Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Florida crops
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00088905/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida crops
Alternate Title: Bulletin - Florida State Department of Agriculture ; 1
Physical Description: 73 p., 3 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: August, 1964
Edition: Rev. ed.
Subject: Crops -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horticulture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetable gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: "August, 1964."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00088905
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMR6929
oclc - 35206174
alephbibnum - 002550729

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Back Cover
        Page 76
Full Text

**., ~I-



____ _ ......... .
low i.4li '' r llr 1 iC;


Revised Edi



I, L

In order to publish such a booklet as this, we had to contact i. number
of agencies for the latest available information and we wish o acknowl-
edge the courteous cooperation we received from the following offices and

Florida Agricultural Extension Service and Agriculture I experiment
QfH f ; + +",,, T T- ----t,,+-, -0* VTl-, ,A- TTQT1 A f*' - ,* 0 ,,; ,

Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association; USDA-ASC Comn
lege of Pharmacy, University of Florida; Florida Citrus C
Florida Citrus Mutual; Florida Canners Association: and the Fl
News Bureau which furnished us with most of the pictures.

ittee; Col-
,r da State

We hope that t
booklet of interest.

readers will find the information


Commissioner of

enclosed in tl

Agrict I iure

TaIle q aco*l

:h Florida

ral Florida

th Florida


Potatoes, Ii
Ra dishes

W5it erruelons

; a

71 ~8~' '"~
* :IL: r '$~*~ I

3.pki%, .. II
-pli, .":~rSC3


What and When to Plant


The harvesting seasons for the various crops vary so great y owing to
varying seasons as to temperature and rainfall that no definite length of
harvesting dates can be given. The same crop will last much 1( nc-er when
planted on different dates. Different varieties of the same cr(cl differ as
to length of gathering days. Bunch beans do not bear as long as pole beans,
and pole butter beans bear longest of all.
It will be noted that the number of days from planting to matu rity varies
much more in some crops than in others. Weather and soil cordii ions are
the cause in the main of these variations.


North Florida comprises Alachua, Baker, Bay, Bradford, Cal
Columbia, Dixie, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Flagler, Gadsden
Gulf, Hamilton, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leo:
Madison, Nassau, Okaloosa, Putnam, Santa Rosa, St. Johns,
Taylor, Union, Walton, Washington, Wakulla Counties. Area
The number after crop indicates the number of days require.
edible maturity, or gathering maturity if non-edible.

o: in, Clay,
i, Liberty,

!d to reach

BEANS (Snap)
BEETS .....- ...- ...--..
CABBAGE .............
CARROTS .----....-
CASSAVA ..----.- _

K A LE .. ....--...... ...
LETTUCE ................
OKRA ... -..--.. ...-

When Planted
_-Mar.-June ... ....
-_Feb.-April ....
_Mar., April, Aug., Sept.
.-Sept., M arch ..... .......
..Sept to Feb .....
--Sept., Mar.
-Mar., April-a root crop. No definite
harvest date
--Jan., Feb., Aug., Oct.
-.Feb., Mar., Sept., Nov.
Feb., Mar., April
-.Feb., Mar.
Jan., Feb.
..Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov.
Mar., April, Oct., Nov.
-_Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct.
..Feb., Mar., Sept ..
Sept., Oct., Jan., Feb., Mar.
.-Mar., April, May, Aug.
Jan., Feb. Mar., Aug., Sept., Oct.,
Nov., Dec.

Days lo HIarvest
60 t) 35
65 t, 75
50 t 30
60 t 70
90 t 120
70 t 30
70 t 75

55 t 30
50 t 55
50 t 55
SOt 3 15
80 t) 95
90 1f, 120
50 t) 55
100 tO 115
50 t) 30
40 t 15
50 t 35

50 t 130








lo.r eoD, .Alar. ;u- to 1 111
tSNIPS Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov. 125 to 1 60
,S (English) .---Jan., Feb. 50 to 55
*PERS Fehb.-Mar. 70 to 80
)ISHES ... Jan., Feb., Mar., O()ct., Nov., D)ec. 20 to 25
'ABAGA Feb., Mar., April, Sept., Oct. 50 to 80
NACII .J...an., Feb., Oct., Nov. 10 to 45
AS II Mar., April, Aug. 45 to 60
,ET POT'lATOES Mar., Alpril, May, June 120 to 140


TA 1, 0' P


[' M

Field Crops

,M ;I )A(;RASS'
I'PET(;I ;\ SS
)VF'llI, ('C IMSON'
( 'E, T.\I ,I.
)I(;(), ) IIAI. Y

When P'lanted
* Apr. i

., Feb.

., Apr.

When I'anhled
t.-IDec. 11:
-Junne A
.-Nov. A

%.-AUm. A

.-Aec. J:
.-Dec. J,
.-Apr. J
.-Alm}. A
%.-July J

.-Nov. A

t.-l)lc. N
v.-l)c, .

S-N o v.

Years to
5 days
1 to 2 years
2 to 4 yealr
2 to 3 years
}; to 4 yeirs
:8 1o 4 years
, to 4 yer.s
A to I0 (lay

en Harvested



Field ('rops


When Planted

Oct. or Feb.

\\ he 1 Harvested
Feb -May
Sep ..-Oct.
Aug .-Oct.
AuM .-Oct.
Oct -N )v.
Jan -May
Jun W-July
Nox .-ec.
ai .-A pr.
D)ec -A\pr.
MAi ,June

IDec. to Mar.
Jan., Feb., Mar.
-Jan., Feb., Mar.
Sept. and Oct.
Nov. to May

o 3 years
o 2 years
o 2 years
to June
o 2 years

.Dec. to Feb.
Dec. to Feb.

4 (, 16years
4 0 C 6 ear-

'Ilarvested by grazing or as hay or silage.
-Turned under as green nmanure.

Bell Pep(e)'


Central Florida comprises Brevard, Citrus, Hernando, Ifillsborough,
Lake, Levy, Marion. Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Seminole,
Sumter, Volu ia Counties. Area, 9,164.,,i, acres.

TI'he number after each crop indicates the number of days required to
reach edib e iraturity, or gratherin}g maturity if non-edible.

\When PI'lanted

Days to Ilarv

SE N S, P( I'. E

(" A B, f IA GE)

(''A TA 1 01,P






Jan., Feb., Mar., St, Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.
Aug.-Sept., MLar.-Apr.
Feb., Mar., Apr.
Feb., Mar., Sept.
Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov., I)ee.
,Jan., Sept., Oct., Nov., I)Dec.
Feb., Mar., Apr.
Mlar.. April
Oct. to Mar.
,Jan., O(ct., Nov., D)ec.
June (seed); July (seed); AuS. to
Sept., Feb., Mar.
Jan., Feb., Mai., April, Aug., Sept.,
Oct., Nov.
Feb., March
Mar., April
Jan., Feb. (sprill" crop); July, (fall
crop) _
Sept. to Feb.
Sept. to MaI.
Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov.
Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec.
Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct., Dec.
Jan., Feb., Sept.
.Jan., Feb., Mari., Sept., ()ct., Nov.
Jan., Feb., Mal., Au'., Sept., Oct.,
Mar., May, Aug'.
I)ec., Jan.
Feb., M1ar., Nov.
May, June
Jan. Feb., Mar.
Nov. to March
Jan., Feb., Mlar., Oct., Nov., Dece.
Jan., Feb., Sept. to I)ec.

!1() to 120
I;i to (i5
(15 to 75
5(0 to 60
;I) to 70
70 to i90
75 to 90
1()00 to, 200
70 to 75
55 to (i0

115 to 125
50 to 55

50 to 55
80 to S5

So to
90 to
50 to
50 to
90 to
100 to
51) to
4 I to

50 to .:()
50 to 55
90 to 95
125 to 160
150 to 181
70 to 80
80 to 95
20) to 25
50 to 80









Field Crops
INDIGO, 1II, A Y\ 1y


When Planted
July to Mar.
.-Sept. to March
Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Nov.

When Planted Years to Production

Sept. and Oct.
Feb. to Mar.
Dec., Jan., Feb.
Jan. and Feb.
Oct., Nov., Feb.
Dec., Jan., Feb.

.Dec., Jan., Feb.

Sept. and Oct.
Dec., Jan., Feb.
Feb. to June
I)ec., Jan., Feb.
Jan. to April

4 to (i

4 to (i
1 to 2 yrs.
2 to 4 yrs.
3 to 5

3 to 5

4 to C
4 to (i
12 to 15 mos.
4 to (;

May and June, Sept. and Oct.

Apr.-J une
A pr.-June
Oct.- )ec.
Feb.-A I)r.
A pr.-J uly

Oct. or Feb.

Days to Harvest
45 co (O
75 -,o 85
40 o 50

Whel1 Harvested

Jul. to January
85 ia;s
Octi hr to May
Jun and July

Dep lnlcs on
Dep i1i(.s on
'' variety
Jun, July
Oct( i)e" to June

Oct( he to March
80 o 100 days

Dec( nlber to Apr.

W'hei Harvested
Jan. Aui'.
Aug" -O)ct.
Apir -N )v.
Apr -N )v.
Apr N' )v.
Sept -I)Dec.
Jan. June
Jla N' )V.

Sept -Nov.
M1ay 0(t.
.Jan. A\i r.
Nov. -A; >.
May June
Apr. Nov.
Aug- -(O)t.
May (ict.
Nov. Apr.
Feb. \ vay
Aug. Oct.
Aug. -Oct.
Aus. -Oct.
Octo K r
Oct.- 'or.


-. -r







South Flo.
Glades, Hardc
Monroe, Okee
11,376,680 acr


aTL71 1r'Q

A XT"% TI A "DTT7O-r'

mprises Brow;
dry, Highlands
Palm Beach,

Sept. to Api
-- Jan., Feb.
Sept. to Apr
..Jan.. Feb.. 0


ier, Dace, Del
, Manat- e, Ma
ie Counties. i

Days o Hlarve

50 tI 60
60 t 65
65 t 75
(;0 t 70

EGGPLANT .....-.-


I-ITr -~

July to
-- --.Jan., S5
.-- Jan. to
.-Jan. to
.....De., J;
Aug. tl
._-Sept. t(
.Jan., F(
-..---Nov. to
--Sept. t(
--..Jan., F(
-Feb., M
-Jan., F(
-Jan., FE
S Mar., A
Jan., F(
--..Oct., NI
--Jan., F(

115 t) 1
50 t
80 t

80 t)
90 t) !
50 t)
90 t 1
50 t

40 t
. 50 t 1;

70 t,
150 t) 1
20 t)
50 t)
45 t, 1i



Vhen Planted When Harvested

l;\ U' I IcL.-I (cc. r .-.vlay
N .\ I Mar.-MaIy Au .-O)c t.
II M, L(; AIN Apr).-July Au.-O()ct.
[II'M, FOPRAG E Ap)'.-July Auiz.-Oct.
l (; STIXEl' ASS IMar.-Au. Feb.-Dec.
(CAIA E Aut'.-Nov. Nov.-Apr.
:TCI ()V\ ()t.-)Dec. Jan.-May

~-5 I '*C
i gr j3:
~p~% ~3~' r
bi.s r
s s
~C~ :-J ~

; I' i
5 :~ Z
~i 5




i; lef3$~:
E.. ;
-- t~


In the following tale is shown names of
Iorl ant products andl the months that they ai
ulv \ '. Sept. Oct. N1
Avocados x
Beals x x x
Ieans, C'ranlerry x
Beans, Lima x x x x x
Beans. Pole x x
(admlag'e x
C( bta-e. Red

(V, c l. .- er
('eelry x
( Yeley. (abl).a.e x
C { lla'Is
(ei -Gee x x x
( u'u (l-er x x x

D)ec,,ratihvt ;reens x
f'.'-'1 pIdant x x x x x
Escarole x
(irapelfruit x x x
Lettuce x
A.l ,_os x x
Okra x x x
(liols, (Treen x
changess x
I'arsley x
Peas, Field
leas. (Mreen x
1eas. SoutLherI x x x x x
Pecans x x
Pelerls x x x x

Total- IS1,200

Jima beans 1,400
Snap beans 47,800
labbave 16,200
celeryy 11,1 00
Sweet Col)n 49,3(0
UCiicll)mberKs l(i,1 00
1S 'lplant 2,550
Escarole (;,700
[Lettuce ;{,400

Bu. :18 1
Bu. 16;,215
Crate 9,214
(Crate 14,)89
Crate 17,,913
B u. 9,943
Bu. 1,9;17




FLORlIDAX'S ( I i'RoICTInoN (Continued)
1 91)2-653 Season

ilaix-e tti

POP Acreage I.RdUCOOI) I RIit I
Acre, I it4 1,000 dollar's
0111,ii{ E'lwFI ,t i & I't"'
A i 1%91 1) i 1,-, 0'0illi1
II Wl6!1 ) 2,510
Total 55,1001 11,677

NU It s 1 I? Y 2:,II) (12,000

TOT k I, hi I. CROPS 1.901.950 607.023

( jop yar 'iom'L apprxim tel JrY IOIMlghJ11w :10
\ iwih c tii ats inc ludle cost, of hn rvu' t 11w and trani sportation to liiilliti d i p' oi ) iw
Vi~lllw does lliot c~lual ca:1ll rece~cived sirie n~ot all prodluctio n is s-old..


*-~~ L.~

SUG Ls _


2~ II- II


~ 4 C 4i~ Lii l F
d)i Lii rr
034 Lii
'I r OT-c 4







PAk OK I ~ x x







('() A l i1t() 1) I' F


I x x



x x








2 2 7 iI 9

SOther cini mditi




2 7 I

F 1K 1. I






x x



2 I, 9 i l|2 |0

M ]'f iir ',y (" 'up

r' 'r


'':.7 -

'I~. .

.4% .C .*j





:\ EST



Symbol A, 11, (C, ID, E, F, G after the name of the plant refer to the region of the
State in which this plant occurs, as indicated on the accompanying map (See Fi". 19).

Name of Plant
Aristolochia Serpentaria
Betula lenta
Capsicum I riitescens
Irassi.ca nigira
(Chenopodium ambrosioides
valI alnthellrinticumr
(Cinnamommni camphora
(Cininamomi0mIII cassia
Citrus Imeilica, var. Lironlum
Citrus aurI- ntlium
D)atmua Stra nonium
Gossyp:um hleriaceum
Liquidanmbar styraciflua
Mentha sp cata
Mentha piperita
Monarda punctata
Pinus palusitis and other
Podophyllum peltatum
PrI'nus selotina
Punica granatum
Rhus galbra
Ricinus communis
Serenoa serrulata
Spigelia marilandica
Stillingia .ylvatica
Vanilla plhnifolia
Vera aloe

Colimmon Name
Snake Root
Sweet birch
(Cayenne pepper
BlackI mustard

A ierlican woirmseed
CamIpho r
Cassia cinntam ion

Sweet orange
Jimson weed
Sweet guml
Long leaved pine,
loblolly pine, etc.
Wild cherry
Sumac berries
Castor bean
Saw palmetto, Sabal
P'ink root
Queen's root
Vanilla bean

*U.S.P. United States Pharmacopoeia.
iN.F.--Naiional Formulary.


F, G
F, (C

E, F, (;
D, E, IF, (
E, U

A, B, C, ). E

B, C, 1), E

A, B, C, D, E
I), E
A, B
E, F', G

A, B, I), E
A, B, C, D, E

D, E
E, F





ENT oF Ar.rlIT.

* i ..
I 1
~I c
~5C C~~~t~r :
-- B

j Ld?-E* c1



"xmlols A, IA (B 1), E. i I li Air the nanic of ic la nilin iais hat Lihis plan is iond in thdi
1( xin < li I ,i of it x whiiiihi t illhe plai o irs, aIs indicated onii lihc ad ipaiinying nmap (S'c Fig. 19)

\ m 11 11 II

I \11iliait l iisl {;i, i

-,> \ -l }it'psa" till crlosa
xi x, i x xxii xIII 1 I iidlia;
1 ,\ilin i l| xxxi',I i

i" ( xl iii i iiii xi oiii
1 ( liii tal iii'll, ic
xxi I xxiii ii i ilS '1iii{ ;I
I [ I rvxixlxi I a l idai
12. ( xl xi xxj uiin i (iixi tli s

IJ,. i)c ph ii lii li i c lila
I x Il i L x'l ii o ii; i l i\ x ia

-i I. l;ii xi; tlclii l i iitol iai i
16':i un1 l {hinic ;n-l fon iatin

7. 1( i iingnim i qual ta i m
I i ( ; kli li( all I llll {I li l lls
li. ix lianxa c lliot iit
2( I, (, aij uii ii oiti Iic ii.lis
7, 1. l ai a s \- iiialla
x22. Ic ii xdcl nui ; puit I, oid

xi Ioi xii car xii xi ii
2-,! 1 1 m i, id\ ifm o ic

2I. 11 x liwiia (i"it i iin a
o I. l Ixi x i tlli i ilga li c

l iaili oxniii i til

II bm}IiI ci' iiid t ellsisi i
'x7\ ',iii \ii iixlimii i
1'x. xilllii xa li liafolia

I aI m xlin xi in i l i i t ii(a

\ cl i 1iix I ilxTha!}si

I l{ii ules

( ommoxinii A\ c xxiii Hu xalily

1Ix Agaii
Sl;ii (asS
( ainadial I l[cip
Pitui ii'\ loot
\\ild Indigo

IlI iii c tiiixx
{X xlii lililxhn

olo pal m
xxIii liwood

I'cluoiit glass
] alkS])lll
\\ ild Yain

W\airt'" (/I!!\ O,
Jil noill slnak( roo{l

( ; lilia ti

II x/ I oca

I'dnc Ilia
( aii)id iHowl
B illet){ix1

()|iuin Pol\evs
( .iliscni^

IBilici l'olygalp.
lix x ixxii

I'nssv, w\iIlo\\
l' ldd'r ll]^^wfll's
Blood loot
Sl, ullcap
I itc lool pIant
ttiii { ii xx o l~ li
lx xioi xxix i cIcir

liirx loxiixl ii
I lixux rik

Slip))crr'I''in Balk
Mullein x

iliii( klv asi

N.I 11
N .I .X I ll
N .IT B.{C. DL I.
N.FI I l,.D .
N.I .

N.F. A.B.D

N.I A.

N . it

I 1)

N.FI. \

ItI )
VN.. A.I I

N.I. .B.C.I)E
I.S.P. -\.P., 1 ,DE

N.I. B

N.F. I1
I '.S.P.
N. B.X II), ,I .
N. \,B

N.. I.


I .S. X
NI \.

N.". I .(.1.F

I 'tcrinc loiii
)iurelic, diaphoretic
Slii i 1laill, diaphoretic
I)Diaploeli i, Xpctii l'Ora l
AlteIati ic. gcrliicidc
Il)e lii ii' ll
({halcoal albsollwn!i
As ri i fli llI, I ollic

I'a asiliciulc
I)iapl oici ci

.Sii laill, olii

INc \ iii l
Toinil x
\ licla. l c. alliiS pl i,
XSi I ila{ i11a
Slillitilal>l, ; c; ilnwlagogue

( tiillic i ii

Ailtlralix\ holagogxii
Analge'sic. SoIllnnilrclll
Stiimll ]lanti soiiiiii ch ii

Al )iii \ lic
\St li lgxili
{'ar illa livec, diaphore tic
Slinilulating ex{[)(f(lorantt
\lli ali\c
I olnic Net vinc
Stimulant. diul l i:
Toni( anititctaliC

Pelfuinii, fla\or
)clilih niii it
Pc(lxol a dl i t lii ( x!-

Alicral ic. sialoxgxgl e

fliouA UrV1Ni'1' nv A rDrOITrT IVi T'


oditi Type of Container RIR Container No. I

Beans Bushel hamper S1501 4
Bushel I basket 8026-S0:15-8o 05 0
iBeans fBushel hamper 8501 :
Bllshl basket 8026-8035-8050 :'
ge 50-lb. bagss 7500-7525
Wirebound crate 5102
Wirebound crate :360 1i
-Escarto,, Wirebounld vetetablle cralt 5405 2
;e Cabbage Wireboulnd crate 3'01 .P
Splint basket 8101
Corn Wirebound corn crate 37 3I -1
Wirebound corn crate 3731 1
SBusht l basket B0ue-21 l)S5-iSOS
fibers Bushel basket (2(i-80 5-liit50 i
Bushel crate 12;),
IBushel wirehound crate 5001 1
Fihrehoard Ibox 7.380-7385 t
anit Bushel basket 8026-8035-8050 v
Bushel crate 1236 :'

Voi Wirelound L&V Cralte 380 2
iaine Wireboundi L&V cilate 88I
errI Wirelbound crtale 5007 :
s, with lopa Slquar braid sllint basket S 101
1h I'eas Busheal lsilet i 026-8035-80)50
rs BI ishel hamiper S5)1
Biuhel basket h026-S0:35-8050 t
Bllshel crate 123* ;
,Virehounnd pepper crate Il55 *5
Bnshel \Vireboinid 5001
-2 3 11, ushel bhas 7500-7525-7550-7551 111
es,. with Tips Square braid splint task-ct 101 1
ies, wihou top Bushel basIket 8026-35-8050
Square braid splint basket 8100 I
SBuishel hampnllerl 01 .
,, Bushel basket s02B-052 2
oes Wireibound tomato crate 4015 i
Fibrlboardi basket 64i50
Fibrebloard tomato llox 7010
) (reen Bulshe l basket S026-8035-SO.50 2

urce: J. . uncan, I In Traffic Division, Florida F. & V. Assn., Orl im o. F


('netainer Estlimted Shilppin, "'eidrt
it'' Numiii'r\ I Per Package ini i.i.. k
Orris. (Gift. ]

biu. wI Blo\ o 500-1 93 8:1
bu. Wl1i lix 401i(t 451t
1,u. Nnihd B, ox 67!1 50
bu. WB B-ox 3t;7: 451. 40
ltl. Corrltiiatld Box 64'1 i 4.51i 4(i
ull telescope style i

ill telescope style,
bt. Cornuoatfd Bo-x t;4Sl & i;4i4s & 15',_ 151
ita ter ( iltaie telt 5-,1 9W
btir"s aKgr'etatinlt not more
1i -:, 5 lushelt i

ed not niore th;an -l -Illi Standardl
ia"s or 5-1,10 Standard Box bag',
cke.l in ,aoch hae-llu;tstelr:
I Standlfilrd Box ll liig -15,
i Stalinard iBox Bag, l,'
Standard lo-x Ila 22 20
Standard lllo Pae1 S.7 S.7
Standard kox Moia. 5.6 5.2
fter JaNIary 19ii;- Shaker Piack only.
;timated caight indicated itpr package will apply roigari ile- of lhe ntumier of t ba ,t irrg
ore tiht 1-:1 5 limthels packed in the containttt. htit in no case to apptiity whetli t t'*' iilr Ai
Ied in tte contailner.

I UA 1 1"INTt' 117r

Edible indigenes of Asia include spices, coffee, tea, cinnamon, ap:
barb, buckwheat, radish, pistachio, licorice, peach, cucumber, aln
e, artichoke, garlic, mango, pomegranate, grape, soybean, yam, ly
us, rice, cotton, eggplant, black pepper, dasheen, mangosteen, en
ey, shallot, fig, date, English walnut, wheat and rye.
Edible Indigenes of Africa include coffee, spinach, cantaloupe, cai
Edible Indigenes of Europe include apple, fennel (parsley family),
L, gooseberry, mustard, cabbage, turnips, cauliflower, rutabaga,
i, broccoli, brussels sprouts, quince, pear, plum, asparagus, pars
ry. leek, chestnut, filbert, carrot and lettuce.
Edible indigenes of Oceanica include coconut, breadfruit, nut
pefruit, cinnamon and banana.
Edible indigenes of North America include corn, bean, pumpkin,
'y, pecan, hickory, guava, avocado, allspice, vanilla, sapodilla, f
ito, chayote, blueberry, blackberry, dewberry, chestnut, hazelnut
a (West Indies) and monistera deliciosa (West Indies).
Edible indigenes of South America include corn, Irish potatoes, i
;, peanut, cocoa, cassava, pineapple, lima beans, mate, herbaceous pe
il plum, cashew and surinam cherry.

iat Emperor Augustu
quicker than you can c
I1 the English have

I LIIIM Vcgy taUieltU Wit
y writer, Evelyn, reco
nious eaten raw witt
1 been )brought to the

ir asparagus is the L,
it is easily i.. ..,
ie same origin: ;i-I.
n) and esparrago (S
rd was corrupted to
y this form has been
:he E.--1i-h! and Amei
rowgrass," asparagus


Asparagus has been valued for medicinal qualities as long
as it has been known. It was supposed to be good for anything
from the prevention of bee stings to heart trouble, dropsy and
toothache. As recently as 1949 it was discovered that asparagus
is one of the richest sources of rutin, a drug originally isolated
in tobacco. Its chief value is strengthening the walls of the
capillaries, thus preventing heniorrhaging. Rutin increases in
asparagus in the autumn when the stalks are too tough to be
edible. Modern medicine also uses the root as a diuretic.
HISTORY When Cortez first tasted the fruit of ahuacatl in
November 1519 at the festive boards of Montezuma II, at Teno-
ehtillan (Mexico City), the capital of the Aztecs, this tropical
fruit had long been cultivated by the great Indian civilizations
of IMexico, Central America and northern South America. Primi-
tive bowls shaped like avocados have been found among the
temples of Mayas, Toltecs and Aztecs. A fine treasure of the
greal period of pre-Incan civilization, about 900 A. D., found at
the roi nd of Chan Chan in Peru is a water bowl in the shape of
two avocados, back to back. The first written report to the
Old VWo'ld was made by the soldier-writer Martin Fernandez de
Enciso. ,who tasted the fruit in Colombia. Other historians of
the period soon sent in descriptions of this new gourmet's dis-
covery. The news spread rapidly\ from the court of Charles V
of1 Spain to other European countries. Unlike many of the polpu-
lar Lnew fruits and vegetables found in the New \World, the avo-
Icad didi not spread as rapidly to other tropical areas of the
world. This was due primarily to difficulty in propagation. How-
everl, it was growing in the Hawaiian Islands by 1825 and since
then has been widely distributed in Africa and Polynesia, and
today' is growing in most parts of the world where the climate is
suitable. Apparently it was not growing in the West Indies until
lhe Spaniards introduced it from the mainland. Both Enciso and
the historian Oviedo (1526) referred to it as a "native of the
mainland." As early as 1590, Acosta, another soldier-scholar,
Iist ingi'ished between the main types of avocados. (See RACES
AND VARIETIES.) W. Hughes, physician of the English
crown, in 1672 pronounced it to be "one of the most rare and
pleatsanm fruits of the island (Jamaica). It nourisheth and
streingtheneth the body, corroborating the vital spirits and pro-
:urir"g vigor exceedingly." His is the first reference to this fruit

.-. ,, lt

,_ .-.-- .

r i, H ,

it- -
A 4 B

t6 Si k\ ^
N7'~ d~G

Wr 0llr1A CROP'q

i English. George Washington, in 1751, found the avocado to
e the most popular fruit in the Barbados Islands.
The avocado was introduced into the United States in 1833
y HIenry Perrine, who sent trees from Mexico to be planted
south of Miami. It seems probable that the Mission Fathers
iight have first brought this tropical delight to California. How-
ver, the earliest reference appears in the Report of the Visiting
'olmminitee of the California State Agricultural Society in 1856.
according to this, an avocado tree was imported from Nicaragua
y a )r. Thomas J. White who lived near Los Angeles. In 1871,
three trees were introduced by Judge R. B. Ord of Santa Bar-
ara. This planting served to stimulate interest in the fruit and
iatny trees were planted. Some were imported from Mexico and
thr countries of Central America. Others were started from
eedts brought into California by travelers. The 1890's found
other pioneers who further advanced interest in growing the
avocado on a commercial scale. Some enterprising nursery men
egtn in 1910 to explore Mexico and Guatemala for new va-
ieties. The U. S. Department- of Agriculture undertook in 1911
o assist the new industry by exploring the avocado growing
ieas thoroughly. This cooperative search lasted nine years.


IISTORY Before the discovery of America the Old World was
familiar with many types of beans but not with our "common
earan." Snap beans are believed to have originated in Central
rnerica and were distributed widely over both Americas by the
ndians, probably along the same routes as were lima beans.
becausee of its greater range of cultivation over the Americas at
he time of discovery, and its greater diversity in North America.
is pr able that its culture is even older than that of the lima
clan. They were introduced into Europe and Asia soon after
heir discovery and became popular very early. They were men-
ioned in Europe about 1542 and by 1616 a large number of
varieties of different types were described. The English first
set t1he name "kidney bean" in 1551 to distinguish our Ameri-
an cornimon bean from the Old World types. It has been only in
he las; 100 years that truly stringless, nearly fiberless, tender-
lodded varieties, such as we know today, were developed. An
n'eresl: in early bean varieties with stringless pods gave the


v ; i"Z

i ^ s -& - -- . .. .j-a ... --.. = *
: ,. - -., .. .

'. i

initial impetus to American bean breeding about 1890. B( ion,
that seed companies had paid little attention to bean breeilinpg
They merely introduced a kind grown by some farmer or va
riety that had become common in some farming community .

HISTORY Lima beans were believed native to Brazil. Evidinr (
now points to Guatemala. Wild primitive beans along with i di
versity of cultivated forms have been found in Guatemala. I !leii
distribution has been traced by the various "prehistoric v irie
ties" left .l,,r,, Indian trade routes. One route of the bean iri
ration extended up through A.\1, ),, into our Southwest, ,a.-t
ward to spread from Florida to V'ir-;0ii.. Those grown by th(
Indian tribes varied from the present small types used by th(
Hopi Indians in the Southwest to the Sieva type found in tih


Another "trade route" was down through Central America
ito Peru, where the large-seeded, large podded types were de-
elope( in the coastal areas. The name "Lima" obviously came
r1,0n I ima, Peru. one point at which the species was found b1
arlv i European explorers. A third branch of development spread
hrfu- a the West Indies and southward toward the mainland of
(,u ih America. This Caribbean branch contains types that tend
o dewvlop poisonous quantities of cyanide under certain con-
litions but the other branches have not shown this tendency.
The explorers and slavers of the early 1500's found limas ideal
or re flenishing their ship's stores. Supplies were obtained
roi tne Inldians in numerous places in the Americas and were
arrived to all parts of the earth-Europe, Africa, the East In-
lies. India and the Philippines. By the late 1700's there were
nai ,y records of lima beans in all those places. Apparently limas
V\re recordled in Europe about 1591. The Sieva type was intro-
iuced into the United States about 1700 and the large lima about
'2I. The bush varieties are of recent development (since 1875),
llthough the dwarf mutation on which they are based had
l)1i) Iless recurred many times before anyone thought of making
ise o(4 it. There is a report that a few hundred pounds of bean
(ee1id -erve purchased from a tramp steamer in Santa Barbara
ihw it 1865 by Ilenry Lewis. These Ibeans had been purchased
n P'eru by the captain of the ship. Within a few years this seed
v>. b( being grown generally in the Carpinteria and Ventura areas
mdu f(ir led the basis of the dry lima bean industry which still
4lrv'is es in Southern California.
Iiina Beans are referred to sometimes in the South and other
;ctliors of the country as butterr beans." although this col-
1(,luialism is sometimes used in New England to refer to yellow-
44iddletd ("wax") varieties of snap Ibeans.


IISTORY Beets grown for their leaves, such as Swiss Chard,
laXe been known in Europe since any definite records of food
)lants there have existed. Beets of the type that produce large
ieshy edible roots were unknown before the Christian Era.
F'lhc ancients used the root of the wild beet or chard apparently
1'or nimedicinal purposes only. Beets originated in the Mediter-
manean area and apparently spread eastward in prehistoric

- -- ,/iI -- A -+r

IlllZ UX ItIIlctll J12plllt:U ; 111 Llt IIU alltl 0101 It lHtlLU'lt5. 1l1 [ltKNL
record of the use of beet roots appeared in English recip ,s of
the 14th century. The red beet with a turnip-like root as
described first as a food plant in Germany in 1558 and v is a
rarity at that time in Northern Europe. The improved beet
was called "Roman beet" in the 16th century in Northern Ei rpe
and France, indicating its introduction from Italy. Garden eets
remained relatively unimportant during the 17th and 18th ctn-
turies, but after 1800 grew more in popularity on Contin i.:al
Europe than in the British Isles. It is known when they \etie
introduced into the United States, but only one variety was li'rted
in 1806.
Cultivation of beets for sugar was established in Franc( and
Germany about 1810. Sugar beets are cultivated extensive yv in
the United States, and have also been used in northern stat,;- as
winter \ -, .l.1h.4-. sliced and fried and served with meat. 11 lo:k
beets or ni,., ii!_l-,'. .urzels are a coarser variety and are use( for
cattle fodder. Su.-.I_ beets are usually yellowish-white, ;ad
garden beets range in color from extremely dark purplishi red
to bright vermilion and to white. Those commonly growl for
commercial fresh market are the red varieties.

HISTORY Although the first notice of broccoli appears in 1lii-
ler's Dictionary, edition of 1724, in which he says it w i; a
li;no-,,.r in England until "within these five years," and was
called 'sprout (,li-l,.'., i,' or Italian asparagus, Sturtevant be-
lieves that the Romans knew the sprouting broccoli as we I .is
other forms at least as early as the :, ,-Lini:_,- of the 'hri t ian
era. Two excerpts from Pliny's writings, second century i\.D..
indicate to Sturtevant that the sprouting broccoli (cyma) wNas
tri,_'M- favored. Dr. Victor Boswell in "Our Vegetable Tlra'-.!. i -,"
The National Geographic Magazine, August 1949, also states that
sprouting broccoli was known for more than 2,000 years in 1-arts
of Europe. In 1729 Switzer described several kinds of broc olis
that he had had growing in his garden near London, "t lese
past two years," including sprouting broccoli. Sturtevant I or i-
ments that "since the seeds of the plants described by Sw tzer
came from Italy and came mixed, we mav assume that var pta]


distinctions had not as yet become recognized, and that hence
all the types of the broccoli now grown have originated from
'IcIMahon's list of vegetables grown in American gardens,
180(G, is: the first mention of the broccolis, including sprouting
Broccoli, in the U. S. Dr. Boswell says, "It must have been known
here for many years before that," and he further expresses
surprise that such an excellent vegetable failed to become popu-
lar until comparatively recently. Its use was confined to a few
Italian families in the New York and Boston areas prior to the
1920's. In 1923 1)'Arrigo Bros. Company planted trial fields of
IDalian sprouting broccoli in Santa Clara Valley, near San Jose,
and shipped a ftew crates by express to Boston. The first ice
pack b broccoli was shipped to eastern markets in mixed cars in
the fal of 1924, and by 1925 straight car loads were loaded at
San Jo;e for the East. Acreages were limited at first, but by
1927 more planters and packers became interested and for awhile
ulppllies increased faster than demand. In 1929 D'Arrigo Bros.
Company started what is thought to be the first direct adver-
tisitng program for broccoli through a cooperative radio program
in l alian and in some Italian newspapers. Development of the
indtlstiy was rapid and in 1932 a pre-cooler was built at Castro-
ville for broccoli only. The growing season was extended in this
area through development of new strains, and by 1939 quality
packs became of importance. Grading and bunching was moved
into the packing houses and bunching machines were developed
and installed at Castroville. These were picked up by other broc-
coli shippers and are now commonly used by most broccoli
shil pets.


HISTORY The Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea bullata gem-
mniferat is a form of cabbage which, instead of making a large
single head, produces a number of small heads along its stem
where the leaves are attached. By pulling away the lower leaves
these heads are given room to develop. This form apparently
did not come into existence until about 400 years ago. The 1937
Yearbacok of Agriculture states that this plant was not mentioned
by the early writers prior to 1759, but by 1793 Brussels sprouts
were an article of international commerce and its origin is gen-
erally ascribed to Belgium.


Some authors of last century said that they had been glowr
"from time immemorial about Brussels, Belgium." Sturtevant';.
Notes on Edible Plants, edited by U. P. Hedrick of the New YNorb
State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New Yorl.. re.
ilit.,- this by sa3 0i.-- "if this be so, it is strange that they esei ipe(
the notice of the early botanists who would have certainly
noticed a common plant of such striking appearance." ITh
Notes give further explanation as to how some authors max
have been convinced that some of the earlier botanists '.vr
describing Brussels sprouts. An early cabbage, after the 1ii u
head is removed, will frequently develop small cabbages ii th(
.,i' axils. Dalechamp, 1587, described such a phenomenon an(
gave this form the name B. capitata polycephalos. Bauhin ii:2"
describes B. ex capitibus pluribus, -,. I;-_ that "some plants lwai
50 heads the size of an egg." Because of Bauhin's referen i, to
Dalechamp, Sturtevant believed he was referring to the -amn
plant. Lobel, 1655, 1- f, i to a cabbage like the B. polycep 1.1.0o
but he had not seen it. Ray, 1686, also refers to a "like rab-
bage." Sturtevant ascribed the origin of this vegetable -, "Z'
suddenly observed variable of the Savoy cabbage type" at -()mf
time scarcely before the 1700's. By 1821 they were cormnaiisN
cultivated near Brussels and were probably in general u e, in
gardens in France. Booth, 1874, said they were not gent !ally
known in Eiw:l.,nl until after 1854, but a correspondent o the
"Gardeners' (1',,.-lii, I,," ]-'' n, refers to tall sorts as gent rally
preferred to the il'A.,ir by market gardeners near London Mc-
l,ii,,.1i, 1806, mentioned them in this country for the I,.ir 'iine
but (lid not include them in his list of garden vegetable; lot,
America. Thorburn's catalog for I -s offered seed for one
variety and in 1881 two varieties. Sturtevant, writing )'ior
to 1887 said that "this vegetable, in this country" wxas g-own
"only in gardens of amateurs, yet (is) deserving more est(im."
The 1925 Yearbook of A-.:'ri ll lit.. said that these wei( r.ot
grown extensively for market "until recently when a larp, n-
dustry developed in the Delta region of Louisiana."


HISTORY TI11,-," is historical and botanical evidence that c:b-
bage has been in cultivation for more than 4,000 years. St 'rie-
vant says "views as to the origin of various types of cal i6age
must be considered as largely speculative." Even the orig r of

r LUIUIL'A nfiVr o



their nlname cabbage'" is clouded in confusion. The name ap-
parently is derived from the Latin "caput," meaning "head,"''
allthlouhli Dr. Victor R. Boswell, USDA, in "()Our Vegetable
Travelers," says the word is an Anglicized form of the French

"Brasesica oleracea," and the modern heading-types common to
this country are classified as "Brassica oleracea capitata." It is
a member of the mustard family, but is botanically separated
from ithe mustards in that it has a distinct family of its own,
include ing the cauliflowers, the broccolis, Brussels sprouts, kales
and kohlrabi.
Evidence points to the eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor
as the place of origin of the species, but Dr. Boswell says "the
Celts of Central and Western Europe had much to do with the
distribution and popularization of cabbage as a food plant." Its
introduction into Europe has been generally ascribed to the


Romans, but here again Dr. Boswell says "it seems probable hatit
the Celts introduced it even earlier." He points out that the
Celts invaded .M-._lit, i i ;r .:,vi lands repeatedly from about ,.ifI,
B. C., reached into Asia Minor around 278 B. C., and into the
British Isles in the fourth century A.D. The Romans did n)t
spread into northern Europe and Britain until shortly bhi'ot'e
the l.-L. inii_-.- of the Christian Era. "In view of these Trove-
ments," says Dr. Boswell, "it is not surprising that the history
of the development of the cabbage-like group of vegetables has
been confused between the Mediterranean and Asia Ilnir. oi the
one hand, and northern and western Europe on the other."
There is no mention of there having been a hard-hea 1-i,,
variety of cabbage in ancient Rome. These varieties apparently
were unknown until after the time of Charlemagne, who lied
A. D. 814. Albert of Cologne referred to hard-heading cabbage
in the 13th century, and it was referred to aL iii in the 41h
century by writers citing a distinction between heading and )on-
heading cabbages (coleworts). Unmistakably clear descriptions
of hard-heading cabbage were recorded in Europe in 1536.
Sturtevant says cabbage was ii'-i introduced into Am(rica
by I.T;i. L-, Cartier in 1541-42, who planted it in Canada on his
third voyage. T'l't,.i, is no written record of its being pla lted
in what is now the United States until 1699, although Dr. !oi-
well says "it was doubtless planted by some of the ear iest
colonists." In 1779 (.I1,1L.L' were mentioned as among the
Indian crops around Geneva, N. Y., and in 1806, B. MeMaho i in
iis "The American Gardener's Calendar" mentioned early :ird
ate varieties for American gardens. Tli., I i, ni's "American 1-eed
House Catalog" published in New York listed 18 varieties in 1 28.


HISTORY When is a cantaloupe not a cantaloupe? Ti',_. "tl ,]
cantaloupe variety of muskmelon is grown in Europe and is not
cnown in America. The European cantaloupe was named f'cr
:he Castle of Cantalupo, the country seat of a sixteenth centi try
Dope, in whose .-.r.,1. ii,- a variety of muskmelon brought f'-or
Armenia was iir-t cultivated. In America "cantaloupe" has be-
tome the generic name of all the small, oval, heavily ne- ted
nusk-scented muskmelon. All cantaloupes are muskmelons, but
iot all muskmelons are cantaloupes.


The netted or nutmeg muskmelon which has become know
as cantaloupe in America originated in Persia and adjacent areas
A secondary center of origin is southern Asia where it grew
spontaneously from the foot of the Himalayas to Cape Comorir
and the northwest provinces of India, Kashmir and Afghanistan
It also grew wild in Egypt, and inferior varieties were cultivated
at a very early (late. The oldest record of the muskmelon is ar
Egyptian picture of 2400 B.C. in which a fruit identified by sore
expert:, as a muskmelon appears.
The muskmelon was introduced in China and also the Medi-
terranean areas of Europe at the beginning of tIhe Christian era
Pliny he Elder describes "a new form of cucumber . .calle(
Meloptpo which grows on the ground in a round form and .
although not suspended, yet, the fruit separates from the sten
at ma urity." GCalen, the Greek physician, wrote during th(
second century of its medicinal qualities, and Roman writers o1
the third century gave directions for cultivating and preparingf
it wvitk spices for eating." By the fifteenth century the musk
melon was well known in Spain, and Charles VIII of France ih
credited with introducing it into northern and central Europ(
from HIome about the same time.
The muskmelon was an "early settler" in the New World
Columbus brought the seed on his second voyage, and in 149z
he had it planted on Isabela Island. It quickly spread to botl
American continents and was grown by the Indians in both Soutl
and North America early in the sixteenth century. Between 153,
and 1584, reference to the muskmelon was made in literature an(
letters in such widely separated areas as the St. Lawrence, Nev
Mexico area, Haiti and Virginia. The fruit was also grown ii
Massachusetts early in its colonization. Early in the 17th cen
tury it appeared along the Hudson and in the New England reg
ion and was introduced into Bermuda in 1609. In 1683 th,
Spaniards introduced it into California.
Directions for cultivating the muskmelon appeared in book
in 1693. One written in France at that time was translated fo
use in England, Hlolland, Germany and many other countries fo
almost a century afterwards. One of the earliest books on it
cultiv tion published in America appeared in 1769.
HISTORY The carrot (Daucus carota) gets its name from th
French word "carotte," which in turn comes from the Lati


HISTORICAL NOTES When carrots were first brought to I n:x-
land from Holland, stylish ladies used the feathery leaves to ( cc )-
rate their hair ... In Germany, a substitute for ,.-ilee was n ade
from carrots chopped into small pieces and browned . In t he
Hebrides, off the coast of Scotland, they were collected by the
young women and distributed as dainties among their acqi ain-
tances on Sundays and at their dances . In some part, of
Europe sugar was made from carrots but its manufacture was
not found ,i',ri1t.l,, ... In I-.- surveyors for the Pacific R ail-
road reported that Flathead Indians in Oregon were so ,r.d
of carrots they would steal them from the fields, although str ct'y
honest as to other articles.

HISTORY ('.'Ill!..',.," (Brassica oleracea botrytis) is a meriber
of the cabbage family and is so closely related to sprou irg


broccoli that both are designated as the same botanical variety,
"botrytis," from a Greek word meaning "a cluster." It is de-
fined as an annual variety of cabbage, in which the head con-
sists of the condensed and thickened flower cluster instead of
the leaves. Both cauliflower and broccoli have much the same
earl history. The parent of these cabbages is native to the
Mediterranean area and Asia Minor, says D)r. Victor R. Boswell,
USDA. in a treatise on "Our Vegetable Travelers."
The word "cauliflower" comes from the Latin terms "caulis,"
which means stem, stalk or cabbage, and "floris" (flower). "Cau-
lis." was changed to "caul," later in (German it became "kohl,"
in Daniih "kaale," and in Irish "cal." Thus literally cauliflower
is "cabbage flower" or "stalk flower."
The oldest record of cauliflower dates back to the 6th cen-
tury B. 0. The Roman naturalist Pliny wrote about it in the
secwoid century after ('hrist. In the 12th century three varieties
were described in Spain as introduced from Syria, where it had
double sf been grown for more than a thousand years. In
England in 1586 cauliflower was referred to as "Cyprus Cole-
xworts." suggesting introduction from the Island of Cyprus.
Caulifloxer was on the London vegetable market as early as
16li19 It was grown in France around 1600, where it was known
as "'cio .i tleur."
Il, is uncertain when and how cauliflower (sprouting broccoli)
was iniiroduced into this country, but I)r. Boswell says it has
been g'r )\vn for "perhaps 200 years in America." Americans of
Italian origin, he said, had grown it for generations in the vi-
cinity of New York and Boston before it was generally appre-
cialteId for its attractive qualities. B. McMahon in "The American
(ardner's (Calendar," published( in Philadelphia in 1806, mentions
early and late cauliflower varieties, as does Thomas Bridgeman in
his '"Y young Gardener's Assistant," published in New York in
18M2. Fearing Burr, Jr., Boston, tlescri bed 10 varieties in 1836.
The Vilmorin (Paris, France) "Catalog of Seed I houses" de-
scribed 16 varieties in 1870.
Althlouogh grown in Europe for centuries both broccoli and
cauliHlower have become important vegetable crops in this
country only since 1925. Because of their fine appearance and
delicate flavor they have become increasingly popular with
American consumers. They have been called the "true aristo-
crats of the cabbage family," and Mark Twain once defined cauli-
flower as cabbagee with a colletre education."


ii^BB^ ^'i'



HISTORY Celery belongs to the same family of plants is the
carrot, parsley, fennel, caraway and anise. The charact( ristic
flavor and odor of the members of this family are due to the
presence of volatile oils in the stems and leaves and espt cially
in the seeds. It originated in the M\I.litl 1.1 ii'. i, countries. Wild
celery grows in wet places over Europe, the Mediterranean aidsd,
Asia MAii-.,, the Caucasus and southeastward toward the lima-
layas. Smallage, a plant now cultivated in gardens for fla\, 1-,11:-
purposes, is apparently "'v il-l" celery, and this has been 1 ncwn
in the M, -litic'inanean lands for thousands of years.
Celery was mentioned in Homer's Odyssey about 85( B.C.
as "selinon." The French name, "celeri," fri .. which the :i.--
lish is derived, was first mentioned in a 9th century noem written


is a sciative). Another use the ancient Greeks made of celery
\as as an award to winners of sports contests.
It \was still a primitive plant when first cultivated in Italy
ind northern Europe and grown for medicinal purposes only.
Use as "'ood was first recorded in France in 1623, and for about
Shun(dred years thereafter its food use was confined to flavor-
ngs. Not until the middle of the 17th century were the little
stalks and leaves eaten with an oil dressing in France and Italy.
Improve ment of the plant was not undertaken until the late 17th
ind early 18th centuries in Italy, France and England. By mid-
18th century it was discovered that much of the strong flavor
could t ) eliminated by growing the plants in late summnrner and
all. 1:hen keeping them into the winter. This brought celery into
ts place as a salad plant.
It is not known when celery was first. brought to America, but
our ctiltivated varieties were listed here in 180G. Celery growing
is an industry in the U.S. dates from about 1880 when the
white e Plume and the Golden Self Blanching varieties were intro-
luted. 'rior to that; certain of the older green types were grown
n iolime and market gardens mainly for local consumption.
I(redt for the early commercial development of the industry is
ar.'ely diue to a ('loup of Holland-American gardeners in the
vicinityy of Kalaniazoo, Michigan who grew it as early as 1874
nd t tofered it for sale to passengers on the trains passing through
alaiinmazoo. Later it, was sold on the Alichigan Central Railroad
rains to passengers and to people along the route, and a demand
'or the delicately blanched product was rapidly created.


lISTORY The collard with its close relative kale is one of the
nost primitive and oldest menibers of the cabbage family. It is
native to the eastern Mediterranean countries or to Asia Minor.
t has been under cultivation for so long and has been so shifted
ibouit b), prehistoric traders and migrating tribes that it is not
certain which of these regions is the home of the species. Wild
'abkiage, from which the collard and more highly developed


horticultural forms arose, is still growing along the coast ii
gions of Europe and northern Africa. Its use by man as t'o
antedates written history, and it is believed to have be an
common use for more than ,iii-i years. All principal for nIs
collards known today have been cultivated for at least ::.,,
years. Well before the Christian era the Greeks and R( ma
grew this plant. "Coles" (collards and kales) were describe *d
European writers in the 1st. 3rd, 4th and 13th centuries.
The Romans may have taken the coles to Britain and Fi i,
On the other hand, it seems probable that the Celts may ha
introduced( them to these countries. They invaded Me lit,
ranean lands repeatedly from about ;,1111 B.C. and reached( i
the British Isles in the 4th century B.C. The English na --t
a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon "coleworts" or "colew irt
meaning literally "cabbage plants."
The first mention of collardls in America was in 166K .
because of their popularity in European gardens, it is pr( )al
that they were introduced somewhat earlier. (See "Our X'e
table Travellers" 'by Dr. Victor R. Boswell, National Geogi apl
Ma;,-.i/inm. August 1949.)


HISTORY Indian corn (Zea mays L.) was cultivated i
two Americas, fti.,iii Canada to Patagonia, long before Cohlnli1
reached the shores of the New World. The first written uc,
of corn in North America is found in Icelandic -,,.i.- Karl .f:
in I"11.., found corn at HIop (presumably in the vicini Y
Taunton River, Mass.). M1.. and its uses are describe(,
Columbus in 1 I.I-' as "a kind of grain called maize of whic'i V\
made a very well-tasted iL.ii.'." It was also brought to Coli;ml
in 1 I1-,1 in Venezuela. DeSoto in the 15 i,, invasion fou nd
cultivated in Florida, Alabama and northern 1i J--i--ip'i E;
dence of pre-Columbian maize has been found in excavati nsI
the "Four Corners" area, where Utah, Arizona, Coloradk, ;i
New MI\.,i meet. The "Basket Makers" were growing i ,.al
both field and sweet, apparently as far back as the 600's A D.
earlier. According to Dr. Edgar Anderson in Corn Before C ,lu
bus, literally bushels of pre-Columbian corn have been Io
from this area and in the extremely arid region around south:
Peru and northern Chile. Not only cobs but some nearly p.'rt
ears have been found. Tassels, stalks, leaves and jars of ki, r



ive )oeen excavated. At Arica (northern Chile, Iordering on
lru), )l)pped corn has been found Only a few burned cobs of
"e-C(onqluest corn have been found in Mexico, but water bowls
id furerary urns used by) the prehistoric Zapotecs of southern
exico are decorated with ears of corn that apparently were
st fr m the original ears. "They are so realistic, even in
killing details." says Dr. Anderson, "it seems fairly certain
ey are cast directlyy from actual prehistoric cars of corn."
Maize was bound closely to the rise of the great Indian civili-
lions, such as the Inca of Peru, the Maya of Central America
idl the Aztec of Mexico. It provided food, currency, fuel, smok-
g silk jewelry and building material. It was an important con-
ibution to taxes in Mexico as evidenced by pre-Conquest tax
ts of the Aztec emperor, Montezuma (or Moctezuma). It
mied large in art. decorating temples, homes, ceramics, toys
Il funerary urns. It was inextricably tied to the religious
remonies of Indians, both South and North American. There
e probably as many legends about the origin of corn as there
e Indian Tribes. These range from simple nature stories to
ore complex histories of the origin of the Indians and the begin-
ngs o- their cultural development. Maize still plays a part in
retain of the festive and religious ceremonies of present-day


Indians. New York Indians have been known to destroy an
tire crop of corn to be used in religious ceremonies because
shadow of a white man had fallen upon the fields.
The Indian, from eastern North America through ,;oi
South America, apparently had to be on constant lookout;
thieves in the cornfield-be they feathered, four-legg(,i
human. Thomas White, official artist associated with Tl on
Hariot in Sir Walter Raleigh's colony, has a picture of an Iid
......itiirli in the town of Secota on Roanoke Island, off the co
of North Carolina, in which he shows a house for the watclhm
Dr. Paul Weatherwax in Indian Corn in Old America says 1t
"in the vicinity of Quito, Ecuador an Indian who might le
tirely honest in other ways would have no hesitation ib
tI _.1l;ii_ corn lIri,, a white man, his j ,-itr;, aiH,. being tha c
is inherently the property of the Indian anyhow. In some )la
in the Andes, sweet corn is especially attractive to thieve-
a common way of (,ih, .iliii i it is to plant a block of it in
middle of a field of ordinary corn. .... An old .,.1,, ;i
ordered special il.iil l._- -, of corn to be made along the roa, ls
the use of the traveler and he was permitted to take :ip
seven ears .... But for malicious trespass or damage to
cornfields, or for taking more than enough for immediate we(
the penalty was death by h. ii iii. One clause of this la .
the poor were exempt from the penalty."
Maize apparently went through its first great period )f
velopment in the Andes, probably in southern Peru, where )ri
tive forms are still grown by the Indians. Within a rad _us
100 miles of the old Inca capital of Cuzco there is probably m
variety in maize than in all North America. No one ha;
ceeded in finding wild maize or the wild parent fr-w,,, which m;
was derived. The only close relative is "teosinte," a wt ed
fields and abandoned areas in N., .ii .1 and Central America 'I
is believed to have been derived !fr-I. crosses between maihe
T I 1 1-. I.I I, a native American grass, and hence originated fi
maize rather than being its "*. IiI" ancestor. Later hybridi',ai
between South American maize and teosinte is believed t( h
brought about the development of the modern types of (or
pointed popcorn, dents, flours and flints-all widespread
North America by Columbian times.
Indian corn has never achieved the popularity in Eur yp
enjoys in the Western Hemisphere. The four-letter An
Saxon word "corn" is used in Europe as a generic name '(,r


airs or it may apply to the special grain ot the country. In
gland "corn" is wheat and in Scotland and Ireland rye. All
tionalities, however, recognize the word "maize" for Indian
The early Spanish and P1ortu guese travelers spread Indian
rn or maize throughout the Orient. The presence of distinc-
e strains and (list inciive uses of maize among aboriginal
Ibes in southeastern Asia raises the :possibility that this race
maize may have crossed the Pacific in pre-Columbian times.
is Asiatic maize is of a type that was grown in South America
pre-Inca times and at a lime when it was the only' kind. (See
laize among the Hill Pteoples ofi Assam," Annals of the Missouri
taniclal Garden. 3:()::55-404. Sept. 1949, by ('. R. Stonor and
gar Anderson.)
The first written account of sweet corn, by Bordley in 1801,
scribes it. as "having a white shriveled grain when ripe, as
:Iding richer juice in the stalks than common corn." Later
:ords show that members of the 1779 expedition against the
- Nations of New York under General Sullivan found Indians
tivat.ng sweet, corn west of the Susquehanna. Lt. Richard
gnoll int produced it to Ptlymouth, and it gradually became
nnion as a kitchen garden vegetable. Interest in Sweet corn
an airounnd 1850 andi some 30 varieties were listed in seed
talogs by 1880.
Sweet corn has a long history, although for some time it was
;umed by American corn experts that sweet corn originated
th the North American Indians and possibly was not grown
pre-(olumbian times. This belief was fostered by the use of
eelt corn in the U. S. exclusively as green corn andt since no
eet corn used as green corn was found below the border it,
s assumed that there was no sweet corn in Latin America.
ect corn as a distinctive and appreciated variety apparently
ginated somewhere in South America, probably among the
,h civilizations of the Andes. The Indians of Ecuador, Peru
I Bolivia have a native name for sweet corn, sara chulpi,
ich dates back to pre-Conquest days, and since the Conquest
' name maiz chulpi has been applied. This indicates that these
lians have had sweet corn for a long time. In civilizations
it did not have sugar cane, this "freak" was a source of
ar. Other varieties of maize were grown for green corn. In
handd Peru andl Bolivia there is still grown the ancient variety
swee; corn which the Incas used in making their high-quality


maize beer of chichaa." (One seed catalog published in the U. S.
today lists a variety, "Quinche," as the "original Inca corn from
the Andean highlands ...handed clown for untold centuries The
(.it:1,.rj further says: "while it has excellent food valley for
cattle, it is also used in Ecuador as green corn and has a de-
licious ll,.. as 'corn-on-the-cob'.")
"Chicha" is still a common drink in the Andes. In pre-C olum-
bian times, in the absence of -ii L-;Ir cane, the Indians added ; meal
made from ground toasted sweet corn to increase the II,..,
content and to give chichaa" its extra kick. Survivals of a icient
drinks made C'-ri, ground roasted sweet corn may still be l'oind
in Guatemala and M,.-\i, .-fermented and unfermente 1. In
.\I \,., "maiz dulce" (sweet corn) is used, as a source of sugar,
mixed with peanuts and squash seeds in a primitive crack'r.jack
called "ponteduro" or toasted and ground into a fine p( wdler,
mixed with anise or chocolate or cinnamon and stirred up into a
sweetish drink called "l;,iii,. The M. \i,.ii sweet corn is too
gummy when cooked for use as green corn.
The Peruvian sugary corn has ears nearly as wide a, they
are high, big as an orange, with a thick heavy cob, nun erous
irregular rows of kernels, tapering to somewhat of a poih t and
smoothly rounded into a basin at the butt. The kernels ar con-
siderably larger than present-day hybrid sweet corn k( rnels.
In color they range from lemon yellow, orange yellow and v irious
shades of orange red to a deep ( ,;i, -.. red. According Edgar Anderson, in Man, Plants and Life, this ancient South
American variety has moved slowly north, century after ce itury,
mixing with the ordinary corn of the country enough to adapt
,I- ft' to the new growing conditions and yet so protected 6v its
inherent recessivity that in all these y\-ears it has not y(t lost
all of its distinctive South American appearance. Amoro the
Plains Indians of North America there are varieties (I uetta
sweet corn, for instance) which are almost like our Goldei I .,i-
tamrn except their kernels are a variety of dilute Chinese reds
The sweet corn of the Hopi Indians, who have retained as rnuct
of their ancient culture as any Indians in the United States, is on(
of the traditional sacred corns used in their summer fes ivals
In many of the ears there is still a strong resemblance th(
original South American variety. The Hopi have grown tlieii
sweet corn for so long that they say its origin is unknown .
or that it had no origin because it had always been in exist-ence
The five wavs sweet corn is used in Mlv\iio (toasted, oinole


ponteduro, etc.) and the seven ways it was used by the Six
Nations (boiling, roasting, scraped, etc.) are in no way alike.
The Hopi however used it in a number of ways, some similar to
those used in Mexico and some of those used by the Six Nations.
According to Dr. Anderson, by the time sweet corn reached the
Plains and became adapted to conditions in North America, the
gumminess characteristic of the sweet corn of western Mexico
had disappeared and sweet corn became an ideal variety for use
as green corn.
Sweet corn was primarily a minor or local crop for fresh
market until after World II. During the 1940's there was a phe-
nomenol growth in the cultivation of sweet corn for fresh market.
Among the important factors that contributed to this expansion
are: (1) the breeding of new hybrids suitable for culture in the
South and the West, for local use and for shipment over long
distances; (2) the availability of new synthetic insecticides for
control of corn earworm and other insects; and (3) the develop-
ment ot improved packing and shipping materials, equipment
and methods. The most outstanding among these has been the
improvement and extension of precooling and refrigeration fa-
cilities to reduce loss of eating quality of sweet corn before it
can be delivered to the consumer.
HISTORY The cucumber is supposedly a native of India, al-
though plant explorers have never been able to discover a wild
prototype. Cucumbers have been cultivated since earliest an-
tiquity. Reliable records indicate they were used as food in
ancient Egypt, and were a popular vegetable with the Greeks and
Romans, They are one of the few vegetables mentioned in the
Bible: see Numbers 11:5. A Chinese ambassador in 200 B. C.
travelled as far as Persia where he saw cucumbers for the first
time. He introduced them into China. At a much later (late an
English sea-captain, returning from the West Indies, brought
back pickled gherkins to Mrs. Samuel Pepys. Shortly after this
period, cucumbers were being grown in England.
Occasionally in a collection of old glass a plain glass tube or
cylinder resembling a lamp chimney with parallel sides will
turn up. This may be an English cucumber glass, says the Wise
Encvclop)e(lia of Cookery. This was a device used at one time
to make cucumbers grow straight. George Stephenson, inven-
tor of tne locomotive, is credited with this invention.


In England a special f,,r, in,! type of slicing cucumLcr
grown in greenhouses. The fruits attain length-over tw( fP
in some varieties. American consumers, however, do not libk e 1;
huge English type any better than they like our smaller s ic-.


HISTORY An annual plant of the potato family, native
India, where it has been i.,ii since remote antiquity. 11
large white to dark purple fleshy fruit, sometimes six or eijg
inches in diameter. The Chinese and Arabs grew if-"L'II; il
early as the ninth century, and it is supposed to have be( n
produced into Europe by the early invaders.
According to available records, the early types had smr
fruits of ovoid shape, perhaps i', ,.,,,nt in!' for the name egg la
British traders brought i -.-i.inl to the London market fr(
West Africa in the 17th century, calling it "guinea squash."
Eggplant is prepared by baking it in the skin, boiling it
water, -ih '.. in it in oil or broth as they do in the Near ,..
slicing and frying in batter, or barbecuing with meat.


HISTORY Native to the East Indies. It was introduce( i:
Egypt and Greece at a very early period and references to it
pear in their history. The plant was brought to America
colonists. Endive is closely related botanically to chicory a
the two names are sometimes incorrectly used as synonyri
Escarole is another name for a type of endive with broad I !a,
and a well-blanched heart. The word "endive" is reserve d
designate plants with narrow finely divided curly leaves.


HISTORY Cultivated upwards of 2,000 years in India and 7'
laysia. The fruit was brought to Florida by the Spaniards in -;
16th century. However, the commercial ;,I,ii Fruit industry
Florida was based on seedling trees very much like the Dinc.
variety and now known as Florida Common. A Spanish s(ctl
Don Phillippe, is reported to have brought grapefruit and o 'an


^*HI^B^A- ,r ** ; IH~MR


nfl.-\r ~ni

seeds from Cuba in 1>12 and made the plantings at S.ife
Harbor. The orange trees died from neglect but the gr.'p, '),
trees thrived. The variety was introduced and propagated
A. L. Duncan of Dunnedin about 1892 and it is still the fa ori
among the seedy varieties.
Credit for bringing grapefruit to the attention of the itub
belongs to a group of enterprising Florida citrus growers -w
shipped the first grapefruit from Florida to Philadelphia al
New York markets between 1880 and 1--- The recogniti m
Florida of the grapefruit as an appetizing breakfast dish st irt
its culture on a commercial basis. Cultivation expanded un
grapefruit production has become an important industi]
Florida, "I ,.;.i-, California and Arizona.


HISTORY Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is believed to
native to the Mediterranean and Near Eastern centers of (ri.,
of cultivated plants. Wild and cultivated lettuces are still: ou'
in the Near East, which includes inner Asia Minor, the wh, le
Transcaucasia, Persia (Iran) and the Alpine Turkoman Rep.ibl
A species of Lactuca (stem lettuce) is native to China. (Sowiro
Botanical-Geographic Principles of Selection, N. I. Vavilov, I rar
lated in I:ii; by Mrs. Eugenia Artschwager USDA.)
Modern forms of lettuce are believed by most botanists to
derived : ..111 a wild form which grows as a weed in most ,i-e
where lettuce is found. Lactuca scariola or prickly lettuce
a familiar weed over much of this country. It is also edib e.
grows from two to five feet high. The leaves twist or turn 'd2
wise to the sun and it is sometimes called Compass Plart f
that reason. The lower part of the stem and the midrib ( f 1:
leaves are covered with weak prickles. The leaves clasp the dte
with earlike projections. TI'~ir margins are sharp-toothe, 1
most bristle-tipped. The plant is a biennial or sometime :
annual. It can be found in fields, waste places and road 'id(
When a few inches high, it may be cut for salads or as p(
herb. The young leaves are very tender and are used as a I:ala
As a potherb, it needs very little cooking. It is gather-d
the spring or early summer. (Edible Wild Plants, Oliver 'er:
MI.,i-.. r, The MacMillan Co., New York, 1954.)
Although lettuce has been cultivated for more than 2,0(
v o' r innd its, niltirp vwn, wid1oqnrpind in ainni'nt fiam ;f-

either so old nor was it so widely grown in prehistoric times
;a number of other garden crops, according to Dr. Victor Bos-
ell, USDA ("Our Vegetable Travelers," The National Geo-
raphic Magazine, August 1949).
An anecdote by Herodotus indicates that lettuce was served
i the royal tables of Persian kings about 550 B.C. Hippocrates
130 B.(.) commented on its medicinal properties and Aris-
tie (:56 B.C.) praised it. Galen (164 A.D.) noted it and indi-
ted that it was in general use. The Romans liked it. Columella
12 A.I).) listed as distinct sort the Caecilian, Cappadocian,
ylprian and Tartesan, while Plina (79 A.D.) listed as types of
ttuce the Alba. Caecilian. Cappadocian, Crispa, Graeca, Laconi-
n, NiPra, Purpurea and Rubens. Palladius (210 A.D.) wrote of
nrieties: (as distinct from types) and mentioned the process of
anchirg. Martial (101 A.D.) called the lettuces of Cappadocia
ile"'' or cheap, indicating abundance. In England, Turner
538) mentioned "lettuse." China greew lettuce as early as the
I h century.
Lettuce evidently arrived in the New World with Columbus
1 191, as Peter Martyr reported that it was being cultivated
i Isabela Island (now Crooked Island in the Bahamas). Ben-
ni (1565) spoke of its abundance in Haiti, and Nieuhoff (1647)
id he saw it growing in Brazil. In 1612 six varieties were re-
ited vrrowing in France: Vilomrin described 113 varieties in
dancee in 188:3. Holland was growing 47 varieties in 1720.
nrigland had six varieties in 1597, 9 in 1726, 15 in 1763, and 18
1765. In 1806 McMahon listed six varieties growing in
mericiin gardens. The report of the New York Agricultural
xperinient Station for 1885 reported 87 varieties, described
ith 5h5 synonyms. (Source: Sturtevant's Notes on Edible
ants. edited by U. P. IHedrick, 1919.)
The earliest lettuces cultivated were loose leaf types. The
Use-heatding and the firm heading forms occurred much later.
iucording." to George M. Kessler, I)epartment of Horticulture,
ichigan State College (Fruits, Vegetables and Flowers: Physi-
[)gy and Structure in Relation to Economic Use and Market
quality, published by Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, 1954),
e heading varieties grew in popularity because "the leaves of
ell-growxn heading varieties are more tender, more succulent
id sweet than those of the loose-leaved types. This is probably
partly because most of the leaves of the heading varieties
~..~... ..~.. .... 1.. ..... 1i^.. la ... ....~....i..1.. .1 ...1 .. .. ..

TLr -tT-* CA'vn^o


P'ena and Lobel (1570) wrote that the (;os or itomainm t:,
was rarely .ii in France and Germany, although comn on
the gardens of Italy. Heuze (1873) said that this typ( w
brought from Rome to France by Rabelais in 1537. Firum
given by the botanists of the 16th century indicate that t
heading habit of lettuce was firmly established. Green, li:!
green, dark green, red and spotted lettuces are named in tie ,
botanies, as well as the various kinds such as curled. iha:
leaved and oak leaved and heading. From this Sturtevant rIn.
the conclusion that although modern culture has developed] i
proved lettuces, it has not brought into being any new typ s.


HISTORY Limes, like other citrus fruits, are native to 5, u
eastern Asia and have been cultivated for thousands of ea
It is believed the Arabs I..,i,1,i limes from India to fer-
Palestine and Egypt d(liii,. the period of expansion of -%. I,.,
medanism, A. I). 570-900. The lime was not mentioned by ,
pean historians until the time of the Crusades. This citrus 1r
was probably introduced into Europe by the Crusaders wl (
came familiar with it and the sour orange and lemon on th
expeditions into Asia Minor.
The first mention of the lime under that name is attri ul
to Sir Thomas Herbert who spoke of 6;!niii!-- "oranges, 1( r-l
and limes" on the island of \l.ii, I,.i off .i,'..'., 'ijl, .ii' dum liin!
voyage begun in 1626. However, the fruit was called "lin a'"
early as the 13th century, and Arabs fii',in remote times i:
word "limoon." From the early days of sailing vessels, lime au
has been on the regular ration of British tars to prevent s( -
From their large consumption of lime juice, British sailo's
ceived the nickname limesys"
No citrus species are native to America. Columbus, (n i
second %\,... ai,'t to the New World, stopped at Gomera, one of t
Canary Island group, from October 5 to 13, 1493. The 'e
secured seeds of ori,,LI-. lemons, limes and vegetables.
planted the citrus at Isabela on the island of Hispaniola. Li
trees are mentioned as growing on the island of Haiti in 15
The lime spread from cultivated areas in the West Indie; a
Florida and was later found growing spontaneously as sea tei
plants and sometimes in thickets.

ly (lays of the citrus industry. During the 70's and 80's Cali-
nia grew more limes than lemons and it was thought the
ifornia lime industry would become highly important. On
other hand, Florida grew lemons and relatively few limes.
nW thte- situation is reversed. California grows virtually all
lemons and Florida grows most of the limes. Florida's lemon
ustr% was almost totally destroyed by the great freeze of
14-95, after which the lime industry expanded.
A sidelight on the so-called "wild lime groves" found on the
er east coast keys of Florida is that they were planted by
iry I'errine, to whom Congress granted a tract of land on
ca ynm Bay in 1838 for the establishment of economic tropical


;TORY The mango probably originated in the Himalayan
ion of India and in Burma and Malaya. It has been cultivated
at, least 4000 years. It entered prominently into HIindo myth-
ry and religious observances. It is now well known all over
tropical world, probably being as familiar in very warm
Lions of the globe as is the apple in the temperate zone.
The fruit was introduced into the United States, it is believed,
ilboul 11833 when plants were sent from Mexico to Florida.
ese trees did not survive. About 30 years later seedling trees
"e introduced. In 1885 an attempt was made to introduce
ice grafted trees from India, and others followed in succeed-
years, but most of the progress reported has been made since
beginning of this century. Because of the fruit's suscepti-
ty tcf frost, culture of mangos is limited to the best localities
*southern and eastern Florida where it is a summer crop.
The mango is considered by many the most delicious of
pical fruits. However, this high esteem applies only to the
icer varieties. Many of the seedling fruits have very coarse
ous flesh and a characteristic "turpentine" flavor. In the
ter varieties, these unfavorable characteristics are reduced
A minimum and are scarcely to be detected at all. Although
nigos are not well known in this country, they are so prized
some parts of the world that glowing adjectives are used in
cribing them. The Turkoman poet, Amir Khusrau wrote in
14th century: "The mango is the pride of the garden, the

-I_-~_:- -I--YLI


dustan. Other fruits we are content lo eat
ingo is good at all stages of growth."
on a tree of the Sumac family, some:iimes
arge shiny leaves and yellow or re Idish
s range from the size of plums to tlEat of
weighing a pound or more. Color of A:he
teen to yellow or red, orange color e,.ng


ii,. -, in the Abyssinian center of ( i;.-i
In area that includes present-day Eth (,tIia,
plateau portion of Eritrea and the ea: tern,
.nglo-Egyptian Sudan. Little is kno\ n of
I distribution of okra. It did spread rh')m
ica, completely around the M\i, it, ii. n(ian
been cultivated in Egypt for many hun-
has never been found in any of the ar cient
of old Egypt. It was probably taker into
11, from the East in the 7th century It
idia after the ii,_!,iir.L. of the Chri.tian

standing popularity of okra in the Fi ench
and its slow gain in popularity else\ here
assumed that it was introduced to this
i colonists of Louisiana in the early l'(-i's.
Sfar north as Philadelphia in 1748; J -frer-
n in Virginia before 1781 and from ; bout
us garden writers had something t( say

3 called ':_u.,,I ...," tilt, .. ,.i_. that narne is
ed to soups and other dishes conta ning
e of African origin. "Gumbo" is bel eved
f a Portuguese corruption, "(|i,;i-._.,, b1o,"
" native name for the plant in the C(ongo



:enous from Palestine to India, whence it has extended to
ina, ('Cochin (Ihina, Japan, Europe, North and South Africa and
Although the place of origin is indistinct, Sturtevant says
ie onmon has been known and cultivated as an article of food
m the earliest period of history." The Bible (Numbers 11:5)
words that the Israelites complained to Moses as they were
ng led out of Egpypt:: "We remember the fish which we did
in ilEgypt freely; the cucumbers, and the melons, and the
ks and( the onions and the garlick" IlerodotLus, the Greek
either of HIistory, recorded that in his time (5th century
'.) lihe workers engaged in the 20-year job of building the
:iops pyramid consumed "onions, radishes and garlic" costing
I talts (aplrox. 82 million). HIillppocrates. Greek physician.
I onions were commonly eaten in 1:0 B.(. Theophrastus, 322
'.. named a number of varieties; D)ioscoriles, (iO A.I., spoke
the onion as "long or round, yellow or white;" and Pliny, 79
).. tlescribed both white and red onions. lore lhaln 1200 years
q, (1-410), Chaucer, the English poel, said: "We loved the
leek, onions and ek leeks."
Early explorers nbroughti seed of various types of onions to
New Yorld. Slurtlevant says: "It is possible that onions
e amoong the garden herbs sown by ('Columbus at Isabella
md in 1494, although they are not specifically mentioned. "A.
mboldt, German scientist and explorer, says the primitive
tericans were acquainted with the onion. Wni. Wood, New
land colonist, mentioned onions as cultivated in Massachu-
ts in 16:34; they were cultivated in Virginia in 16 18; and were
wn in Mobile, Ala., in 1775. In 1779, onions were among the
ian crop, s destroyed by General Sullivan at Geneva, N. Y. B.
XMlahon, author Of "The American Gardner's (Calendar," men-
let and described 14 varieties in 1863; and Vilmorin (Paris,
since. seed house) described 60 varieties in 1883.
TANY Botanically the conmonm bulb onion is known as Allium
a. For ilmany decades the Lgenus Allium was classified under
family Liliaceae. which includes the lily, the hyacinth and
vgladliolus, but plant taxonomiists hae decided the flowers of
)ns more closely resemble the narcissus and the amaryllis,
they are now attached to the family Amaryllidaceae. The
,ie "onion" comes from the Middle English "unyun," and the
iich w'oignon," which in turn comes from the Latin "unio,"
mingi "onion."


Wild onions are found over nearly the entire United l;ta
and southern Canada. Some of the western states have al ou
dozen species. Among these are the Nodding Wild Onion (l li
cernuum), which is common on banks and hillsides from >
York to South Carolina, and west to MIAiit -,I1.1, South Eak
and New Mexico. In the northern part of its range, it goes \\
to the Pacific Coast. Tli. bulb is strong but, if parboiled, ih s
to eat. It is excellent for 1.1. Ll;i,._. The Swamp Onion ( lli
validum), found from Washington to California, is ".i, 1 .
as a :1 w'ing ingredient for soups and stews."


HISTORY The various species of citrus are believed to be ial
to Southern Asia, including South China, Indochina and the
lay Archipelago. There are indications that oranges were :!r(
in Burma liII years ago. References to oranges in C iir
writings (late back to about 2200 B. C. The ancient bool.
Y Iii-- a tribute to the Emperor Ta Yu says: "the basket: \x
filled with woven ornamented silks. The bundles contained >-r
oranges and pummeloes."
Or.,. i. are of three principal kinds, sweet, sour and m
darin (loose-skinned fruit). Sweet and mandarin oranges h
been eaten in South China since the country was inhabited '1
report deals only with sweet oranges, the most important <
By the Middle Ages cultivation of ,.,11ii-'. in China w is
advanced. As early as 1178 A.D., Han Yen-Chi, Chinese h(
culturist, wrote about 27 varieties of oranges growing ne ir
city of Wenchou, ini, lii, ii' seedless fruit. Han speaks of oi in
as i valuable and precious." The spread of sweet oian
to other countries was slow. While sour oranges were cult \v
in the Mediterranean basin 1-i11-2 before the fall of the L.or
Empire, sweet varieties did not appear in Europe until eI'1N
the 15th century. How they got there is uncertain. Thnrt
no reference in European literature to the sweet orange )ej
the 15th century. Gallesio wrote in 1811 after extensive re ;ea
that the sweet orange probably reached Europe first throu;,h
commercial trade of the Genoese. Some others disagree.
Dr. Edward Louis Slturt%\;an in his famous "Notes on ]d
Plants" says: "The sweet orange began to be cultivated
Europe about the middle of the 15th century. Phillips s ty

i: : :

~5~ s .s
Ss~~~-a ,-,,



-~:I ::a" a
i P: ;


was introduced at Lisbon (Spain) in 1548 1. Juan de Castri:
celebrated Portuguese warrior, and from this one tree all
European orange trees of this sort were propagated. Thi 1I
was said to have been alive at Lisbon in 1823 . Gallesin s
the sweet orange reached Europe through Persia to Syria ,
thence to the shores of Italy and the south of France, be
carried by the Arabs. It was seen by Friar Jordanus in In
about I:'..:1 In the year 1500, says Loudon, there was on 5
orange tree in France, which had been planted in 1421 at
peluna in Navarre. In 1791, Bertram refers to the orai L:t
i..ii'.;l,:, abundantly in Florida . and in 1871 Dr. B:;ld'
writes: 'You may eat oranges from morning to night at ev
plantation a;,l.i- the shore (of the St. Johns) while tho 1.
trees, 1,liiliif.l with their golden fruit over the water, pi;-er;
an I !ii l;iril in;r: appearance'."
In the early pim\ in- of (,,.!-'. and other citrus fri it:;
Europe, much injury occurred from frost. In the earl. 1
century, fanciers began to use specially heated buildings ii
"orangeries." Such structures are now called greenhouses. H
ever, plants were grown under glass (or panes of mica 1i
before the orangeryy" period.
Columbus carried seeds of the sweet orange when he ,.a
in 1 1I,.; to establish a settlement on Hispaniola (Haiti).
orange Ilourished there. It was taken to \ I ,.. and ( 'ni
America early in the biii, century. Acosta and Piso wi )t:
finding the fruit growing wild in the West Indies and Br izi]
early as 1600.
It seems certain that oranges were brought to Flor da
early Spanish explorers and colonists, some time between 1
when Ponce de Leon came looking for the Fountain of Coi
and 1565 when St. Augustine, the first Florida colon ,
established. Oranges were also planted before 1577 in So
Carolina. The orange reached C( lii i ,. with the founding '
San Diego mission in 1769 but the honor of establishing tf e f
grove of considerable size goes to San Gabriel I .I--I.i
Io, ..-, ,llii_..11 were planted on a six acre tract in 1804.
The word "orange" goes back to the old Arabian wor I
ranj" and Persian "narang" used before :',,,, A.D. Lat r
philosopher Albertus Magnus of Bavaria ( 11:';-1280) A.I, i
the term "arangus" for sour oranges. This is very close to
modern word "orange" and is supposed to account for its ,ri
For extensive historical material see "The (itrus In(diitl


ol. 1, oy X\ebuber and Kiatchelor, published by University of
;alifornia Press.


ISTORY The papaya (Carica papaya L.) or "tree melon" is
tropical fruit highly popular in all parts of the tropical world,
ut has been little known in the U. S. except in Florida. It has
ng been a staple food in Asia and Africa. It was unknown to
ie Old World until seeds were brought from the American
topics by early- Spanish and Portuguese sailors. It, was culti-
ated by the Aztec and Mayan Indians long before the arrival of
olumbus and Cortez and other Spanish Conquistadores. Some
;)tanists believe it to be native to the West Indies or Central
.merica near the Gulf of Aexico. Others believe that the cul-
vated 1apapaa arose as a hybrid between two species of Carica
ative of Mexico. The Dutch traveler. Linschoten reported in
598 th:.t the papaya had travelled from the Spanish Indies to
!alacca, in Malaya, and thence to India. From India seeds went
Naples. Italy in 1626. It spread by seed from Malacca or the
hilippine Islands through the South Pacific islands. It appears
Shave b een introduced into Haw aii from the Marquesas Islands
mietimes between 1800 and 182,3 by )Don MaRin, a Spanish
Wttler. It is believed to have reached Africa by 1i600.
Exactly when papayas were introduced into Florida is un-
iown. but the introductions ntiust have been soon after tlie es-
tblishment of Spanish settlements on the East ast. In 177,:
artram reported finding it apparently wild on the low I-luffs
ong the St. John's River near Palatka and even ri(lc'e abtlndantl
ear where Sanford is now IJocated. Commercial growing of
ipayas in the lower lRio grandee Valley of Texas was introduced
lortly Ibefore World War II. Some attempts were made in Cali-
r1nia t ( grow papayas but production today is largely limited
leenn louse-prow n Ior otherwise specially protected plantings.
i Hawaii efforts to grow uniformly good shipping quality
ipayas and intensive studies oIf inllroved nmethotls of nmarketini
ive dlore much to giive the palpay a a wider dlistrilbultion in con-
nental In. S. since 1950.
The English word "papaya" is a corruption of the Carib
Adian name, "ababai." Other corruptions of the name are "pa-
tia," "paIpeya" anl "papia." "Papaya" has a slightly off-color
'nnotation in northern (Cuba and is called "Fruta Bomlna." In


Hawaii some local names are the Hawaiian "milikane" and "h'
the Tahitian "iita" and some similar terms in other Polyi c
dialects. In some English-speaking countries, Australia, fo
the name "appaw" or "Pawpaw" is in common use. This ,e
to .,,ni'II-.1 the papaya with an unrelated species to whicit
name papaw or pawpaw has long been applied in North An e


HISTORY Parsley is a biennial plant of the same tar 1
celery, carrots and parsnips. It is believed to have original (
Southern Europe. Parsley has been planted in European gi r
since the time of C(I.IIII. ii ..1,II It was in use at much ()
periods, however. The early Romans are reported to hal e
parsley to their chariot horses in the belief it would( make I
speedy. Travelers from Sardinia offered parsley in commel,<
a supposed cure for a variety of ills. It was introduced in c
United States (during the early days of colonization.


HISTORY Seeds of the primitive green pea have been fo 11
lake mud beneath the positions of houses of the Swis;
dwellers, dating back perhaps -i 1111 years to the Bronz(
They have also been found buried in a cave in Itrl' ..ivy, b( I
by some to date back even further. The main center of ii
and development is in middle Asia, from northwest India tl r(
Afghanistan. A second area of development is in the Nea
and( a third includes the plateaus and mountains of tl,,Fir p
It has not been found among any of the ancient Eg.!:
treasures, in spite of many claims; but it has been foiin
,li,;'_ .*;i_ on the site of ancient Troy. The Aryans from th *
are supplose(d to have introduced peas to the Greeks and R( or
who grew them before the ( I,-I i 1i.ii Era.
It was i11 -I grown only for its d(Iry see(Is. Some variety e
grown extensively today for the (dry seeds for "split pea' s
It was not until after the Norman conquest t of Englan I
"_.- ii peas" were mentioned. People then began to us
in the fresh, green stage, i .... 1;-. pods whole and eatiilg
peas from the pood and sometimes also eating the pods. In


h century, among other foods stored at the Barking Nunnery
Ir Londion were "gIreen peas for Lent." They were described in
ail in France in 153(i. Garden peas were not common until the
h century but were considered a rare delicacy in the 17th
iuvy in France. The eating of them became "both a fashion
ta mifadness." So many line varieties were developed in
lmin( that it has become known here as "English pea."
The nanie was derived indirectly from the Latin "pisum."
Anglo-Saxon is became "pise" or "pisu" and later became
aze" or "pease." So many thought this was the plural form
t the "s" or ".'z" sound was dropped and the word became


,'ORY Although sweet, peppers are native to tropical Amer-
thei culture and use were widespread in Europe before they
ime popular in the United States. Peplpers were introduced
SSpain in 149.;, were known in England by 1585 or earlier
were taken to India and southeastern Asia in the 17th
iury. In the first half of the 1ith century travellers to
erica found many forms of peppers, not only in the West
ies but in Central America, Mexico, Peru, (Chile-wherever
t touched the American tropics. By the beginning of the
i century every form known today had been found, all grown
he Indians.
Ouir a'arden peppers, both hot and mild types, are not related
he true pepper from which we get black pepper. It belongs,
ier, to the same family as tomatoes and potatoes, both
ve to the Americas. The name apparently was given to the
it b1y (Columbus and his associates Iecause of the pungency of
hot varieties. Peter Martyr wrote in 1493 thai Columbus
eight home with him "pelppler more pungent than that from


TORY Although called Irish, Solanum tuberosum, the po-
,, is rot native to Ireland, but to the Americas. Although wild
toes are found as far north as Colorado, it was in South
erica that potatoes were first cultivated. Peruvian pottery

pk.' ." it,.

:. .,., ,
2, , __.

shows representations of the tat a cultivated p it
least as early as the second century A.D.., -ri dii'. to R dcli
N. Salaman, author of the -authoritative book l.. isto i
Social li ili. .. of the Potato." But even in the second c(nt'i
the potato had for a great while been a familiar article ( 1'I
along- the coast of Peru. Potatoes mav have been used f r
ties before the pottery makers sculptured them. An
before they were used on the coast they had been used i ',N
form and cultivated in the Andes mountains. .I-. were Lr-)
in valleys about feet aot e above sea level, and. still are.
N r. Salaman says the Spanish explorers made their histc
discovery of the potato in the mountains of what is now i( ok
bia. Scouting parties of the expedition of Gonzalo Jime ez
Quesada visited a high plateau in a native village about 7
latitude, and there found in the houses what t.i called "t
ll.s Actually, they were potatoes and the Spaniards w ci
bia.~ ~ ~ ~ Scutn pate fteepdtono ozh ie>_
uesda isie ihpaeui antv ilg bu

AK'IhMitNI ur A Ai-t


n to tie good eating. However, they were much niore in-
sted in such loot as golQd and precious stones than in newn
ts. Yet the potato has been more valuable and had more
'I or the history of mankind than all the precious metals
genis ever (11u lUp.
alaman finds evidence that Ih otato 0was introduced into
n between 1550 and 1570. Hlow potatoes were shipped from
New World to Europe is uncertain, but there were many
ous difficulties in keeping them on a long journey. It is
ved that the first European crops came from potato tubers
not 1orom seed. In any evellt. potatoes were on the market
pain as early as 157T. An account book of a Seville. Spain
ital shows they Xer(e heing regularly purchased in that year.
'te stlry that Sir' Walter iialeieh introduced ihe potato into
Te is prl'obally legeId. The same is I'hobably true about
lar stories creditiug this el ichal even( to Sir Francis Dl)ake
) Sir John Ilawkins. The Raleigh story says he brought
1 to Enigland from Virgiia. There are two things wrong
it: Raleigh is not known to have visited Virginia at any-
;and the polatlo las unknown in Virginia in Raleigh's lay.
low the potato came to IrelanIl is ullcetltaina, hut the time
durii t he last 15 yeais o I the I ith century. islory does
recoid that anyole mii'ed the adoption of Ipotatoes Ib* the
peasants, )but they took l them like a cat to catnip. Ire-
s climate and soil were ideal for potato culture andl the
le, always poor, were badly ill need of additional food. Dur-
.he 17th century potato cultivation spread through Ireland
by the 19th century potatoes were such a large part o(i the
fool supply l hat an epidelmict of potato blio ht in 1846-17
Itd a severe famine. During the 17th and 18th centuries,
Loes were graduallyly inlroluced into most other countries
-e they are now grown.
'he Iotiato was brought ii NewX England in 1719 from Ire-
by immigrants who settled at Indonderry, New Hampshire.
IE The word "potato" seems to have come from the Span-
'batata" which was applied to sweet potatoes, and hqy mis-
, to Solanum Tuberosum. In Scandinavia the word appears
potatis" in Sweden as poete" and "Potetes" in Denmark.
reec(e it's "patata." The original word for potato, used hby
South American natives. was "papa." a Peruvian word.
h means "tuber." The termnl "spud," so generally applied
otat ees, probably comes from the Scottish word "spud,"


meaning a kind of spade or dl,-_-i,-. fork commonly used iti cul-
tivating and lI i r\- I inii potatoes. "Spuddy" is a slang tern used
in England for a man who sells bad potatoes.


HISTORY The sweet potato is unknown in the wild state, so it
is not certain where it originated. However, the weipfht of
authority is that it's native to the Americas. Victor Bosv ell of
USDA in his masterly article "Our Vegetable Travelers,' (Na-
tional Geographic, August 1949) says Columbus recorded t nc.ing
the plants in Central America on his fourth voyage, and prob-
ably found them in the West Indies on earlier voyages The
natives of the West Indies fed Columbus' men some boile "roots
described by the Spaniards as "not unlike chestnuts in fl i vr."
Nine varieties growing in Honduras were named by Peter 1Martyr
in 1514.
However, long 1. fi.-re white men arrived in this hemi:,phere
the Incas of South America and Mayas of Central America
grew several varieties. They called the plant "cassiri.' One
variety was grown for food and other varieties to supply t ieir
artists with colors to use in their paints.
Early Spanish explorers are believed to have taken the -.weet
potato to the Philippines and East Indies from where t was
carried to India, China and -.1 ,l.iya by Portuguese exp ,rers.
Boswell says the sweet potato apparently was introduce I into
Japan from China some time around 1700 by way of the R'-ukyu
Islands. In Kvushu today it is called kara-imo, meaning (' inese
DeSoto and other explorers found sweet potatoes grow in: in
Indian gardens of what is now Louisiana. Sweet potato; were
cultivated in Virginia in 1.648 and possibly earlier. Early co irnists
are believed to have picked up the plants in the West Indie: when
their ships following the trade winds, put in there for su )plies.
The 1.i 1...1 Louisiana sweet potato industry and to large
extent the entire industry in this country is based on the lM ieya
variety brought in from Puerto Rico in 1908 by an un ncwn
, ,,M 1111111.1 worker. Mameya is a Puerto Rican word m ailing
"yellow yam." Probably the variety was brought in su 'repti-
tiously and illegally.


HISTORY The radish (Raphanus sativus) is a member of the
mustard family and is related to cabbage, cauliflower, kale, horse-
radish and turnips. China is believed to be the country of origin,
with middle Asia as a secondary center where many different
forms were developed after the plant was introduced from China
in prehistoric times. Ancient Egyptian records indicate radishes
were co0nrmon food in Egypt before the Pyramids were built.
Greeks and Romans were familiar with the plant, and Moschian,
an ancient Greek physician, wrote a whole book on radishes.
Tragus, in 1552, mentions radishes that weighed 40 pounds, and
Matthiolus, in 1554, declared he had seen radishes that weighed
100 pounds each. The radish is supposed to have reached Eng-
land about 1548 and was eaten raw with bread or in the form
of sauce as an appetizer for meats. Radishes were seen in Mexico
about 1500 and in Haiti in 1565, indicating they were among the
first European crops introduced into the Americas by Columbus
and his immediate followers. They were among the first crops
grown hv the English colonists in this country. McMahon men-
tions ten sorts in his list of American garden vegetables pub-
lished in 1806.


HISTORY Spinach (or Spinage) is native to Iran (Persia) and
adjacent areas but did not spread to other parts of the world
until th( beginning) of the Christian Era. The first record is in
Chinese which h states that spinach was introduced into China
from Nepal in 6417 A.I). It reached Spain about 1100 A.I).,
brought by the Moors from North Africa and they in turn got
in 1)by way of ancient S ria and Arabia. The prickly-seeded form
was known in Germany in the l3th century and was commonly
grown in European monastery gardens by the 14th century. A
1390 cookbook for the court of Richard II had recipes for "spy-
noches." The smooth-seeded form was described in 1552.
Spinach was probably brou(gliht to the U. S. early in colonial days,
but commercial cultivation did not start until about 1806 and
the first sawvoyed leaf (curly) variety was introduced in 1828.
The 'English word was derived from Old French "espinache"

I."'. /-,.,1-T /"^fi-r ^lrr

lltAl. Cll. IIU k1i' JC l9 lOtllJ 01 1 .0 -LJIlClVA. 1, 11' V 1 .., l t SIt. I 1
name "spinacia" is a term devised by botanists about the,
or 13th century.
BOTANY Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea) is a small, fleshy- <
annual of the goose-foot family. It is a quick-maturinr,
season crop, hardy and will live outdoors over winter th:'
out most of the region from New Jersy southward aloi
A & ...-. . .... . ..... ..- .. -i --L 1 .._.... . I... l, _,

the Narragansett Indians dubbed i--.ii' i ,Uashh" m aanlin
"*reen-raw-unripe' "-- which incidentally wxas the way th -Y att
it. We still follow their example and eat summer squash ,\\hil(
tender and unripe, though it is usually cooked.

STRA\\ 1.11{111 F-

HISTORY I i, strawberry was born in Nolrth and South meri-
ca, travelled to Europe and finally returned in very di ie"ent
form. Before ('olumbus landed al San Salvador, Indians o (Chik
had selected, from among the wild strawberries that '-rew onlN
alone the beaches, plants that bore fruit of exceptional size
commonly as large as a walnut and sometimes the size of ; hen's
.. I,, fruit was pale red, with firm, meaty, almost whit flesh
and a delicate aroma.
This early Chilean variety was taken to Peru in 1557 and is

1-~_-__ --_I--_____I

FiolRui, (CROF




ive live strawberry plants from ('Iiil. in 1714. Plants ,f the
neadow strawberry of eastern North America had already' bIeen
aken to Europe, and from crosses of these two forms, th( mod-
irn strawberry was developed.
In the United States, the commercial development of traw-
)erries has come principally since the Civil War and most Atraw-
)erry varieties now grown have originated within the p. st 55
,ears. New varieties made possible the extension of the terri-
ory where strawberries could be grown; and the growth if the
*ailroads and introduction of refrigeration in transit per:nil.ted
shipment to distant markets. Strawberries are now pr( itcedl
n every state and also in the interior of Alaska.
How strawberries were so named is disputed. One explana-
ion is that straw was used between the rows to keep the I erries
'lean and also was used to protect the plants in the winter.
Another explanation is that in Europe ripe berries were th~leaded
)n straws to bring- them to market. Still another is that I erries
vere found under mown hay in Europe, and ''-1:,." in Anglo
)axon was "straw."


JISTORY All citrus fruits, including the mandarin group of
oranges of which the tangerine is one type, have been cultivated
n Southeastern Asia since ancient times, probably morm than
M000 years. In general, the mandarins have thin, loose ski i that
separates very readily from the flesh. The segments also se ;irate
'asily. In general, the mandarins are divided into tang,,rines,
having dark, orange-red peel and satsumas, having li ghter
-ellow peel.
The mandarins are favored in Japan and China over olher
ypes of oranges. They are supposed to have reached I urope
.bout 1805 and by 1850 were well known in the Meditenranean
countries. Apparently the first of the mandarin oranges to be
introduced into the U.S. was the Willow-Leaf or ('I i.,i mar darin,
vhich was brought to Louisiana by the Italian consul a New
)rleans between 1:; -i and 1:-5II and planted in the group i'dL of
he consulate. From there it was taken to Florida and hence
probably to California, according to Webber & Batchelor, a i1 hours
f "The Citrus Industry."
The name I i:_m,' ine," which is supposed to be derive( f -om
'.11.ii, ,', M.lrocco. has come to apply to all the red-skinn d va-


fw this veTgetable. as reported Iby early European expIlorers were
"t miatl,' "tornatle" and "tomatas."
The earliest written record of the tomato dates back to only
155 .. The explorers had brought the tomato to Euiope. Italians
liist ,,.rew this vegetable in 1550() and apparently were. the first
Emuropleains to eat it. The feeling that the tomato might be
harm'nIll arose from the fact it is one of the Nightshade family
of which some species are poisonous.
Wha', connection there is between "poison" and "love" is
),sculre, blut the French called the tomato pomme de amour
(apple of love) and English swains adopted the idea and pre-
sentedl t matoes as a token of affection. Sir Walter Ralei-h is
said to l ave presented one to Queen Elizabeth. Threafter the
ganllanmt Raleigh lost his head, but this is no longer considered a
soun( a rgunment against having tomatoes in the refrigerator.
Even as late as the 17th century the tomato was grown in



The National C

times. Pictures -II. i,. in',- from ancient Egypt show that water-
melons were cultivated then. The actual mention of the water-
melon under the Hebrew name, "abbatitchim", is found in con-
nection with the history of the Hebrew exodus from Egyit. Old
names in Arabic, Berber, Sanskrit, Spanish and Sardinian are
unrelated, i ,,li iin._ great antiquity of culture in ti e area
around the .1I ,lit, i'Z11, ,ii.i and east as far as India. In the wild
state both bitter and sweet melons grow in the same ocality.
Since they look alike, the natives knock a hole in each 'iiuit to
taste the juice before taking it for food or drink.
The watermelon has been grown for thousands of year- in the
warmer parts of Russia, Asia M, ii.i the Near and Mid( ie East
but appears to have reached China only about 1000 ye, rs ago,


/?~Fc^-^ ^

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