Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Florida crops
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00088904/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida crops what and when to plant
Physical Description: 73 p., 3 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooks, T. J ( Thomas Joseph ), b. 1870
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: Januarym 1963
Edition: Rev. ed.
Subject: Crops -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horticulture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetable gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Earlier editions by T.J. Brooks.
General Note: "January, 1963."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00088904
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AKD9376
oclc - 01310918
alephbibnum - 001962699
lccn - a 64007227

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
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    Back Cover
        Page 78
Full Text

I.LZj /





jo Ie _;



A. ap-p




id a ld Wlie tl Plat)

In order to pul
of avrencies for tlh

latest a


Florida Agricultural Extensi


,o contac t
ie wish

SA4l.a 6 e aA i-e i-1

)s Griown in Centra'il Florida

)s I; GI-OWu in Soutth Florida

e ra thlo Frtuit anld Vepetable Shipmnents

I. St ate Farmers M
W' Oi It(peration

'omflnf (itles Sold

nary List \I. 'winual

it awl N gatialbhl( ('0!

Qiict id Wiiling NMIo~l

Im~i~m! Fv;c~ts of F'lori


l~ima Owns~


BI wcoli

R1iussios Sprouts

111)1 11'

lin alou.

a ind



ie'! Iiiornation

Oiriits a ndI Vegoetalbles







jC Ird

.J '-


11 Ai)Fo ToBiACCO

'~~Pd- -~.


What and When to Plant


The harvesting seasons for the various crops vary so greatly owing to
varying seasons as to temperature and rainfall that no definite length of
harvesting dates can be given. The same crop will last much longer when
planted on different dates. Different varieties of the same crop differ as
to length of gathering days. Bunch beans (1do not hear as long as pole beans,
and pole butter beans bear longest of all.
It will be noted that the number of days from planting to mnatitrity varies
much more in some crops than in others. Weather and soil cor diiions are
the cause in the main of these variations.


North Florida comprises Alachua. Baker. Bay, Bradford, C(all
(:olumbia, Dixie, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Flagler, Gadsden
Gulf, Hamilton, Holmes. Jackson, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leot
Madison, Nassau, Okaloosa, Putnam, Santa IRosa, St. Johns,
Taylor, Union, Walton. WVashingvton, Wakulla Counties. Area
The number after crop indicates the number of days require
edible maturity, or gathering maturity if non-ediile.

oun, Clay,
( ilchrist,
1 1,414,560

1 o reach

BEANS (Snap)


When Planted
M a.-June
Feb.- A pil
Mar., Aplil, A\u'., Sept.
Sept., Marclh
-Sept, to Feb.
Sept., Mar.
Mar., April -a rtot crop. No deithite
harvest date
Jan., Feb., Au'., Oct.
Feb)., Ma'r., Sept., Nov.
Feb., Mar., April
Feb., lar.
Jan.., Fel).
Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov.
Mar., April, Oct., Nov.
Jan.. Feb., Sept., Oct.
Feb., Mar., Sept.
Sept., Oct. a, J Feb., Mar.
Mar., April, May, Aug.
Jan., Feb. Mar., Auo., Sept., Oct.,
Nov., I)ec.

Days t< Harvest
0;0 to ;.o
I5 to 7
50 to ;)
(;) to 7i)
90 o 21)
70 to 9)0
70 to 7";

55 to (;(
50 to ;i5
50 to :.5
SO to >5
0 to 15
90 to t !(
50 to 55
100 to 15
50 to 8I0
40 to 15
50 to 55)

50 to IL,)








Veet a hles When I'Plan
SPA RSIlY Feb., Mar.
PA ISNI f'S Feb., Ma., Oct., Nov.
Pi' AS (lEn' lis ) -. lan.. Feb.
1 PPERS Feb.-Mar.
R1"APISHES ,Jan., Feb., Ma.r.( Oct.,
Rl'TABAGA Feb., Mar., April, Sept.
SPINACH X(l IaI., 'Feb., Oct., Nov.
SQUASH ma" ,lhar., A ug.il, A\u.
SAVK 'IYT POTATOES Mal., April. Al May, June
TO)MATOKES Feb.. Mar., April, Aur.
STI'' N I'S ., Jan., Feb., Mar., April,

1'ruils \Vhen PIlan
VK: G Jan., Feb.

PI A 1; N


Fi lt nirop.s \W'hen Planted
A I F1. I I.A ()ct. I)c.
AI. (CE( I. 'I-; I Ap,.- une
I>A1IIlA(;l SS1 FeUb.-Nov.
' M I 1 )A; IA SS Iar.-Au N.

C AP 1, ET(AS' Feb.-A u,.
'HUFAS AprI.-June
(I.OVElu R, IiMStN ()ct.-l)ec.
CLOVE!,. VV \VPTE Oct.-l)ec.
(1' R NS Feb.-Apr.
' OTT()X Mala.-Apr.
(T lEMlA, A pr.-,uo-l.v
SES;IU 1, T\ Ai' (Oct.-ov.
INI)l(;(). I A L Ap .-J, unt,
I. NIt I \ \t Fe'b.-Mahir.
1LUPINE' Ict.-lic.
(A\TS. FOR W'01;A(;E' (4c.-Wec.
OATS, FORl (;CRAIN Nov.-Hec.
I'-AN(;)I\A(;L\ ,SS, June-July

t50 to 55
70 tLo 80
SDec. 210 to 25
t. 50 to 8O
40 to 45
45 to 60
120 to 140
75 to 85
., Sept.,
40 to 50

Years to
85 days
I to 2 years
2 to 4 years
2to t year8 s

ito 4 year's
3 to 5 year.

80 1to 100 da lays

i\ OV.-- p) .


Field (rops


When Planled


Oct. or Feb.

Dec. to Mar.
Jan., Feb., Mar.
Jan., Feb., Mar.
Sept. and Oct.
Nov. to May

PECANS I)..c. to Feb.
TUNG NUT .. .. )ec. to Feb.
!Harvested by rgrazinu or as hay or silcage.
'Ti' ned under as 'reetn imlanure.


Wh n Ilarvested
F'e .-May
Se t.- Oct.
Ati I.-Oct.
Oc ob'r

Oc .-Nov.
.Jai .-May
Jui e-, -"uly
No ,.-D)ec.
Ma Apr.
)e -A pr.
Ma -.June

2 t.o, 3 years
1 t 2 years
1 to 2 years
Ma to June
I io 2 years

4 years
4 (* 6 years

1r10l tcpp]r



Central Florida comprises Brevard, Citrus. Hernando, Hillsborough,
Lake, Levo, Marion. (Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Seminole,
Suniter, Volusia Counties. Area. 9,l(4;1.800 acres.

The numl)hr after each crop indicates the number of days required to
reach edilel maturity, or gathering maturity if non-edible.

\When P'lanted

I)ays to Harvest


C U1, I. F" OWV I ,'Y

0 T L A R 1).....

(!'()1;.\ t;

E( ;(I'lA N'1






,an., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov., )ec.
AuKg.-Sept., MaI.-Apr.
Feb., Mail., Apr.
F'eb.. Mar., Sept.
Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov., Iec.
Jan., Sept., (ct., Nov., IDec.
Feb., Mar., Apr.
Mar., April
()ct. to lan.
Jan., ()Oct., Nov., )ec.
J.unl seeddl: July (seed); Augf. to
Sept., Feb., Mar.
Jan., Feb., Mar., April, AuV., Sept.,
()ct., Nov.
Feb., March
Mar.ln, April
.Jan., Feb. springl crop); July, (fall
Sept. to Fel).
Sept. to Mar.
Fe., Mar., ()Oclt., Nov.
Jan., Feb., (Oct., Nov., )eec.
J.an., Feb., Sept., (Oct., Dec.
Jan., Feb., Sept.
Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov.
Jan., Feb., Mai., AUK., Sept., Oct.,
lMar., May, Aug.
IDec, Jan.
Feb., Mar., Nov.
MLay, ,Junei
Jan. Feb., Mai.
Nov. to Maich


N0) to 120
(0 to 65
';5 to 75
50 to GO;
0 ;()to 70
70 to 90
75 to 9t)
100 to 200
70 to 75
55 to (60

1 15 to 125
50 to 55

50 to 55
50 to 85

8O to S5
!)0 to 95
50 to 55
50 to 55
90 to 120
100 to 115
50 t;,o SO
10 to 45

50 to 1:;0
50 to 55
!)0 to 95
125 t1o 1;(i
150 to 1SO0
70 to 80
8O to 95






FieldI Crops


When Planted
Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov., Dec.
Jan., Feb., Sept. to Dec.
July to Mar.
Sept. to Marchl
Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Nov.

When Planted
Sept. and Oct.
Feb. to Mar.
I)ec., Jan., Feb.
Jan. and Feb.
Oct., Nov., Feb.
I)ec., Jan., Feb.

I)Dec., Jan., Feb.

Sept. and Oct.
Dec., Jan., Feb.
Feb. to June
Iec., Jan., Feb.
Jan. to April

Years to Production
4 to (i

1 to 6;
1 to 2 yrs.
2 to 4 yrs.
I to 5

3 to 5

4 to 6)
4 to (;
12 to 15 mos.
4 to (;

May and .June. Sept. and Oct.

A pr.-June
Mar.-A u"



Apr.-l une

Apr.-J une

I)ay< to Harvest
21 to 25
5 *c: 80

7 to 85
4( to 50

\Vh n {Harvested
Jul lo January
S5 Oct ,Ot I) to May
Jun and July

D)el ,lnls on
l)ep 'nds on
Jlun,. July
Oct( ,e to June

Octc hier to March
8O) 1o 100 days

lDec Ibet to Apr.

WV hen [larvested
.Jan.- \ku'.
Aug. ((it.
AIp.- Nov.
Apr.- Nov.

Apr.- 'ov.
Sept. WI-e.



May-( t.
,Jan.-. it
Nov.-. p!.
May-J ne
Apr.- )v.

Aug'.-( 0,.
May-0 *t.
Nov.-A pr.





Sl(eit I r)iops 1 VIfI + illa itli it f ntiin tl lu t
SS ( )Oct.-Dec. ',.-May
1\ A p .i .I ine An.t ()-0 t.
M, A\I A\ Apr.-JuneI AU.- l.ct.
M, lOt -:A(tI\ Api.-.JIlt Ate'.- (Jet.
NS M Jtl ()c ti)h>' i
AN1K' Oct. mr Fleb. Oct.-Nov.
I.()\'"1-IS Oc()t.-I)ec. Jan.-Ali

FOR r01;A(; Oct.-Dec. ec.-Api.
FOt (IAI Nov.-Dec. A -t J nIe

UTI ID)ec. to Feb. 1 ( G years October antind Nov
lec. and .Ja. 4 to (; y'a aIs Octoiber and Nov
2steid lhy 'razingn or as 11ay or silai'.
it undletr as Ilteen nanUie.

k _. + -



= +i4
1 l~





South Florida comprises Broward, Charlotte, Collier, Dadec,
blades, Hardee, Hendry, Highlands, Indian River, Lee, NMii.L te,
d. I.ir.., Okeechobee, Palm Beach, Sarasota, St. Lucie Cou]nlii;
1.371.,1.-1i acres.

Vegetables N hen Planted Days no i1

EPANS, SNAPI Sept. to April 50 1
EANS, POLE' Jan., Feb. (iO (
:EANS, LIMA Sept. to Apr. (5 o
:EETS ,Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., D)ec. (;0 1 o
ROC('COLI S.Spt.-Jan. 60 1')
:RUSSELS SPROUTS Jan., Feb., Nov. 90 1:
UCTIMBES ... Jan., Feb. 501 )(
'ABBAGE Sept. to Jan. 70 t I
'ANTAIOUPES Feb., Mar. 75 t
'ARROTS Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec. 70t i
;AUI.IFLOWEItR Jan., Oct., Nov., Dec. 55 t
ELEIRY JJuly to March 115t) :1
OLLARDS ... Jan.. Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. 50 t 5
'ORN Jan. to Feb. 801 tS
ASHIEENS Jan. to April 85
;G(PLANT l i....Dec., Jan., Feb. (spring crop); Au'g.,
Sept. (fall srop) 80 t.
S('CARO()IE Aug. thlnu Jlan. )( t(
;N(GISII PEAS Sept. to Feb. 50 t4
.ALE J Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov. P0 t: 1
OH1,-R AB.--. Nov. to Feb. 50 t(
ETTUCE Sept. to Jan. 50 t( i-
'JSTARD ....... Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept.. Oct., Nov., Dec. 40 t( 4
'KRA Feb., Mar., Aua., Sept. 50 t( 5
'NIONS -. -. Jan., F'eb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov., IDec. 50 t( 1:I
EPPE-RS Jan., Feb. (spring crop); Aug. to Oct.
(fall crop) 70 to S
UMPKINS Mar., April, May 150 t( 1i
A 1)1 S1 ES Jan., Feb., Manr., ()ct., Nov., Dec. 20 to 2
UTABIAGAS ...... Oct., Nov. .50 to
QUASI .Jan., Feb., Mar.. Sept., Oct. 45 to 0
PINACII ... -Jan. to Apr. Sept., ()ct. 45 to f;
WEET tPOTATOES Feb., Mar., April, May, Jutne 120 to 1I
OMATOES ALI'. to Malrcu 75 to March 75to
URNIPS Oct. to Feb. 40 to
OTAT(O ES Au'g. thru Feb. Fe to i)

Cd~; j R ^

: i -:: :W ii :l

AA \ (;AlU) Lt r il eIL., u'L., ;NOV. yva
QANANAS Any Time 12 to 18 month)
HIIAYOTE Nov. to Feb. 4 to 5 montl
COCONUTS Any Time 5 to 8 years
GRAPEFRUIIT IDec., Jan., Felb. 1 to 6 yearl-
G(UAVAS Oct., Nov., Fel. 2 to 4 year'
ILEMONS Dec., Jan., Feb. 3 to 5 year;
LIMES 1Dec., Jan., Feb. 3 to 5 year;
MANGOS Sept., Oct., Nov. 4 to 6 yearn
ORANGES I)ec., Jal., Feb. 4 to 6 year;
PAPA YAS Feb. to Juone 12 to 15 month]
PINEAPPI.FS Aung. and Sept. 18 to 20 montl
SAPODIII.A S Sept., Oct., Nov. 6 to 10 year,
ST RAWI E 1 RRII1ES Oct.-Nov. 90 to I 10 day
TAN(GERIANES Dec., Jarn., Feb. 4 to 6 year=
XWAT 'ERTMEI ONS Feb., March O( to 100 iay

Field (Crops
AL FAIA Oct.-Dlec. Jlan.-Aoug.
BA HIIAGRA SS' Jan.-Dec. Mar.-lec.
IiEtIMUDAGRAt, SS Mar.-Au'. Mar.-l)ec.
CARI( IIGRASS Mar.-Au. Mar.-De.
CAPETGIASS ,Jan.-Dec. Maa.-l)ec.
(CLOVER, WHITI,11 Oct.-Dlec. Jan.-Jtne
'OI['.NS an.-Mar. u -Sep.

IN1DIGO). IXAIY A .pr.-June June-S.ept.

l.l 'INE1
tAI\TSI, FOI FOIAGE' ()c.-Dec. Nov.-Apr.
P.A\N(; O1 -\1SI, A' ,\ .-( L. M.ar.-Dec.
P I,' A ;lASS Mar.-aAu'. MaIr.-Ic.

I'IARIMI 1.IAin Apr.-J n(e May-()'.
'YE, FlOI; "tORAGE'K Oct).-Dec. Nov.-A pr.
PY E I.A S4 ( Oct.-I c. Feb.-May
SESI.A NIA MaliI.- ay A u'.-(c.
s ) ll> G (11 ( .P 1 N
SORG_\M. FORGE' Apr.-July FAlu_-.-Oct.
ST. AU14(ST] N I'((;GRASS' Mar.-Au. Feb.-Ih.
S1' A 1 "CA N' AXI.-NOV. NOV.-A 1|.
SW4IET{I'(I,((:RES+ O(t.-DI1,. Jan.-Mayx

~I 1~1 1





I Agee


In the following table is shown names ol some of Flori(da's most 11
portant pri)dlucts and the months that they \ae availabIle fori market.
.hIly \llr. Sepit. Avocados x x x
Heans x x x x x x x x x
Beans. (ranlit rry x x x x x x x
Beans, Iila x x x x x x x x x x x
Beans. Pole x x x x x x x x
Beets x x x x x x
Broccoli x x x x
(Cabage x x x x x x x
Cabbage, Red x x x x x x
(antaIloupes x x
(arrots x x x x x x
(' n11111. x x x x x x
celeryy x x x x x x x
Celery, (Cal)hage x x x x x x x
(ollalds x x x
(orn, M(Geen x x x x x x x x x
( uciumltIers x x x x x x x x x
Decorative (G1reens x x x
Ee-prlant x x x x x x x x x x x
Escamole x x x x x x x
Grapefruit x x x x x x x x x
Greens x x x x
Kumqw(lut, x
et luce x x x x x x x
Mangos x x x
()kra x x x x x x x x x
Onions, Green x x x x x x x
()ranges x x x x x x x
Parsley x x x x x x x
Peas. Fi ldl x x x
Peas. (nreen x x x x X x x
Peas. Souithln x x x x x x x x
Peaches x
Pecans x x x
IPepprs x x x x x x x x x x
Potatoes x x x x x x
IPotatoes, Sw'eet x x x
IRomaine x x x x x x x
Squash x x x x x x x x x x


July A\ug. Septl Oct. Nov. D, J. Jan. Fell. Mal \,r. May Junr
TomatoeIs X X X x x x x
Watercress x x x x x x X X
Watermelons x x x x
Radishes x X X x x x x x


1961-62 Season'

(CRO()P Acrealge Production Unit Value

Acres Units ,(0100 dollars
Oranges 429,800 113,400,000 Boxes $240,09:3
(;rapei uit 94,000 35,000000 Boxes 35,799
limes 6,200 340,000 Boxes 1,173
Murcotts 4,800 270,000 Boxes 1,05(i
Tangelrines 15,400 4,000,000 Boxes 10,760
Tangelos 5,(;00 1,000,000 Boxes 3,890
Tot al 55.5800 15 1,010,000 Boxes 292,771

Lima Beans 1,400( 38,000 Cwt. 442
Snap Beans 51,000 1,925,000 Cwt. 16,514
Cabbage 14,500 2,(i;82,000 Cwt. 13,(78
(antaloupes 1,200 78,000 Cwt. 272
Celery 10,(00( 4,273,000 Cwt. 24,;91
Sween cor n 45,700 ),529.000 Cwt. 17,035
(Cucumbers 1(),300 1,(;58,000 Cwt. 10,146;
EgKgplant 2,(i00 398,000 C t. 2,13(;
Escarole (,100 ()71,000 (Cwt. 4,429
I, ttuce 2,000 255,000 wt. 1,912
green n pepIlpers 12,400 1,389,000 (wt. 14,429
Potatoes 130,500 4,(i33,000 Cwt. 14,39 6
Spinacli 800 84,000 Cwt. 137
Squash 9,800 513,000 ( wt. 3,719
Tomatoes 42,200 7,729,000 (wt. 53,197
Water melons (;(,000 8,250,000) (C Wt. 10,976
Other Vegetables :17,000 1,127,000 Cwt. 7,658
Total 35 1, 100 39,232,000 ('1.1 195,767

Corln for gain 292,000 9,i3(i,00 Bu. 10,311
Cottonl: Lint 23,500 13,700 Bale 2,188
Seefd 5,(;50 Ton 255
Oats 14,000 476,0()0 Bu. 409
Hay 98,000 1(;3,000 Ton 5,249
I.upine seed 2,800 2,100,000 Ibs. 90
Peanuts 47,000 57,810,000 Ibs. 5,839
Soybeans :(;,000 !):(;,000 ]u. 2,078
Suogarcane 50,700 36i,200 Ton 19,272
Sweet potatoes 1,)00 72,000 Cwt. 426
Tobacco 18,500 32,830,000 Lbs. 28,86i2
Velvet beans 1(;,000 5,000 rTon '175
Other, 331,000 8,67(6
Total 931,100 83,830


1 91; 1 -62 Season'

SIleage Iliductiolj Iju1 it ValuIC

oill IR I p"itF UI S & N t I'S Tl ,3
\vocados '00 1 oi
P calln, I ),()(JII t'lU, gOli Iib 892
S1 I'l wbel I1 ic, ,00149 ,0 Lb.. 4,7401(

O)therG 1(0 ,0
S ao iii 191) IjI~i9)(iII, i ii

Tot 1).1 19.3001 10.665

I Hiii tit tilini al Spteialties' 22,00

TOTA ALL \ uoIs 1,909.300 6 13,03:3

S ,p tti )()III apploilU\ i in tt J1 til 1961 toi .11,1w 191;2 Incl udes I961 fi ld(l r p
I il tijll int l ti t wi inl ed n (t1lc it lwii Vt iil andi NLtS.
I lc ld itra o an crop hoii'e wih fe nIIdclp o "ila
lAi- i ituli eiM4'1 N Lfld Iliitil ti101p.
N IT F : Vali tis I m t II Vailue at point, of iiI sI Salt as detti liIiiid 1I, y ,c it s ioit t\ (I

4&, -Cd ap s

-F! (P41
r.~ ~l j~~ r~IrG-~.~
_WL~i y


CO d, i ix




S'.i iT RS








EC[ACHMNT I M10 1 I 91 19 10 13 /

Note: The above schedule shows only when the various ma *ket,,
are in operation. Crops listed for each market on the follckwing
page are available only when in season.

< a LiC 4 .. .
K uC

:'A >x x X X X x

KI I x x x x x x x x
.. .... ........i .. .. . .

yz1 ,x Mxl x

SAL x x x M x M

[ X 'L X :x m x XI X X X
i X X 1 I M X X X

iTY M X M x x x x
Ii t
NO'(M m XXX x xx jX M X X X

RD-\x M x x xx x x x x x x x X x x x x X

K x M -x x M x xX M

IULA I M X x x

5r I2 2 2 7I 7 I I 9 2 7I

)A ,,.rI, h : ,I M I'rir al v ( 'r p

.... ''' ,^ /.i ,5 ,,,.., .. .... "i^, ._ . ,

. * -



Amoimina Rcfticirlaift (BidlockKs HWart)

holes A, F, (, I, ) F, (G after the name of the plant refer to the region of 1
which his plant occurs, as indicated on the accompanying map (See Fig. 19).

oame of Plant common n Name Locality ) Ofi

tol(cllhia Serpentalia Snak( Root ID I'.S.I
ila icnta S weet birch A T.S.1
siculm f'rutescel' i (; 7.S.
ssica ni a I. ,,I . ,rd I.S.I
0nopldit 11i ambrosioides
anthelminticum Aiericain wormseed F, ( U.S.]
lallOllmili calpilorla Cam(lllphol I). U.S.I
lallon}lll cassia (assia vciinallmon U II.S.1
us iledica. var. I,imonum Iemon I, 1, .S.I
us aurint-itm Sweet orange I), ILS.
lura SItLraioni0i .Jimson weed K, (, I.S.I
s-ypi1ni hlerbaceum (Cotton A, , I) .S.I
idlamibl:r styracifhia Sweet KI01'I A Ci, 1, I). t T.S.I
itha sp cata Spearmint : 1'.S.I
thI]a pipoeita 'eppet rilint '1 .IS.
larda pilctata torsenIint li, C, I), E
is palulltis and other Lon, leaved pine,
"ies loblolly pine, etc. A, P,, D, F, U.S.1
opiiylhlum peltatuim Alandral e 1), 1 1'.S.I
nus seiotina Wild cherry A, IB U.S.]
ica granatum: l'omeg0ranaie E, F, C .S.]
s galbha Sumac berries l U.S.1
nu.l comimunis ('astor bean A, 1, I), IT U.S.]
*noa serrulata Saw palnetto, Sabal A, B, C, I), E N.F.
e lia marilaandica Pinkl root,
lin1ia ;5']vati .a Queen's root A, B, I), F N. F.
ilti pl mifolia Vanilla blean I), F N.".
i aloe 1, F

G-4> 'A '


FioRuDx CROPS 22


ii lii ~i I I li H i iii l I ai ll of thet plan 11i ii l Ix li Iii l~ lix Hp laiiil l" io n I ll (Ile

( i xmim' \ x (tj iih

I \I ilt I ( I' I ,i

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S( l I) IIti t I iiil, \o

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i R inii)\ 1i 1 i' l{

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I 11111 1I "i i i i n l rii i

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l j I lll lwI ll \wl lll aai

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I1 liiiiII qi li, \il lil l

,! S iiiii ,i ,iii ~nii c

M'I \;i tli I a i t ;in( la\ i

; I i i \ two
alig lii l] ii ( ill;Itii ,i

7 x. - IIIII, I ; 11I(il Itll i

iI. I i l ;iitil l i 11 11 i( ai

I . ix11 ii li il it
1. Vc Ihiii iii l ha si ,
1-i i 1i ii i \0t iii ( Ii i i
Il 'lc II ]("

PcII I Xi,\Iiio

Fititc (Ic

Poiii Imo

I i ii111111
I ii1-i l
\\ Ili N.1i11
Itiiiii i
it iii x i Ii l

XX cii i I Iiki

Oplim Pp

Rillc iii ~ l;
Iiiii(ki i

I 'uk1 olplli

Iliii~ i liciii hI
I ;I Iii I Indii

N lippci\ lii Biik
I lillii iii

Pliiiii i

\.1 .



I S. I'

I .'i I

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I,( ,I}.I/.

\ ,lI.l )

I l( l



I'io/i (lH>

l) iic t, diilpti lcii
' itiil ll i i iih itli(
I)ll lioiu i(, ('i i( i\ ( oi;it n!:
Sl i i l;li ll

I i t I ilt ill
I h(1 1 t ii ( t11 iit
id)oallllh a'i lll

Slii I) ll( tl l i]i

I in iilaill, I oii
1 iaphowicii

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I) I oni(
!', \ h ral iw l c, an/ i-cpll ii
_XII.i ) \. i iti l iti.i l

] kl illl lim l lll, cIIII I I \ Diill liic
I.1) Dil(rc.c. ci il li lic
\ .1 .( .1).I ( Iti ||;I ti||(.
,I .I \ i il h (lit lil i
S ti illlll iIlt
\.]l.(.I,I< \M icl'i (tn (iolgi \, .C.'.I)F \iuillgcsi( "oliiliiilcill
l iiilh il. [om( hi,
1I \lteraiti\,i

(hiii r( <:i!

\ P I ii i I i[ l \p ( 101 ;111

I. Ii milllll;lil, (lii (iti
BT I ollic a/ il .i lict i

I .)1 I>'rI llll. (I. mIIl(1
ln i'^' 1OI .1l ((i'l II IIf ;'n'

\.F BI.'D,.I.



Source: J. T. Duncan, Manager Traffic I)ivision, Florida F. & V. Assn. (Orlando.

Coi rrrrrlity

Ilirria. other than LimaL
Hears. Lirin,

('alla,age, Sat', L
Chicorv, Endivli\e iln~ol Escarolec

114 I I I ...... Ii-

Co airi le
Ccori (henl

Iett LJC(I

Or~iii with tap,
PeLL, Cow,

Pl,'.iEngli h

'idistiis, w ith topli,
li0li'lahes iLII0 tit,01
Situa h

Tulij,L Gren,

Type of CoIntainter

I( Containerr No.

1 Bushel I Hamper 8501I
1 Blushel Hamper S5)01
5;"-I.L ILags 7 (500-7.'525
XWireliiiil Crate 5102
Wirjeolnaii Crate 5r102
\Xireb.o.rniI Crate 3I 01
Wirebound Vept;>able Cralte 5>045
LSqrlllrO raid Splini 8latkel S101

Wirelounl (. t rnit :t1I01)
Wirilbonid CorIt Crate 17:;()
i IHihel Ilasket l02;6-8035-S050
I tillish l tahkit ,'l02 -.Si :t-,-S0')5
I uphill liaskct S026-SI035-8050

WihiOllaln &i V Crali. .ill',
Wirflxuil l,&V I rate :,an0
Ie,'tucci & Vegetaille Crato I;5
Wircloundi Criate 5107
Sill] Braid Splint Bask)t 8101
1 It shl 'Wirehouiiiil Craite 500l
1 Ilush, l Iarnii. 1 Ilashl HI;aski l u(It-(5-S0(
I Ilthel Haentlr a S01
3 l[l ] ia-ski '02(i-S0: 5-8050

1-2 Ba gu-l ]aK 7500-7525-7550-7551
SIare raidi Splint aAkit 11
I illish,! [llr;lkit i'i, S inll
1 Hnashll Ha pimp M,5ll
l i Box 102l5-10(1t0

*0; PiM C(u' ils
2 h1 Pint CrtlsIL
1 IBiush ie ia ll rt i)2fi-Sl;i5-?i05


!-I,5 bu. WH lioxle 5,,4
4 5 1u. WH\ I-o I.S fiid type i :illi77
4_ 1>H. W jH Il IIFlat typfl :;.177

ithimntd -ivht,1 l t ll thei l ut hale 1l, iii lI .

The following Standard Units of .\ I .Iurement arle used in as(crtaining
the value of each product as listed below:
Acre-All crops listed as Feed
Bushel-Alyce ('lover Seed, Corn, ('hayotes, Chufas, Dasheens, Irish Po-
tatoes, Oats, Peanuts. Peaches, Pop ('orn, Rice, Rutalbaa, SwX,.:. Pota-
toes, Soy Beans, Velvet Beans, Wheat.
(Gallon-Milk, Sua Calne Syrup, S\'t'up, Sorghum Syrup.

Quart-Strawberries, Blueberries.

IPound--Cheese, (Chestnuts, Black Walnuls, Beeswax, Butter, Deei Ton-ue,
(Grapes, HIoney, Paplayas, Pecans, Tung Oil, Wool.
('rate-Avocado Pears, Assorted Berries, Beets, Beans stringr). BLread-
fruit, Broccoli. ('abbagee, Celery, cucumbers Carrots. (CIll. i 'ds. I, i,.
Cantaloupes, Elii-';.-l1 Peas, Eggplant, Fern, Grapefruit, (ua'- a;. Jap-
anese Persimmons, Kumquats, Lettuce, Lima Beans, Lemon.-, Limes,

E tima t ed
ItillinTi Wt.

23 bs.
21 Ibs.
il Ibs.
:ll I s.
S1.5 hbs.
:;,3 lbs.
33 Ihs.
3 Ibs.
3,4 Ibs.
3:2 lbs.
51 lbs.
101 Ibs.
17 Ibs.

25 Ibs.

Or., n g ,,

maIes, raitsnes. rtnut)ari). nIape. ntomam, UKia,s ranges, oapo(iin
.ar Applies. Spinach, Squashes, Tomatoes, Turnips, T, ;ii._.in
ung'berries, Onions.
ead or Each--All Livestock and P'oultry, Pet Animals and Bir
llpkinS; i nd ('c,cIonuts.
in-Ih.y and Forage. Kaflitr ('orn. ('assava, Sug'ar shortt t.,n), B.'ro(
rn. SilWlg.
lie--(Col Iton.
ozen-E.r:s, ('ut tFlowcrs, FIlower'in, BIulbs.
)t---F irn )l ,, l,,11. 'y.
ree-All Fruit- and Nut-Bearing Trees (Nurse'yT Sto)ck and N(
artint Frees have not been valued).


ihle indlig'enes of Asia include spices, coffee, ea, cinnamon, anrki
rbi. buckwheat, radish, pistachio, licorice, peach, cuIcumber, alino
artichoke, garlic, manon, pomegranate, grape, soy bean, yarn, ych
* rice. cotton, eggplant, black pepper, dasheen. mangosteen, endi
, sliallol, fig, date, Eng]lish walnut, wheat and rye.
iMle Infligenes of Africa include coffee, spinach. cantaloupe, earis
at (tr .elon.
il)le Indigenes of Europe include apple, fennel (parsley family), c
'(. ese)crtF I. n ustal'd, cabl atage. turnips. (. IIIIl.. I. t ltalba -a., k(
I)'oectli, ItusstIels sprouts. quiiince. pear, plum, asparagus, i)arsni
. IekT chestnut, filbertl carrot and lettuce.
little indig'enes of Oceanica include coconut, breadfruit, nutin
fruil., cinnamon anti anana.
lihie indigenes of North America include corn, bean, pumpkin, cr
pecan, hickory, g'uava, avocado, allspice, vanilla, sapodilla, sw
,, ch; yotre. bluel)erry, blackler'ry, dewberry, chestnut, hazelnut.
(\West Indies) and monistera deliciosa (West Indies).
liable indigenes of South America include corn, Irish potatoes, tot
)allllenut, cocoa, cassava, pineail)l)e, lima beans, mate. herbaceous pepi
plum. cashew and surinam cherry.

(Courtesy of United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association I


HISTORY There are about 150 species of asparagus s )re<
throughout the world in temperate as well as tropical recicon
All are perennials and many species are grown for ornan ont
purposes. The asparagus we know today, asparagus oficinali
is only one of several species of this vegetable that are e libil
but it is the most important and has been popular for nar
centuries. It is believed to be native to the eastern Mediterrn rea
lands and Asia Minor. It grows wild over much of that art
today and also in the trans-Caucasus. Europe and even ii tl
U. S. where it has escaped from cultivation. The ancient (G *ec
used it in the wild form. They probably received it fron tF
Phoenicians, the first "traveling salesmen."
Asparagus was a popular appetizer at ancient Roman (linlR
As early as 200 B.C. Cato gave detailed gardening instruc iot
that would be considered good today, except that he re on
mended the use of seed from the wild plants. Some early writel
praised the wild forms because they were sweeter in t ist
Some 300 years later, however, cultivated forms were co .si:
tently as good as the best wild kinds. The Romans were so 'on
of asparagus that they dried the shoots to eat "out of sea.-on.
Preparation was so simplle that Emperor Augustus is supposed t
have originated a saving, "quicker than you can cook asparag us.
Northern Europeans and the English have been eating a,
paragus since the beginning of their recorded history. In IEn.
land, apparently, this vegetable was as pIopular raw as coo The 16th century writer, Evelyn, records in his diary that "s: ,.
age" was "delicious eaten raw with oyl and vinegar." I
assumed to have been brought to the New World by the ear ioe
Our name for asparagus is the Latinized form of the ciee
asparagos, and it is easily recognized in most other mo( cr
languages as the same origin: asperge (French and Dut I h
spargel (German) and esparrago (Spanish). About the 17t
century the word was corrupted to "sparrowgrass," but sine
the 18th century this form has been confined to the uneduca (c
HIowever, from the English and American colloquialisms "spi 'a
grass" or "sparrowgrass," asparagus has come to be know i
th i n iu "<- i t "; t

A ,n i ri -P17 E VT /In

V it'PT fI IAi~ x P iA 11 s

AXparagus has been valued for medicinal qualities as long
.s it has been known. It was supposed to he good f'or anything
ro(m Ihe prevention of bee stinks to heart trouble, dropsy antd
oothache. As recently as 1919 it was discovered that asparagus
s one (d the richest sources of rutin, a d(rugf originally isolated
n tobacco. Its chief value is strengthening the walls of the
apillaries, thus preventing hemorrhaging. Rutin increases in
*spalra~lts in the autumn when the stalks are too tough to be
(dille. IModern Imedicine also uses the root as a diuretic.
HISTORY When ('ortez first tasted the fruit of ahuacatl in
November 1519 at the festive boards of \i',ijI ,iI,..i II, at Ten)-
Uhtitlan (Mexico (ity). the capital of the Aztecs, this tropical
Iruit had long been cultivated by the great Indian civilizations
if Mexico, (Central America and northern South America. Primi-
ive Ibwls shaped like avocados have been found am ong the
emlples of Mayas, Toltecs and Aztecs. A fine treasure of the
rieat period of pre-Incan civilization, about ,1110 A. I)., found at
he mnund of Chan ('han in Peru is a water bowl in the shape of
\(O avocados, back to back. The first written report to the
)ld World was made by the soldier-writer Martin Fernandlez de
incis(. who tasted the fruit in (Colonbia. Other historians of
he period soon sent in descriptionss of this new gourmet's dis-
'over\. The news spread rapidly from the court of ('harles V
Sf Spain to other iurolpean countries. Unlike many of the popu-
a;r ncov fruits and vegetables found in the New World, the avo-
'a(o ndid not spread as ralpi(lly to other tropical areas of the
vorld. This was due primarily to dliliculty in proplagation, lhw-
,v(cr, it was Kgrowing in the Hawaiian Islands by 1825 and since
lietn las been widely distributed in Africa andi Polynesia, and
o(ay is growing" in most parts of the xwxorld where the climate is
suitalle. Apparently it was not growing in the West Indies until
he Spaniards introduced it from the mainland. Both Enciso and
the historian O()viedo (1526() referred to it. as a "native of the
rnPinland." As early as IF,'.I, Acosta, another soldier-scholar.
list inguished between the main types of avoca(los. (See RACES
XND VARIETIES.) WV. Hughes. physician of the English
rtowxn, in 1672 pronounced it to be ''one of the most rare and
pleasantt fruits of the island (Jamaica). It nourisheth and
;trenf~theneth the body, corroborating the vital spirits and pro-
-urinu vigor exceedinvlvI." His is the first reference to this fruit

^j^H i'lH ^''**^'f JH
rM| !!^ &' 1

l& xi 11 I

T (T L\oDTT\ A ('I(\I).l

in English. Georg-e Washington, in 1751, found the avocado to
be the most popular fruit in the Barbados Islands.
Ihe avocado was introduced into the United States in 1:-;.
by Henry Perrine, who sent trees from Mexico to be planted
south of AlI.,111. It seems probable that the .\II--,Iiti Fathers
might have first brought this tropical delight to California. low-
ever, the earliest reference appears in the Report of the Visiting
('omnittee of the California State Agricultural Society in I:-5i,
Accor(ling to this, an avocado tree was imported from Nicaragua
by a IDr' Thomas J. White who lived near Los Angeles. In 1871,
three trees were introduced by .Judge R. B. Ord of Santa Bar-
bara. This planting served to stimulate interest in the fruit and
mlan\y trees wel'e planted. Some were imported i i'.'I ;,. 'o and
other countries of (Central America. Others were started from
seeds brought into California by travelers. The l:-:i's found
other pioneers who further' advanced interest in growing the
axvocadol on a commercial scale. Some enterprising nursery men
be.'an in 1910 to explore M\ I ', 'o and Guatemala for new va-
rietie;. The S. S. Department of Agriculture undertook in 1911
to assist the new industry bIy explloring) the avocado growing
areas thorouo-hly. This cooperative search lasted nine years.


IIISTORY Before the discovery of America 1lhe Old \Vorld was
familiar with man types of beans but not with our "common
ibea." Snap beans are believed to have originatedI in central l
America and were (list ributed widely over both Americas !xy lthe
Indians., probably along the same loutleS as awere lima beans.
fBe0ca1lse of its greater rlang- e (of cult ivation over the Americas at
the time of discovery, and its greater diversity in North America.
it is i'obable that its culture is even older than that of the lima
tbean. They were introduced into Europe and Asia soon aftet
their discovery and became popular very early. They were'e men-
tioined in Europe about 1512 and Iby I1616 a lar'e number ol
varieties of different types were described. The Englislh first
used the name "kidney bean" in 1551 to distinguish our Ameni-
can (0onmmon bean from the O)ld World types. It has been only ir
tk(e last 100 years that truly stringless, nearly tlierless, tender-
poddedl varieties, such as we know today, were developed. Ar
in l rest in early bean varieties with stringless pods gave th1


M N a ms:

initial impetus to American bean breeding about 1890. Bet fre
that seed companies had paid little attention to bean breed irl.
They merely introduced a kind grown by some farmer or a ,.a-
riety that had become common in some farming community.

HISTORY lima beans were believed native to Brazil. Evident ce
now points to Guatemala. Wild primitive beans along with a li-
versity of cultivated forms have been found in Guatemala. Th :r
distribution has been traced by the various "prehistoric val ie-
ties" left along Indian trade routes. One route of the bean r :-
gration extended up through Mexico into our Southwest, eatl-
ward to spread from Florida to Virginia. Those rrown by the
Indian tribes varied from the present small types used by the
Ilopi Indians in the Southwest to the Sieva type found in t ie

altlnouthn nlie (wallx8 flItation on wVllcni tney are )naseu( nai
doubt ess l'recurred maIlly times be fore anyone thought of making
use ol it. There is a report that a few hundred pounds of bea
se(I d .ere purchased from a tramp steamer in Santa Bal'bar
about (18;5 bIy Henry Lewis. These beans had been purchase
in Peru by the captain of tlhe ship. Within a few years this see
was being-r grown generally in the (Car;linlteria and Ventura area
and i'rned the basis of the dry limua bean industry which sti
flourishes in Southern California.
nima Beans are referred to sometimes in the South andI other
secti ns (f the country as "bullter beans," although this co
loqluialism is sometimes used in Nexw England to refer to yellow\
poddedlll ( .") varieties o(f snallp Ibeatls.


IIISTORY Beels grown for their leaves, such as Swiss ('har
have Ibeen known in Eurolpe since any dletinite records of foo
Implants there have existed. Beets of the tlype that produce largi
tieshli, edible roots were unknown before the ( I I I -I,I Enr
The ancients used the root of the wild( beet or chard al)l)arenlt
for medicinal purposes only. Beets originated in the \l. lil,
ranen are area and a)pp)arelitly spread eastwxarad in prehistor



times, with a secondary region of developmentt in the Near E;ast.
First recipes for cooking the edible roots appeared in the *,rt-
ings of Roman Epicures in the 2nd and :3rd centuries. The inex't
record of the use of beet roots appeared in English recip( ,)f
the 14th century. The red beet with a turnip-like root wais
described first as a food plant in Germany in 1558 and w is a
rarity at that time in Northern Europe. The improved I)eet
was called "Roman beet" in the 16th century in Northern Eu lope
and France, indicating its introduction from Italy. Garden I eets
remained relatively unimportant during the 17th and( 18th -en-
turies, but after 1800 grew more in popularity on Continuntda
Europe that in the British Isles. It is known when they x ere
introduced into the United States, but only one variety was lii cd
in 1806.
Cultivation of beets for sugar was established in France and
Germany about 1810. Sugar beets are cultivated extensively. in
the United States, and have also been used in northern state as
winter vegetables, sliced and fried and served with meat. Slock
beets or mangel-wurzels are a coarser variety and are used tor
cattle foddler. Sugar beets are usually yellowish-white, nil
garden beets range in color from extremely (dark purplish re:l
to bright vermilion and to white. Those commonly grown for
commercial fresh market are the red varieties.

HISTORY Although the first notice of broccoli appears in Iil-
ler's Dictionary, edition of 1724, in which he says it wa; a
stranger in England until "within these five years," and i as
called 'sprout coli-flower,' or Italian asparagus, Sturtevant 5e-
lieves that the Romans knew the sprouting broccoli as well as'
:other forms at least as early as the beginning of the Christ art
era. Two excerpts from Pliny's writings, second century A.)..
indicate to Sturtevant that the sprouting broccoli (cyma) x 'as;
highly favored. Dr. Victor Boswell in "Our Vegetable Traveleri'
The National Geographic Magazine, August 1949, also states tliat
sprouting broccoli was known for more than 2,000 years in pa I1s
Af Europe. In 1729 Switzer described several kinds of brocc( is
that he had had growing in his garden near London, "the se
past two years," including sprouting broccoli. Sturtevant cotI-
mnents that "since the seeds of the plants described by Swit: er
came from Italv and canm mixepo] wIo mnlimv, +-tf ...-.; .-.1

ItI, I 11 I l ll I I It IML CL UL UI. Ul Il1114 1 C1 U tl C" IU It I l-A
all the types of the broccoli now grown have originated froi
IMcM(ahon's list of vegetables grown in American garden
1806i, is the first. mention of the broccolis, including sproutir
broccoli, in the U. S. I)r. Boswell says, "It must have been know
here f ) many years before that," and he further express(
surprise that such an excellent vegetable failed to become popi
lar unt il comparatively recently. Its use was confined to a fe
Italian families in the New York and Boston areas prior to tl
1920's. In 1923 D'Arrigo Bros. Company planted trial fields I
Italian sprouting broccoli in Santa ('lara Valley, near San Jos
and shipped a few crates by express to Boston. The first ii
pack broccoli was shipped to eastern markets in mixed cars
the fall of 1924, and by 1925 straight car loads were loaded l
San ,Jose for the East. Acreages were limited at first, but 1
1927 nbwe planters and packers became interested and for awhi
supplies s increased faster than demand. In I:'2': D'Arriro Bro
Company started what is thought to be the first direct adve
tisin n program for broccoli through a cooperative radio Iprogra
in Italian and in some Italian newspapers. Development of tI
industry was rapid and in 19,32 a pre-cooler was Ibuilt t Castr
ville for broccoli only. The growing season was extended in th
are ia through development of new strains, and by I '.I qualil
packs became of importance. reading g and bunching' was mnov(
into the packing houses and bunching machines were develop
and installed at ('astroville. These were picked up by other bro
coli shippers and are now commonly used by most brocci


HISTORY I i. Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea bullata ger
nOiflea) is a form of cabbage which, instead of making a lar:
single head, produces a number of small heads along its ste
where the leaves are attached. By pulling away the lower leave
these( heads are given room to develop. This form. apparent
did not come into existence until about I,1, years ago. The P1:
Yearbook of Agriculture states that this plant was not mention.
by the early writers prior to 1759, but by 17: : Brussels sprou
were an article of international commerce and its origin is ge
erally ascribed to Belgium.

i. LjV/H.ll/rt \ 'l.\i\fl


;TOllte atuLII()I'n 01 1aSL, Cetull.l 'y sal(l Mratl ; Vcey ntau oeeii g-)o',vl
from time immemorial about Brussels, Belgium." Sturtevant's
lotes on Edible Plants, edited by U. PI. Hedrick of the New Vork
tale Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New Yorl. re-
ites this by saving, "if this be so. it is strange that they escaped
'ie notice of the early botanists who would have cert irly
oticed I common plant of such striking appearance." The
rotes give further explanation as to how some authors imay
ave been convinced that some of the earlier botanists .vere
escribing Brussels sprouts. An early cabbage, after the tr.le
ead is removed, will frequently develop small cabbages in the
'af axils. Dalechamp. 1587, described such a phenomenon altd
ave this form the name B. capitata polycephalos. Ba1uhin li;2:".
describes B. ex capitibus pluribus, saying" that "some plants oar
0 heads the size of an egg.'" Because of Batauhin's reference o
)alechampl Sturtevant believed he was referring to the sinme
lant. Lobel, 16555, refers to a cabbage like the B. polyceph)los
ut he had not seen it. Ray, 168(i, also refers to a "like ab-
age." Sturtevant ascribed the origin of this vegetable t.( 'a
uddenly observed variable of the Savoy cabbage iype" at s n-e
ime scarcely before the 1700's. By 1821 they! were commonly
cultivated near Brussels and were probably in general use in
gardens in France. Booth, 18741, said they were not generilly
known in England until after 1854, but a correspondent of the
Gardeners' Chronicle," 1850, refers to tall sorts as generally
referred to the dwarf by market gardeners near London. \(c-
lahon, 1806, mentioned them in this country for the first t ome
uit did not include them in his list of' garden vegetables for
imerica. Thorburn's catalog for 1828 offered seed for in,,
ariety and in 1881 two varieties. Sturtevant, writing p .i'
y 1887 said that "this vegetable, in this country" was gr<( '.vn
only in gardens of amateurs, yet (is) deserving more estee n."
'he 1925 Yearbook of Agricultuire said that these were 1:
rTown extensively for market "until recently when a large in-
ustry developed in the Delta region of LoLuisiana."


[ISTORY There is historical and botanical evidence that cil-
age has been in cultivation for more than 4,000 years. Stur e-
ant says "views as to the origin of various types of cabb- 'e
iust be considered as largely speculative." Even the origin 4if

. -' -,, ' -
'- . .' '.
'. . .... .. .-
. .' . .- ,

t i-h ii ( Ith %iAl If o nn e
j" .il e l ;i .- -- .' d -f .o..> 'h a- ti -.t .ea in head..,

al.'. .l" oog I -. i " y'o -- ow U" S A, in )u", r "- 'Veget'a"h
"* .c al, m a i 'I'." .1 "" h e -( ', is h v. v'i "
hi;- c r a e 'a i "e ,. a."B "aintat a.''"- It".

e ."m, -th m ai.ls in l u.h -i i c mei ;fa ;. of

iLui g t. .i.'iv' e fr the L ho cct-i, B el sprut, h"a,'l>
k hlh i.- Vt B ,_e., USDA, in "-Ou Ve :

ITriee pont to the (' as t rn Anediter frana an' Asi \ lii
s ,- a/ is o

] :. *-- .,..i

altsoihe Idr. Victor R. theoswell, liSDA, in "BOur Veletab
"cuilrohe," also meaninff "1 .. The cabbage is of the ienui

"ltras-ijca oleracea," and tlhe rTiodern heading-types (common t(
this c,)untry are classified as "1rassica oleracea capitata." It i,
a winherl)cr of the mustard family, bUt is botanically separate(
fnim the mustard in that it has a distinct amfil y of its own
including the ( i ,tEil..,p., the broccolis, Brussels sriWouts, kateo
and kohlrabi.
Evidence points to the eastern Mediterranean and Asia _\1,..
as the place of origin of the species, but, Dr. Boswell says "th(
Celts of Central and Vestern Europe had much to do with th(
distribution and popularization of cabbage as a food plant." Itfi
introduction into Europe has been generally ascribed to thi

he Celts introduced it even earlier." He points out tha the
'elts invaded Mediterranean lands repeatedly from abou (00
3. C., reached into Asia Minor around 278 B. C., and int the
3ritish Isles in the fourth century A.D. The Romans dii not
spread into northern Europe and Britain until shortly b ,fore
,he beginning of the Christian Era. "In view of these y:,ove-
nents," says Dr. Boswell, "it is not surprising that the hi tc(ry
)f the development of the cabbage-like group of vegetable, has
)een confused between the Mediterranean and Asia Minor, o ) the
)ne hand, and northern and western Europe on the other.'
There is no mention of there having been a hard-hesding
varietyy of cabbage in ancient Rome. These varieties appear' ntly
vere unknown until after the time of Charlemagne, who cied
X. D. 814. Albert of Cologne referred to hard-heading cab )ae
n the 13th century, and it was referred to again in the tIth
centuryy by writers citing a distinction between heading and non-
leading cabbages (coleworts). Unmistakably clear descripl ions
)f hard-heading cabbage were recorded in Europe in 1536.
Sturtevant says cabbage was first introduced into Annm rica
)y Jacques Cartier in 1541-42, who planted it in Canada or his
third voyage. There is no written record of its being pla nied
n what is now the United States until 1699, although Dr. -;os-
,vell says "it was doubtlesss planted by some of the earie:st
colonists." In 1779 cabbages were mentioned as among the
Indian crops around Geneva, N. Y., and in 1806, B. McMaho i in
iis "The American Gardener's Calendar" mentioned early and
ate varieties for American gardens. Thorburn's "American e ced
House Catalog" published in New York listed 18 varieties in 1 <228.


HISTORY When is a cantaloupe not a cantaloupe? The "trile"
cantaloupe variety of muskmelon is grown in Europe and is not
knownn in America. The European cantaloupe was named f'or
:,he Castle of Cantalupo, the country seat of a sixteenth cent iry
Pope, in whose gardens a variety of muskmelon brought fi om
Armenia was first cultivated. In America "cantaloupe" has he-
come the generic name of all the small, oval, heavily net ted
musk-scented muskmelon. All cantaloupes are muskmelons. lut
not all muskmelons are cantaloupes.


I i,' neite( (or inutneg mlusKnlelion wnicn nas oecotmie KIoll) 1ll
cantaloupe in America originated in Persia and adjacent areas.
secondary center of origin is southern Asia where it grew
mntaneously from the foot of the Himalayas to (ape Comorin
:1 the northwest provinces of India, Kashmir and Afghanistan.
also -rrew wild in Egyplit, and inferior varieties were cultivated
a v(ery early date. The oldest record of the muskmelon is an
;ypti,.n pticture o(f 2100) B.(. in which a fruit identified by some
i)crt- as a muskmelon appears.
The muskmelon was introduced in (China and also the I.
ranman areas of Europe at the beginning of the Christian era.
ny the Elder describes "a new form of cucumber . called
I -p. i' which grows on the ground in a round form and . .
hough not suspended, yet the fruit separates from the stem
maturity." Galen, the (Mreek physician, wrote during the
,nd( century of its medicinal qualities, and Romanl writers of
c third century ave dclirections for cultivating and "preparinp.g
witll spices for eating." By the fifteenth century, the musk-
lon wvas well known in Spain, and (Charles VIII of France is
A'lit (( with introducing it into northern and central Europe
mi RIome about the same time.
Th11 muskmelon wvas an "early settler" in the New World.
lumnbus brought the seed on his second( voyage, and in 14941
had it pllantedI on Isabela Island. It quickly spremaI to hoth
n erican continents and was .grown by the Indians in both South
(I N)r h America early in the sixteenth century. Between 15:14
d 1;"8<1, reference to the muskmelon was made in literature and
terms in such widely separated area as the St. Lawrence, New
W* area, Hlaiti and Virginia. The fruit was also grown in
issachusetts early in its colonization. Early in the 17th cen-
ry it appeared along the Hudson and in the New England reg-
1 and was introduced into Bermuda in 1 :',. In 1, -: the
aniar(ls introduced it into ('California.
Directions for cultivating the muskmelon appeared in books
.:i .. One written in France at that time was translated for
P in England, Tlolland, (ermany and many other countries for
iost a century afterwards. One of the earliest hooks on its
Itivaiton published in America appeared in 1769.
'STORY The carrot (Daucus carota) gets its name from the
ench word "carotte," which in turn comes from the Latin

Travelers." It is believed to have originated in Afg'hanist
and adjacent Asiatic areas . and later was introduced it
North anti South America, China and Cochin China, acco'li
to Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants. Just when cultiv-:j
started is vague, but Sturtevant says "we believe the carrot V
cultivated by the ancients." The wild plant is believed to b- I
original of the domestic variety, which was improved thr iii
cultivation and selection. Galen, a Greek physician of the sicc<
century, implied cultivation in his writings, and by the 1(
century the carrot had become well established throughout
large portion of the world.
First mention of carrots in the New World was at Marg ir
Island, off the coast of Venezuela, in 1965 (which Sturte v
says "indicates they were well known in England at that da f.
Carrots were grown by the Colonists at Jamestown, Va., in ](6i
and in Massachusetts in 1629. They were mentioned in B 'i
in 1617. George C. Conover in his "Earlyv History of Ge:ic
(N. Y.)" says "carrots were among the Indian foods destnry
byl General John Sullivan near Geneva in 1779."
"Our common carrot is called the Mediterranean type," ;;
Dr. Boswell, "because it has long been known there and ,,
probably developed from types carried from Asia Minor." T'
developed in other parts of the world, such as the Japa i(
carrot that is commonly three feet long or more, are not gr io
HISTORICAL NOTES When carrots were first brought to I:r
land from Holland, stylish ladies used the feathery leaves to d i
rate their hair . In Germany, a substitute for coffee was rr;i
from carrots chopped into small pieces and browned . In
tHebrides, off the coast of Scotland, they were collected by :
young women and distributed as dainties among their acqu i
tances on Sundays and at their dances .. In some part,
Europe sugar was made from carrots but its manufacture \
not found profitable .. In 1855 surveyors for the Pacific R;
road reported that Flathead Indians in Oregon were so f
of carrots they would steal them from the fields, although stri,
honest as to other articles.

HISTORY Cauliflower (Brassica oleracca botrytis) is a mem
of the cal)bbage family and is so closely related to sprout

thotrytis," from a (;reek word umeaninii "a clusler." It is de-
nedl as an annual variety of' cabbage, in which the head eon-
sits of' the condensed and thickened flower cluster instead of
he leases. Both i Mbii.... i and broccoli have much the same
aly history. The aren'tt of these cabbages is native to the
lediterranean area andl Asia Minor, says )Dr. Victor R. Boswell,
'SDA\, in a treatise on "()ur Vegetable Travelers."
The word "cauliflower" ctlomes from the Latin terms "caulis,'
vhich means stem, stalk or cabbage, and I..-i Is" (flower). "Cau-
s," was changed to "caul." later in German it became "kohl,"
i Danish "kaale," and in Irish "cal." Thus literally x .iiil... r1.
S"ciabbage ir..',." or "stalk flowerr"
The oldest record of cillI- r dates black to the '.1ih cen-
.iry B. ('. The Roman naturalist Pliny wrote about it in the
c(.ind century after (Ihrist. In the 12th century three varieties
c(Oi described in Spain as introduced from Syria. where it, had
oiii)tles-s been 'rowxn for more than a thousand years. In
inilard in 1 -, (.. itl x .... was referred to as "('yprus (ole-
orts," suggesting introduction from the Island of Syprus.
.,ill... . i, r was on the ILondon vegetable market as early as
(i19. it. was grow-n in France around 1w.IIII where it was known
s "ch )i fleur."
It is uncertain xvwhen andll hiow (c l.h', I (sprouting broccoli)
*ais il troducedt into this country, iut I)r. Boswell says it. has
ecu "rown for perhapss 200 years in America." Americans iof
,alian origain, he said, hadl roxwn it for generations in the vi-
inity of New York and Boston efolre it was generally appre-
iated for its attractive qualities A. ,.\i.,lI..,, in "The American
;ardner's ('alenlar," published in Philadelphia in 1806, mentions
irly and late .( i'Ill.- i varieties, as does Thomas Bridgleman in
is "Youngf Gardener's Assistant," published in New York in
- 'e Fearin. 1- Burr, Jr., lBoston, described 10 varieties in 18:6.
'he Vilmorin (Paris. France) "('aitalog" of Seed houses" le-
;-ril)ed 16 varieties in 1870.
Al'.hough grown in Europe for centuries both broccoli and
Sliil .. have become important vegetable crops in this
inintry only since I' I2-. Because of their fine appearance and
elicae flavor they have beciinme increasingly popularr with
imer'c-an consumers. They have been called the "true aristo-
rats )f the cabbliage family." and Mark Twain once dleinedl cauli-
owiver s "cah;ltar'e with a college education.'"




HISTORY Celery belongs to the same family of plants as th
carrot, parsley, fennel, caraway and anise. The character ti
Hlavor and odor of the members of this family are due to th
presence of volatile oils in the stems and( leaves and especi ill
in the seeds. It originated in the Mediterranean countries. V'il
celery grows in wet places over Europe, the Mediterranean lai ;(,
Asia Minor, the Caucasus and southeastward toward the Hi :n
lavas. Smallage, a plant now cultivated in gardens for flavor in
purposes, is apparently "wild" celery, and this has been kn( w
in the Mediterranean lands for thousands of years.
Celery was mentioned in Homer's Odyssey about 850 I.(
as "selinon." The French name, "celeri," from which the E i.
lish is derived, was first mentioned in a 9th century poem write

>lant. Dioscorides, Greek medical -writer of about the Ist cen-
ury, r( commended eating celery for a sedative effect (The vola-
ile oil obtainedd from ripe celery seeds is used in medicine to(taN
s a sedative). Another use the ancient Greeks made of celery
.vas as an award to winners of sports contests.
It was still a primitive plant when first cultivated in Italy
nd northern Europe and grown for medicinal p)urploses only.
ise as food was first recorded in France in 1623, and for about
hundred years thereafter its food use was confined to 1I ..I-
nIs. Not until the -m;i1ii, of the 17th century were the little
talks and leaves eaten with an oil dressing in France and Italy.
improvement of the plant was not undertaken until the late 17th
nd early 18th centuries in Italy, France and England. By mid-
8th century it was discovered that much of the strong flavor
)uldI le eliminated by growingr the plants in late summer and
ill. t Ihn keeping- them into the winter. This Ibrought celery into
s place as a salad plant..
It is not known when celery was first brought to America, but
Mur cultivated varieties were listed here in 1806. (elery (growing
-s an industry in the U.S. dates from about I:-I, when the
vhite Plume and the Golden Self Blanching varieties were intro-
uccd(. Prior to that certain of the older green tIypes were grown
i hok c and market gardens mainly for local consumption.
credit fIm the earl v commercial development of the industry is
r'el3 dlue to a group of lholland-American gardeners in the
icinity of Kalamazoo, \li. I::.,ii x who grew it as early as 1874
(id .I ered it for sale to Ipassenlgers on the trains passing through
alamazoo. Iater it was sold on the Michigan Central Railroad
ains to passengers and to people along the route, and a demand
wr the delicately blanched product was rapidly created.
revised .January 20, I1!., .


ISTORY The collard with its close relative kale is one of the
ost primitive and oldest members of the cabbage family. It is
Itive to the eastern Mediterranean countries or to Asia Minor.
has been under cultivation for so long and has been so shifted
)out by prehistoric traders and migrating tribes that it is not
rtain which of these regions is the home of the species. Wild
bbawa'e. from which the collard and more highly developed

L~~II ~)

gions of Europe and northern Africa. Its use by man as u'o
antedates written history, an(d it is believed to have been
common use for more than 4000 years. All princiltal forn
collards known todav have been cultivated for at least :,il
years. Well before the Christian era the Greeks and Rot i.
grew this plant. "('oles" (collards and kales) were describe i
European writers in the 1st, 3rd, 4th i and 13 centuries.
The Romans may have taken the coles to Britain and Fr; n
On the other hand, it seems probable that the (Celts mnay vla
introduced them to these countries. They invaded Mediit
ranean lands repeatedly from about GOO B.(C. and reached ii
the British Isles in the Ith century B.C. The English nan c
a corruption of the Antilo-Saxon "colew(torts" or "colewy *t
nteanin n literally "cabbage plants."
TEhe first mention of collards in America was in i669, I
because of their popularity in European gardens, it is prol.al
that they were introduced somewhat earlier. (See "Our V,.
table Travellers" by Ur. Victor R. Boswell, National (Geogra:)l
Magazine, Au igu st 1949.)


HISTORY Indian corn (Zea mays L.) was cultivated in t
two Americas, from Canada to Patagonia, long before Colun I:
reached the shores of the New World. The first written re, c
of corn in North America is found in Icelandic sagas. Karlse i
in 1006, found corn at Hop (presumably in the vicinity
Taunton River, Mass.). Maize and its uses are described
Columbus in 1492 as "a kind of grain called maize of which ,
made a very well-tasted flour.' It was also brought to Columi
in 1498 in Venezuela. IDeSoto in the 1540 invasion foum
cultivated in Florida, Alabama and northern Mississippi. 1
dence of pre-Columbian maize has been found in excavation
the "Four (Corners" area, where Utah, Arizona, Colorado, i
New Mexico meet. The "Basket Makers" were growing mai
both field and sweet, apparently as far back as the 600's A.D
earlier. According to l)r. Edgrar Anderson in Corn Before Coln
bus, literally bushels of pre-Columbian corn have been foil
from this area and in the extremely arid region round south
Peru and northern Chile. Not only cobs but some nearly perl1
ears have been found. Tassels, stalks, leaves and jars of kern




Ive l(vin excavated. At Ari'a (northern ( IIi bordering on
er1), )ol)pel corn has Ibeen found. ()nl a few burned cobs of
-( ,-'on(llu(st corn have been found in Mexico. bIut water bowls
id ft f Irary urns used by the prehistoric Zapotecs of southern
, 1'0( alrec de(coratd with earls of corn that apparently were
ist from the original ears. "They are so realistic, even in
; ulit. details," says Dr. Anderson, "it seems fairly certain
IWy aIe c ast. directly from acttual prehistoric ears of corn."
\l;i iv was hound closely to the rise of the great Indian civili-
itions, such as the Inca of Peru, the \M.ya of central l America
id tho Aztec of Mexico. It provided food, currelnc fuel. smok-
r" sill .jewelry and building material. It was an important con-
ibuli m to taxes in Mexico as evidenced bIy pire-C(onquest tax
~(s of the Aztec emperor, .I,,,ii1. 1 iii,1 (or ',l ,:'tezumna). It
or le(c large in art, decorating temples, homes, ceramics, toys
1(1 flunerarv urns. It was inextricably tied to the religious
ITemOnies of Indians, both South and North American. There
Te trbably as many legends aloutt the origin of corn as there
e Indian Tribes. These range from simple nature stories to
ore complex histories of the origin of the Indians and the begin-
ni's of their cultural development. Maize still Iplays a part in
'ralain of the festive and religions ceremonies of present-day

I I~II11IIIL i 11~1 L

tire crop of corn to be used in religious ceremonies because the
shadow of a white man had fallen upon the fields.
The Indian, from eastern North America through -outh
South America, apparently had to be on constant lookoi t for
thieves in the cornfield--be they feathered, four-leggid or
human. Thomas White, official artist associated with Tl oras
Hariot in Sir Walter Raleigh's colony, has a picture of an Indian
cornfield in the town of Secota on Roanoke Island, off the coast
of North Carolina, in which he shows a house for the watclhman.
Dr. Paul Weatherwax in Indian Corn in Old America says lhat,
"in the vicinity of Quito, Ecuador an Indian who might Ie en-
tirelyv honest in other ways would have no hesitation ii),)ut
stealing corn from a white man, his justification being thai corn
is inherently the property of the Indian anyhow. In some pllaces
in the Andes, sweet corn is especially attractive to thieves and
a common way of concealing it is to plant a block of it i I :he
middle of a field of ordinary corn. . .An old Mexicai law
ordered special plantings of corn to be made along the roa( s for
the use of the traveler and he was permitted to take qI to
seven ears... But for malicious trespass or damage t > the
cornfields, or for taking more than enough for immediate r eeds,
the penalty was death by hanging. One clause of this law . .:
the poor were exempt from the penalty."
Maize apparently went through its first great period (L' de-
velopment in the Andes, probably in southern Peru, where I: imi-
tive forms are still grown by the Indians. Within a radio is of
100 miles of the old Inca capital of Cuzco there is probably rore
variety in maize than in all North America. No one has ;suc-
ceeded in finding wild maize or the wild parent from which I iaize
was derived. The only close relative is "teosinte," a we(d in
fields and abandoned areas in Mexico and Central America. This
is believed to have been derived from crosses between maiz( and
Tripsacum, a native American grass, and hence originated irom
maize rather than being its "wild" ancestor. Later hybridiz .i ion
between South American maize and teosinte is believed to have
brought about the development of the modern types of c(rn--
pointed popcorn, dents, flours and flints-all widespread I in
North America by Columbian times.
Indian corn has never achieved the popularity in Euro )o it
enjoys in the Western Hemisphere. The four-letter A i; o-
Saxon word "corn" is used in Europe as a generic name fcr all

UUl~l~lillUi~l VI IlrUI~IVVIII~II\LI

glIlll IA1 IL IIL, it\ ipt JI)lJX LII lltU- )U IALI g111l 1 i LIt: L tUI ILI 1.11
England "corn" is wheat and in Scotland and Ireland rye. All
nationalities, however, recognize the word "maize" for Indian
The early Spanish and Portuguese travelers spread Indian
corn or maize throughout the Orient. The presence of distinc-
tive stains and distinctive uses of maize among aboriginal
tri he in sout eastern Asia raises the possibility that this race
o1' maiz-, mayor have crossed the Pacific in pre-('olu mbian times.
This Asiatic maize is of a type that was grown in Souith America
in In'e-Inca times and at a time when it was the only kind. (See
"Mlaize :mnong the IIill Peoples of Assam," Annals of the Missouri
Botanical G(arden. :')(;: :-, I1 Sept. 1949, by ('. 1R. Stonor and
Edg.ar Anldertsen.)
The first written account of sweet corn, hvy Bordley in 1801,
deIscribes it as havingg a white shriveled grain when ripe, as
yielding richer juice in the stalks than coinimon corn." Iater
records show that memnlbers of the 1779 expedition against the
Six Nations of New York under (General Sullivan found Indians
cultivating sweet corn west of the Susquehanna. tI. Richard
Bagnoll introduced it to I'lym-outh, and it gradually became
common as a kitchen garden vegetable. Interest in Sweet corn
Began around i:'', and some I' varieties were listed in seed
catalog l W I :-,.
Sweet corn has a long history, although for some time it was
assumed by Anlel'ican corn experts that sweet corn originated
with the North American Indians and possibly was not grown
in pre-1 'olumbian times. This belief was fostered by the use of
sweet corn in the U. S. exclusively as green corn and since no
sweet corn used as green corn was found below the border it
was assTmed that there was no sweet corn in Latin America.
Sweet corn as a distinctive and appreciated variety apparently
ori ilnated somewhere in South America, probably among the
high civilizations of the Andes. The Indians of Ecuador, Peru
and Bolivia have a native name for sweet corn, sara chulpi,
which dates back to pre-Conquest days, and since the Conquest
the name maiz chulpi has been applied. This indicates that these
Indians have had sweet corn for a long time. In civilizations
thai dfid not have sugar cane, this '1',r ,i was a source of
sugar. Other varieties of maize were grown for green corn. In
highlaldi Peru and Bolivia there is still grown the ancient variety
(of sweet corn which the Incas used in making their high-quality


jLE Iui1. l IIv iN I \ IJ Z ,ilAUIt., UjU I I Iir,

iaize OeerC 01 ciIciia. ,IIe see,, caLalog ptul9 se.JIiIi III 111 L 0.
today lists a variety, "Quinche," as the "original Inca corr from
the Andean highlands .. .handed down for untold centuries The
catalog further says: "while it has excellent food valte for
cattle, it is also used in Ecuador as .Ogreen corn and has ;t de-
licious flavor as 'corn-on-the-cob'.")
"Chicha" is still a common drink in the Andes. In pre-( olurn-
bian times, in the absence of sugar cane, the Indians added ; meal
made from ground toasted sweet corn to increase the sugar
content and to give chichaa" its extra kick. Survivals of a icient
(drinks made from ground roasted sweet corn may still ble tmond
in (Guatemala and Mexico--fermented and unfermenteil. In
Mexico "maiz dulce" (sweet corn) is used, as a source of : u4ar,
mixed with peanuts and squash seeds in a primitive crack( j.ick
called "ponteduro" or toasted( and ground into a fine p(wdler,
mixed with anise or chocolate or cinnamon and stirred up nto a
sweetish drink called "pinole." The Mexican sweet corn s too
gummy when cooked for use as green corn.
The Peruvian sugary corn has ears nearly as wide as they
are high, big as an orange, with a thick heavy cob. numn rous
irregular rows of kernels, tapering to somewhat of a poin: and
smoothly rounded into a basin at the butt. The kernels ar( c- n-
siderably larger than p)resent-day hybrid sweet corn ke nels.
In color they range from lemon yellow, orange yellow and v; rious
shades of orange red to a deep Chinese red. According t )Dr.
Edgar Anderson, in Man, Plants and Life, this ancient ,louth
American variety has moved slowly north, century after cereal tury,
mixing with the ordinary corn of the country enough to .itapt
itself to the new growing conditions and yet so protected I its
inherent recessivity that in all these years it has not ye lost
all of its distinctive South American appearance. Amont the
Plains Indians of North America there are varieties (N ilta
sweet corn, for instance) which are almost like our Golden Ban-
tam except their kernels are a variety of dilute Chinese redIs.
The sweet corn of the ltopi Indians, who have retained as much
of their ancient culture as any Indians in the United States, i one
of the traditional sacred corns used in their summer fest vals.
In many of the ears there is still a strong resemblance t, the
original South American variety. The HIopi have grown Iheir
sweet corn for so long that they say its origin is unknown
or that it had no origin because it had always been in exist ince.
The five ways sweet corn is used in Mexico (toasted, pinole.

F iLAMUA I nktl

p)iule,,:ito, etc.) at- mie seven ways 1 was uise( y the Si:
Nations (boiling, 'oast in.1g, scraped, etc.) are in no way alike
The Hopi however used it in a numlbelr of ways, some similar t'1
thos- used ill lexiico and some of those used Iby the Six Nations
Accwlrdin 1to 1)r. And(erstnm. 1y I1he time sweet coirn reached thi
Plains and( became a(dailed to conditions in North America, th,
gilnlli nilless charact eristic lof the sweet corn11 of western Mexic
had disa;)p)eared and sweet coirn Ibecame ;n ideal variety for Ltsi
as greer coin.
Sweet corn was primarily a minor or local crop for freslt
market until after World 11. IDuring the 19 10's there was a phe
noitl'nol growth in I he cultivation of swee't corn fot fresh market
Arn!on" the imlortlant factors that contributed to this expansion
alre: (1: 1he )t'ee(1ing of new hyhlrids suitaldle for (cillture in thi
Sout il aindl the West. for local rise and for shilimentl over lont
distanrcs; (2) the availability of new synithelic insecticides fto
control of cor'n ear!worm and other insects; aInd (:) the develop
mient o imnilproved packing and shipfpini materials, e(quipnenl
atlnd methods. The r most outstanldingl among these has been Ih(
improvemelli' ntn and extension of lecioiling antd re'friigeration fa
cilities t reduce loss of ealin'1i quality of sweet corn liefore ii
can he delivered to the cinsuler.l'

HISTORY 'I'lhe cucumther is supposedly a native of India, al
thotrh pllanlt expilo'et's have never been ahle to discover a wil(
lprototylpe. C('currmbers have bIeen cuIltivated since earliest ain-
tiquity. Reliable records indicate they wtiere used( as food ir
ancient fgyptit. and were a popular vegehtalleh with the (;reeks an(
Rollanl s. They arte one (f the few vegetables mentioned in tht
Bild': ee N'tinihers 11 :5. A ( Iii amlhassador in 200 B. (
travellted as 'at as Persia where he saw cuctumllnt's fo the list
tinic. Ie inlltroduced them into ( wI, At a much later date ar
Enilisl- sea-calptain, retlu'rning from the West Indies, brought
back pickled gherkins to \ii Samuel Pepys. Shortly after thix
)er'iod,l cu icunlters were being g'i'riwn in England.
()ccsionally in a collection of old glass a plain glass tube ol
cylitider resembling a lamp chimnney with parallel sides wil
turiln ul. This may he an Enlglish cucumber Ilass, says the Wis(
Elincyclopedia of ('Cookery. This was a device tusedt at one tinit
to ialake cucumbernl cis gro(W straight. (Ieorg'e Stephenson, inven-
tl(r o( tlie loclllo iv e, is credited with this invention.


HISTORY Native to the East Indies. It was introduce( into
Egypt and Greece at a very early period and references to it ap
pear in their history. The plant was brought to Ameri, i b.
colonists. Endive is closely related botanically to chicory Lin(
the two names are sometimes incorrectly used as synoinyms
Escarole is another name for a type of endive with broad 1 ;:ave
and a well-blanched heart. The word "endive" is reserve d t<
designate plants with narrow finely divided curly leaves.


HISTORY Cultivated upwards of 2.000 years in India an( Ma
lavsia. The fruit was brought to Florida by the Spaniards i i tht
16th century. However, the commercial grapefruit indust -' ir
Florida was based on seedling trees very much like the D) n1car
variety and now known as Florida Common. A Spanish se le lt
Don Phillippe, is reported to have broug-ht grapefruit and oi ang




seeds from Cuba in 1842 and made the plantings at ';atety
Harbor. The orange trees died from neglect but the grapefruit
trees thrived. The variety was introduced and propagat (d by
A. L. Duncan of Dunnedin about 1892 and it is still the fai')te
among the seedy varieties.
Credit for bringing grapefruit to the attention of the )blic
belongs to a group of enterprising Florida citrus grower:; who
shipped the first grapefruit from Florida to Philadelphi ;anid
New York markets between 1880 and 1885. The recognit or in
Florida of the grapefruit as an appetizing breakfast (dish s airtled
its culture on a commercial basis. Cultivation expanded until
grapefruit production has become an important indtlust in
Florida, Texas, (California and Arizona.


HISTORY Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is believed to be
native to the Mediterranean and Near Eastern centers of origin
of cultivated plants. Wild and cultivated lettuces are still foundd
in the Near East, which includes inner Asia Minor, the wh ]e of
Transcaucasia, Persia (Iran) and the Alpine Turkoman Rellublic.
A species of Lactuca (stem lettuce) is native to China. (S( urce:
Botanical-Geographic Principles of Selection, N. I. Vavilov, I rans-
late(d in 1946 by Mrs. Eugenia Artschwager USDA.)
Modern forms of lettuce are believed by most botanists to be
derived from a wild form which grows as a weed in most areass
where lettuce is found. Lactuca scariola or prickly lettl:ce is
a familiar weed over much of this country. It is also edib e. It
grows from two to five feet high. The leaves twist or turn dgre-
wise to the sun and it is sometimes called Compass Plant 'or
that reason. The lower part of the stem and the midrib of the
leaves are covered with weak prickles. The leaves clasp the ,stem
with earlike projections. Their margins are sharp-toothedi, al-
most bristle-tipped. The plant is a biennial or sometimes an
annual. It can be found in fields, waste places and road; ides.
When a few inches high, it may be cut for salads or as a pot-
herb. The young leaves are very tender and are used as a ,alad.
As a potherb, it needs very little cooking. It is gathered in
the spring or early summer. (Edible Wild Plants, Oliver t P'rry
Medsger, The MacMillan Co., New York, 1954.)
Although lettuce has been cultivated for more than :!,000
years and its culture was widespread in ancient times, it is


neither so old nor was it so widely grown in prehistoric times
as a numller f otf other garden crops, according to I)r. Victor Bos-
well. IUSDA ("Our Vegetahle Travelers." I i. National Geo-
graphic .Magazine. August 1949).
An anecdote by Herodotus indicates that lettuce was served
on their royal tables of Persian kings about 550 B.('. iilppocrates
I 1 B.('.) colimmented on its medicinal properties and Aris-
totle (:356 B.(C.) praised it. Galen (1641 A.D.) noted it and indi-
caled that it was in general use. The Romans liked it. (Columella
(42 A.I).) listed as tlistinct sorl the Caecilian, (Cappadocian,
(Yyl0jiar and Tartesan, while Plina (79 A.D.) listed as types of
lettuce the Alba. ('aecilian. ('appadocian, ('rispa, (Graeca, Laconi-
cont, Nig,'-a, IPurpurea and Rublens. Palladius (210 A.D.) wrote of
varieties (as distinct from types) aind mentioned the process of
bhlanhi ip. Martial (101 A.I).) called the lettuces of (C'appadocia
"vilcs" or cheap, indicating abundance. In England, Turner
(1. -i) mentioned ''"I ii,.,." ( liii.I grew lettuce as early as the
fifth century.
Lettuce evidently arrived in the New World with ('olumbus
in 1 191, as I'eter \i n'tyr reported that it was being cultivated
(on Isahlela Island (now ('rooked Island in the Bahamas). Ben-
zoni (15.65) spoke of its ablundance in Haiti, and N:. ,I,.if' (1(i67)
said he saw it growing" in Brazil. In 1i12 six varieties were re-
ported growing in France: Vilmurin described 113, varieties in
France in 18883. Ilolland was growing 47 varieties in 1720.
England had six varieties in 1597, 9 in 17I., 15 in 17(i3 and 18
in 17(i5. In 18()6 .i.\ l.,ilon listed six varieties growing in
Amnerican gardens. The report of the New York Agricultural
Experi'nent Station for 1885 rep ortled 87 varieties, described
with -1, synonyms. (Source: Sturtevant's Notes on Edible
Plants, edited by U. P. tledrick, 1919.)
Thc earliest lettuces cultivated were loose leaf types. The
loose-heading and the firn heading forms occurred much later.
According to Georg'e M. Kessler. I)Nepartment of Horticulture.
lichigan State (College (Fruits, Vegetables and Flowers: Physi-
ology and Structure in Relation to Economic Use and \aiLko
Quality, published by Burgess IPublishing (Co., Minneapolis, 1954),
the hemlingr varieties grew in popularity because "the leaves of
well-grown heading' varieties are more tender, more succulent
and sweet than those of' the loose-leaved types. This is probably
so partly because most of the leaves of the heading varieties

A)L~v k Rt%4vN1J n A (2P1('IITT TRlT'

Pena and Lobel (1570) wrote that the Cos or Romaine type
was rarely grown in France and Germany, although commri in
the gardens of Italy. Heuze (1873) said that this type was
brought from Rome to France 1)y Rabelais in 1537. Figures
given 1by the botanists of the 16th century indicate thai the
heading habit of lettuce was firmly established. Green, ivht
green, clark green, red and spotted lettuces are named in th (Id
botanies, as well as the various kinds such as curled, sI ai rp-
leaved and oak leavxed and heading. From this Sturtevant (d aws
the conclusion that although modern culture has develop im-
proved lett Iues, it has not brought into being any new type,.


HISTORY Limes, like other citrus fruits, are native to So 1th-
eastern Asia and have been cultivated for thousands of vyiL's.
It is believed the Arabs brought limes from India to Persia,
Palestine and Egypt during the period of expansion of Mol .t-
medanism, A. D. 570-900. The lime was not mentioned by Euro-
pean historians until the time of the Crusades. This citrus -ruit
was probably introduced into Europe by the (Crusaders wh( be-
came familiar with it and the sour orange and lemon on i heir
expeditions into Asia Minor.
The first mention of the lime under that name is attrib it.ed
to Sir Thomas Herbert who spoke of finding "oranges, lemons
tnd limes" on the island of Mohelia off Mozambique dutri p a
oyagse begun in 1626. However, the fruit was called "lima' as
arly as the 13th century, and Arabs from remote times h; d a
word "limoon." From the early days of sailing vessels, lime j lice
ias been on the regular ration of British tars to prevent scu *vy.
From their large consumption of lime juice, British sailors re-
-eived the nickname limeyss."
No citrus species are native to America. Columbus, on his
second voyage to the New World, stopped at Gomera, one of the
Canary Island group, from October 5 to 1,, 1493. There he
secured seeds of oranges, lemons, limes and vegetables. lie
planted the citrus at Isabela on the island of Hispaniola. Lime
trees are mentioned as growing on the island of Haiti in 1);14.
Fhe lime spread from cultivated areas in the West Indies in:I
Florida and was later found growing spontaneously as scatt(reil
1l..n i and mnmptimps in thiv'kpts

('alifornia lim
the other han
Now the situ;
the lemons an(
industry was
1891-915, after
A sidelight
lower cast co(;
Hlenry Perrin
Biscaynle Bay


en grown in (California and Florida
citrus industry. During the 70's anr
limes than lemons and it. was th
dlustry would become highly impo

wri(l that gl,\owi


choicest fruit of H industan. Other fruits we are content t I eat
when ripe. but the mango is good ait all stages of growth."
The mango grows on a tree of the Sumac family, some imes
40 feet high, with large shiny leaves and yellow or re ld:sh
flowers. The varieties range from the size of plums to th it of
an apple, sometimes weighing a pound or more. Color o' the
fruit ranges from green to yellow or red, orange color Iing
the most common.


HISTORY Okra originated in the Abyssinian center of crigin
of cultivated plants, an area that includes present-day Eth:opia,
the mountainous or plateau portion of Eritrea and the eastern,
higher part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Little is kno rn of
the early history and distribution of okra. It did spread 'rom
Arabia to North Africa, completely around the Mediterrainean
and eastward. It1 has been cultivated in Egypt for many hun-
dreds of years, but it has never been found in any of the an 'ient
monuments or relics of old Egypt. It was probably taken into
Egypt )by the Moslems from the East in the 7th century It
apparently reached India after the beginning of the C(hritian
Because of the outstanding popularity of okra in the Fr itch
cookery of Louisiana and its slow gain in I)popularity elsewhere
in this country, it is assumed that it was introduced to this
country by the French colonists of Louisiana in the early 17 )0 s.
It was being grown as far north as Philadelphia in 1748: Je 'er-
son said it was known in Virginia before 1781 and from a ,oit
1800 onward numerous garden writers had something to s-y
about it.
Okra is sometimes called "gumbo," although that, namo is
more commnionly related to soups and other dishes contain lirr
okra. Both names are of African origin. "Gumbo" is belived
to be a corruption of a Portuguese corruption, "quingoi) n ,"
of the word "quillobo," native name for the plant in the (C( 0no
ant Angola area of Africa.


HISTORY The onion is believed to le of Far Eastern orin'in.
Sturtevant's "Notes on Edible Plants" says: "Perhaps it is in-

Fi (I'i.x ('mil's;

digenous from P'alestine to India, whence it has extended to
(hina, (ochin (hina, Jalpan, Europe, Nort h and South Africa and
Although the place of origin is indistinct, Sturtevant says
"the onon has been known and cultivated as an article of food
from the earliest, period of history." 'The Bible (Numbers 11:5)
records that the Israelites complainedI to Moses as they were
being led out of Eglypt:: "We remember the fish which we did
eat in 0rlypt freely; the cucumbers, and the melons, and the
leeks and the onions and the .Rarlick." Herodotus, the Greek
"Fatlher f1' history," recorded that in his time (5th century
B.('. ti w workers engaged in the 20-year job of building" the
( i. i' p llraid consumed "onions, radishes and garlic" costing
1(;0() ta elnts (approx. $2 million). Hlill)pocrates, (;reek physician,
said onions were commonly eaten in I B.. Theophrastus, :22
B.C.. named a number of varieties; Dioscorides, i6 A.D., spoke
of the onion as "mlong or round, yellow or white;" and Pliny. 79
A.I). dlescriedl both white and red onions. i.'.. than 12'"', years
later (1340), ('haucer, the English poet, said: "We loved the
garhlek. ,onyons and ek leeks."
Early explorers Ibrought seed of various types of onions to
the New YoIrld. Stul.lltevant says: "it is possible that onions
were arnong tf he garden herbs s own by ('olhum bus at Isabella
Island -n 1,191, although they are not specifically mentioned. "A.
Huimboldtl, (erman scientist and explorer, says the primitive
Americans were acquainted with the onion. Win. Wood, New
England colonist, mentioned onions as cultivatedl in Massachu-
set ts in 1634: they were cult ivated in Virginia in 1648; and were
Grown in Mobile, Ala., in 1775. In 1779, onions wxere among the
Indian crops destroyed by General Sullivan at Geneva, N. Y. B.
\h1. NIaon, author of' "The Anmerican Gardner's C(alendar," men-
tioned and described 14 varieties in I:-i:: and Vilmorin (Paris.
France, seed house) described (iO varieties in 1883.
BOTANY Botanically the common bull) onion is known as Allium
celpl. For many decades the g'enus Allium was I.,-- iin i iunlder
the family Liliaceae, which includes the lily, the hyacinth and
the gladiolus, but plant taxonomists have decided the :A.,- i n. of
(onions more closely resemble the narcissus and the amaryllis,
and I1-ey are now attached to the family Amaryllidaceae. The
name 'onion" comes from the Middle English "unyun," and the
French 'oig'non," which in turn comes from the Latin union. "


York to South Carolina, and v)
and New Mexico. In the north
to the Pacific Coast. The bulb i
to eat. It is excellent for pick:
-" I I. I -- ... I : .. .. -.. k .

early the entire United '
he western states have a)
he Nodding Wild Onion (j
banks and hillsides fron
st to Minnesota, South 1,
i part of its range, it goei
strong but, if parboiled, i,
Ig. The Swamp Onion (i1
on to California, is "acce
Ips and stews."

I - o

itlvanced. As early as 1178 A.D., Han Yen-Chi, Chinese I orti-
'ulturist, wrote about 27 varieties of oranges growing nea the
'ity of Wenchou, including seedless fruit. Ilan speaks of or; ro:-es
is "very valuable and precious.' The spread of sweet ornl :es
o other countries was slow. While sour oranges were culti,: ted
n the Mediterranean basin long before the fall of the Rnoman
Empire, sweet varieties did not appear in Europe until early in
he 15th century. How they got there is uncertain. The 'e is
10 reference in European literature to the sweet orange b,)fcre
he 15th century. Gallesio wrote in 1811 after extensive res arc-h
hat the sweet orange probably reached Europe first through the
commerciall trade of the Genoese. Some others disagree.
Dr. Edward Louis Sturtevant in his famous "Notes on E liable





\nnm ',.r. l ny' A n iir iir

vas introduced at Lisbon (Spain) in 1548 by Juan de Cas re, a
celebratedd Portuguese warrior, and from this one tree a I the
European orange trees of this sort were propagated. Thih tree
vas said to have been alive at Lisbon in 1823 . Gallesio says
he sweet orange reached Europe through Persia to Syri; and
hence to the shores of Italy and the south of France, ieing
-arried by the Arabs. It was seen by Friar Jordanus in India
bout 1330. In the year 1500, says Loudon, there was onlr. one
)range tree in France, which had been planted in 1421 at 'em-
)eluna in Navarre. In 1791. Bertram refers to the oran;,e as
,rowing abundantly in Florida . and in 1871 Dr. Ba dwvin
writes: 'You may eat oranges from morning to night at ,very
plantationn along the shore (of the St. Johns) while the wild
rees, bending with their golden fruit over the water, pr sent
in enchanting appearance'."
In the early growing of oranges and other citrus frui s in
Europe, much injury occurred from frost. In the early 14th
century fanciers began to use specially heated buildings alled
'orangeries." Such structures are now called greenhouses. low-
'ver, plants were grown under glass (or panes of mica) long
beforee the orangeryy" period.
Columbus carried seeds of the sweet orange when he s tiled
n 1493 to establish a settlement on Hispaniola (Haiti). The
)range flourished there. It was taken to Mexico and Ce itral
\merica early in the 16th century. Acosta and Piso wrole of
inning the fruit growing wild in the West Indies and Brazil as
'arly as 1600.
It seems certain that oranges were brought to Floridit )by
early Spanish explorers and colonists, some time between 15 13
vhen Ponce de Leon came looking for the Fountain of Y( uth,
nmd 1565 when St. Augustine, the first Florida colony, was
established Oranges were also planted before 1577 in S th
'arolina. The orange reached California with the founding of
San Diego mission in 1769 but the honor of establishing the iir-t
trove of considerable size goes to San Gabriel Mission w iere
100 seedlings were planted on a six acre tract in 1804.
The word "orange" goes back to the old Arabian word 'ni-
'anj" and Persian "narang" used before 300 A.D. Later the
)hilosopher Albertus Magnus of Bavaria (1193-1280) A.D. iused
he term "arangus" for sour oranges. This is very close to tye
modern word "orange" and is supposed to account for its origrin.
T^-t P11 1 41-1.-: I- T -1- I 1 ,,1 it'T'l ':*l ..- T .l. 1 ',

settler It is believed to have reached Africa b 1i00.
Exactly when papayas were introduced into Florida is un-
known, but the introduction must have been soon after the es-
tablishnient of Spanish settlements on the East ('oast. In 177:)
Bartram reported findlinir it apparently wild on the low bluffs
along l he St. John's River near Palatka and even more abundant
near where S.iiilord is now located. commercial l growing of
papayas in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas was introduced
shortly before World War II. Some attempts were made in Cali-
fornia to grow papayas but production today is largely limited
to greenhouse--i ... ni or otherwise specially )protected plantings.
In ltb.xaii efforts to grow uniformly good shipping quality
mpaplayas and intensive studies of improved methods of marketing
have (lone much to give the papaya a wider distribution in con-
tinental U. S. since 1950.
The English word "papaya" is a corruption of the (Carib
1~.1... ...~.. i(.11 _--_4-:___ _4... .. -C:. r\ 1-- -\n i .-- I'll(.,

T7't nI-TT, I / 'T-./Itll


Hawaii some local

and a third includes the plateaus and mountains of EIthioija.
It has not been found among any of the ancient Egy di
treasures, in spile of many claims; but, it has bIeen fon dI
diggings on the site of ancient Troy. The Aryans from the ;
are suI)l)osed to have introduced peas to the (reeks and Ronal
who prew them before the Christian Era.
It was first gL')rown only for its dry seeds. Some varieties ,e
grown extensively today for the dry seeds for "split pea" al

b h A ;, i~~


12th century, among other foods stored at the Barkinjg Nunnery
near London were "green peas for Lent." They were described in
detail ir France in 1, ii (;arden peas were not common until the
18th century but were considered a rare delicacy in the 17th
century in France. The eating of them became "both a fashion
and a madness." So many ii. varieties were developed in
England that it has become known here as "English pea."
The name was (erived indirectly from the Latin "pisurn."
In Anv'lo-Sax)on is became "pise" or "pisu" and later became
"!peaze" or "pease." So many thought this was the phlral form
that the "s" or "z" sound was dlroppetl and the word became

SWEET i I'I':PirI{.S

HISTORY Although sweet p1)eppers are native to tropical Amer-
ica their culture and use were widespread in Eurlope before they
Ibecamne pIopular in the United States. Plepplers were introducetI
into Spain in 1 l': were known in England by 1585 or earlier
and were taken to India and southeastern Asia in the 17th
century. In the first half of the 16th century travellers to
America found many forms of peppers, not only in the West
Indties uit in (Central America, Mexico, Ileru, (Chile--wherever
they touched the American tropics. Bly the beginning of the
17th cent ury every form known today had Iteen found, all grown
by the Indians.
()r i-arden peppers, both hot andl mild tlypes, are not. related
to the Irue lpepler from whiich we get black pepper. It belongs,
rather, to the same family as tomatoes and potatoes, both
native to the Americas. The name apparently was given to the
plant by ('olubus andl his associates because of the punngency of
the hot varieties. Peter I .,tlyr wrote in 1 I :'. that ('olunmbus
btrotught home with him "-peplper more piungent than that from
the ('a icasus."


HISTORY Although called Irish, Solanum tuberosum, the po-
tatot, is not. native to Ireland, but to the Americas. Although wild
potatoes are fomunl as far north as Colorado, it was in South
America that potatoes were first cultivated. Peruvian pottery



hows representations of the potato as a cultivated plar
east as early as the second century A.D., according to Red,
. Salaman, author of the authoritative book "The History
social Influence of the Potato." But even in the second cenl
he potato had for a great while been a familiar article of
long the coast of Peru. Potatoes may have been used for
uries before the pottery makers sculptured them. And
before they were used on the coast they had been used in
orm and cultivated in the Andes mountains. They were ag
ii 1 /,t~~zl '_ 1........ .... I..... . { 1 ..

holrp flin d in thf hm m -P \'h:

nI t thit t I totil \v Is

obvi s ) .mliii, ill in keeping them on a loiin journey. It is
believed that the lirst Eiuropean crops came from potato tubers
and not from seed. In any event, poItatoes 'ere on the market
in Spaii as early as 1576. An account book of a Seville, Spain
hospital shows they were beingr regularly purchased in that year.
The slotr thai Sirt Walter Raleig'h introtlduced the potato into
Europe is prohahly lerenm. The same is probably true about
similar stories crediin' this epochal events to Sir Francis Drake
or 1o Sir John llawkins. The Raleigh slory says hIe t)brolught
them it, England from Virginia. I I, are two things wrong
with it: Raleigh is not known to have visited Virginia at any
time; and the potato Xwas unknown in Virginia in Raleigh's day.
Ilowv the potato came to Ireland is uncertain, but the time
was duiinR' the last 15 years of the 16th century. history does
nolt r'ectotld that anyone urged the adoption of potatoes Iy the
Irishi pasants, Ibut they took to them like a cat to catnip. Ire-
land's climate and soil were ideal for potato culture anti the
people, always poor, were badly in need of additional food. Dur-
ing tlh 17th (century po)tato) ctultion stread( throi'igh Ireland
and hy the 19th centllyi potatoes were such a l;iare part (of the
Irish food supply that an epidernic otf potato bli.gLht in 1:- 1.- 17

) .... m n i "1 11,1 1 r m in 1-i'li

tivating anti narvesting potatoes. ;--puu(iy is a sianlg tCern useu
in England for a man who sells had potatoes.


HISTORY The sweet potato is unknown in the wild state so it
is not certain where it originated. HIowever, the weig-it of
authority is that it's native to the Americas. Victor Bos well of
USDA in his masterly article "Our Vegetable Travelers," (Na-
tional Geographic, August 1949) says (Columbus recorded fi lding
the plants in Central America on his fourth voyage, and prob-
ably found them in the West Indies on earlier voyages. The
natives of the West Indies fed Columbus' men some boiled roots
described by the Spaniards as "not unlike chestnuts in fl, vicr."
Nine varieties growing in Hlonduras were named by Peter Martyvr
in 1514.
Ilowever, long before white men arrived in this hemis mhere
the Incas of South America and Mayas of central l An i:rica
grew several varieties. They called the plant "cassiri." (ne
variety was grown for food and other varieties to supply their
artists with colors to use in their paints.
Early Spanish explorers are believed to have taken the :w %et
potato to the Philippines and East Indies from where il was
carried to India, China and Malaya by Portufuese expllIrers.
Boswell says the sweetpotato apparently was introduced into
,lapan from (China some time around 1700 by wa* y of the Rt\ ilkyu
Islands. In Kyushui today it is called kara-imo, meaning ('hinese
pota to.
DeSoto and other explorers found sweet potatoes -rowi 1ir in
Indian gardens of what is now Louisiana. Sweet potatoes were
cultivated in Virginia in 1648 and possibly earlier. Early col( nists
are believed to have picked up the plants in the West Indies ,hen
their ships following the trade winds, put in there for sup i>s.
The famous Louisiana sweet potato industry and to a ar e
extent the entire industry in this country is based on the Ma iinya
variety brought in from Puerto Rico in 1908 by an unk iown
agricultural worker. Mamreya is a Puerto Rican word me i ngk
"yellow yarn." Probably the variety was brought in surtepti-
tiously and illegally.




ISTORY The radish (lRaphanus sativus) is a member of the
ustard family and is related to cabbage, cauliflower, kale, horse-
idish ind turnips. ('hina is believed to be the country of origin,
ith middle Asia as a secondary center where many different
inms weete developed after the plant was introduced from (China
prehistoric times. Ancient Egyptian records indicate radishes
ere common food in Egypt before the Pyramids were built.
reeks and Romans were familiar with the plant, and Moschian,
1 ancient Greek physician. wrote a whole book on radishes.
;agus, in 1552, mentions radishes that weighe d IIl pounds, and
allhiolus, in 1554. declared he had seen radishes Ihat weighed
0() pounds each. The radish is supposed to have reached Eng-
nd albolt 15148 and was eaten raw with bread or, in the form
' sauce as an appetizer for meats. Radishes were seen in Mexico
)out 1500 and in Haiti in 1565, indicating they were among the
"st Europlean crops introduced into the Americas by Columbus
1( his immediate followers. They were among, the first crops
.own by the English colonists in this country. 1 .\l-ii. men-
)ns len sorts in his list of American garden vegetables pub-
died in 180(6.


nian name is
technical Lati

name "spi1
or 13th cei
annual of
season cro1
out most (
,411 ... 4-, i .. .

in spinach also
;. it is part of
id is sonmetirnme


Ish is native t1
ie Indian centu

)u.h it: is us


berry was bo
We and linall
is landed at
onse the wil(
ants that. bh
I walnut and

tries. A '

AL cP~B; li~ tP







berry plants from Chile in 1714.
berry of eastern North America h
)e, and from crosses of these two 1
J was developed.
Led( States, the commercial develop
ne principally since the Civil War ,
s now grown have originated wit]
.,'ioti tc r (i *i /\ I\f \t- fhpo 'vt(fn2i

is used to
)n is that ir
* them to nm
mown ha:


i1Vi(dCe lOI Lanel 're"s, I


rieties of mandlarins. In the U.S., the word "mandarin" is gen-
1 rally applied to the yellow-skinned( varieties only.
The most important variety of tangerine, the I)ancy, origi-
nated from a seedling grown at Buena Vista, Florida in the
grove of (Colonel (,eorge L. Dancy. lie introduced the variety
into c'ultivtion in 1871 or 1872. Because of the fruit's easy-
peeling quality, ('olonel I)ancy called it the "kid glove" orange.
and the name stuck.


HISTORY Tomatoes are native to the Americas, probably
originaling in the Andes mountain region of South America.
Strangely, however, it was only after tomatoes were widely ac-
cepted in Europe that they began to hle used in the UnitedI
States mn a large scale. Until only a little more than 100 years
ago the tomato was a garden curiosity andl hou thought be
poisonous. Now about 700,000 acres of tomatoes are grown and
in addition a large quantity is imported.
('ullivatled tomatoes al)la'rently originated from wild forms
in the l'Peru-Ecuador-Bolivia area. They were probaldly carried
northward into central l America and Mexico 1y prehistoric
migrat ons of In(lians. Our word "tomato" is a near twin to
the word '"omati" used by the Indians of .\l .i.o. ()lther words
for I hi: ve'getalale, as celporte(dl Iby early Eurlopean explorers were
"tonatli," "t onma It'le" and "lomatas."
The earliest written record of the tomato dates back to only
1551. The explorers had hI'oi.ht the tomato to Europe. Italians
first .ierw this vxegeltable in 1550 and apparently were t lie first
Europeans to eat it. The feeling l' that tlie toniato mig,ht I(
harmful arose from the fact it is one of the Nightshade family
of which some species are poisonous.
What connection there is between "'poison' and "love" is
obscure,. but the French called the tomato lpoimme de amour
(apple of love) and Enuglish swains adopted the idea and pre-
sentedl Iomatcoes as a token of affection. Sir Wa\ler Raleigh is
said to have presented (ne to Queen Elizabeth. Threafter the
g-allani Raleigh lost his head, ibut this is no longer considered a
sound argument against having-l tomalat)es in t.he refrigerator.
Even as late as the 17th century the tomato was grown inl
Enloand for ornament only, though it was being eaten elsewhere.
By the en(d o(f the 18th entryuy it was being used extensively in

ItalY as a
in the Unit

it wasM anot
in the Nort

as~ those f,
Scieriti~sts h
inlcreased1 I
WVildI I oflial
11o largerI'
torir sculti

but it x\
states (e,
used as f(
20 or 25
t part of
( ()hi t 0( $S
mnatoes o!
in Aime
vere like
or1 ceirami

before i(
dared e
ly as 181-
e a food
re were ;i
or a'Ind i
loot hnes:
iti the ea
led they
knownI 1p)



~~ .~


HISTORY Tihe tuInip, which belongs to the mustard family, is
supposedly to be native to Russia, Siberia and the Scandinavian
peninsula. It has been cultivatedl since ancient times. (Columella
wrote in AI). 42 that two varieties f I unrnip were beinKi gI'own
for the -iie of n an aItld 7 )east and mentions the area now knoxx11wn
I as Franco.. Pliny, Romlan naturalis, horin in Italy in 2'1 A. D.,

\\nWay hack

"V o4Immli 1i n


lhal wrirthed ;3
tili n.'', whopper;
f'ornia in 1 8-50.
155) "Alen 0 so.m
The turnil) n
advei1turel s. (';
ti ird \ati'-;ir'c. ;i
in 1 ; l il9 l 1 in
pllh dt i if l aui 1i 1
Sout h ('1 r(ilina i
All ( a)p's "
was ;I l):iy it'
reliatl@v 'c|)e)li' ('
-pol' c hop '."


It(i, i .(Ihe I Ii'err

io m I ho '11111t' lr

Ihain 2,000 year
Io liloir child'ei
|)}1oi/, !-)'( neral ar
Xerxes, I'ersian
iers, since it, wa
(Hlilt were in bet
being a "wit-pr
rank-ed rnind. T

"Il. -"/ -I -1 -> --/ -t 1- 1
:un1ds. Lest anyone think Maitt
luI'nip of' l l)() pound17(1s was reco(4)F
English had their intro)duclion t(
re imnlruted, probably from 1loll;
' tlie lrip across the Atlantic wil
,r sowe(I turnip1 seed4) inl Canada;t
5-!(). Turnips 1 were cultli\ at ed
sstachusells as ,early ; s 1i629.
idelplhia in 1707. They iare also t11
Aiiiner" tl41s ee1(n eatingi- "ltarni 1


ress (Raiicula nastilrtiuli-aqtlal
nial, believed to he native to Asi;
tin area. This and many lanl cif
inily and are referred to as the I
llteri cress ha[s beell a1 popular 'o((
I'he ancient P'ersialns were advised
they wisied to improve their .'r
slo'ian of the (hreek-Persian cam
i'-, 'recomnmendled water cress for
servedd that those with water cr1
health. The (Greeks had a lprovei
:in fotod" and !believed it would
tomans served it, as a salad with

iolus was
1 in (Cali-
tirnips in
the early
u1ri'ilr his
hey w\erc
11 ioned in

since he
-th. it is
'ves" and

1um) is ;i
/linor and
ises stem
-bs o1r' tli('
1fo. Il ort
to feed it
thi. ellno-
tif'ns, ainl(
heir sold-
s in i heii
al)ollt. itW
ure a (d-
ar1um (oi

and! vinegar)
of the masti,
"The eating (
the cheeks of
las Messiner,
in the middle
was in Engla:
It is rel)orted
tivation for u
by the Mohar
known when
the earliest e:
found growing
and California
shallow pools

settled the qu
he found large
watermelons g
the watermel(
view formerly
been found w
Vegetable Tra
1949) The c
times. Picture(
melons were (
melon under I
section with t
names in Ara
unrelated, in(
around the Mi
state both bit
Since they loc
taste the juic(
The water
waFrmer parts
but appears t,


with pepper, cummin seed and
tree). Sixteenth Century wri
as a remedy for scurvy and LI
water cress doth restore the
I .,.. v .. 1., ; ,, A ... % - 4 -,+ -*.-,* -I

ported as the
ie 16th century,
Probably was
in 1808 a farn
a salad plant.
ans of western
s brought to t
ers. It quickly
I from Nova Si
ever there are

nrst to cultivate
' at Erfurt. As
not cultivated p
er near London 1
Water cress is
1 India (Pakistai
his hemisphere, ;
naturalized itself
'otia to Florida, x
small, gently floN

I iwi~rncri ~,, thi 'rl~ I

iciLs in ce]
ing truly
*om Nort
it was of
n Asia o01
rs," The
'e of wat
revivingg fl
rated there
lebrew nm
history of 1
Berber, C
ing great
rranean a
itnd sweet
ike, the n
.ore takin.
n has beer
,ussia, As
ve reached

cus leaves
of England
acon w.-ote,
*d bliorrn to
nan, Nicho-
vater cress,
pulaa as it 1
or tc 1800.
gan iis cul-
g-hly prized
. It i;s not
obaMl with
ind nimy I )e
0st to Ic aho
n- st eon.ms,

ry-ex )lorer,
ielons when
)vere( with
il cult itr, of
led 10o the

azine, Au

that i
the 1
und ii

rdinia; a
n the an
In th( wi
me localit
ich fr iit

,'ears il 1I
Middle Et
years a '

.. -.


led "si-kuia," rnielon of the West. It was probably
idreds of' vemi's in Em'roie. heinir introd(tced there


I- I



I9 ,


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