 11,275,175 1,624,966 1,889,329 1,840,963 23,777,140
,TOTES: (1) Net on tree before deducting for interest, depreciation and taxes.
(2) Cost of production on tree includes fertilizer, spray materials, cultivating,
spraying, pruning, etc., but not interest, etc.
(3) Estimated figures for "trucked-out" stock are well based for last 4 years.
Estimated figures for "canned" stock are well based for last 6 years.
Estimated figures for "consumed in Florida" stock are rough estimates
based on supply, price, population, etc.
(4) "Fruit fly" season.
Weighted Average. ** Approximate weighted average.
Florida State Marketing Bureau by F. H. S.,
Jaeksonville, Florida. January 22, 1935.


Bureau of Agricultural Economics,
Division of Crop and Livestock Estimates,
37 East Pine Street, Orlando, Florida.

The revised estimate of Florida citrus as of March 1, 1935,
indicates for the season of 1934-35 a total production of
27,000,000 boxes of which 14,500,000 are oranges and tan-
gerines and 12,500,000 grapefruit. This represents fruit
for all purposes and includes shipped crop, canning and local
consumption. Total production last season was 28,800,000
boxes of which 18,100,000 were oranges and tangerines and
10,700,000 grapefruit.

Commercial production is estimated at 20,500,000 boxes
of which 13,000,000 are oranges and tangerines and 7,500,-
000 grapefruit. This represents the shipped crop and in-
cludes fruit available for shipment out of the State by rail,
boat and truck. Last season the shipped crop was 24,000,-
000 boxes of which 16,500,000 boxes were oranges and tan-
gerines and 7,500,000 grapefruit.

Compared with a month ago the commercial estimate for
Valencias is increased by 700,000 boxes and for tangerines
by 200,000 boxes, the latter representing fruit already
shipped. The total crop estimate for oranges and tangerines
is increased by a corresponding amount. For grapefruit,
the commercial estimate remains unchanged. The total
crop estimate is increased by 1,500,000 boxes which repre-
sents the amount used and to be used in canning in excess
of earlier estimates. Above estimates cover the entire sea-
son of 1934-35 and includes fruit already utilized as well as
the portion remaining on the tree.

Estimate figures by varieties for Florida and other States
1933-34 1934-35 1933-34 1934-35
Oranges & Tangerines 18,100,000 14,500,000 16,500,000 13,000,000
Early & Midseason... 9,600,000 8,800,000 8,700,000 8,000,000
Valencias ........... 6,500,000 3,900,000 6,000,000 3,400,000
Tangerines ......... 2,000,000 1,800,000 1,800,000 1,600,000
Grapefruit, all....... 10,700,000 12,500,000 7,500,000 7,500,000
Seedless ............ 2,800,000 2,500,000 2,300,000 2,000,000
Other .............. 7,900,000 10,000,000 5,200,000 5,500,000
Total ............ 28,800,000 27,000,000 24,000,000 20,500,000

Talencias ........... 16,465,000 22,550,000
Javels ............. 11,974,000 19,565,000
grapefruit .......... 1,713,000 1,838,000
)ranges ............ 390,000 595,000
;rapefruit .......... 1,130,000 2,720,000
)ranges ............ 143,000 170,000
grapefruit .......... 700,000 1,130,000
[AM-MEAR Agricultural Statistician.


Gainesville, Florida

W. W. YOTHERS, Entomologist
RALPH L. MILLER, Associate Entomologist
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture
J. R. WATSON and W. L. THOMPSON, Entomologists
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
For several years there has been a movement in Florida to spray a
regular intervals throughout the year according to the calendar, wit
little or no reference to the abundance or life histories of the pest
present. Since such a plan usually requires more frequent application
than would be necessary if the time to spray were determined b
inspection; the cost is considerable, but at the same time the result
have frequently been very satisfactory, especially if infestation i
not heavy.
With the idea of adapting calendar spraying to some extent to th
seasonal development and life histories of the pests, it is believed tha
a few suggestions will help citrus growers in obtaining bright fruit.
Although temperature and rainfall cause seasonal variations in pes
abundance, many years' records and observations indicate that at cer
tain definite dates sprays can be applied with maximum efficiency.
Sprays applied at this period would be very effective for the contrc
of the common citrus whitefly, purple scale, rust mite, and red spider
In all probability they would have some value in the control of thrip
and aphids if nicotine compounds were added. The cloudy-winge
whitefly is later in emerging.
The citrus whitefly adults emerge in the greatest numbers during
the first part of March and deposit their eggs. By the last of Marc
the eggs have hatched and the crawlers and first stages of larvae ar
present in the greatest abundance. Sulphur spraying during the 1C
day period March 25 to April 4 will effect almost complete mortality
Sulphur sprays applied after the first few days in April have little o
no effect in controlling the common citrus whitefly. Good control o
the cloudy-winged whitefly has been obtained at Lake Alfred as lat
as April 10.
This is the period also when the most abundant spring hatch of th
purple scale usually takes place and the crawlers, therefore, are present
in the greatest abundance. This is also the time of the year when re
spiders are more likely to be present and, as is well known, they ar
easily controlled by sulphur sprays. This period is perhaps the mos
important in the year for the control of rust mites on grapefruit in th
southern part of the State. In experiments conducted years ag(
spraying after the middle of April did not produce satisfactory result

PAP 'T'hff'I'TrP f"l' A (DTr'TTT TT'D-'

This application must be at least 1 gallon of lime-sulphur solution
o 50 gallons of water. It has also been found that the control of
whiteflies and scale insects will be much more complete and thorough
f a good spreader, such as the casein-lime mixture, is used. This will
pread the lime-sulphur in a film over the leaves and will not leave
ireas without sulphur on them. This spraying must be done very
horoughly just as a scale or aphid spray would be made. The leaves
nust be completely wet on both upper and lower surfaces.
During this period the maximum hatching of the purple scale for
he second generation is taking place and therefore the crawlers and
'oung stages are present in greater numbers than immediately before
*nd after this period. This is also the time when" adults of the citrus
whitefly of the second generation have largely disappeared and many
rawlers are present. As rust mites also often reach the period of
maximum abundance at this time, spraying with sulphur sprays will
low produce the maximum effect in killing them.
In case spraying is done late in March, a careful watch should be
:ept for rust mites during late May and June. Great care should be
aken to prevent them from russetting the fruit before July. Much
experimenting indicates that it is reasonably certain that the fruit from
rees receiving a satisfactory spraying late in March is not in much
anger of russetting before the spraying is given late in June.
At this time of the year the common citrus whitefly is in the pupal
tage and therefore spraying with sulphur sprays would have little or
o effect on them. But good control of the cloudy-winged whitefly has
een obtained at this period in the central and southern parts of the
tate. The younger stages of the purple scale are now present in the
greatest abundance, and rust mites may have become abundant,
Though this is not usually the case. At any rate, sulphur sprays
applied at this time will control all rust mites, red spiders, and the
oung of the purple scale.
If the winter is cold, probably no other spraying will be needed, but
'it is mild, another spraying may have to be given late in December
r early in January for rust mites.
Owing to the lack of thoroughness, when the non-stop method of
praying is practiced, more frequent application for rust mite control

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs