• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Main
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Crops grown in North Florida
 Crops grown in Central Florida
 Crops grown in South Florida
 Time table fruit and vegetable...
 Florida agriculture values, (19955-56...
 Florida total citrus picture
 Fruit and vegetable acreage
 Disposition of fruits and...
 Historical review of truck...
 Major fruit and vegetable...
 State farmers markets commodity...
 Vegetable dates at state farmers...
 State markets commodity report,...
 Greenhouse and nursery product...
 Florida field crop summary
 Citrus processing historical...
 1953-54 vegetable processing...
 Primary list of medicinal...
 Secondary list of medicinal...
 Origin of leading world crops
 Vegetable containter informati...
 Comments on Florida agricultur...






Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Florida crops
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00088903/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida crops what and when to plant
Alternate Title: Bulletin - Florida State Department of Agriculture ; 1
Physical Description: 88 p., 3 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooks, T. J ( Thomas Joseph ), b. 1870
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: December, 1956
Copyright Date: 1956
Edition: Rev. ed.
 Subjects
Subject: Crops -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horticulture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetable gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by T.J. Brooks.
General Note: "December, 1956."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00088903
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMR5724
oclc - 44069742
alephbibnum - 002549527

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Main
        Page 1
    Acknowledgement
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 4a
    Crops grown in North Florida
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 6a
    Crops grown in Central Florida
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Crops grown in South Florida
        Page 10
        Page 10a
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Time table fruit and vegetable shipments
        Page 13
    Florida agriculture values, (19955-56 Preliminary) and 1954-55 gross values
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Florida total citrus picture
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Fruit and vegetable acreage
        Page 19
    Disposition of fruits and vegetables
        Page 20
    Historical review of truck crops
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Major fruit and vegetable crops
        Page 42
    State farmers markets commodity reposrts
        Page 43
    Vegetable dates at state farmers markets
        Page 44
        Page 45
    State markets commodity report, 1954-55
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Greenhouse and nursery products
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Florida field crop summary
        Page 55
    Citrus processing historical review
        Page 56
        Page 57
    1953-54 vegetable processing figures
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Primary list of medicinal plants
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Secondary list of medicinal plants
        Page 62
    Origin of leading world crops
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Vegetable containter information
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Comments on Florida agriculture
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
Full Text

d, .;


;p4
BLrl


m, ,


':~'



-
1-7


~tf~
,e


'I


F.-s~









FLORIDA CROPS


What awd


W en to Plai


BY T. J. BROOKS
LATE ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER
of
AGRICULTURE


(A Revised Edition)



STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner


BULLETIN NO. 1


DECEMBER, 1956












4"W/eWmer#4


In order to publish such a booklet as this, we had to contact a number
of agencies for the latest available information and we wish to acknowl-
edge the courteous cooperation we received from the following offices and
departments:

Florida State Marketing Bureau; Agricultural Extension Service and
Agriculture Experiment Stations at the University of Florida; USDA Crop
Reporting Service; Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association; Florida State
Farmers Markets; USDA-ASC Committee; College of Pharmacy, Uni-
versity of Florida; Florida Citrus Mutual; Florida Canners Association;
Florida State Department of Agriculture; and the Florida State News
Bureau of the Florida Development Commission, which furnished us with
most of the pictures.

We hope that the readers will find the information enclosed in this
booklet of interest.

NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture









?aM of Godten

Crops Grown in North Florida -------- --- 5

Crops Grown in Central Florida ----.-------..- ..-------------------- 7

Crops Grown in South Florida -------------.---- --------- -------- 10

Time Table Fruit and Vegetable Shipments ------ ...........----------- 13

Florida Agricultural Values, (1955-56 Preliminary) and
1954-55 Gross Values --.........-- ------------ 14

Florida Total Citrus Picture ---------- -- ---- -- 16
Fruit and Vegetable Acreage ---------- ---------- -------- ------- 19
Disposition of Fruits and Vegetables -.-.----------------- 20

Historical Review of Truck Crops --------------- 21
Major Fruit and Vegetable Crops ------------ .----------- ------------- 42

State Farmers Markets Commodity Reports ----- -- ------ 43
Vegetable Dates at State Farmers Markets ------------- --- 44-45
State Markets Commodity Report, 1954-55 ---- ---------- 46
Greenhouse and Nursery Products .... ...---- -- --------- --- 53

Florida Field Crop Summary ------- -------- ------------ 55

Citrus Processing Historical Review ....----- -------------------- 56
1953-54 Vegetable Processing Figures --- .-------- -------- 58

Primary List of Medicinal Plants ----------- --------- 60
Secondary List of Medicinal Plants ----- ------ --------------- 62
Origin of Leading World Crops .- ------ -------------- ---------- 63
Vegetable Container Information -----------.- --------------------- 65

Comments on Florida Agriculture ---------.. ...- ------- ------ 67
































SHADE TOBACCO


I












I -


i' yj


'V


PRODUCTS OF NORTH FLORIDA


oplp-


::"
.., r
.i 41


riiii








FLORIDA CROPS

What and When to Plant


SEASONS OF BEARING
The harvesting seasons for the various crops vary so greatly owing to
varying seasons as to temperature and rainfall that no definite length of
harvesting dates can be given. The same crop will last much longer when
planted on different dates. Different varieties of the same crop differ as
to length of gathering days. Bunch beans do not bear as long as pole beans,
and pole butter beans bear longest of all.
It will be noted that the number of days from planting to maturity varies
much more in some crops than in others. Weather and soil conditions are
the cause in the main of these variations.

CROPS GROWN IN NORTH FLORIDA, WHEN PLANTED
AND HARVESTED
North Florida comprises Alachua, Baker, Bay, Bradford, Calhoun, Clay,
Columbia, Dixie, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Flagler, Gadsden, Gilchrist,
Gulf, Hamilton, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon, Liberty,
Madison, Nassau, Okaloosa, Putnam, Santa Rosa, St. Johns, Suwannee,
Taylor, Union, Walton, Washington, Wakulla Counties. Area 14,414,560
acres.
The number after crop indicates the number of days required to reach
edible maturity, or gathering maturity if non-edible.


Vegetables When Planted
BEANS ...-.... ..----------. Mar., April, May, Aug., Sept. .--...-.
BEETS --.--. ---Feb., Mar., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. ..--
BRUSSELS SPROUTS ---.- Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct., Nov. --
CABBAGE ------- Oct. to Feb. -----------
CARROTS F--- --- eb., Mar. -----------
CASSAVA ---- Mar., April-a root crop. No definite
harvest date
CAULIFLOWER ------Jan., Sept., Oct. -------
COLLARDS ----- Jan., Feb., Mar., Nov. ----
CUCUMBERS --- Feb., Mar., April --------
EGGPLANT Feb., Mar., April, July, Aug. ----
IRISH POTATOES -- Jan., Feb., Mar., Aug., Sept. ----------
KALE -----------------------. Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov. ---
KOHL-RABI ---- Mar., April -----------
LEEK Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct.
LETTUCE ---Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct., Nov. ---
MUSTARD -- --------Sept., Oct., Feb., Mar. -----
OKRA --------- Mar., April, May, Aug. -
ONIONS J----------------- --.Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.
PARSLEY ----Feb., Mar. -------
PARSNIPS .------ Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov. -- -----------


PEAS (English)


--.- ----Sept., Feb.


When Harvested
65
60
90 to 120
65 to 80
100

180
55
85
64
84
100 to 120
90 to 120
60 to 80
100 to 115
75 to 83
30
60
100
40 to 80
125 to 160
45





6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Vegetables When Planted
RADISHES -___--...... Jan., Feb., Mar., April, Sept., Oct.,
Nov., Dec. -.---.--.-- ---- .
RUTABAGA ------------- -Feb., Mar., April, Sept., Oct. -..-------
SPINACH -.....-- __-____ Feb., Oct. .... --...........-.------
SQUASH --...-__.- --... ___ Mar., April, May, Aug ..... ---------.
SWEET POTATOES --- .--April, May, June ----. ---.. -
TURNIPS -.----_---_.- Jan., Feb., Mar., April, Aug., Sept.,
Oct. ..-- -------- ------...... _...........
TOMATOES ---- Mar., April, May, Aug. .......-----


When Harvested


27
50 to
50 to
60 to
100


45
73 to 82


Fruits
PEACH -------Jan., Feb.
PEAR -------" "
PLUM ------ .
PERSIMMON --__.. -
FIG ...-.....------- "
SATSUMA -----~_ .
WATERMELON --_ -Mar., Apr.
GRAPES ---___ "
CANTALOUPES ----____ -


When Planted

. ............... ........... ... . ...... ...
.............................----........
..........................................


When Harvested
2 to 3 years
3 to 4 years
3 to 4 years
3 to 4 years
2 to 4 years
3 to 5 years
83 to 93 days
1 to 2 years
85 days


Field Crops
CORN -----.-------.Feb., Mar., April .--.......------....--.
COTTON ---------- Mar., April ..- ....--.- --------.- -...---
PEANUTS .-....-----_---April, May, June, July --------....------
SUGARCANE -- ___ Oct., Nov., Feb., Mar. ----
TOBACCO -------__-Mar., April ----..-................. ----
JAPAN CLOVER __-------..May, June, July -----------........
CARPET GRASS --__-- ---_ Mar. to July ------------........- -- -
VELVET BEANS ___ Mar., April, May ....------------------
RYE ----- ___Oct., Nov., Dec., Jan. ---------
RAPE .....------ Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec. ---
SORGHUM --------- Mar., April, May, June .----------------
VETCH - -- Oct., Nov., Dec. --------
COWPEAS ----__.-------------April to July -----------... ....--
BEGGARWEED .------.. ---- April to July ....----.-----------......
KUDZU --------_ -- Dec., Jan., Feb. ...-----------------------
CROTALARIA ------ April to June ------------..
BERMUDA GRASS -----.--- Mar., April, May, June, July -...------
SOY BEANS ....-- May, June -----...... ..-..------. ........


Berries
BLUEBERRIES --
BLACKBERRIES -
DEWBERRIES -..
STRAWBERRIES
YOUNGBERRIES


---_-Dec. to Mar.
-----Jan., Feb., Mar.
-- -_Jan., Feb., Mar.
__ Sept. and Oct. -.
------ Nov. to May --.


2 to 3 years
.----- --- 1 to 2 years
--------- 1 to 2 years
..------ Mar. to June
--------- 1 to 2 years


Nuts
PECANS --.----------Dec. to Feb. ----
TUNG NUT .----- ----...... Dec. to Feb. ----


Days
90 to 180
180
120 to 150
210 to 365
100 to 120


After Frost


100 to 160

90 to 120





120 to 160


4 to 6 years
4 to 6 years


----------------------------- ------
----------------------------------
---------------------------
----------------------------------
------------------------------------


. .- -




t'WS^^
AEB~7PWB ;
^P^^^^Mi
^A&^?
iimMB.i
i^--L


PRODUCTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA





FLORIDA CROPS


CROPS GROWN IN CENTRAL FLORIDA, WHEN PLANTED
AND HARVESTED

Central Florida comprises Brevard, Citrus, Hernando, Hillsborough,
Lake, Levy, Marion, Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Seminole,
Sumter, Volusia Counties. Area, 9,164,800 acres.

The number after each crop indicates the number of days required to
reach edible maturity, or gathering maturity if non-edible.


Vegetables When Planted
BRUSSELS SPROUTS ----- Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.
BEANS ....---------------.-.Feb., Mar., Sept. _------
BEETS ------ ----- Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov. -----
CABBAGE ---- Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec. ..-
CANTALOUPES Feb., Mar., Apr. -----------
CASSAVA Mar., April -------------
CAULIFLOWER --- Jan. (seed); Mar. ----
Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. -
CUCUMBER .....----------..Sept., Feb., Mar. -------
COLLARDS -- Jan., Feb., Mar., April, Aug., Sept.,
Oct., Nov., Dec. ------------
CELERY ----- June (seed); July (seed); Sept. to Feb.
DASHEENS Mar., April
EGGPLANT ----------.------ Jan., Feb. (spring crop); July, (fall
crop) ---------------
ESCAROLE ----- Oct. to Feb. ----- -.----
ENGLISH PEAS - Sept. to Mar. -
IRISH POTATOES -------- Sept. (fall crop); Nov. to Mar.,
(spring crop) ----------
KOHL-RABI Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov. -------
KALE ----------- Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec. ------
LEEK --.....------------ -- Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct., Dec. --
LETTUCE -------------- Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec. ...------.---
MUSTARD ----------------- Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov. ----
ONIONS -------- -J---------Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov. -
OKRA ------ Mar., May, Aug. ..---------------....- -
PARSLEY --- Dec., Jan. ...----------------------...
PARSNIPS Feb., Mar., Nov.
PUMPKINS May, June ------
PEPPERS ---------------- Jan., Feb., Mar. (spring crop) --
RADISHES ----Jan., Feb., Mar., April, Oct. -
RUTABAGAS -------... Jan., Feb., Sept. to Dec. ----
TOMATOES ----Sept. to Mar., July ------------.... --...
TURNIPS ------------ ---.... Jan., Feb., Mar., April, Sept., Nov.,
Dec. ---------.-... _.--


When Harvested
90 to 120
65
60
65 to 80
85
100 to 200

55
64

85
120 to 150


84
50 to 60
62

100 to 120
60 to 80
90 to 120
100 to 115
75 to 83

100
40
40 to 80
125 to 160
150 to 180
100 to 140
28
50 to 80
73 to 82

45







































CELERY





FLORIDA CROPS 9


Fruits
ORANGES
TANGERINES -
GRAPEFRUIT --
LEMONS

LIMES
MANGOS --.
AVOCADOS --
WATERMELONS
PAPAYA -- --
GUAVAS ---
CANTALOUPES
GRAPES


Berries
STRAWBERRIES


Field Crops
COTTON -----------
CORN -------
OATS ------
SUGARCANE -
HAY (Native) ----
CHUFAS .-----
COWPEAS
SORGHUM --
PEANUTS
VELVET BEANS
TOBACCO ---
SOY BEANS --
RYE ---
RAPE ----
VETCH
BEGGARWEED
KUDZU -
NAPIER GRASS -
BERMUDA GRASS


Nuts
TUNG NUT -
PECANS --


When Planted Years to Production


Dec., Jan., Feb.






--- Sept. and Oct.
-- Sept. and Oct.
--Jan. to March
Feb. to June
---Oct., Nov., Feb.
-- Feb. to Mar.
-- Jan. and Feb. .


May and June, Sept. and Oct.


4 to 6
4 to 6
4 to 6
3 to 5

3 to 5

4 to 6
4 to 6

12 to 15 mos.
2 to 4 yrs.


When Harvested
October to June
October to March
October to May
Depends on
Variety
Depends on
Variety
June, July
July to January
83 to 93


85
1 to 2 yrs. June and July


December to Apr.



150 to 180
90 to 180

October and Nov.
July and August
Oct., Nov., Dec.

July, Aug., Sept.
July, Aug., Sept.
Sept., Oct., Nov.
June, July, Aug.
120 to 160


October and Nov.
October and Nov.


- ------ Mar., April -------------
.-.------ Jan. (early); Feb., Mar., April -...
------ Nov., Dec.
-- Oct., Nov., Jan. and Feb. --

--..----Mar., April, May
-- April to July ------
-- April, May, June -----
-- April, May, June
-- Mar., April, May -----
Mar., April
May, June
Oct. to Jan.
Jan., Feb., Oct. to Dec.
----- Oct. to Jan. ------------
April, May, June
Nov., Dec., Jan.
Jan. to Mar. -------------
Mar., April, May, June, July, Aug.,
Sept., Oct.


---Dec. to Feb. --- 4 to 6 years
--- Dec. and Jan. ----- 4 to 6 years





10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE



CROPS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA, WHEN PLANTED
AND HARVESTED


South Florida comprises Broward, Charlotte, Collier, Dade, DeSoto,
Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Highlands, Indian River, Lee, Manatee, Martin,
Monroe, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, Sarasota, St. Lucie Counties. Area
11,376,680 acres.


Vegetable
BEANS --
BEETS ------
BROCCOLI
BRUSSELS SPRO1
CUCUMBERS
CABBAGE --
CORN
CARROTS --------
CAULIFLOWER
COLLARDS
CANTALOUPES
DASHEENS ---.--
EGGPLANT -

ENGLISH PEAS
IRISH POTATOES
KALE ------.. .
KOHL-RABI -
LETTUCE
MUSTARD --------
OKRA ----
ONIONS

PEPPERS ---.-----

PUMPKINS -
RADISHES --------
RUTABAGAS --
SQUASH --
SPINACH ----.----
SWEET POTATO
TOMATOES
TURNIPS --


s


When Planted


---..-- Sept. to April ---------- -----
--....---.Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov. -...----
Sept.-Jan. ------------- .......
UTS ...- Jan., Feb., Nov. --
-...----- Jan., Mar. ---------........
---- Oct. to Feb ------------
------ Jan. to Mar. ------
..--------.-.. Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov.
--- Jan. (seed); Feb., (seed); Sept. .....-
----- Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. ----
--.------ Jan., Feb., Mar. ------------
...------- Jan. to April ---------- ...-------.----
...-------- ..Jan., Feb. (spring crop); July, Aug.
(fall crop) ------
Sept. to Mar. -------------
...----- Sept. to Feb. ------------
------- -. Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov.
-- Nov. to Feb. -------
.-..--- __Sept. to Jan. ---------
...------._-. Jan., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. ----
---.-..Feb., Mar., Sept. .-. ----- -----------
----_.....Jan. (seed); Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct.,
Nov., Dec. -------
-----.------- Jan., Feb. (spring crop); Aug. to Oct.
(fall crop) ------
Mar., April, May ------------
....--...... Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov., Dec. ----
-- .-. Oct., Nov. --------------- ..-----
----- .Feb., Mar., April, May, Aug., Sept. _
- ------ Jan., Feb., Nov. ----- ------
S -- -- April, May, June, July -------...
-- Sept. to Feb.; July for fall crop --....
---- Oct. to Feb. -.---.------------...-------.- ...


When Harvested
65
60

90 to 120
64
65 to 80
75 to 90

55
85

85

84
62
100 to 120
90 to 120
60 to 80
75 to 83

60

100

100 to 140
150 to 180
28
50 to 80
60 to 80
50 to 60
100
73 to 82
45













b1









-'

r.4


. E2








*r. ~ rr


D--. '.-~r -r Q-rr-n rr nl'TT-i





FLORIDA CROPS 11


Fruits When Planted
TANGERINES ------..---Dec., Jan., Feb. -..-..- .-_
ORANGES .. ....
ORANGES ...---- ------...........-..-..-
GRAPEFRUIT .... " --.-..--- ___
LEMONS ......-..- .- ...-- ._ .. " .. ..
LIMES ----------- ----
BANANAS ..... ---...----. Any Time ........ ....----- -.... ..
PAPAYAS ... -- __Feb. to June -....------------ ------__.
MANGOS _---.-...........-- Sept., Oct., Nov. - ..---- .....--
SAVOCADO PEARS .....-- -.... ".. .-...........-- .....---
SAPODILLAS ------- -" --
GUAVAS -------------Oct., Nov., Feb. ------
CHAYOTE -------- Nov. to Feb. --------------
COCONUTS .....----.---------.. .Any Time ------ -------.
CANTALOUPES -
WATERMELONS ----Jan. and Feb. -----------
PINEAPPLES ---.-.--Aug. and Sept. ---------


Field Crops
SORGHUM FORAGE ------- Mar. to June --
PARA GRASS .---...-----_._ Any Time --
NATAL GRASS ....------------
NAPIER GRASS ----- -_._-Any Time --_.
BERMUDA GRASS _------- (Seed) Oct. to Feb.
CARPET GRASS ---- (Seed) Oct. to Feb.
SST. AUGUSTINE GRASS (Seed) Any Time -.
COW PEAS -Mar. to July -
MILLET --- Feb. to June ----
SUGARCANE Nov. to April ---


When Harvested
4 to 6 years
4 to 6 years
4 to 6 years
3 to 5 years
3 to 5 years
12 to 18 months
12 to 15 months
4 to 6 years
4 to 6 years
6 to 10 years
2 to 4 years
4 to 5 months
5 to 8 years

3 months
18 to 20 months



3 to 4 months


Nov. to April





























































PINEAPPLE





FLORIDA CROPS


TIME TABLE OF FLORIDA FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SHIPMENTS
In the following table is shown names of some of Florida's most im-
portant products and the months that they are available for market.
July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June


Avocados --
Beans ---
Beans-Lima -
Broccoli --
Cabbage ---
Carrots
Celery ----
Celery-Cabbage
Cucumbers --
Corn-Green --
Collards ---
Dasheens ---
Mangos --
Eggplant --
Escarole ---
Field Peas ------
Grapes _;--
Greens -_---
Grapefruit --
Oranges --
Lemons ---
Limes -_--
Lettuce --
Tangerines -
Satsumas --
Okra _----
Peas-Green -
Peppers ---
Potatoes --
Radishes --
Strawberries --
Squash --
Sweet Potatoes -
Tomatoes --
Watermelons -


x x x x
x
x x x x
X XX X


x
x


x
x
X


x x x x
x x x x
x x x x
x x
x x x x


x
x
x x x
x
x x x x
x x


X X X
x
x x x


x x x x
Sx x
- ------- x
x
------ x x x x


x






X
----- x
----x x x x


------ -- x
---- x
--- x


---- x x x x
----x x x x
-------- x


x x


x x
x x
x x


x x
x x


x x
x
x x
x x
x x


x x





x x


X X
x
x x
x
Xx
x x

x x


X X


x x x x
x





14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL VALUES OF PRODUCTION
(1955-56 Preliminary)
COMMODITY SUMMARY
Citrus 527,300 acres 268,352 carloads 133,655,000


Truck Crops 4


Other Fruits
and edible nuts
Field crops 1,
Livestock p:
Dairy Products
Poultry and Eggs
Horticultural
Specialties
Forest and Misc.
Products
Total all Commodities
Govt. Payments
Grand Total


units $244,326,000
12,450 acres 172,298 carloads 77,368,800
units 187,203,000
11,000 tons avocados and
12,000 acres 5,000,000 lbs. pecans 3,015,000
)70,000 acres 65,926,000
oduction 350,000,000 lbs. $55,331,000
63,000,000
55,700,000 pounds meat and 50,000,000 doz. eggs 37,307,000
21,100 acres ...--- ---- 31,000,000
9,700,000
$696,808,000
3,430,000
$700,238,000


FLORIDA VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION (1954-55)
ACREAGE DISPOSITION (1955) Total Acres
Citrus 503,700, Truck Crops 392,100, Other Fruits & Edible Nuts 12,000 907,800
Horticultural Specialties 20,700, General Field Crops 1,073,400 1,094,100
Pastures: Improved 2,500,000, Woodland 7,150,000, Others 5,541,100 15,191,100
Other Land Used (House lots, roads, waste land, etc.) 1,007,000

TOTAL LAND USED ACCORDING TO U.S.
AGRICULTURAL CENSUS 18,200,000
Woodland and Other Land not used in Agriculture 16,528,000
TOTAL LAND AREA OF FLORIDA 34,728,000
COMMODITY SUMMARY Acres Carloads* Units Used Total Value
CITRUS (Total 1954-55) 503,700 255,400 127,700,000 $195,396,000
Oranges 356,400 175,700 87,850,000 153,067,000
Grapefruit 117,100 69,280 34,640,000 31,813,000
Tangerines 23,900 9,660 4,830,000 9,386,000
Limes 6,300 760 380,000 1,130,000
TRUCK CROPS (Tl. 1954-55) 392,100 170,127 76,498,700 $189,724,000
Beans (Snap & Limas) 70,000 13,598 8,203,000 20,766,000
Cabbage 14,400 11,670 140,700 7,316,000
Celery 9,100 16,918 6,873,000 15,618,000
Corn, Sweet 33,000 11,056 6,033,000 11,709,000
Cucumbers 16,100 7,079 3,089,000 9,239,000
Escarole 4,600 3,846 2,470,000 2,594,000
Peppers, Green 13,800 6,857 4,529,000 10,120,000
Potatoes, Irish 37,600 19,556 10,070,000 24,070,000
Squash 10,700 2,295 1,219,000 2,953,000
Tomatoes 56,500 36,973 14,442,000 57,848,000
Strawberries 3,600 763 306,000 2,889,000
Watermelons 88,000 30,392 14,500,000 14,500,000
Other Truck Crops (a) 34,700 9,424 4,624,000 10,102,000
OTHER FRUITS & EDIBLE
NUTS (Total 1955) 12,000 $ 6,156,200
Avocados 4,800 808 13,000 1,523,200
Pecans 5,000 Production 10,900,000 lbs. @37.9t 4,128,000
Others (b) 2,200 -505,000


0
r




FLORIDA CROPS 15

FIELD CROPS (Total 1955) 1,073,400 -- $ 66,708,000
Acres Volume Unit
Harvested Harvested Price
Corn 592,000 11,840,000 Bu. $ 1.15 $13,616,000
Cotton (Lint) 33,500 24,700 Bales 160.00 3,945,000
Hay 117,000 156,000 Tons 27.50 4,290,000
Peanuts 60,000 61,500,000 Lbs. .111 6,826,000
Sugarcane (sugar & seed) 35,900 1,197,000 Tons 7.50 8,978,000
Soybeans 36,000 792,000 Bu. 2.00 1,624,000
Sweet Potatoes 3,000 165,000 Cwt 6.10 1,006,000
Tobacco Type 14 21,100 29,751,000 Lbs. .459 13,656,000
Tobacco Type 62 3,900 5,343,000 Lbs. 1.75 9,350,000
Tung Nuts 67,000 6,200 Tons 64.00 397,000
Others(c) 104,000 .--- 3,020,000
LIVESTOCK (Total 1955) $ 53,337,000
All Cattle-329,930,000 lbs. production @ $10.60 cwt cattle, $13.40 cwt calves 37,939,000
Beef Cattle & Calves (Jan. 1, 1955 inventory 1,412,000 head) (Included in
Dairy Cattle & Calves (Jan. 1, 1955 inventory 325,000 head) Beef Sales)
Hogs & Pigs (Jan. 1, 1955 inventory 436,000 head) 99,507,000 lb.
production ( $15.20 cwt 14,930,000
Others (d) 468,000
DAIRY PRODUCTS (Total 1955) 872.000,000 lbs. farm milk 6.98p $ 60,404,000
POULTRY & EGGS (Total 1955) $ 31,741,000
Broilers 27,228,000 lbs. @ 26.20 7,134,000
Eggs 42,083,000 doz. (White & Brown) @ 48.54 20,371,000
Others (e) poultry
meat 17,495,000 lbs. 4,236,000
HORTICULTURAL SPECIALTIES (Total 1955) $ 30,221,000
Nursery Products 9,857 acres 17,221,000
Cut Flowers (Glads & Mums) Glads 10,680 acres, Mums 163 acres 13,000,000
FOREST & MISC. PRODUCTS (Total 1955) $ 10,927,000
Forest Products 8,418,000
Honey & Beeswax 238,000 colonies, 13,090,000 lbs. honey, 223,000 lbs beeswax 2,509,000
TOTAL ALL COMMODITIES $644,614,200
Government Payments 3,150,000
TOTAL FLORIDA VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION $647,764,200
NOTES: Carloads includes intrastate and interstate fresh shipments, processed,
Florida consumption minus quantity of imports moved thru Florida by truck. (a) Canta-
loups, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, eggplant, Field peas, greens, lettuce, radishes, etc.
(b) Bananas, coconuts, figs, grapes, lychee nuts, mangoes, guavas, papayas, pears, per-
simmons, pineapples, plums and prunes, etc. (c) Cotton lint, cowpeas alone, lupine seed,
oats, popcorn, rice, sugarcane for syrup, velvet beans, wheat, and other seeds. (d) Sheep
and lambs, goats, mules, horses, rabbits, fur animals and wool. (e) Farm chickens &
turkeys.










FLORIDA TOTAL CITRUS SHIPMENTS, VALUATIONS, AND OTHER DATA FOR 28 YEARS


Total
Carloads
Rail & Boat
Shipped

Carloads


37,876
63,673
39,485
74,645
49,235
55,501
53,311
51,107
48,916
66,879
67,409
87,067
55.310
67.072
61,945
76,198
85.380
68.096
74,947
76,766
58,002
55,019
37,335
49,242
57,481
44,552
47.215
41.167
38,246


Portion
Carloads
Shipped
by Rail

Cars


37,680
62,996
39,231
72,949
44,996
44,456
32,288
27,460
28,790
43,570
45,867
58,933
41,761
49,329
60,128
76,198
85,380
68,096
74,859
72,199
58,002
54,984
32,173
49.242
57,097
44,264
45.525
39,443
36,316


With No.
Rail Haul
Shipped
by Boat (1)
Carloads


196
677
254
1,696
4,239
11,045
21,023
23,647
20,126
23,309
21,542
28,134
13,549
17,743
1,817
None
None
None
88
4,567
None
35
5,162
None
384
288
1,690
1.724
1,930


Total
Rail & Boat
Shipments

Boxes


13,635,360
22,922,280
14,214,600
27,229,945
18,914,165
20,176,750
20,884,890
20,132,561
19,232,052
26,221,696
26,317,533
33,927,076
21,449,504
26,358,127
25,142,270
37,216,319
42,314,960
33,535,000
39.902.117
37,724,125
28,772,771
27,100.724
18,003,817
24,043.596
28,144,704
21,859,356
22,925,707
20.121.000
18,592,000


Estimated
Trucked
Out of
Florida

Boxes


800,000
1.500.000
100,000
2,640,000
2.525.520
3,010,180
3,249,000
4,346,360
3,770,000
4,274,000
4,973,600
7,126,559
5,813,200
7,720,400
5,476,000
3,728,678
2,893,600
1,989,200
2,778,400
4,506,000
7,518,512
16.706,400
15,225,228
14,712,027
20,032,933
19,987,382
23.585.722
24,060,000
24,459.000


Estimated
Processed
in
Florida

Boxes


600,000
1,527,320
1,710,000
2.954,056
966,533
2,800,000
2,667,397
5,781,933
3.900,000
7,305,512
6,848,496
9,582,037
12,970,408
17,812,227
14,339,874
24,022,299
31,456,489
29,438,000
41,871,161
36,620,582
50,423,431
44.156,820
49.738,451
61,123,100
61,842,182
62,000,396
84,030,503
77,442,000
85,289,000


Estimated
Consumed (2)
in
Florida

Boxes


1,000.000
1,950,000
1,200,000
2,180,970
2,040.000
2,422,700
2,475,000
2,575,000
2.560.000
2,800,000
2,800,000
3,300,000
2,740,000
4,000,000
3,441,856
3,733,150
4.134,951
3,992,800
4,226,722
4.249,293
4,301,772
4,936,056
4.732,504
5,221,277
5,680,181
5,752,866
5,758,068
5,697,000
5,305,000


Records
Estimates
Season

ALL
CITRUS


1927-28
1928-29
1929-30(3)
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-85
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56


Estimated
Florida
Production
Utilized

Total Boxes


16.035,360
27,899,600
17,224,600
35.004,971
24,446,218
28,409,630
29,276,287
32.835.854
29,462,052
40.601,208
40,939,629
56,447,995
42,973,112
55,890,754
48,400,000
68,700,446
80.800,000
69,000,000
86,000,000
83,100.000
91,100,000
92,900,000
87,700,000
105,100,000
119,100,000
109,600,000
136,500,000
127,320,000+
133,655,000


NOTES:

(1) Domestic Boat Shipments in Coastwise Trade.

(2) Figures for "Consumed in Florida" stock are rough estimates based on supply, price, population, intrastate truck shipments, etc.

(3BFruit fly year when production, harvest and shipments restricted. +Does not include 980,000 boxes abandoned for economic reasons.







FLORIDA TOTAL CITRUS SHIPMENTS, VALUATIONS, AND OTHER DATA FOR 28 YEARS


Cost of
Picking
Hauling,
Packing,
Selling


Estimated
Gross FOB
Returns
Florida
Points


Cost of
Produc-
tion (2)
Before
Picked

Per Box


$3.74
2.08
3.19
1.86
1.95
1.36
1.65
1.63
2.14
2.04
1.57
1.31
1.60
1.51
2.06
2.81
3.01
3.483
3.44
2.59
2.08
2.74
3.54
3.06
2.53
2.81
2.80
2.81


Estimated
Net Returns
to Growers
Rail & Boat
Shipments

Per Box


$1.83
.19
1.19
.33
.50
.011%
.33%1
.32
.76
.75
.30%o
.15
.28
.27
.74
1.41
1.28
1.75
1.73
.85
.31
.90
1.70
1.18
.60
.81
.79
.81


Estimated
Net Return (1)
Rail & Boat
Shipments

Net Value


$24,964,592
4,361,670
16,942,604
8,920,948
9,442,872
309,774
7.022,618
6,387,160
14,717,619
19.583,547
8,020,166
5,228,990
6,003,437
7,113,479
18,512,334
52,567,333
54,036,891
58,913,420
64,336,904
35,538,600 RTB
11,149,258
39,226,732
56,253,671
45,811,327
28,669,386
33,834,583
36,787.493
35,933,000


Estimated
Net Returns
All Citrus
Harvested
and Used

Net Value


$26,980,492
5,698,063
18,320,604
10,037,572
10,943,166
562,466
10,009,011
8,855,935
20,211,899
24,579,298
8,988,419
3,693,314
5,014,792
8,831,633
27,639,289
76,284,772
94,032,066
111,913,564
125,551,850
36,791,631
8,846,162
58,780,430
129,105,458
86,129,017
31,290,023
65,334,411
77,364,171
81,282,000


Estimated
Gross FOB
Returns
Rail & Boat
Shipments

Gross Value


$50,958,663
47,405,291
45,399,313
50,569,525
36,948,353
27,465,441
34,451,906
32,724,487
41,206,791
53,611,677
41,370,281
44,446,374
34,341,712
39,711,619
51,815,921
104,759,215
127,207,221
116,804,250
127,451,035
108,787,717 RTB
75,614,684
119,737,513
117,516,357
118,795,073
122,042,901
117,495,778
130,593,966
124,033,000


NOTES:
(*) Truck Shipments included with Rail & Boat, their FOB prices being the same. See RTB

(1) Net return after deducting for cost of production which includes fertilizer, spray materials,
for taxes and interest.


irrigation, pruning, fuel, labor, etc., but before deducting


(2) Cost of production figures added to net returns to grower will show the Marketing Bureau "On Tree" average price for rail and boat shipments. The
speculator's profit or loss is not calculated.

(3) Fruit fly year when production, harvest and shipments restricted.


Records &
Estimates
Season

ALL
CITRUS


1927-28
1928-29
1929-30(3)
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47*
1947-48*
1948-49*
1949-50*
1950-51*
1951-52*
1952-53*
1953-54*
1954-55*


Per Box Per Box


$0.63
.64
.71
.43
.53
.45
.44
.43
.44
.37
.38
.34
.42
.39
.43
.39
.49
.483
.46
.50
.48
.47
.49
.53
.53
.55
.54
.54


Estimated
Gross Return
All Citrus
Harvested
and Used

Gross Value


$54,714,663
52,217,851
49,097,313
56,293,572
42,691,957
32,616,451
42,401,191
42,797,752
53,189,191
68,838,758
53,285,352
58,646,931
50,365,127
64,192,695
80,572,620
153,052,989
199,688,696
201,912.530
236,230,700
146,565,580
114,925,896
182,187,502
241,964,455
229,259,424
190,122,571
218,828,993
254,965,839
245,805,000










ALL CITRUS(I) FLORIDA CALIFORNIA (A) TEXAS (A) ARIZONA (A) OTHER STATES TOTAL U. S.

Acreage Production Acreage Production Acreage Production Acreage Production Acreage Production Acreage Production


1924-25 160.6 20,236 218.1 24,194 3.4 318 1.4 165 3.5 77 378.0 44,990
1934-35 291.8 32,815 260.8 57,961 78.8 3,390 11.3 1,410 6.6 521 649.3 96,097
1939-40 332.5 43,995 297.6 58,400 97.3 16,760 21.1 3,495 8.3 362 756.8 123,012
1944-45 374.8 69,350 315.1 76,880 105.4 26,700 20.1 4,900 4.5 360 819.9 178,190
1949-50 428.2 87,960 284.2 55,720 84.0 8,160 17.9 4,385 4.5 360 818.8 156,585
1951-52 454.7 119,360 \ 267.2 53,370 35.9 500 17.7 2,870 4.5 50 780.0 176,150
1952-53 468.7 109,920 263.4 61,080 42.1 1,400 17.7 3,900 4.5 50 796.4 176,350
1953-54 480.3 138,670 244.4 51,030 39.2 2,100 14.9 3,840 4.5 100 783.3 195,740
1954-55P 503.7 128,680 243.1 55,540 40.7 4,000 14.9 3,600 4.5 175 806.9 191,995



NOTES:

(1) Thousand of bearing acres, and thousand of boxes. Florida and Texas 1-3/5 bu., California and Arizona slightly smaller.

(A) Freezes in 1948-49 did severe damage in California, Texas and Arizona.
(E) Estimates based on subtotal of oranges and grapefruit deducted from grand total for California.

(P) Preliminary


FLORIDA FRUIT AND VEGETABLE ESTIMATED ACREAGE, YIELD, PRODUCTION AND VALUE FOR 1955-56 SEASON
Yield Economic Total Price Total
Acreage Acreage Acreage per Unit Total Abandon- Units per Gross
Commodity Planted Lost Harvested Acre Units Produced ment(g) Harvested Unit FOB VALUE


Beans (Snap) 69,000
Limas (Fordhooks
& B-Beans) 2,700
Cabbage 17,000
Cantaloups 2,800
Cauliflower 1,200
Chinese Cabbage(a) 325
Celery 10.000
Corn 43,200
Cucumbers 17,200
Cucumbers (Pickelsi(b) 1,200


6,000 63,000

200 2,500
500 16,500
300 2,500
1,200
25 300
300 10,000
5,500 37,700
1.600 15,600
100 1,100


7,255,000 191,000


187,000
165,000
162,000
402,000
180,000
6,603,000
6,782,000
3,190,000
60,000


13,200
9,000


32,000

100.000


7,064,000 $2.46 $ 17,401,000

187,000 3.50 655,000
151,800 39.60 6,011,000
153,000 4,10 627,000
402,000 1.55 623.000
180,000 2.05 369,000
6,571,000 1.77 11,654,000
6,782,000 1.93 13,076,000
3.090,000 3.17 9,802,000
60,000 1.25 75,000




Eggplant 2,900 50 2,850 358 Bu. 1,020,000 66,000 954,000 1.54 1,467,000
Escarole-Endive 5,300 300 5,000 500 Bu. 2,500,000 188,000 2.312,000 1.20 2,774,000
Field Peas(a) 5.900 ...... 5,900 100 Bu. 590,000 ... 590,000 2.10 1,239,000
Greens 2,100 ..... 2,100 600 Bu. 126,000 ... 126,000 1.60 202,000
Lettuce 4,900 300 4,600 145 Crt. 667,000 .... 667,000 2.60 1,734,000
Peppers 14.400 500 13,900 330 Crt. 4,590,000 .... 4,590,000 2.81 12,898,000
Potatoes 42,500 300 42,100 259 Bu. 10,899,000 10,899,000 2.28 24,883,000
Radishes(a) 13,600 3,000 10,600 85 Bu. 900,000 210,000 690,000 3.05 2.105.000
Squash 11,700 700 11,000 113 Bu. 1,242,000 ........ 1,242,000 2.57 3.198,000
Strawberries 3,900 3,900 80 Crt. 312,000 ...312,000 9.15 2,855,000
Tomatoes 65.000 3,000 62,000 219 Bu. 13,572,000 256,000 13,316,000 4.10 54,535,000
Watermelons 95,000 5,000 90,000 385 Melons 34,650,000 2.190,000 32,460,000 .51 16,620,000
Miscel. Vegetables(a) 9,000 1,000 8,000 100 Bu. 800,000 800,000 3.00 2,400,000

TOTAL
TRUCK CROPS 441,225 28,675 412,450 ..... 96,854,000 3,255,200 93,598,800 $ ... $187.203,000

Avocados(c) 4,800 4,800 95 Bu. 444,000 444,000 2.85 1,265,000
Mangoes(a) 1,200 1,200 Bu. 50,000 50,000 3.70 185,000
Other Miscel. Fruits(a) 1,000 1,000 150 Bu. 150,000 150,000 2.25 340,000

TOTAL MISCEL.
FRUITS 7,000 7,000 .. 644,000 644,000 $ ..... $ 1,790,000

Oranges 372,300 372,300 244 1-3/5 Bu. 91.000,000 90,450,000 2.20 199.240,000
Grapefruit 122,600 .. 122,600 312 1-3/5 Bu. 38,300,000 38,140,000 .86 32,902,000
Tangerines 24,100 24,100 195 1-3/5 Bu. 4,700,000 200,000 4.430,000 2.25 9,986,000
Tangelos 1,700 1,700 1-3/5 Bu. 235,000 235,000 4.21 990,000
Limes 6,600 6,600 61 1-3/5 Bu. 400,000 400,000 3.02 1,208,000

TOTAL CITRUS 527,300 946,750 ...... 134,635,000 200.000 133,655,000 $ ..... $244,326,000

GRAND TOTAL 975,525 ... 946,750 ...... 232,133,000 3,455,200 227,897,000 $ .... $433,319,000
NOTES: Also check notes bottom of page 20.
(a) Estimated. We have a record of truck shipments of field peas, greens and radishes. We have a record of avocado and mango truck shipment volume, and
also of avocado production. The 1954 census gives us some bench work data on the above as well as information for the first time on miscellaneous fruits such
as bananas, coconuts, figs, grapes, guavas, papayas, pears, persimmons, plums and prunes.
(b) Spring pickles for processing.
(c) Avocado data based on 1956 season. Due to the quantity of Cuba avocados consumed in Florida certain adjustments were made to the West Indies import
data which do not reflect in the State avocado total carlot figure.
(d) Total imports into Florida were collected at the various Florida ports by the State Plant Board. Rail imports through Florida were deducted from the
sum of the total imports leaving the quantities of imported products which were either sold within the State or were moved out by motor truck. It is assumed
that the most volume of West Indies imported produce moved out of Florida. The reader may make his own adjustments to the FLORIDA INTERSTATE TRUCK
SHIPMENTS.





ESTIMATED DISPOSITION OF FLORIDA VEGETABLES AND FRUITS IN CARLOTS, OR EQUIVALENTS, AND
VALUE 1955-56 SEASON

Straight Mixed LCL Boat Interstate Total Florida Florida W. Indies Tot. Fla. Total
Commodity Freight Freight Express Carlots Truck Shipped Processed Consumed Imps. into(d) Grown Value
Cars Cars(f) Cars(f) Carlots out Carlots Carlots(f) Florida Produce Cars Used
Carlots Carlots C/L Used
Beans (Snap) (2,147) (805) -...- -...-.. 6,752 (9,889) 980 (1,000) ...... (11,937) $ 17,401,000
Limas (all) (all) ....- ........ 185 (all) ........ (68) ..--... (all) 655,000
Cabbage 3,773 355 ..--- ..... 7,210 11,338 ...... 910 ..... 12,248 6,011,000
Cantaloups 15 .. ... ........ 212 227 --.... 70 ...... 297 627,000
Cauliflower 216 91 -.... 450 757 --.... 75 ........ 832 623,000
Chinese Cabbage(a) 141 ..---- .... 130 271 ........ 15 .... 286 369,000
Celery 8.764 615 5--.... -,533 14,912 ....... 1,190 ...... 16,102 11,654,000
Corn 5,923 401 ..... ...... 5,360 11,684 -.... 940 ....... 12,624 13,076,000
Cucumbers 1,150 335 ....---- 6,550 8,035 --..... 640 1,755 6,920 9,802,000
S (Pickles) -.. ..- ..... --- 133 ...133 75,000
Eggplant 10 170 ---...... 1,249 1,438 ........ 150 32 1,556 1,467,000
Escarole-Endive 923 1,226 ....... 1,473 3,622 ... 100 .... 3,722 2,774,000
Field Peas(a) ..... ......- -....... 641 641 25 286 ..... 952 1,239,000
Greens(a) 118 ... ........ 357 475 100 150 ....... 725 202,000 -
Lettuce 75 220 -.... ........ 993 1,288 ..... 130 ... 1,418 1,734,000
Peppers 1,782 950 ------ ........ 3,644 6,376 .510 23 6,863 12,898,000
Potatoes 6,701 25 -...... 13,136 19,862 ... 1,350 3 21,209 24,883,000
Radishes(a) 212 385 ---- -1,438 2,035 160 ..... 2,195 2,105,000
Squash 64 305 -- -1,696 2,065 5 125 ....... 2,195 3,198,000
Strawberries -40 ...... 426 466 446 140 1,052 2,855,000
Tomatoes 9,714 -. ....- ...... 18,761 28,475 6,300 1,750 743 35,782 54,535,000
Watermelons 11,358 . ..- ....._ 18,898 30,256 ..... 2,200 1 32,455 16,620,000
Miscl. Vegetables(a) 1 250 -.... 294 545 100 250 100 795 2,400,000
TOTAL
TRUCK CROPS 52,955 6,274 40 .... 95,388 154,657 8,089 12,209 2,657 172,298 $187,203,000
Avocados(c) 5-- .. 51 ... 845 896 140 213(c) 870(c) $ 1,265,000
Mangoes(a) .... 15 .-- 41 56 ...... 24 14 66 185,000
Miscel. Fruits(a) ... -..- ...... 1 1 50 270 .... 321 340,000
TOTAL MISCL.
FRUITS --.66 . 887 953 50 434 227 1,257 $ 1,790,000
Oranges(h) 11,479 2,967 3,800 1,664 24,628 44,538 131,068 6,054 ...... 181,660 $199,240,000
Grapefruit(h) 12,170 2,012 1,310 264 19,984 35,740 37,316 3,486 ....... 76,542 32,902,000
Tangerines(h) 1,685 641 98 2 3,622 6,048 1,962 870 ..... 8,880 9,986,000
Tangelos(h) 122 -- ---.... 196 318 32 120 470 990,000
Limes(h) ...- -. 32 ....- 488 520 200 80 800 1,208,000

TOTAL CITRUS 25,456 5,820 5,240 1,930 48,918 87,164 170,578 10,610 ........ 268,352 $244,326,000
GRAND TOTAL 78,411 11,894 5,846 1,930 145,193 242,774 178,717 23,253 2,884 441,907 $433,319,000
NOTES: Also check notes bottom of page 19.
(e) Includes only the quantity processed in Florida. Approximately 947 carlot equivalents were shipped out of Florida, and included in the interstate shipment figure.
(f) Estimated, based on some incomplete figures.
(g) Abandoned because of market conditions and not included in Total Value. Value includes production, packing and marketing costs, if any, and profit, if any.
(h) Citrus carlot data based on carlot equivalents of total crop harvested.




FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS-ACREAGE, YIELD, PRODUCTION, VALUE AND SHIPMENTS
OF SELECTED COMMODITIES
(Historical Statistics)

Source: Crop Statistics and mixed car analysis by USDA-Crop Reporting Service, Orlando and Transportation Data by USDA-
F&V Transportation Section, Washington, D. C., and Fla. State Marketing Bureau.

BEANS (SNAP & LIMAS)
SNAP BEANS


ACREAGE YIELD
For Per Acre
SEASON Harvest Bu.'


PRODUCTION IN BUSHELS
Of Value
Total Fresh Processed*


AVERAGE PRICE
Per Bu.
Fresh Processed*


$ 6,288,000
7,049,000
7,488,000
8,980,000
11,932,000
17,822,000
19,482,000
18,404,000
18,041,000
15,886,000
14,772,000
17,181,000
17,122,000
17,092,000
17,816,000
20,029,000
18,649,000
20,114,000
17,401,000


by 66.67 to get


1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56P


TOTAL
VALUE

FOB
PACKED


61,500
64,300
52,300
64,000
68,000
70,700
98,000
80,500
80,200
80,400
74,500
78,000
77,600
74,300
73,600
63,300
68,200
67,500
63,000


5,409,000
7,157,000
5,112,000
5,885,000
7,191,000
8,118,000
8,385,000
7,460,000
8,320,000
6,909,000
6,428,000
8,454,000
7,491,000
7,575,000
7,249,000
6,761,000
7,950,000
8,257,000
7.255.000


5,381,000
6,847,000
5,090,000
5,780,000
5,786,000
5,575,000
6,901,000
5,438,000
6,010,000
5,431,000
5,304,000
6,420,000
6,314,000
5,464,000
6,010,000
5,152,000
5,977,000
6,791,000
5,869,000


28,000
22,000
22,000
105,000
1,405,000
2,543,000
1,386,000
1,520,000
1,092,000
699,000
593,000
895,000
922,000
835,000
824,000
1,609,000
1,856,000
1,208,000
1,195,000


$1.17
1.03
1.47
1.55
1.84
2.62
2.56
2.92
2.70
2.71
2.61
2.45
2.50
2.89
2.75
3.20
2.59
2.71
2.62


$ ----



1.27
1.29
1.67
1.67
1.70
1.54
1.63
1.47
1.54
1.54
2.20
1.72
1.43
1.69


*To convert processed beans from bushels to tons divide bushel numbers by 66.67; multiply the price per bushel
the price per ton.
1Bushel of Snap Beans contains approximately 30 pounds.


~












LIMA BEANS


YIELD
Per Acre
Bu.'


PRODUCTION
IN BUSHELS
Total Of Value


342,000
483,000
281,000
281,000
324,000
321,000
345,000
480,000
672,000
408,000
508,000
451,000
404,000
322,000
288,000
219,000
220,000
222,000
187,000


'Bushel of Lima Beans contains approximately 32 pounds.


ACREAGE
For
Harvest


SEASON

1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56P


5,400
5,800
4,800
7,000
5,000
5,400
4,500
5,400
7,600
5,900
5,500
4,550
4,150
4,600
3,200
2,800
2,400
2,500
2,500


342,000
483,000
281,000
281,000
324,000
321,000
345,000
466,000
585,000
397,000
468,000
451,000
382,000
322,000
263,000
219,000
220,000
204,000
187,000


AVERAGE
PRICE
Per Bushel


$1.49
1.51
1.50
2.19
2.10
3.31
4.16
4.53
3.35
3.39
3.00
3.09
2.78
2.79
3.21
3.24
3.05
3.20
3.50


TOTAL
VALUE

FOB
PACKED

$ 510,000
730,000
422,000
615,000
681,000
1,063,000
1,436,000
2,111,000
1,960,000
1,344,000
1,404,000
1,395,000
1,061,000
897,000
843,000
710,000
670,000
652,000
655,000





; - ~ ,...... .....

illi

BEANS





CAULIFLOWER
(Winter)


ACREAGE
For


YIELD
Per Acre


PRODUCTION
IN CRATES


AVERAGE
PRICE


TOTAL
VALUE
FOB


SEASON Harvest Crt.1 Total Of Value Per Crt. PACKED
1948-49 600 250 150,000 150,000 $2.40 $ 360,000
1949-50 800 410 328,000 328,000 1.60 525,000
1950-51 1,100 290 319,000 319,000 1.95 622,000
1951-52 1,300 340 442,000 442,000 1.75 774,000
1952-53 1,400 300 420,000 420,000 1.45 609,000
1953-54 1,100 300 330,000 330,000 1.40 462,000
1954-55 1,100 320 352,000 352,000 1.85 640,000
1955-56P 1,200 335 402,000 402,000 155 651,000
'Crate of Cauliflower contains approximately 37 pounds.
CABBAGE
TOTAL
VALUE
ACREAGE YIELD PRODUCTION-In-Tons AVERAGE PRICE
For Per Acre Of Value Per Ton FOB
SEASON Harvest Tons Total Fresh Kraut Fresh Kraut PACKED
1937-38 9,400 6.5 61,000 61,000 $16.00 $ $ 978,000
1938-39 10,000 5.5 55,000 55,000 18.00 990,000
1939-40 16,000 7.0 112,000 112,000 18.40 2,061,000
1940-41 10,000 6.0 60,000 60,000 38.90 2,334,000
1941-42 18,000 6.0 108,000 90,000 17.80 1,602,000
1942-43 10,000 8.5 85,000 85,000 76.00 6,460,000
1943-44 23,500 8.0 188,000 119,700 36.00 4,309,000
1944-45 16,000 8.0 128,000 97,000 2,400 37.00 25.00 3,649,000
1945-46 12,000 8.5 102,000 99,500 49.00 4,876,000
1946-47 12,200 8.2 100,000 79,600 34.70 2,762,000
1947-48 16,700 8.7 145,300 124,500 52.50 6,536,000
1948-49 16,000 9.2 147,200 126,700 44.00 5,575,000
1949-50 17,700 10.5 185,800 128,500 30.00 3,855,000
1950-51 19,000 11.0 209,000 158,300 68.00 10,764,000
1951-52 15,600 10.9 170,000 156,300 61.30 9,581,000
1952-53 19,900 9.8 195,000 129,300 2,900 30.00 10.00 3,908,000
1953-54 15,700 9.3 146,000 113,800 4,600 30.00 10.00 3,460,000
1954-55 14,000 10.3 148,300 140,700 52.00 7,316,000
1955-56 16,500 10.0 165,000 151,800 .-39.60 6,011,000







SEASON
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956P


YIELD
Per Acre
Jumbo Crt.1


CANTALOUPES
PRODUCTION
IN JUMBO CRTS.
Total Of Value


ACREAGE
For
Harvest
700
500
500
500
500
400
550
500
800
800
1,200
1,200
1,400
1,300
1,500
1,800
2,000
1,900
2,500


52,000
40,000
35,000
30,000
35,000
26,000
33,000
22,000
32,000
64,000
78,000
48,000
84,000
78,000
98,000
72,000
90,000
133,000
162,000


52,000
40,000
35,000
30,000
35,000
26,000
33,000
18,000
16,000
64,000
78,000
48,000
84,000
78,000
98,000
72,000
90,000
124,000
153,000


AVERAGE
PRICE
Per Crt.
$1.25
1.10
1.10
1.25
1.50
3.25
3.75
7.00
3.60
2.25
4.00
4.00
2.25
4.00
3.55
4.05
3.65
4.25
4.10


'Jumbo crates of cantaloupes approximately 83 pounds.


CORN, GREEN
TOTAL
ACREAGE YIELD PRODUCTION AVERAGE VALUE
For Per Acre IN CRATES PRICE FOB
SEASON Harvest Crt.1 Total Of Value Per Crt. PACKED
1947-48 6,000 80 480,000 480,000 $2.75 $ 1,320,000
1948-49 14,700 115 1,690,000 1,690,000 2.65 4,480,000
1949-50 28,500 120 3,418,000 2,963,000 2.19 6,503,000
1950-51 25,700 123 3,168,000 3,168,000 2.47 7,817,000
1951-52 32,900 136 4,485,000 4,308,000 2.23 9,588,000
1952-53 30,400 145 4,422,000 4,422,000 2.39 10,547,000
1953-54 36,800 142 5,240,000 5,240,000 2.04 10,666,000
1954-55 33,000 190 6,200,000 6,033,000 1.94 11,709,000
1955-56P 37,700 180 6,782,000 6,782,000 1.93 13,076,000
1Crate of 5 dozen of corn contains approximately 50 pounds.


TOTAL
VALUE
FOB
PACKED
$ 65,000
44,000
38,000
38,000
52,000
84,000
124,000
126,000
58,000
144,000
312,000
192,000
189,000
312,000
348,000
292,000
328,000
527,000
627,000














































CABBAGE


if; 4 4 -1lelAI~r7~l~4PI \ilm-r--c~ii-











CELERY


Total


3,829,000
3,646,000
3,806,000
4,242,000
4,353,000
4,176,000
4,969,000
5,512,000
6,462,000
4,646,000
5,681,000
5,415,000
6,481,000
6,885,000
7,254,000
6,474,000
7,314,000
6,983,000
6,603,000


PRODUCTION
IN CRATES
Of Value


3,405,000
3,646,000
3,806,000
4,242,000
4,353,000
4,176,000
4,867,000
5,410,000
6,310,000
4,646,000
4,752,000
5,256,000
6,254,000
6,690,000
7,141,000
6,399,000
6,787,000
6,873,000
6,571,000


1Crate of celery contains approximately 60 pounds.


ACREAGE
For
Harvest


YIELD
Per Acre
Crt.1


SEASON


1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56P


AVERAGE
PRICE
Per Crate


TOTAL
VALUE

FOB
PACKED


7.200
6,700
7,100
8,700
9,350
8,750
9,900
11,100
13,500
11,400
11,600
9,400
9,700
10,400
10,400
10,000
10,600
9,100
10,100


$ .97
1.48
1.54
1.91
1.66
4.11
3.18
3.48
2.27
3.73
1.96
3.02
2.00
2.25
2.11
2.00
1.73
2.27
1.77


$ 3,309,000
5,383,000
5,878,000
8,116,000
7,237,000
17,159,000
14,530,000
18,820,000
14,312,000
17,332,000
9,319,000
15,894,000
12,482,000
15,075,000
15,101,000
12,830,000
11,720,000
15,618,000
11,654,000











CUCUMBERS


ACREAGE YIELD
For Per Acre
SEASON Harvest Bu.,


7,000
7,600
8,200
8,800
9,700
6,500
6,300
7,700
11,200
14,750*
14,600*
12,850*
14,300*
14,300*
15,600*
18,500*
18,700*
16,100*
16,700


Total


850,000
876,000
1,186,000
1,064,000
912,000
520,000
459,000
844,000
1,520,000
1,380,000
1,942,000
1,917,000
2,283,000
3,157,000
2,806,000
3,169,000
3,395,000
3,294,000
3,250,000


PRODUCTION IN BUSHELS
Of Value
Fresh Processed


850,000
876,000
1,186,000
1,064,000
912,000
520,000
459,000
844,000
1,444,000
1,264,000
1,857,000
1,824,000
2,175,000
2,591,000
2,585,000
3,036,000
2,791,000
2,953,000
3,090,000


116,000
34,000
52,000
72,000
56,000
221,000
133,000
144,000
136,000
60,000


AVERAGE PRICE
Per Bu.
Fresh Processed


$1.24
1.59
1.63
1.75
2.24
4.98
4.53
4.27
3.72
3.97
3.26
3.17
2.93
2.67
3.91
3.20
2.79
3.08
3.17


$ .....
.....


$-



1.30
2.10
1.20
1.25
1.50
1.95
1.85
1.30
1.00
1.25


*Includes acreages grown specifically for pickling in spring.
'Bushel of Cucumbers contains approximately 48 pounds.


1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56P


TOTAL
VALUE

FOB
PACKED


$ 1,052,000
1,391,000
1,938,000
1,859,000
2,042,000
2,592,000
2,079,000
3,600,000
5,374,000
5,170,000
6,131,000
5,836,000
6,485,000
6,998,000
10,529,000
9,967,000
7,975,000
9,239,000
9,877,000










EGGPLANT


YIELD
Per Acre
Bu.'


PRODUCTION
IN BUSHELS
Total Of Value


470,000
686,000
290,000
415,000
557,000
542,000
908,000
872,000
1,349,000
682,000
952,000
876,000
830,000
682,000
984,000
919,000
921,000
944,000
1,020,000


'Bushel of eggplant contains approximately 33 pounds.


ACREAGE
For
Harvest


SEASON

1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56P


1,800
2,100
1,450
1,900
2,350
1,950
3,500
3,200
3,900
3,500
3,330
3,300
2,600
2,200
2,550
2,800
2,400
2,550
2,850


470,000
686,000
290,000
415,000
557,000
542,000
868,000
872,000
1,109,000
682,000
713,000
792,000
788,000
682,000
984,000
919,000
921,000
895,000
954,000


AVERAGE
PRICE
Per Bushel


$ .76
.75
1.30
1.28
1.15
2.39
1.65
2.06
1.64
2.14
1.68
1.61
1.62
1.93
1.95
1.70
1.68
1.74
1.54


TOTAL
VALUE
FOB
PACKED

$ 356,000
514,000
378,000
530,000
643,000
1,295,000
1,501,000
1,798,000
1,816,000
1,461,000
1,195,000
1,276,000
1,277,000
1,318,000
1,914,000
1,560,000
1,550,000
1,560,000
1,467,000









I1 FI L


-, I'


dtrE


ths~ s
L:
~!~
---11;1?11











ESCAROLE-ENDIVE


Total


680,000
660,000
810,000
560,000
720,000
762,000
1,498,000
1,288,000
1,387,000
986,000
1,426,000
1,275,000
1,872,000
2,374,000
2,400,000
1,960,000
2,452,000
2,553,000
2,500,000


PRODUCTION
IN BUSHELS
Of Value


680,000
660,000
810,000
560,000
720,000
762,000
841,000
1,020,000
1,120,000
986,000
1,168,000
1,218,000
1,571,000
1,728,000
2,208,000
1,960,000
2,035,000
2,470,000
2,312,000


'Bushel of escarole-endive contains approximately 25 pounds.


ACREAGE
For
Harvest


YIELD
Per Acre
Bu.1


SEASON


1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56P


AVERAGE
PRICE
Per Bushel


TOTAL
VALUE
FOB
PACKED


1,000
1,000
1,350
1,000
1,200
1,450
2,350
2,800
2,500
2,700
3,100
3,000
3,600
4,700
4,800
4,000
4,500
4,600
5,000


$ .30
.40
.37
.65
.47
1.50
.77
1.45
.80
1.35
1.10
1.40
.90
1.40
1.25
1.15
1.05
1.05
1.20


$ 204,000
264,000
302,000
366,000
336,000
1,143,000
645,000
1,479,000
896,000
1,331,000
1,285,000
1,705,000
1,414,000
2,419,000
2,760,000
2,254,000
2,137,000
2,594,000
2,774,000












LETTUCE & ROMAINE


Total


166,000
180,000
360,000
225,000
215,000
370,000
358,000
224,000
333,000
242,000
221,000
207,000
324,000
429,000
341,000
390,000
412,000
595,000
667,000


PRODUCTION
IN CRATES
Of Value


166,000
180,000
360,000
225,000
215,000
370,000
221,000
199,000
296,000
242,000
190,000
207,000
296,000
343,000
341,000
390,000
412,000
595,000
667,000


'Western crate of Lettuce & Romaine contains approximately 70 pounds.


SEASON


ACREAGE
For
Harvest


YIELD
Per Acre
Crt.'


1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56P


900
1,000
2,000
2,500
3,500
2,500
2,450
1,400
1,800
2,200
1,700
1,800
2,400
2,600
2,200
2,600
2,500
3,500
4,600


AVERAGE
PRICE
Per Crt.


$ .90
1.49
1.76
1.88
2.26
3.62
2.54
3.15
3.30
2.85
2.45
3.05
2.45
2.60
3.50
2.50
2.80
2.90
2.60


TOTAL
VALUE

FOB
PACKED


$ 149,000
269,000
633,000
424,000
486,000
1,340,000
562,000
627,000
977,000
690,000
466,000
631,000
725,000
892,000
1,194,000
975,000
1,154,000
1,726,000
1,734,000














ACREAGE
For
Harvest


7,400
7,300
6,200
7,200
6,500
7,100
8,950
9,350
11,100
10,600
11,250
10,750
14,300
11,200
10,700
12,800
13,850
13,800
13,900
of Peppers contains


YIELD
Per Acre
Bu.1


PEPPERS (GREEN)

PRODUCTION
IN BUSHELS
Total Of Value


295 2,180,000
303 2,212,000
224 1,390,000
225 1,622,000
276 1,792,000
270 1,917,000
265 2,371,000
287 2,687,000
275 3,055,000
202 2,140,000
269 3,026,000
308 3,311,000
285 4,080,000
322 3,608,000
322 3,446,000
280 3,588,000
280 3,876,000
339 4,675,000
330 4,590,000
approximately 25 pounds.


SEASON

1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56P
iBushels


2,180,000
2,212,000
1,390,000
1,622,000
1,792,000
1,917,000
2,303,000
2,687,000
2,682,000
2,113,000
2,776,000
3,311,000
3,810,000
3,479,000
3,446,000
3,588,000
3,806,000
4,529,000
4,590,000


AVERAGE
PRICE
Per Bu.


$ .77
1.25
1.53
1.56
1.75
2.91
2.16
2.46
2.45
3.87
2.09
2.83
1.67
2.38
2.81
2.65
2.47
2.23
2.81


TOTAL
VALUE
FOB
PACKED

$1,668,000
2,771,000
2,121,000
2,537,000
3,133,000
5,578,000
4,964,000
6,623,000
6,574,000
8,178,000
5,802,000
9,379,000
6,380,000
8,293,000
9,670,000
9,518,000
9,395,000
10,120,000
12,898,000











POTATOES, IRISH
TOTAL
VALUE
ACREAGE YIELD PRODUCTION AVERAGE
For Per Acre IN BUSHELS PRICE FOB
SEASON Harvest Bu.1 Total Of Value Per Bushel PACKED

1937-38 31,400 134 4,208,000 4,208,000 $ .70 $ 2,960,000
1938-39 26,700 130 3,463,000 3,463,000 1.09 3,774,000
1939-40 25,600 162 4,140,000 4,140,000 .91 3,766,000 g
1940-41' 26,800 117 3,129,000 3,129,000 .90 2,803,000 m
1941-42 25,000 153 3,823,000 3,823,000 1.54 5,901,000 2
1942-43 26,600 129 3,439,000 3,439,000 1.94 6,667,000
1943-44 28,600 112 3,212,000 3,212,000 2.00 6,431,000
1944-45 31,100 162 5,035,000 5,035,000 2.39 12,033,000
1945-46 35,300 170 6,010,000 6,010,000 1.95 11,744,000
1946-47 23,100 131 3,028,000 3,028,000 1.59 4,809,000
1947-48 20,700 170 3,512,000 3,512,000 2.50 8,772,000
1948-49 20,600 255 5,250,000 5,250,000 2.30 12,064,000 c
1949-50 23,600 234 5,524,000 5,524,000 1.67 9,215,000 1
1950-51 23,500 265 6,230,000 6,230,000 1.84 11,455,000 g
1951-52 29,800 254 7,556,000 7,556,000 2.44 18,464,000
1952-53 40,700 248 10,113,000 9,749,000 1.61 15,674,000
1953-54 32,400 299 9,682,000 9,682,000 1.52 14,696,000
1954-55 37,600 268 10,070,000 10,070,000 2.39 24,070,000
1955-56P 42,100 259 10,899,000 10,899,000 2.28 24,883,000

'Bushel of potatoes contains approximately 60 pounds.









9 ~-
d. __,.~u


IRISH POTATOES













STRAWBERRIES
TOTAL
VALUE
ACREAGE YIELD PRODUCTION AVERAGE
For Per Acie IN CRATES PRICE FOB
SEASON Harvest Crt.1 Total Of Value Per Crt. PACKED

1937-38 7,500 70 525,000 525,000 $ 4.00 $2,100,000
1938-39 9,000 85 765,000 765,000 4.15 3,175,000
1939-40 7,200 70 504,000 504,000 4.65 2,344,000
1940-41 5,500 70 385,000 385,000 5.70 2,194,000
1941-42 5,000 70 350,000 350,000 6.50 2,275,000
1942-43 2,600 60 156,000 156,000 9.60 1,498,000
1943-44 1,400 70 98,000 98,000 11.30 1,107,000
1944-45 2,100 70 147,000 147,000 10.76 1,582,000
1945-46 2,800 80 224,000 224,000 10.54 2,362,000
1946-47 4,800 65 312,000 312,000 11.57 3,609,000
1947-48 4,200 45 189,000 189,000 10.60 2,003,000
1948-49 4,000 55 220,000 220,000 11.15 2,454,000
1949-50 5,400 80 432,000 432,000 9.00 3,888,000
1950-51 6,000 60 360,000 360,000 9.95 3,582,000
1951-52 3,900 70 273,000 273,000 9.92 2,708,000
1952-53 3,900 60 234,000 234,000 9.38 2,196,000
1953-54 2,800 60 165,000 168,000 11.47 1,927,000
1954-55 3,600 85 306,000 306,000 9.44 2,889,000
1955-56P 3,900 80 312,000 312,000 9.15 2,855,000




SQUASH TOTAL
ACREAGE YIELD PRODUCTION AVERAGE VALUE
For Per Acre IN BUSHELS PRICE FOB
SEASON Harvest Bushel Total Of Value Per Bushel PACKED
1947-48 7,900 82 651,000 651,000 $2.83 $1,839,000
1948-49 9,000 91 817,000 817,000 2.76 2,255,000
1949-50 10,800 85 917,000 917,000 2.38 2,185,000
1950-51 10,800 108 1,166,000 1,039,000 2.53 2,626,000
1951-52 10,600 80 845,000 845,000 3.41 2,885,000
1952-53 10,100 89 897,000 897,000 2.73 2,446,000
1953-54 9,800 103 1,013,000 944,000 2.59 2,441,000
1954-55 10,700 120 1,278,000 1,219,000 2.42 2,953,000
1955-56P 11,000 113 1,242,000 1,242,000 2.57 3,198,000

TOMATOES TOTAL
ACREAGE YIELD PRODUCTION IN BUSHELS AVERAGE PRICE VALUE
For Per Acre Of Value Per Bu. FOB
SEASON Harvest Bu.1 Total Fresh Processed* Fresh Processed* PACKED
1937-38 45,300 121 5,481,000 4,953,000 528,000 $1.73 $ $ 8,711,000
1938-39 40,700 130 5,306,000 4,976,000 330,000 2.48 12,407,000
1939-40 33,500 102 3,421,000 3,225,000 196,000 2.53 8,203,000
1940-41 27,000 110 2,976,000 2,765,000 211,000 3.10 18,638,000
1941-42 43,000 101 4,363,000 3,412,000 951,000 3.92 13,821,000
1942-43 24,800 100 2,482,000 2,219,000 263,000 5.31 .52 11,800,000
1943-44 34,900 109 3,797,000 3,405,000 392,000 5.72 .59 19,652,000
1944-45 32,500 137 4,456,000 3,825,000 289,000 5.27 .73 20,375,000
1945-46 30,400 153 4,664,000 4,245,000 210,000 5.25 .70 22,437,000
1946-47 30,650 113 3,474,000 3,086,000 388,000 5.57 .98 17,565,000
1947-48 28,350 148 4,197,000 3,854,000 343,000 6.05 .63 23,518,000
1948-49 38,800 189 7,349,000 6,753,000 596,000 5.18 .66 35,353,000
1949-50 42,200 191 8,051,000 7,395,000 656,000 4.19 .45 31,270,000
1950-51 50,200 175 8,780,000 7,420,000 1,360,000 5.24 .95 40,194,000
1951-52 53,500 189 10,137,000 8,917,000 1,220,000 4.73 .74 43,106,000
1952-53 57,400 155 8,896,000 7,736,000 1,160,000 4.49 .65 35,479,000
1953-54 57,400 175 10,051,000 8,525,000 1,333,000 4.55 .61 39,615,000
1954-55 56,500 256 14,442,000 12,296,000 2,146,000 4.59 .65 57,848,000
1955-56P 62,000 219 13,572,000 11,434,000 1,882,000 4.66 .66 54,535,000
1Bushel of Tomatoes contains approximately 53 pounds.


per bushel to approximate price per


*To convert processed Tomatoes to tons divide bushel numbers by 37.73; to convert price
ton multiply price by 37.73.













WATERMELONS


PRODUCTION
IN MELONS
Total Of Value


6,975,000
5,424,000
6,815,000
6,885,000
7,150,000
4,062,000
7,778,000
10,140,000
10,575,000
12,925,000
13,725,000
14,160,000
20,400,000
17,955,000
21,960,000
27,435,000
32,830,000
32,560,000
34,650,000


6,975,000
5,424,000
6,815,000
6,885,000
7,150,000
4,062,000
7,778,000
10,140,000
10,575,000
11,347,000
13,725,000
14,160,000
14,862,000
17,955,000
21,960,000
27,435,000
29,875,000
29,000,000
32,460,000


ACREAGE
For
Harvest


YIELD
Per Acre
Melons


Season


1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954
1955-56P


22,500
22,600
23,500
25,500
22,000
12,500
25,500
39,000
47,000
47,000
45,000
59,000
68,000
57,000
72,000
93,000
98,000
88,000
90,000


AVERAGE
PRICE
1,000 Melons


$150.00
180.00
175.00
210.00
225.00
650.00
655.00
483.00
525.00
447.00
464.00
424.00
392.00
455.00
535.00
460.00
320.00
500.00
512.00


TOTAL
VALUE

FOB
PACKED


$ 945,000
976,000
1,193,000
1,446,000
1,609,000
2,640,000
5,095,000
4,898,000
5,552,000
5,072,000
6,368,000
6,004,000
5,826,000
8,170,000
11,749,000
12,620,000
9,560,000
14,500,000
16,620,000




FLORIDA CROPS


SWEET CORN


pr




- a







-TOMATOES

TOMATOES









FLORIDA PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF AVOCADOS AND LIMES


Crop
Volume
Year Tons


1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955


620
820
1400
2200
2000
1000(a)
600(b)
2100
2200
2500
880(c)
1250
2100
4600(d)
5800
3200
1600(e)
2300
3100
3900
5500
6500
8700
10600
11,300
13,600


AVOCADOS
January 1-December 31

Farm
Bu. Value Value
50 Lbs. Ton Bu.


24,800
32,800
56,000
88,000
80,000
40,000
24,000
84,000
88,000
100,000
35,200
50,000
84,000
184,000
232,000
128,000
64,000
92,000
124,000
156,000
220,000
260,000
348,000
424,000
452,000
544,000


$192
145
88
98
75
95
120
95
64
68
98
100
136
120
140
144
336
200
180
150
134
106
122
108
114
112


$4.80
3.63
2.20
2.45
1.88
2.38
3.00
2.38
1.60
1.70
2.45
2.50
3.40
3.00
3.50
3.60
8.40
5.00
4.50
3.75
3.35
2.65(h)
3.05
2.70
2.85
2.80


Farm
Value

$ 119,040
118,900
123,200
215,600
150,000
95,000
72,000
199,500
140,800
170,000
86,240
125,000
285,600
552,000
812,000
460.800
537,600
460,000
558,000
585,000
737,000
689,000
1,061,400
1,144,800
1,288,200
1,523,200


C
Vo
1-3/
Be


1
1
1
1
4
7
9
9
8
15
17
19
25'
20'
17'
17(
20(
26(
28(
26(
32(
37(
38(
40(


LIMES (Persian Type)
Year ending March 31
rop
lume Farm
/5 Bu. Value Farm
oxes Box Value

8,000 $4.00 $ 32,000
9,000 3.50 31,500
0,000 3.00 30,000
2,000 2.50 30,000
5,000 3.00 45,000
2,000 3.75 45,000
5,000(f) 3.25 146,250
0,000 3.25 227,500
5,000 2.60 247,000
5,000 2.80 266,000
0,000 2.85 228,000
0,000 2.10 315,000
5,000 1.92(j) 336,000
0,000 3.99(g) 758,100
0,000 381(g) 952,500
0,000 2.77 554,000
0,000 3.12 530,400
0,000 2.51 426,700
0,000 2.25 450,000
0,000 2.98 774,800
0,000 1.88 526,400
0,000 3.00(i) 780,000
0,000 3.39 1,084,800
0,000 5.01 1,853,700
0,000 2.97 1,128,600
0.000 3.03 1.208.000


Avocados
& Per-
sian Limes
Combined
Farm
Value

$ 151,040
150,400
153,200
245,600
195,000
140,000
218,250
427,000
387,800
436,000
314,240
440,000
621,600
1,310,100
1,764,500
1,014,800
1,068,000
886,700
1,008,000
1,359,800
1,263,400
1,469,000
2,146,200
2,998,500
2,416,800
2,731,200


o













FLORIDA FRUITS AND NUTS



CROP PRODUCTION SEASON AVERAGE PRICE(a) VALUATION OF PRODUCTION(b)

Average
1944-53 1953-54 1954-55 1953-54 1954-55 1953-54 1954-55
Units
Avocados Tons 5,830 11,300 14,300 $114.00 $112.00 $ 1,288,000 $ 1,568,000
ALL CITRUS Boxes 99,328,000 136,870,000 128,480 1.40 1.49 192,119,000 191,171,000
GRAPEFRUIT, ALL Boxes 31,440.000 40.700.000 34.800,000 .78 .94 31,698,000 32.560,000
Seedless Boxes 14,960,000 21,800,000 20,500,000 .99 1.10 21,384,000 22,550,000
Grapefruit, Other Boxes 16,480,000 19,100,000 14,300,000 .54 .70 10,314,000 10,010,000
ORANGES, ALL Boxes 63,090,000 91,300,000 88,400,000 1.63 1.68 148,596,000 148,772,000
Early & Midseason Boxes 34,730,000 50,200,000 52,000,000 1.47 1.44 73.794,000 74,880,000
Valencias Boxes 28,360,000 41,100,000 36,400,000 1.82 2.03 74,802,000 73,892,000
Tangerines Boxes 4,550,000 4,500,000 4,900,000 2.15 1.90 9,675,000 9,310,000
Limes Boxes 248,000 370,000 380,000 5.81 2.97 2,150,000 1,129,000
Pears Boxes 130,600 90,000 35,000 1.15 1.20 104,000 42,000
Peaches Boxes 42,800 12,000 5,000 2.60 2.60 31,000 13,000
Pecans, All Pounds 4,199,000 2,560,000 5,000,000 .303 .380 775,000 1,900,000
Improved Pounds 2,454,000 1,500,000 3,000,000 .340 .420 510,000 1,260.000
Seedlings Pounds 1,746,000 1,060,000 2,000,000 .250 .320 265,000 640,000
Pineapples Boxes 9,320 25,000 8,000 5.40 6.20 135,000 50,000
Tung Nuts Tons 17,020 21,600 6,200 61.00 64.00 1,318,000 397,000
Honey Pounds 13,161,000 17,612,000 13,090,000 .178 .183 3,135,000 2,395,000
Beeswax Pounds 226,000 282,000 223,000 .450 .510 127,000 114,000

TOTAL $199,032,000 $197,650,000
Source: USDA-Crop Reporting Service. Orlando.
(a) Citrus price equivalent packing house or factory door, all methods of sale.
(b) Value is for marketing season or crop year and should not be confused with calendar year income.





42 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


MAJOR FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CROPS


Rank and Total Gross Value Comparison for 1954-55 and 1953-54 Seasons.


1955-56


1954-55


1953-54


1. Oranges
2. Tomatoes
3. Grapefruit
4. Potatoes
5. Beans
6. Watermelons
7. Corn (sweet)
8. Peppers, green
9. Celery
10. Tangerines
11. Cucumbers
12. Cabbage
13. Others
GRAND TOTAL


$199,240,000
54,535,000
32,902,000
24,883,000
18,056,000
16,620,000
13,076,000
12,898,000
11,654,000
9,986,000
9,877,000
6,011,000
21,791,000
$431,529,000


1. Oranges
2. Tomatoes
3. Grapefruit
4. Potatoes
5. Beans (Snap)
6. Celery
7. Tangerines
8. Watermelons
9. Corn
10. Peppers
11. Cucumbers
12. Cabbage
13. Others
GRAND TOTAL


Gross
Value
$176,658,000
58,584,000
54,062,000
24,980,000
20,351.000
15,419,000
15,085,000
14,500,000
11,335,000
9,915,000
9,594,000
7,515,000
23.282.000
$441,260,000


Gross
Value
$181,720,000
39,615,000
56,494,000
14,696,000
18,649,000
11,720,000
16.751,000
9,560,000
10,666,000
9,395,000
7,965,000
3,460,000
21,243,000
$401,934,000


Oranges 1
Tomatoes 3
Grapefruit 2
Potatoes 6
Beans 4
Celery 7
Tangerines 5
Watermelons 9
Corn 8
Peppers 10
Cucumbers 11
Cabbage 12
Others 13
GRAND TOTAL


WATERMELONS





FLORIDA CROPS


FLORIDA STATE FARMERS' MARKETS
COMPARATIVE COMMODITY REPORT
FROM BEGINNING TO DATE


FISCAL
YEAR
ENDED


NUMBER
MARKETS
OPERATING


June 30, 1935
June 30, 1936
June 30, 1937
June 30, 1938
June 30, 1939
June 30, 1940
June 30, 1941
June 30, 1942
June 30, 1943
June 30, 1944
June 30, 1945
June 30, 1946
June 30, 1947
June 30, 1948
June 30, 1949
June 30, 1950
June 30, 1951
**June 30, 1952
**June 30, 1953
**June 30, 1954
**June 30, 1955
June 30, 1956
TOTAL SALES TO DATE


*NO. UNITS
SOLD


9,852,456
10,159,418
11,216,887
13,142,970
13,475,138
22,236,273
17,177,921
16,044,371
16,769,394
16,257,991
18,053,109
164,385,928


GROSS
COMMODITY
SALES

$ 518,625.00
750,000.00
800,000.00
1,703,673.00
4,618,857.58
7,224,146.47
11,169,455.54
13,290,987.76
20,141,103.64
23,316,097.51
24,616,128.92
31,211,385.51
33,896,218.60
28,928,326.93
38,353,675.99
35,409,751.98
44,929,094.60
47,306,790.72
41,426,251.71
39,640,092.53
47,207,747.49
48,784,925.76
$545,243,337.54


NOTE:
*Unit figure incomplete for first eleven years.
'"Including sales through Livestock and Crops Pavilions.






SCHEDULE OF WHEN VEGETABLES SO


BROKER


FLORIDA CITY

FORT PIERCE

FORT MYERS

IMMOKALEE

PAH OKEE

PALATKA

PALMETTO

PLANT CITY

POMPANO

SANFORD

STARK

WAUCHIU LA
NUMBER MARKETS
ACTIVE EACH MONTH
OF SEASON -


7 9 II 10


U


4:


8 10 1 13 13


MONTHS OF OPERATION-BY MARKET

Bonifay handles crops and livestock in season-melons, pecans, etc. Ft. M
Quincy handles leafy vegetables, cukes, squash, beans, sweet potatoes, etc. in





ATE FARMERS MARKETS

i La I 2r
Ln v L 1 = Z Z
co LU ct 4 W O
cUl' i U:U U1 U 600 0 o Lii LU
Co % U. 0. 0 t- 1


ROOKER t
ORIDA CITY _
)RT PIERCE
)RT MYERS
4MOKALLEE
tt \ tRAD
\WOKEE(x) SH
4LATKA t
NLMETTO
.ANT CITY IIII ll
)MPAN0(x,)
ANFORD(x)
TARKE
/AUCHULA
N EMUNG EACH 10 4 3 3 8 I110 2 9 11 9 11 21 I 3
)MMODITY -
iety of Other commodities also A Primary Crop
IDITIES SOLD-BY MARKETS t
Pierce handled considerable sweet potatoes from February thru July.





46 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FLORIDA STATE FARMERS' MARKETS
CONSOLIDATED COMMODITY REPORT
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JULY 30, 1956


FIELD CROPS
FRUIT AND
PRODUCE


LIVESTOCK


TOTAL
SALES


FLORIDA PRODUCTS:

Arcadia $
Bonifay 34,143.92
Brooker 239,541.13
DeFuniak Springs
Florida City 2,601,656.76
Fort Myers 2,838.383,05
Fort Pierce 3,156,553.15
Gadsden County (Quincy) 89,530.29
Immokalee 2,001,285.22
Jay
Pahokee 2,708,199.65
Palatka 1,285,515.02
Palmetto 130,985.85
*Plant City 2,732,144.48
Pompano 21,503,180.46
Sanford 5,189,402.03
Starke 209,894.31
Wauchula 792,331.56
TOTAL $45,512,746.87
Livestock & Crops Pavilions
Ft. Myers (Team Track) 543,390.71
TOTAL FLA. PRODUCTS $46,056,137.58
OUT OF STATE PRODUCTS
Sanford 56,944.40
TOTAL, ALL PRODUCTS $46,113,081.98
*A variety of commodities totaling 4,387,650
cessing Plant on the Plant City Market.


$


$2


$2


$units
units


847,976.96 $ 847,976.96
129,322.14 163,466.06
239,541.13
384,128.90 163,466.06
2,601,656.75
2,838,383.05
3,156,553.15
89,530.29
2,001,285.22
871,759.00 871,759.00
2,708,199.65
1,285,515.02
130,985.85
2,732,144.48
21,503,180.46
5,189,402.03
209,894.31
792,331.56
!,233,187.00 $47,745,933.87
438,656.78 438,656.78
543,390.71
!,671,843.78 $48,727,981.36

56,944.40
2,671,843.79 $48,784,925.76
vere handled through the Pro-


FLORIDA CORN (All)
Historical Review

Acreage Yield per Average Total
Season Planted Harvested Acre, bushel Production per bu. Farm Value


728,000
809.000
743.000
758,000
743,000
747,000
737,000
725.000
711,000
747,000
432.000
629,000
660,000
629.000
642,000
580,000
625.000
606,000
650,000
611,000
599,000
599,000


717,000
789.000
725,000
732,000
739,000
725.000
732,000
720,000
706,000
741,000
719.000
618,000
649,000
623.000
623,000
573,000
613,000
601.000
637,000
599,000
575,000
592.000


6,238,000
7,890,000
6,888,000
7,320,000
7,760,000
5,945,000
8,418,000
7,200,000
7,667,000
8,522,000
7,550,000
6,798,000
6,490,000
7.476,000
6,230,000
7.162,000
8,582,000
9,616,000
9,874,000
9,884,000
9,715,000
11,840,000


$ .79
.71
1.03
.76
.60
.75
.70
.82
1.05
1.54
1.62
1.72
1.89
2.13
1.70
1.31
1.49
1.61
1.76
1.49
1.51
1.15


$ 4,928,000
5.602,000
7,095,000
5.563,000
4,656,000
4,459.000
5,893.000
5,904,000
8,154,000
13,124.000
12.231,000
11,693.000
12,266.000
15.294,000
10,591,000
9.382,000
12,787,000
15,482.000
17,378,000
14.727,000
14,760.000
13,616.000


MARKET






FLORIDA CROPS


FLORIDA COTTON

Historical Review

Yield per Production Price Value of
Year Harvested Acre-Lbs. Pounds Bales Cents/Lbs. Production

1910 282,000 103 29,067,000 60,000 18.66 $5,640,000
1920 100,000 95 9,532,000 20.000 17.81 1,782,000
1930 147,000 183 26,848,000 56,000 9.68 2,720,000
1934 92,000 145 13,306,000 28,000 12.24 1,705.000
1935 89,000 165 14,642,000 31,000 10.29 1,576,000
1936 88,000 170 14,889,000 31,000 11.85 1,848,000
1937 118,000 162 19,058,000 40,000 8.39 1,669,000
1938 76,000 163 12,405,000 26,000 8.93 1,158,000
1939 68,000 75 5.077,000 11,000 9.66 513,000
1940 65,000 154 9,988,000 21,000 10.60 1,102,000
1941 61,000 135 8,215,000 17,000 17.12 1,461,000
1942 56,000 141 7,908.000 16,000 18.63 1,534,000
1943 40,000 187 7.421,000 16,000 20.42 1,591,000
1944 29,000 219 6,339,000 13,000 20.35 1,343,000
1945 24,000 169 4,068,000 8,000 21.21 896,000
1946 22,000 131 3,632,000 6,000 32.71 983,000
1947 31,000 165 5,903,000 11,000 31.84 1,703.000
1948 29,000 249 7.234,000 15,000 30.55 2,303,000
1949 46,000 181 7,650,000 17,000 29.49 2.347.000
1950 31,000 226 7,011,000 14,000 37.99 2.781,000
1951 62,000 255 15,828,000 33,000 36.08 946,000
1952 60,000 249 14,925,000 31,000 38.94 6,048,000
1953 71,000 182 12,899,000 27,000 32.39 4,359,000
1954 36,200 332 12,009,000 25,000 34.18 4,275.000
1955 33,500 354 11,849,009 24,700 32.00 3.945,000




FLORIDA PEANUTS

Marketing quotas were effective on the 1955 crop of peanuts, farmers having voted in favor of quotas
for the years 1954, 1955, and 1956 on as National basis on December 15, 1953. Nationally, the vote for
quotas was 94.3 percent. In Florida the vote was 85.4 percent for quotas.

Farm acreage allotments were established on 5,852 farms in 28 counties. The total acreage allotted to
these farms was 60,220.6 acres. Included in these totals were 311 new grower farms on which 1,513.1
acres were allotted.



PEANUTS PICKED AND THRESHED


Season Harvested Yield Price Total
Per Acre Production Per Lb. Farm Value

1935 63,000 610 38.430,000 $.029 $1,114,000
1936 72,000 650 46,800,000 .033 1,544,000
1937 68,000 575 39,100,000 .029 1,134,000
1938 75,000 750 56,250,000 .030 1,688.000
1939 85,000 440 37,400.000 .029 1,085.000
1940 90,000 760 68,400,000 .028 1,915,000
1941 85,000 680 57,800,000 .040 2,312,000
1942 115,000 570 65,550,000 .051 3,343.000
1943 110,000 680 74,800,000 .070 5,236,000
1944 100,000 625 62,600,000 .075 4,688,000
1945 100,000 660 66,000,000 .080 5,280,000
1946 100,000 465 46,500.000 .083 3,860,000
1947 105,000 660 69,300,000 .094 6,514,000
1948 110,000 775 85,250,000 .099 8,440,000
1949 67,000 765 51.255,000 .100 5,126,000
1950 72,000 850 61,200,000 .095 5,814,000
1951 65,000 870 56,550.000 .094 5,316,000
1952 54,000 925 49,950,000 .102 4,902.000
1953 56,000 1,000 56,000,000 .101 5,599,000
1954 55,000 810 44,550,000 .106 4,722,000
1955 60,000 1,025 61,500,000 .111 6,826,000











. it
4 7:. 'i


K q


PEANUT PICKER IN OPERATION


f- , -- - --


I




FLORIDA CROPS


1955 MAINLAND SUGARCANE PROGRAM-IN FLORIDA

State and County ASC Committee again carried out the administration
of Title III of the Sugar Act of 1948 as amended, during the 1955-56 crop
year. Title III is known as the "Conditional Payment" provision of the Act.
Acreage restrictions (proportionate shares) were effective in 1955. Due to
these restrictions, growers had to forego harvesting several thousand acres
of sugarcane for sugar or seed in order to be eligible for the conditional
payments. The excess cane was either used for manufacture of syrup, in-
verted molasses, livestock feed, plowed out or left standing at completion of
harvest.

Each processor (sugar factory) was also required to abide with a
"marketing allotment" covering the sales of sugar produced. As a result,
it is estimated that approximately 35 percent of the sugar production from
1954-55 crop processed will have to be stored and sold under the 1956
marketing allotment since sales of sugar from the 1953-54 crop exhausted
the processors' 1955 calendar year marketing allotment.

A total of 1,159,907.5 tons of cane was processed from 34,776.6 acres
harvested for sugar resulting in an average yield of 33.35 tons per acre
for the State. Approximately 118,880 tons of 96 degree raw sugar were pro-
duced and approximately 7,686,197 gallons of blackstrap molasses (800
Brix) were produced as a by-product. One factory also produced 437,183
gallons of inverted molasses from "excess" sugarcane harvested.
The 1955 marketing allotment for each of the Florida processors is
shown below.

Factory Tons
Fellmore Sugar Producers Association 8,468
Okeelanta Sugar Refinery 11,423
United States Sugar Corporation 101,555
Total 121,446

The marketing allotment for Florida is 24.3 percent of the National
marketing allotment of 500,000 tons provided for under current legislation.




50 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SUGAR CANE



FLORIDA TOBACCO
Flue Cured (Bright Leaf) Type No. 14


Estimated
Yield/Acre Production Farm Value*
Year Acreage Lbs. Lbs. Per Lb. Total

1937 16,800 840 14,112,000 21.lc $ 2,978,000
1938 16,300 975 15,892,000 20.3 3,226,000
1939 29,500 700 20,650,000 12.3 2,540,000
1940 12,700 925 11,748,000 17.5 2,056,000
1941 11,300 725 8,192,000 21.3 1,745,000
1942 13,000 860 11,180,000 32.3 3,611,000
1943 13,600 870 11,832,000 40.8 4,827,000
1944 19,000 900 17,100,000 36.2 6,190,000
1945 19,400 885 17,169,000 38.8 6,662,000
1946 20,400 940 19,176,000 47.7 9,147,000
1947 22,800 1,020 23,256,000 39.0 9,070,000
1948 16,400 1,010 16,564,000 47.8 7,918,000
1949 18,900 1,070 20,223,000 37.8 7,644,000
1950 18,000 1,015 18,270,000 51.4 9,391,000
1951 22,500 1,200 27,000,000 50.8 13,716,000
1952 22,700 1,140 25,878,000 51.3 13,275,000
1953 21,200 1,170 22,684,000 51.5 11,682,000
1954 21,500 1,290 27,735,000 53.5 14,838,000
1955 21,100 1,410 29,751,000 45.9 13,656,000




FLORIDA CROPS 51


Shade Grown-Air Cured (Dark Leaf) Wrapper Type No. 62


1937 2,100 900 1,890,000 69c $ 1,304,000
1938 2,400 1,130 2,712,000 72 1,953,000
1939 2,500 860 2,150,000 73 1,570,000
1940 3,200 1,025 3,280,000 75 2,296,000
1941 3,300 930 3,069,000 73 2,240,000
1942 2,800 1,060 2,968,000 $1.04 3,087,000
1943 2,600 1,120 2,912,000 1.38 4,019,000
1944 2,600 1,125 2,925,000 1.44 4,212,000
1945 2,400 1,175 2,820,000 1.85 5,217,000
1946 3,000 990 2,970,000 2.20 6,534,000
1947 3,300 1,035 3,416,000 2.65 9,052,000
1948 3,600 1,170 4,212,000 2.45 10,319,000
1949 4,000 1,230 4,920,000 1.95 9,594,000
1950 4,200 1,190 4,998,000 2.00 9,996,000
1951 4,100 1,315 5,392,000 1.80 9,706,000
1952 4,000 1,145 4,580,000 1.80 8,244,000
1953 3,300 1,045 3,448,000 1.95 6,724,000
1954 3,800 1,370 5,206,000 1.95 10,152,000
1955 3,900 1,370 5,343,000 1.75 9,350,000




TOBACCO-ALL


1937 19,600 856 16,786,000 26.1c 4,388,000
1938 19,600 1,006 19,720,000 27.0 5,329,000
1939 33,000 720 23,760,000 17.8 4,239,000
1940 16,900 966 16,328,000 27.7 4,526,000
1941 15,200 770 11,070,000 34.6 4,050,000
1942 16,400 901 14,778,000 46.1 6,808,000
1943 16,400 909 14,910,000 59.6 8,883,000
1944 21,700 926 20,095,000 51.9 10,421,000
1945 21,900 917 20,082,000 59.3 11,910,000
1946 23,500 947 22,251,000 70.7 15,739,000
1947 26,300 1,019 26,812,000 67.8 18,188,000
1948 20,100 1,037 20,846,000 87.7 18,279,000
1949 22,900 1,098 25,143,000 68.6 17,238,000
1950 22,200 1,048 23,268,000 83.3 19,387,000
1951 26,600 1,218 32,392,000 72.3 23,422,000
1952 26,700 1,141 30,458,000 70.1 21,519,000
1953 24,500 1,067 26,132,000 70.4 18,406,000
1954 25,300 1,302 32,941,000 75.9 24,990,000
1955 25,000 1,404 35,094,000 65.6 23,006,000

NOTE: Tobacco (All) includes Binder Type 56 for the years 1937 through 1949, Flue
Cured Type 14, Shade Type 62.
Flue Cured Type 14 is generally known as cigarette tobacco.
Shade Grown Type 62 is generally known as cigar wrapper tobacco.
Sun Cured Type 56 was generally known as cigar filler tobacco.
*Farm Value based on production estimate and auction price average.
Source: Florida Crop Reporting Service, Orlando.




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


PECANS (ALL)
Historical Review 1934 through 1954

IMPROVED SEEDLINGS ALL PECANS

0 co 0 0




1934 887 $.150 $133 478 $.096 $ 46 1,365 $.131 $ 179
1935 1,253 .120 150 736 .067 49 1,989 .100 199
1936 1,610 .136 219 1,030 .086 89 2,640 .117 309
1937 1,463 .088 129 1,017 .055 56 2,480 .075 185
1938 2,038 .100 204 1,537 .068 105 3,575 .086 309
1939 1,944 .095 185 1,528 .070 107 3,470 .084 292
1940 2,103 .112 236 1,461 .072 105 3,564 .096 341
1941 2,616 .120 314 2,056 .078 160 4,672 .101 474
1942 2,700 .180 486 1,900 .140 266 4,600 .163 752
1943 2,579 .260 671 1,945 .200 889 4,524 .234 1,060
1944 2,856 .255 728 2,244 .185 415 5,100 .224 1,143
1945 2,209 .265 585 1,735 .205 356 3,944 .239 943
1946 2,340 .360 842 1,760 .295 519 4,100 .332 1,361
1947 1,590 .244 388 1,060 .200 212 2,650 .226 602
1948 2,520 .125 315 2,060 .393 192 4,580 .111 508
1949 1,790 .195 349 1,340 .157 210 3.130 .179 660
1950 2,350 .290 682 1,800 .255 459 4,150 .275 1,141
1951 3,440 .200 688 1,840 .150 276 5,280 .183 964
1952 2,800 .225 630 1,500 .180 270 4,300 .210 900
1953 4,000 .160 640 3,300 .130 429 7,300 .146 1,069
1954 1,500 .340 510 1,060 .250 265 2,560 .302 775
1955 6,400 .420 2,688 4,500 .320 1,440 10,900 .302 4,128
TUNG NUTS
Historical Review 1944 through 1954
Production Total
Season In Tons Price Per Ton Farm Value
1944 7,000 $100.00 $ 700,000
1945 8,400 98.00 823,000
1946 15,000 96.00 1,440,000
1947 11,000 68.00 748,000
1948 17,500 46.00 805,000
1949 16,200 60.00 972,000
1950 8,200 120.00 984,000
1951 12,200 112.00 1,366,000
1952 31,000 84.00 2,604,000
1953 28,400 65.00 1,846,000
1954 21,600 59.00 1,274,000
1955P 6,200 64.00 397,000


GREENHOUSE AND NURSERY PRODUCTS
Proportion Green-
house and
Nursery Products
Greenhouse and All Farm of All Farm
Period or Year Nursery Products Commodities Commodities
1925-29 $ 5,079,000 $117,701,000 4.3%
1930-34 3,186,000 94,063,000 3.4
1935-39 3,830,000 118,751,000 3.2
1940-44 5,405,000 228,866,000 2.3
1945-49 13,290,000 374,090,000 3.6
1950 19,981,000 497,357,000 4.0
1951 22,819,000 507,634,000 4.5
1952 23,543,000 504,303,000 4.7
1953 23,877,000 558,776,000 4.4
1954 23,802,000 546,963,000 4.3
1955 30,221,000 629,321,000 4.8
Source: U.S.D.A. "The Farm Income Situation."





FLORIDA CROPS


GLADIOLUS


HORTICULTURAL SPECIALTIES
Florida Gladiolus production showed only a slight increase over that of a year ago.
It was estimated that the 1955-56 crop accounted for 11,600 acres, 11,000 acres of cut
flowers and 600 acres of corms. In comparison the 1954-55 crop amounted to 10,680 acres.
The 1955-56 area breakdown is as follows: Charlotte and Lee Counties 5,000 acres,
Manatee and lower Hillsborough 2,600 acres, Lower East Coast-Homestead to Vero
Beach 2,300 acres, North Florida Belt-Sanford. Cocoa, Palatka, St. Augustine and
Marianna 1,700 acres.

The Florida Gladiolus Growers Association adopted a Stardardized Gladiolus grading
system during this year. In the future there will be only 4 grades rather than 5 and
each grade will meet standard length, bud count and other rigid specifications as to
quality.

Chrysanthemums have been grown in Florida for a considerable time, however,
outdoor commercial production on a fairly large scale dates back only to the past six
or seven years. Much of the credit for the rapid development of this industry can be
attributed to the degree of insect and disease control brought about by various new insec-
ticides and fungicides. The application of research results on day-length and lighting
practices have also contributed to its rapid development.





54 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The chrysanthemum industry has now acquired a place among the gladiolus, foliage
plant and fern industries as a major flower producing group in Florida. In large
measure it is composed of Eastern and Mid-Western flower growers who have migrated
to the Sunshine State. In addition to producers who transferred their operations to
Florida, a number of growers of gladiolus and other flowers have added chrysanthe-
mums as a supplementary enterprise.

Most outdoor chrysanthemum growers in Florida plan on a November to June
flowering schedule. Peak periods of production are in January and February, with
lesser peaks at Eastern and in May and June. Slightly more than half of the current
chrysanthemum acreage in Florida is covered with plastic cloth; the remainder is in the
open.

Acreage:-The acreage devoted to chrysanthemum culture rose from less than
five acres in the 1949-50 season to more than 230 acres in the 1955-56 season. Thes
figures indicate the gross acreage devoted to chrysanthemum culture rather than t
the area devoted to flower production alone. It is estimated that from 40 to 50 percent
of the area in chrysanthemums is taken up by walkways, roadways, posts, etc., wit
from 50 to 60 percent of the area being devoted to flower culture.







FLORIDA ANNUAL CROP SUMMARY


ACREAGE HARVESTED

Average
1945-54 1954 1


YIELD PER ACRE

Average
955 1945-54 1954


PRODUCTION

Average
1955 1945-54 1954


PRODUCTION
VALUE OF

1955 1954 1955


UNIT


Corn. All
Cotton, Lint
Cottonseed
Cowpeas. Alone
Hay, All
Peanuts
Other Tame
Lupine Seed
Oats
Peanuts, Equivalent Solid
Peanuts, Picked & Threshed
Soybeans. Equivalent Solid
Sugarcane, for sugar & seed
Sweet Potatoes
Tobacco, All Florida
Type 14, Flue Cured
Type 16, Shade
Velvet Beans


611,000
40,500

31,000t
112,000
64,000t
22,000t
12,750
28,000
237.000
78.000
13.000
38,200
5,200
24,000
23.080
3,570
70,4001


575,000
36,200

28,000
115,000
47,000
65,000
5,000
30,000
151,000
55,000
29,000
39,300
3,500
25,300
21,500
3,800
40,000


592,000
33,500

25.000
117,000
49.000
68,000
4,000
32,000
137,000
60,000
36,000
35,900
3.000
25.000
21,110
3.900
38,000


(U N I T S) (000) (000) (000)
13.8 17.0 20.0 8,369 9,775 11,840
203 332 354 17.5 25 24.7
1,080 1,050

.78 1.20 1.33 156 138 156
.55t .75 .70 35t 35 34
.94t 1.55 1.80 211 101 122
572 450 400 6,900 2,250 1,600
21.0 22.0 24.0 603 660 768

778 810 1,025 58,656 44.550 61,500
19.2t 12.0 22.0 159t 348 792
31.6 32.6 33.3 1,210 1,281 1,197
42 44 55 211 154 165
1,079 1,302 1,404 26.032 32,941 35,094
1,064 1,290 1,410 21,796 27,735 29,751
1,166 1.370 1.370 4,1916 5,206 5,343
600t 500 760 ..... 10 12


TOTAL 1.223,050 1,077,300 1,078,400 $91,733 $88,114


FIELD CROPS--Florida farmers planted 1,259,000 acres of field crops in 1955,
including peanuts, oats and lupine, pastured. This acreage was about 7,200 acres
above 1954 plantings. There were 828,400 tons of food and feed taken from
928.400 harvested acres. From the standpoint of value, the 1955 all tobacco crop
exceeded other field crops when over $23 million were taken in for tobacco. This
crop was grown on 25,000 acres. Florida's 1955 corn crop was grown on 592,000
acres.

The total acreage planted in peanuts, including acreage interplanted with corn,
amounted to 137,000 acres in 1955. Of this amount 60,000 acres were picked and
threshed and the remainder used as feed for hogs. Florida's sugarcane production
for purpose of sugar and seed reported almost 1.2 million tons from 35,900 acres


valued at $9 million. Most of the State's 188,000 acres of oats were grazed or
plowed under however, about 32,000 acres were harvested with an estimated
value of $730 thousand.

Hay crops in Florida amounted to 117.000 acres in 1955, of which nearly half
came from peanuts that were harvested for nuts. There were 156,000 tons of all
hay produced. The cotton crop showed a decrease in acreage, about 33,500 acres
being harvested. There were 24,700 bales produced and 10,500 tons of cottonseed.
Other minor crops that help make up the field crop picture for the State are
38,000 acres of velvet beans and 36,000 acres of soybeans.

i-5 Year average, 1948-52.


CROPS


(000)
$14,760
4,275
618

4,002


158
620

4,722
915
10,286
947
24,990
14,838
10,152
460


(000)
$13,616
3,945
438

4,290


109
730

6,826
1,624
8,978
1.006
23,006
13,656
9,350
540







FLORIDA CANNERY & PROCESSING PRODUCTION FOR SEASONS 1924-25 THRU 1954-55

Concentrated to Represent Cases of 24 Cans No. 2's for Single Strength Concentrate in Gallons
Furnished by Florida Citrus Mutual from the Records of the Florida Canners Association


Grapefruit Grapefruit Orange
Seasons Juice Sections Juice


1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-28
1928-29
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-86
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41(1)
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
*Includes


202,OOOF
173,934
412,066
247,652
727,803
610,115
2,236,726
1,758,497
3,918,604
3,370,002
5,502,102
4,682,057
10,032,792
6,179,780
15,192,952
16,778,124
12,025,099
15,089,056
8,583,317
7,986,515
8,842,616
7,894,324
12,741,553
8,735,247
10,853,520
14,882,282
10,784,135
12,805,164
Blend.


350,000
400,000
700,000
600,000
957,000
1,316,738
2,712,489
907,323
2,182,597
2,184,577
3,588,042
2,251,775
4,057,672
3,419,226
4,105,775
4,133,686
3,121,841
4,433,137
887,776
942,247
411,145
2,406,524
5,098,136
3,158,327
4,237,720
3,379,357
4,627,779
3,396,300
3,810,786
4,332,035
5,243,970
4,758,803


37,552F
61,110
36,362
37,258
57,678
240,967
162,452
498,206
806,183
926,278
2,851,375
3,078,043
3,466,302
2,429,251
7,075,467
13,939,381
18,420,825
17,294,334
25,593,134
16,757,028
17,419,271
20,031,348
19,321,032
16,906,938
17,790,137
16,517,8.61
15,499,755


Orange Blended
Sections Juice


33,430F
13,626
1,998
23,913
1,382



15,355
116,123
110,929
10,047
35,165
37,477
25,829
21,785
24,840
42,874


84,958F
271,599
647,329
699,295
1,402,662
2,537,437
2,304,309
3,675,919
6,176,168
7,744,505
12,267,484
10,003,897
11,893,735-
10,252,131
6,768,370
8,796,846
6,443,729
5,706,980
6,401,720
4,995,028
5,265,747


Tangerine Citrus
Juice Salad


65,194F
87,758
84,271
130,562
84,693
23,913
1,382


1,260,067F
744,629
1,258,617
1,500,355
1,158,311
453,084
748,780
800,566*
427,562*
555,213


295,415
1,115,029
986,877
422,694
919,344
547,103
662,795
853,000
785,287
676,202


Total
Canned


350,000
400,000
700,000
600,000
1,159,000
1,528,224
3,185,665
1,191,337
2,947,658
2,852,370
6,065,735
4,322,876
8,833,839
8,260,441
11,377,638
13,156,469
18,817,939
16,386,291
22,165,898
30,972,006
34,120,130
48,183,889
42,580,521
50,577,492
42,446,918
37,394,428
48,310,000
38,933,972
38,175,628
45,081,525
38,778,683
39,603,748





FLORIDA CROPS 57




*PROCESSED CONCENTRATED ORANGE JUICE AND FROZEN CONCENTRATED
ORANGE JUICE AND FROZEN GRAPEFRUIT ANNUAL PACKS
IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA.
SEASON OF 1940-41 TO 1955-56 INCLUSIVE


Processed
Concentrated
Orange Juice
(Gallons)


Year
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56


65,000
93,000
1,882,000
1,283,000
240,000
244,000
1,447,000
1,739,000
1,897,000
1,529,422
2,529,671
1,897,848
536,660
1,339,222
1,531,449
1,085,697


Frozen
Concentrated
Orange Juice
(Gallons)


Frozen
Grapefruit
Concentrate
(Gallons)


226,000
559,000
1,935,000
10,232,000
21,647,447
30,757,656
44,030,633
46,553,695
65,531,204
64,685,956
70,224,053


116,123
1,584,561
187,903
1,097,564
1,226,485
1,656,469
1,155,314
2,511,831


CONCENTRATED PROCESSED GRAPEFRUIT, FROZEN BLENDED
CONCENTRATE AND FROZEN TANGERINE CONCENTRATE
SEASONS OF 1948-49 TO 1955-56 INCLUSIVE


Processed
Processed Frozen Blend and Frozen
Grapefruit Blend Tangerine Tangerine
(Gallons) (Gallons) (Gallons) (Gallons)
Year
1948-49 18,728 111,836 440
1949-50 27,891 1,302,748
1950-51 147,707 245,106 1,060
1951-52 16,112 535,703 349,161
1952-53 50,563 479,745 -551,397
1953-54 55,372 965,430 443,105
1954-55 31,860 560,545 -- 877,011
1955-56 30,719 954,142 25,055 618,986




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Following are the canned pack for various vegetables in Florida during
the 1953-54 season:

Canned Vegetable Pack


Tomatoes
Green Beans
Dried Beans
Blue Lake Green Beans -
Potatoes
Turnip Greens ---
Green Peppers ---
Collard Greens ----
Mustard Greens ---
Blackeye Peas --
Tomato Juice
Red Peppers ----
Okra ------
Sweet Potatoes ---
Pimientos
Blackberries
Blueberries
Yellow Squash ------
Mixed Vegetables --
Carrots
Turnip Roots
White Potatoes W/Beans
White Acre Peas ---
Spinach -- ----


- 1,661,000 cases
--- 850,000 cases
75,000 cases
60,000 cases
57,000 cases
- 55,000 cases
45,000 cases
45,000 cases
35,000 cases
30,000 cases
25,000 cases
25,000 cases
10,000 cases
8,000 cases
6,000 cases
5,000 cases
5,000 cases
5,000 cases
5,000 cases
4,000 cases
3,500 cases
2,500 cases
2,000 cases
2,000 cases

3,021,000 cases







































CHAYOTES





60 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Annona Reticulata (Bullock's Heart)


PRIMARY LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANTS GROWING IN FLORIDA
Symbols A, B, C, D, E, F, G after the name of the plant refer to the region of the
State in which this plant occurs, as indicated on the accompanying map (See Fig. 19).


Name of Plant

1. Aristolochia Serpentaria
2. Betula lenta
3. Capsicum frutescens
4. Brassica nigra
5. Chenopodium ambrosioides
var anthelminticum
6. Cinnamomum camphora
7. Cinnamomum cassia
8. Citrus medical, var. Limonum
9. Citrus aurantium
10. Datura Stramonium
11. Gossypium herbaceum
12. Liquidambar styraciflua
13. Mentha spicata
14. Mentha piperita
15. Monarda punctata
16. Pinus palustris and other
species
17. Podophyllum peltatum
18. Prunus serotina
19. Punica granatum
20. Rhus galbra
21. Ricinus communis
22. Serenoa serrulata
23. Spigelia marilandica
24. Stillingia sylvatica
25. Vanilla planifolia
26. Vera aloe


Common Name
Snake Root
Sweet birch
Cayenne pepper
Black mustard

American wormseed
Camphor
Cassia cinnamon
Lemon
Sweet orange
Jimson weed
Cotton
Sweet gum
Spearmint
Peppermint
Horsemint
Long leaved pine,
loblolly pine, etc.
Mandrake
Wild cherry
Pomegranate
Sumac berries
Castor bean
Saw palmetto, Sabal
Pink root
Queen's root
Vanilla bean


*U.S.P. United States Pharmacopoeia.
tN.F.-National Formulary.


Locality

D
A
F, G
E

F, G
D, E
E
E, F, G
D, E, F, G
E, G
A, B, C, D
A, B, C, D, E
E
E
B, C, D, E

A, B, C, D, E
D, E
A, B
E, F, G
B
A, B, D, E
A, B, C, D, E

A, B, D, E
D, E


Official

U.S.P.*
U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.

U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.

U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.
U.S.P.
N.F.t

N.F.
N.F.


V


:J.





FLORIDA CROPS 6


(Fig. 19) Map of Florida





62 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE



SECONDARY LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANTS GROWING IN FLORIDA

Symbols A, B, C, D, E, F, G, after the name of the plant means that this plant is found in the
region of the State in which the plant occurs, as indicated on the accompanying map (See Fig. 19).


Name of Plant


Common Name Official Locality


Properties


1. Amanita muscaria
2. Aletris farinosa
3. Apocynum Cannabinum
4. Aralia spinosa
5. Asclepias tuberosa
6. Baptisia tinctoria
7. Carica papaya
8. Chionanthus virginica
9. Cocos nucifera
10. Conocarpus erecta
11. Cornus Florida
12. Cymbopogon citratus
13. Delphininum consolida
14. Dioscorea villosa
15. Drosera rotundifolia
16. Eupatorium perfoliatum
17. Eryngium aquaticum


18. Gelsemium sempervirens
19. Gentiana elliottii
20. Guaiacum officinalis
21. Hamamelis Virginiana
22. Hedeoma pulegoides
23. Hydrangea arborescens
24. Ipomoea pandurata
25. Iris versicolor
26. Lobelia cardinalis
27. Marrubium vulgare
28. Myrica cerifera
29. Papaver somniferum
30. Panax quinquefolium
31. Phytolacca decandra
32. Polygala polygama
33. Rumex crispus
34. Salix nigra
35. Sambucus canadensis
36. Sanguinaria canadensis
37. Sassafras variifolium
38. Scutellaria lateriafolia
39. Senecio aureus
40. Solanum carolinense
41. Tamarindus indica
42. Trilisa odoratissima
43. Ulmus fulva
44. Verbascum Thapsus
45. Xanthoxylum Clava-
Hercules


Fly Agari
Star Grass ?
Canadian Hemp I
Spignet ?
Pleurisy root ?
Wild Indigo I
Papaya
Fringe tree I
Coco palm
Button-wood
Dogwood I
Lemon grass
Larkspur I
Wild Yam
Sundew I
Boneset
Water ernygo,
Button snakeroot


Jasmine
Gentian
Guaiac
Witch Hazel
Pennyroyal
Seven barks
Ipomoea
Blue flag
Cardinal flower
Horehound
Wax Myrtle
Opium Poppy
Ginseng
Pokeroot
Bitter Polygala
Dock
Pussy willow
Elder flowers
Blood root
Sassafras
Skullcap
Life root plant
Horse nettle berry
Tamarind
Deer tongue
Slippery Elm Bark
Mullein

Prickly ash


B
E
A,B,C,D,E
B,C,D,E,

E,F,G
A,B,D
E

A,B,C,D
B,E
B
A,B
E
B

E


N.F. A,B,C,D,E
D
U.S.P. E
N.F. A,B,D
E
N.F. A
B,D
N.F. A,B,C,D,E
.. B,D,E

N.F. A,B,C,D,E
U.S.P. A,B,C,D,E

N.F. B
E
N.F. E
U .S.P .......
N.F. A,B,D,E,F
N.F. A,B
N.F. A,B,C,D,E
N.F. E
N.F. E
N.F. B,E
N.F. E,F
B,D
U.S.P. A
N.F. B

N.F. B,C,D,E


Antispasmodic
Uterine tonic
Diuretic, diaphoretic
Stimulant, diaphoretic
Diaphoretic, expectorant
Stimulant
Digestant
Alterative, germicide
Demulcent
Charcoal absorbent
Astringent, tonic
Perfume
Parasiticide
Diaphoretic
Expectorant
Stimulant, tonic

Diaphoretic

Nervine
Tonic
Alterative, antiseptic
Astringent
Stimulant, emmenagogue
Diuretic
Diuretic, cathartic
Cholagogue
Anthelmintic
Stimulant
Alterative, cholagogue
Analgesic, somniferent
Stimulant, stomachic
Alterative
Tonic, laxative
Astringent
Charcoal
Carminative, diaphoretic
Stimulating expectorant
Alterative
Tonic Nervine
Stimulant, diuretic
Tonic antitetanic
Refrigerant
Perfume, flavor
Demulcent
Pectoral, demulcent

Alterative, sialogogue




FLORIDA CROPS 63



r -.- -. .,,,- ._ .














Bell Pepper



ORIGIN OF LEADING WORLD CROPS
Edible indigenes of Asia include spices, coffee, tea, cinnamon, apricot,
rhubarb, buckwheat, radish, pistachio, licorice, peach, cucumber, almond,
olive, artichoke, garlic, mango, pomegranate, grape, soy bean, yam, lychee,
citrus, rice, cotton, eggplant, black pepper, dasheen, mangosteen, endive,
barley, shallot, fig, date, English walnut, wheat and rye.
Edible Indigenes of Africa include coffee, spinach, cantaloupe, carissa,
and watermelon.
Edible Indigenes of Europe include apple, fennel (parsley family), cur-
rant, gooseberry, mustard, cabbage, turnips, cauliflower, rutabaga, kohl-
rabi, broccoli, brussels sprouts, quince, pear, plum, asparagus, parsnips,
celery, leek, chestnut, filbert, carrot and lettuce.
Edible indigenes of Oceanica include coconut, breadfruit, nutmeg,
grapefruit, cinnamon and banana.
Edible indigenes of North America include corn, bean, pumpkin, cran-
berry, pecan, hickory, guava, avocado, allspice, vanilla, sapodilla, sweet
potato, chayote, blueberry, blackberry, dewberry, chestnut, hazelnut, pa-
paya (West Indies) and monistera deliciosa (West Indies).
Edible indigenes of South America include corn, Irish potatoes, toma-
toes, peanut, cocoa, cassava, pineapple, lima beans, mate, herbaceous pepper,
natal plum, cashew and surinam cherry.






































SWEET POTATOES





FLORIDA CROPS


FLORIDA VEGETABLE CONTAINER INFORMATION

Source: J. T. Duncan, Manager Traffic Division, Florida F. & V. Assn., Orlando.
Estimated
nmodity Type of Container RR Container No. Billing Wt.
ins, other than Lima 1 Bushel Hamper 8501 36 lbs.
ins, Lima 1 Bushel Hamper 8501 40 lbs.
bbage 50-Lb. Bags 7500-7525 51 Ibs.
Wirebound Crate 5102 55 Ibs.
ibage, Savoy Wirebound Crate 5102 44 lbs.
ery Wirebound Crate 3601 60 lbs.
cory, Endive and Escarole Wirebound Vegetable Crate 5045 28 lbs.
Square Braid Splint Basket 8101 14 lbs.


Chinese Cabbage
(Cabbage, Celery-Scandi-
navian Type)
Corn, Green
Collards
Cucumbers
Eggplant
Lettuce:
Boston
Romaine
Iceberg
Iceberg
Onions, with tops
Peas, Cow
Peas, English
Peppers
Potatoes, other than sweet
Radishes, with tops
Radishes without tops
Squash
Tomatoes

Strawberries
Turnip Greens


Wirebound Crate 3601
Wirebound Corn Crate 3730
1 Bushel Basket 8026-8035-8050
1 Bushel Basket 8026-8035-8050
1 Bushel Basket 8026-8035-8050
Wirebound L&V Crate 3803
Wirebound L&V Crate 3803
Lettuce & Vegetable Crate 935
Wirebound Crate 5007
Square Braid Splint Basket 8101
1 Bushel Wirebound Crate 5001
1 Bushel Hamper 8501
1 Bushel Basket 8026-8035-8050
1 Bushel Hamper 8501
1 Bushel Basket 8026-8035-8050
50-lb. Bags 7500-7525-7550-7551
1-2/3 Bushel Bags 7500-7525-7550-7551
Square Braid Splint Basket 8101
1 Bushel Basket 8026-8035-8050
1 Bushel Hamper 8501
Lug Box 1025-1040
Wirebound Tomato Crate 4015
Fibreboard Two-Compartment Tomato Box 7007
36 Pint Crates
24 Pint Crates
1 Bushel Basket 8026-8035-8050


CITRUS CONTAINERS
Oranges 1-3/5 bu. Nailed Boxes 675 100 lbs.
1-3/5 bu. WB Boxes 504 93 lbs.
4/5 bu. Cardboard Box 3.677 46 lbs.
4/5 bu. WB Box (Sq. end type) 3,677 46 lbs.
Temples 4/5 bu. WB Box (Flat type) 3,677 45 lbs.
Tangerines 1-3/5 bu. Nailed Box 675 91 lbs.
Grapefruit 1-3/5 bu. WB Box 504 83 lbs.
Source: Citrus container information furnished by W. B. Connor, Statistician, Florida Citrus Mutual,
Lakeland, Fla.
NOTE-There are numerous popular containers on which estimated billing weights have not been published
as yet; such containers are not listed herein. Also, where there are variables as between territories,
estimated weights to the east have been used.


The following Standard Units of Measurement are used in ascertaining
the value of each product as listed below:
Acre-All crops listed as Feed
Bushel-Alyce Clover Seed, Corn, Chayotes, Chufas, Dasheens, Irish Po-
tatoes, Oats, Peanuts, Peaches, Pop Corn, Rice, Rutabaga, Sweet Pota-
toes, Soy Beans, Velvet Beans, Wheat.
Gallon-Milk, Sugar Cane Syrup, Sorghum Syrup.
Quart-Strawberries, Blueberries.
Pound-Cheese, Chestnuts, Black Walnuts, Beeswax, Butter, Deer Tongue,
Grapes, Honey, Papayas, Pecans, Tung Oil, Wool.
Crate-Avocado Pears, Assorted Berries, Beets, Beans (string), Bread-
fruit, Broccoli, Cabbage, Celery, Cucumbers, Carrots, Collards, Cherries,


Cor
Bea
Bea
Cal
Cab
Cel
Chi




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


CUCUMBERS


Cantaloupes, English Peas, Eggplant, Fern, Grapefruit, Guavas, Jap-
anese Persimmons, Kumquats, Lettuce, Lima Beans, Lemons, Limes,
Loquats, Mangoes, Mustard, Pepper, Parsley, Plums, Pineapples, Pome-
granates, Radishes, Rhubarb, Rape, Romain, Okra, Oranges, Sapodillas,
Sugar Apples, Spinach, Squashes, Tomatoes, Turnips, Tangerines,
Youngberries, Onions.
Per Head or Each-All Livestock and Poultry, Pet Animals and Birds.
Pumpkins and Cocoanuts.
Per Ton-Hay and Forage, Kaffir Corn, Cassava, Sugar (short ton), Broom
Corn, Silage.
Per Bunch-Bananas.
Per Bale-Cotton.
Per Carload-Watermelons.
Per Dozen-Eggs, Cut Flowers, Flowering Bulbs.
Per Lot-Farm Machinery.
Per Stand-Bees.
Per Tree-All Fruit- and Nut-Bearing Trees (Nursery Stock and Non-
Bearing Trees have not been valued).




FLORIDA CROPS


Comments on Florida Agriculture
By NEILL RHODES
Commissioner, Florida State Marketing Bureau
FOOD AND PEOPLE

Food and People is a subject chosen by United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization for world-wide discussion. According
to UNESCO, there are about 2.3 billion people on earth and the number is
increasing by about 1 percent a year.
When farmers of the United States have surplus production, their
products reach price levels dangerously near or possibly below production
cost, it is difficult for them and much of the general American public to
realize that there is not enough food to go around in other parts of the
world. However UNESCO points out that half of the world's people are
illfed and undernourished. Another one-sixth do not have enough food for
good nutrition. Only one-third have enough food on the average.
Of the world's land surface of 36 billion acres, one half cannot be tilled.
About 3.6 billion acres, only one-tenth of the whole is now under cultivation
which can be made to produce 20 percent more. An additional 1.3 billion
acres, mostly in tropical regions, can be opened to cultivation. The sea
area of the world is some 89 billion acres, part of which contributes sig-
nificantly to the food supply.
That it is possible for the earth to feed the present population and more
could hardly be doubted IF all the people were able to buy all that could be
produced. Given an assured net profit sufficient to stimulate productive en-
deavor on all the land tillable in Florida, the potential production possibili-
ties of this State alone are almost beyond estimate. The greatest new land
potential lies in the tropics-but it appears needless to worry over prospec-
tive land shortage and increasing production with more already produced
than can be profitably sold through normal commercial outlets. Brazil
from 1929 to 1941 burned 75 million bags of coffee, one-third of its total
output, because there was no market. In the 1930's the world witnessed the
destruction of vast food surpluses while people starved. Nobody knows
exactly how many people there are in the world, but Food and People says
there must be somewhere between 2.2 and 2.5 billion. For instance the
population of China is estimated at 400 to 450 million-the real figure may
be lower or even greater. The population of India and Pakistan is estimated
at around 420 million, but may vary 20 million either way. "Countries
having sufficiently accurate population figures include less than half the
world's population, and it is difficult to assess the total numbers to within
even 100 million of the correct figure" quoting from People and Food.
It appears then there are either too many people or too little food since
the two are badly out of balance, but the simple fact is there is too little
worldwide average income which situation becomes all the worse when the
population is reduced by global war for instance. The plain facts are that
while the best-fed nations have become better fed, some of the worst-fed
nations have become worse fed.




68 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


BEFORE THEY ASK FOR IT
Listening to speeches which more and more are ready-made by ghost
writers hurried to prepare an address which they will not have to deliver,
"old reliable," shopworn and somewhat frazzled phraseology is often em-
ployed. Though conditions are variable, these tarnished expressions bear
an amazing constancy. For example "The consumer demands," "Mrs.
Housewife wants," as though nothing in the food line was ever undertaken
unless consumers had planned and specifically requested it. The average
listener might picture a frenzied storekeeper operating under heavy guard,
his premises picketed by consumers demanding more conveniences, better
processing, improved packaging. True the consumer will exercise pref-
erence among food items offered, but this ends rather than begins, finishes
rather than starts the entire modus operandi.
After an innovation has been introduced, advertised, and often retail-
store demonstrated, consumers apply the trial test, which if given family-
table approval, may repeat and increase their purchases. Instead of stam-
peding in demand that something new be provided, while possibly some-
thing new is already being tried out, consumers individually and sometimes
skeptically make sample purchases of the new product at the grocery. The
first purchase is sometimes purely an experiment. Naturally the better
quality, more attractive pack increases sales,-but the consumer seldom if
ever had first demanded or specified the method of improvement. A manu-
facturer thought of a device to make money, a trade member of a means
to gain edge in competition, a cooperative or large producer of how to lower
cost of operations, or perhaps an agricultural official conceived a better
method in the public interest. The consumer demand followed or faltered.
A terminal market operator plus the interest and drive of the grower-ship-
per are among prime movers in changing designs and methods.
Consumer advance demand was not primarily responsible for new pat-
tern of production, or pre-preparation planning. Consumers never planned
distributing procedures or marketing services to provide them with the
right quantity, at the right place, at the right time, at the right price.
Was it some consumer demanding frozen foods that started the in-
dustry? Or one demanding frozen citrus concentrates that prompted in-
ception of the enterprise? Or one threatening to cease patronage unless
certain products were prepackaged with transparent film which caused
the change-over trend? Someone far removed from the housewife's kitchen
created the plan, made possible the supply of something new in the hope
and belief she would then be willing to accept and demand more of it. The
finished product is usually given testing in the laboratory long before it is
tried out in the kitchen, and marketing decisions as to new products are
based accordingly. Investigation and research to ascertain the probable
reception of a new product precedes even its commercial processing. Credit
can go to consumers for the adoption of the new product but not properly
for conception of the thought which made it possible.
Consumers did not demand that Plant and Flagler run railroads through
the State so they might have foods out of season, but the extensive winter
vegetable and citrus production in Florida proves the consumers bought
them when so offered. Far more credit for the rapid expansion of the
Florida broiler production should go to producers, processors, manufac-





FLORIDA CROPS 69

turers, bankers and feed dealers than consumers demanding it. Many
kitchen tasks are performed by these sources for the housewife. I doubt
that any consumer-group ever proposed financial help in the movement
of more than 30 billion dollars' worth of raw farm products each year. In
fact the total cost of processing and distributing the food after it leaves
the farm exceeds the amount the farmers get. About as many people are
engaged primarily in getting food from farmers to consumers as are en-
gaged in producing the food. Even real estate development has played its
part in expanding agricultural production-and whoever heard of con-
sumers banding together for the purpose of accomplishing rural real estate
promotion ?
Few would contend that consumers demanded self-service, that it was
their initiative responsible for the switch from bulk to unit packages,
frozen instead of fresh vegetables, that they clamored for speed-up on
delivery, kitchen-serviced coleslaw, prunes packaged in Saran or K-202
film, or suggested prepeeled potatoes, hydro-cooled peaches, tubed tomatoes,
pour-spouts for gable-style milk cartons, or pliofilm for dill pickles. They
welcome and utilize the improved facilities of food merchandising but they
didn't first design or ask for them. These improvements and "new products"
resulted from the efforts of producer, processor, manufacturer.
Housewife acceptance after trial purchase is quite different to housewife
advance demand for something "sight unseen." Rather than deliberating
upon improved methods of presenting foodstuffs for consumer selection,
much of retail food buying is routine and is done on impulse and habit.
There is vast difference of vantage-point in producing the raw product and
consuming the end product. The one proposes, the other disposes.
The more convenience, the better the processing, the more attractive
the pack, the more discriminating the consumer becomes. The trend has
changed, the change in trend will continue,-there is no denying it, no
point in turning back. Merchandising trends are in the direction of change
and they must continue as conditions warrant, "out with the old, in with
the new" to capture the interest and fill the market cart of the housewife.
She is awaiting innovation, but her demand will follow not precede nor
specifically suggest its introduction.
Florida shippers have learned by hard experience that they must place
in the larger market centers as good or better product, in orderly supply,
at as good or better price, made as commonly and favorably known, as that
of competition. Florida producers have been somewhat slower to realize
this principle governs with equal force in home markets. Florida produc-
tion is now vulnerable to inshipped products from distant places.
It is impractical to state Florida needs to increase its production-say
of poultry and eggs-by measured percentages to meet local consumptive
demand without qualifying the broad statement "with equal or better
quality at competitive prices." It would be appropriate to point out also
that incident to increasing production to equal annual consumption, peri-
odic surpluses will probably accumulate. Here the relative production and
available-to-consumer costs enter and sometimes blur the picture. If in-
shipped quality should improve and home-production quality slip, our
products can lose prestige in our home markets.
It is the man with the incentive and initiative to profitably produce,
package, process, transport, or distribute rather than the purchaser, more





70 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

food market-basket conscious, who is the more responsible for modern food
merchandising. If such nonconsumer groups hesitate to innovate until some
consumer says "I wish they would, why don't they?" they are likely to
learn too late that some of the spellbinders didn't "know their onions."
What the consumer doesn't buy is sometimes the more important.
I wonder how many consumers suggested to Luther Burbank that he
develop a better potato,-or propagate a sweeter rose. How many feminine
functions have been devoted to discussing cut-up, pan-ready poultry before
its availability. How many housewives bombarded their grocers for ready-
made biscuits or instant coffee before they were introduced.
Give the consumer what she wants! That much exploited admonition
has already become hackneyed. The "average consumer" term as often
mentioned in puffed broadsides leaves illusory impressions and is little
short of fiction. Dependability and honesty in quality, appealingly pack-
aged, truthfully advertised will increase consumer purchase of such prod-
ucts made available to them. Housewives do expect their purchases to con-
sist of the quality and goodness proclaimed in the solicitation of their
patronage. They do not demand, nor want, nor will they for long tolerate
deception or mistakes.
Consumers take much for granted, that their protection is assured,
food safe for child or adult. Federal inspectors find it possible to examine
and inspect only a small fraction of one percent of the total production of
commodities subject to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Yet
the consuming public has put its confidence in food safety, a high tribute to
the Federal inspectors and officials discharging such grave responsibilities
nation-wide in scope.
Consumer surveys revealing preferences of size, weight, color, number,
package fashion, etc., might be cited in rebuttal opinion that Mrs. House-
wife makes known her wants and preferences. Such consumer opinion is
based upon retail purchases at the end of the production-distribution line.
The planners, producers and makers-possible have all contributed to the
make-ready of the commodities purchased. The decisive consumer pref-
erence is thus determined from the very last rather than consumer sug-
gestion preceding the very first step the product takes to market. The effect
of how much of what consumers buy of the products offered may be the
cause of withdrawing some novelty plan which backfired.
Increasing consumption is of relatively little concern, inspires meagre
incentive among the consuming public. The very existence and profitable
continuation of agricultural production on the contrary depends on increas-
ing per capital food consumption to sustain it at present full or future higher
production levels. Thoughts for that accomplishment are forged last and
least of all by consumers. They do not survey the ground, draw the blue
print or plan the house-only live in it after a turn-key job is done,-as
figuratively applied to food distribution. Probably the chief consideration
consumers apply to marketing is that the price of food should continuously
be lowered for its distribution to be the most successful.
The consumer has to be educated by those serving him-consumers do
not provide training classes for those whom they patronize. Consumers
upon whom agricultural maintenance and prosperity entirely depend, are


















At 'p.


AVOCADO




72 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

the judge and jury of our products. They are neither plaintiff nor defendant
in marketing operations.
Some authorities are inclined to consider that bulk sales of fruits and
vegetables are in the vanishing stage. Noting the consumer-sorting in
bulk displays results in culled-out remains doubtless the retailer would
welcome a better remedy to the left-over problem that dumpage. Other
authorities noting consumer-survey results think bulk quantity displayed
along with consumer packs of some products increases sales of both.
The public generally being none too familiar with grades used by grow-
ers and shippers hardly realizes that tolerances-a few below par-are
permitted in such standards. The permissive tolerance percentagewise is
small for individual container lots, but in multiple quantities dumped in
bins and display cases for loose sale, the aggregate resulting from con-
sumer sort-over is sizeable. In comparison with full in-grade, above-
tolerance specimens of No. 1 grades, the left-overs though sorted down
from high grade, bear the appearance and customer-classification of culls,-
certainly off-grade remnants in the softest terms.
In this day of rivalry for the pleasure of courting the consumer pocket-
book, we should look upon our products as representative of ourselves. The
public will I believe judge us by the products originating in a state sc
well known in so many ways as Florida,-"by their products ye shall know
them!" A state's food product is a public trust which should not be over-
looked in the haste to gain consumer favor.
We shall of course maintain our quality and improve our merchandising
technique of agricultural products, move forward with and doubtless estab-
lish new trends, and we must continue propagating our major product-
agricultural research. We shall offer the consumer the very best flavor
and cooking quality in the most enticing packs. Under beneficial competi-
tion based upon quality, price and convenience, we shall solicit home-makei
patronage to their own advantage. We shall offer products easy to handle
quick to cook or serve, pack-designed for time saving, and with family
table satisfaction assured-before they ask for it.

CHANGES CHANGE
The annual pack data by can sizes, source U.S.D.A., showed a definite
trend in the mid-1930's toward the use of smaller size cans and away frorr
the No. 2 size can which had been the common standard for most canned
vegetables for many years. This trend was most evident for canned greer
peas and sweet corn. Certain items still are packed in other sizes predomi.
nantly, such as the No. 21/2 size can favored for sauer-kraut, pumpkin anc
squash, the No. 3 cylinder for tomato juice, and the No. 10 can for carrots
tomato paste, and tomato pulp and puree.
As a tin conservation measure, an abrupt halt to the trend toward
smaller can sizes was ordered during World War II. Since the War, however
the trend has been renewed with greater vigor than before. For some items
the No. 2 can has been almost completely replaced by the smaller No. 30"
can. For the 1952 pack, the No. 2 can remained the predominant size packed
only for asparagus, spinach and tomatoes.
This shift in can sizes has several implications. The smaller sizes fil
the needs of the modern smaller families better than the larger cans
The smaller volume of a No. 303 can permits a somewhat lower retail pric(




FLORIDA CROPS


than must be charged for products packed in a No. 2 can. This helps to
sell the item even to those customers who note the difference in size of can.
Constant reminders of waistline control in "beauty columns," extensive
life insurance company and the medical world's emphasis on the shorter-life
expectancy of those overweight, the interest in attaining and retaining
feminine slimness and masculine lank-figure-these among other reasons
have affected dietetic trends. While the variety of food products available
and the assortment of packages in which the products are offered have in-
creased, the quantity of the average meal intake in the home has been re-
duced as result of power and machinery in urban and rural pursuits re-
quiring less physical exertion. More farm people living in cities and more
remaining on farms acquiring city eating habits have affected the quantity
and trend of food consumption. The trend continues in an increasingly in-
dustrial nation: In 1952 one person of every six lived on farms, only half as
many as 40 years ago.
A development of recent years is the sale of peeled white potatoes.
Requirements of restaurants, hotels, hospitals and other metropolitan users
made this a growing industry. The potatoes are peeled mechanically and
sold whole, diced, sliced, or in other forms required by the trade. The
potatoes are treated against discoloration, and dry-packed in 30 lb. paper
bags with plastic liners. The product meets the requirements of users for
they have found it economical in that it means a saving in labor and prac-
tically no waste in food. The development has progressed sufficiently that
standards have been proposed for grades of peeled white potatoes. Rapid
increase in the consumption of frozen shoestring potatoes has been reported.
Prepackaging of fresh cranberries has mounted during the last few
years until now about 95% of all fresh cranberries are sold in 1-lb. con-
tainers,--cellophane bags or window boxes. Convenience for the house-
wife and visibility of contents for the customer were the objectives. This
is indeed a drastic change from the practice in old days of selling the
berries out of wooden barrels, later half-barrels and quarter-barrels.
While results of research by Cornell University on prepackaging apples
in New York State indicated the 6-pound package and bulk display maxi-
mized apple sales, growers have packaged apples at the orchard in 5-pound
packages and shipped 8 packages to a cardboard master container. Cor-
nell's studies showed that over 80 percent of the apples sold in up-state
New York supermarkets in 1952 were prepackaged. It is the opinion of
authorities that potatoes, oranges, apples and some other produce items
can be safely packaged at shipping point. Needless to say there must be
no customer fear that the bag will break-it must be strong. The more
perishable items such as tomatoes are more successfully packaged at the
terminal market.
Of the approximately half-million retail grocery stores in the United
States selling meat, the number selling meat by self-service increased
about one-third during 1952. According to Food Mart News, today's super-
market will stock around 2200-2500 separate items in all food classifications.
Most of these compete directly or indirectly with fresh fruits and vege-
tables. The agricultural industry cannot hesitate to innovate.
New economies in lettuce shipping have resulted from the trend and
rapid adoption in the past 3 or 4 years of commercial vacuum cooling at
shipping points in California and Arizona. As much as half a carload of




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


lettuce is placed in an airtight chamber, and the air and some moisture is
extracted. The temperature is brought down to near freezing in 30 to 50
minutes. Use of the method, which requires no ice in or on top of the crates,
only in car bunkers, increased in the southern California area from 34
cars in 1949 to 9300 cars in 1952. California and Arizona will probably ship
a total of 15,000 cars of lettuce cooled by this method during the 1953 sea-
son. Approximately 75-80% of shipments, first packing of 1953 early
fall movement Phoenix lettuce were reported moving out in dry-pack
cartons. The vacuum method does not result in objectionable wilting. It
evaporates only about 3 lbs. of water from 100 lbs. of lettuce in bringing
the temperature down from about 65 to 35 degrees F. Heads are cooled to
the center in all parts of packed crates. New developments are expected
from trials being made with other kinds of produce.
An improved refrigerated truck has moved frozen food from California
to Massachusetts with arrival temperature 131/2 below zero. Hundreds
of mechanical refrigerator cars are in use, and increased facilities for safely
transporting frozen foods may be expected. The most practical, economical
method of transportation may usher in integration of rail, water and truck
movement. The different carriers will have to give more attention to im-
proving their competitive position or withdrawing from operations con-
sistently resulting in losses.
The vacuum process of cooling vegetables is being used successfully
in cooling prepackaged products such as spinach, coleslaw and mixed
salads. These products are being cooled in commercial lots in 20 minutes
or less. Prepackaged spinach has been cooled from 70 to 32 degrees in as
little as 6 minutes. It has also been used to some extent in cooling prepack-
aged vegetables before distribution in the New York City retail market.
Prepackaging prevents handling individual products loose in the bin.
One unchanging practice of the usual fruit and vegetable shopper is to
pinch, squeeze, pitch, poke and play mumblety-peg with the products loosely
displayed in open bins. The retailer who told me nothing was safe in his
store except garlic and coconuts had a point along with his headaches.
While generally the larger the pricing units the smaller the proportion of
sales, bulk fruit displayed along with that bagged has been found advan-
tageous. With apples, for instance, the presence of bulk fruit was im-
portant.
With all the trends and progressive merchandising of fruits and vege-
tables, the method of getting produce from grower to consumer is involved
and still fails to match having the fresh product on the plate in a few hours
time after picking which was possible when the garden was behind the
house and the family orchard nearby, notwithstanding the restricted as-
sortment and physical effort involved.
Reeling in the line of trends in merchandising agricultural products to
better appreciate how greatly the changes may affect the volume sold, how
many housewives would now select on optional basis a live fryer, hen or
turkey in preference to the grade-marked, wrap-transparent dressed bird
ready for the pan?
How many would return to innovation-reverse practices of five decades
ago to the pantry and family ice-box stocked with relatively narrow as.
sortment of staples as flour, meal, lard, sugar, molasses, rice, cheese, dry
beans, prunes and raisins possibly-and milk, butter and eggs from radius




FLORIDA CROPS


STRAWBERRIES

of only few miles? Or trip repeatedly down cellar for potatoes, cabbage,
turnips and apples all winter long?
U.S. Department of Agriculture data indicate 52%c of the 1952 consumer
dollar was absorbed in the marketing process. It thus costs more to market
most farm products that to grow them. Most of the -marketing bill can be
charged to the physical handicap of the products-too much handling of
packages one at a time too many times. Retailing takes 1/3 of marketing
cost, and the retail store is where the consumer decides to "take it or leave
it." The supermarket advent has brought about great improvement in re-
tailing for independents have had to bring up the average,-improved
check-out counters, improved methods of handling groceries, fruits and
vegetables, improved methods of preparing, displaying and handling meats
and poultry, and improved utilization of shelf space. Consumer catering is
not for free however, an admission charge is made for the convenience of
catering services in the form of higher per-unit costs. The consumer buys
all special services along with food purchases.
Habit, suggestions of friends and neighbors, price, calory and nutritional
advertising all guide the consumer's purchase of food products. Until the
public is generally better informed some superior products may not be
chosen while inferior products may open the consumer pocket-book. Rela-
tionship between producer cost and consumer demand must be mutually
respected. Seldom indeed would we find producer insistence-Let me sell
to you for less or consumer solicitation-Let me pay you more!
Changes change. Marketing agricultural products must be considered
in several lights-of industrial progress, everchanging consumer habits
and the changing conditions in general. Some developments regarded as
most modern will in turn make way for the progress of tomorrow. When




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


methods become archaic they will yield to more economical, progressive,
competitively-surviving procedures.
Innovation often means someone gets hurt. Shippers of some fresh
fruits and vegetables have lost markets to processed, frozen food lines.
Consumption of some products has fallen while of others its increase has
been pronounced. With many benefits, some casualties may be expected.
Shippers of many agricultural products are still paying a huge bill for
the transportation and distribution of water, not to mention the heavy ex-
pense of delivering such products as leafy vegetables to the consumer in
such form that a great proportion is lost in the make-ready for cooking. The
grower ships a large part of certain products which will not be eaten, the
consumer pays for the amount discarded. Drastic changes in reducing
bulkiness for which everyone pays and from which few profit will none-
theless incur controversy. Lurking in analysing departures from traditional
practices will be the question: Will our competitive status be improved?
The farmer's caution is understandable for in the competitive production
of agricultural products the grower takes on the challenge of the elements,
and then in marketing that production the grower takes on other growers
competing with him.
The trend in recent decades has been toward producer, processor, dis-
tributor eliminating more and more of kitchen labors. Consequently by
their efforts more food products are now made available to the housewife,
either ready to serve or requiring only few minutes' cooking or warming up
before serving. There is no finely calibrated gauge of the limits but recent
trends indicate that even changes will change more frequently in the future.

TURNING BACK THE CLOCK
Around the turn of the present century, yearbooks of the U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture consisted of little statistical data compared to general
reading matter. Only "Statistics of the principal crops" of the time were
covered such as corn, wheat, potatoes, etc.
It might be as surprising as interesting to know that according to the
table "Average farm prices of potatoes per bushel in the United States
Dec. 1, 1893-1902, by States", Florida potatoes were valued as follows:
1893, $1.17; 1894, 75c; 1895, $1.00; 1896, 84c; 1897, $1.20; 1898, $1.20;
1899, $1.24; 1900, $1.06; 1901, $1.29; 1902, $1.22 per bu. Also that every
year except 1894 and 1900, Florida per bushel value was the highest in the
United States.
The average farm price of Florida hay in 1893 was $19.75 per ton, rank-
ing first of all states. The ton price ranged from $13.00 to $16.25 in years
1894 through 1902, exceeded by nine states one year 1900 but by only
one other state in 1894, 1897 and 1898.
In 1902 the value of Florida tobacco was given at 30c per lb., the highest
of all states.
The average farm price of oats per bushel by states was shown for
Florida as follows: 1893, 55c; 1894, 61c; 1895, 65c; 1896 and 1897, 53c;
1898, 54c; 1899 and 1900, 50c; 1901, 72c; 1902, 61c per bu. Florida was
first all these years except tied by Wyoming in 1896, Mississippi in 1899,
and led by three other states in 1902.




FLORIDA CROPS


Florida corn in cents per bushel: 1893, 68; 1894, 71; 1895, 47; 1896, 53;
897, 55; 1898, 50; 1899, 53; 1900, 60; 1901, 85; 1902, 77. The average
)rice of corn in 12 other states in 1895 exceeded the Florida value, but only
n 3 states in 1893, 1901 and 1902.
Jan. 1, 1903 basis, Florida had 44,695 horses valued at $61.26 per head
ind 14,129 mules valued at $95.64 per head. Florida was credited with
;2,047 milk cows at $21.60 per head, and 544,298 other cattle at $8.62
>er head ("other cattle" value lowest of all states except one), as of Jan.
, 1903. Florida had 99,067 sheep at average price per head $1.98. Florida
lad 395,528 swine valued at $3.00 per head, the lowest in the United States.

Skipping a couple of decades the general theme of report of the Secre-
ary of Agriculture was to speak of the condition of agriculture in the
ration, rather than restrict introductory comment to the subjects assigned.
ior example the Secretary's Report to the President for 1921 reflected
recognitionn and deep concern of the farmer's problems. Quoting:

"The farmer is urged to produce abundantly, but the price paid him for
vhat he produces is set after the amount of his production is known. The
buyerss drive the shrewdest possible bargain. The more the farmer pro-
uces, the less the buyers want to pay. Thus we have large production
penalized. Very often-indeed, it is the general rule-a large crop brings
he farmer fewer total dollars than a small crop. And often a large crop
ells at less than it costs the farmer on an average to produce it. Such is
he condition this year. The energy and the intelligence with which the
armer works, the number of hours he works, the cost he incurs in produc-
ig crops-none of these is considered in determining the price.

"The farmer, therefore, must work on faith. He must himself carry
11 the risks of weather, of heat and cold, of flood and drought, of destruc-
ve storms, of insect pests, and plant and animal diseases. He must plant
enough to make sure that there will be food for all, with the practical
certainty that in unusually favorable seasons the result may be a large sur-
lus, and that this surplus, which cannot be hidden, probably will cause
prices lower than actual cost of production. He must be willing to accept
these low prices with the best grace possible and adjust his living expenses
Meet his reduced income. The American farmer always has done this.
e is a philosopher, as every man must be who works with nature and is
subject to nature's varying moods. And he feels his responsibility to feed
he people. If the farmers of America should cease work for a single crop
eason, millions upon millions of people would suffer for food. They have
ever ceased to work, no matter what the trials and hardships....
"The crops of the year 1920 were produced at the greatest costs ever
known. These costs were justified by prices which prevailed at planting
me. They were incurred willingly because the farmers had been told over
d over again that overseas there was a hungry world waiting to be fed
d that there would be a strong demand for all they could produce. The
oduction was large; the farmers worked very hard, and climatic con-
itions favored good crops. But before the crops were harvested prices had
decreased that at market time the crops sold for far less than the cost
production, considering the country as a whole. Hundreds of thousands
oduced at heavy financial loss....




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


"The purchasing power of the principal farm crops of the year 1921 a
the present time is lower than ever before known. In time past some of thes
crops have sold at lower prices per sale unit expressed in dollars and cents
but probably never before have our farmers generally been compelled t
exchange their crops per sale unit for such small amounts of the things the;
need ...
"Nevertheless it is a matter of concern to the Nation at large and it i
the affair of every good citizen when any considerable number of hard
working men get into financial difficulties so serious that their ability t
produce is impaired. And surely it is a matter of concern to the community
at large when the food producers of the Nation so generally find themselves
in a condition not only financially unprofitable but which threatens cor
tinued production....
"In setting forth this situation so candidly, my thought is not to ad
to the discouragement but rather frankly to bring the situation with a
its difficulties clearly into view. The condition must be recognized exactly
as it is if it is to be alleviated. Ignorant optimism is just as harmful a
doleful pessimism. We must accept the cold fact that agricultural product
tion in adequate measure can not be continued any length of time on a basic
which does not give the producer a fair price."
Statistical tabulations in the USDA Yearbook 1921 still included dat
for the principal crops only, relatively few crops added complete by states
common to Florida, in the previous quarter century. A few farm val
comparisons can be made on Florida products:
1921 1920 1919
Potatoes (per bu.) $ 1.90 $ 2.00 $ 2.10
Hay (ton) 19.50 19.00 23.00
Tobacco (pound) .40 .48 .541/
Oats (bu.) .65 .60 1.20
Corn (bu.) .53 1.00 1.40
Horses (head) 123.00
Mules (head) 167.00
Milk Cows (head) 74.00
Other cattle (head) 21.70
Hogs (head) 10.00 13.00
Sheep (head) 3.50 5.20
Statistical information has in more recent years become so complex
and extensive that current Yearbooks of the U. S. Department of Agr
culture do not include the data. Instead the extensive statistical tabulation
are included separately in Agricultural Statistics which is devoted entire:
to "particular effort to meet the diverse interests and needs of the gener
public for a reliable reference book on agricultural production, supplies
consumption, facilities, costs and returns." The 1953 issue consisted of 7,
pages, larger than the whole of year book for 1898.
The following table (Source U.S.D.A.) shows 1954 average price da
on the same crops reported above in old Yearbooks:
The average price Potatoes 1954 was $ 1.51 per bu.
S1" All Hay 29.00 ton.
All Tobacco .767 lb.
Oats .94 bu.
Corn (all) 1.55 bu.




FLORIDA CROPS 79

Jan. 1, 1955 "
Milk Cows &
heifers 2 yrs. up 96.00 hd.
All Cattle
and Calves 54.00 hd.
Horses & Colts 53.00 hd.
Mules & Colts 60.00 hd.
Sheep & Lambs 9.00 hd.
S" Hogs & Pigs 22.20 hd.
The following "Amazing Changes in Our Generation," by Assistant
Secretary of Agriculture Earl L. Butz, from The Agricultural Situation
(USDA Jan. 1955) reviews developments by centuries with interesting
comparisons:
"We live in an era of the most rapid scientific and technological change
of all time.
"If you were to put the full recorded history of man on the face of your
clock, starting with the story of creation in the Book of Genesis and con-
tinuing until 1854-100 years ago, the hands of your clock would have
moved from noon around to 11:45 P.M. The last 15 minutes on the face
of your clock would represent the last century. Yet output per worker in
the United States has increased more in that last 15 minutes than in the
entire previous 11 hours and 45 minutes.
"And most of the increase within that last 15 minutes has occurred since
the turn of the present century. Many of us now living have played a sub-
stantial role in this amazing scientific and technological revolution.
"Let us imagine for a moment that a good Egyptian farmer in the day
of Moses could have been brought back to life in the day of the Caesars,
some 12 centuries later, and placed on a good farm in Italy, then the most
advanced nation of the world. He could have farmed with practically no
additional instruction, for the art of agriculture had changed little, if any,
in the intervening 12 centuries.
"Let us imagine that same farmer brought back to life on a good English
farm in the day of Shakespeare, some four centuries ago. He still would
have been a pretty good farmer with no additional instruction.
"Now let's bring that same ancient Egyptian farmer to the eastern
shores of America 150 years ago and put him on Thomas Jefferson's farm,
one of the advanced farms of that day. He still would not have found the
art of farming very different from that which he practiced in Egypt 3,000
years earlier. He still would have used the same motive power, the same
crude implements, and large amounts of hand labor. He would have known
very little about fertilization, improved varieties, high producing breeds of
livestock, and the hundred mechanical and electrical gadgets which occur on
our modern farms.
"But why go back 150 years? Let's just go 2,000 miles southwest from
here a short distance below the Rio Grande River. Or let's go in any one of
a score of places elsewhere around the world. That ancient Egyptian
farmer could suddenly come alive on a farm in one of those countries and
do a pretty good job of farming in 1954. The scientific and technological
evolution which we take for granted in America has by-passed large parts
of the world.




80 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

"Now imagine for a moment that same farmer on a modern American
farm. He would be completely bewildered. He would not even recognize
the working end of the tractor parked in the farmyard. He would probably
raise the cry of 'witchcraft' at all the wonderful things performed by me-
chanical and electrical power. It would require hard years of instruction
and apprenticeship for him before he could even begin to operate the modern
American farm.
"You and I live not only in a unique time in history, but also in a fairly
unique spot on the globe."



MARKETING FLORIDA CITRUS
Seasons 1945-46 Through 1954-55
The following reviews of seasons 1945-46 through 1954-55 are based
largely upon the material given in appropriate detail in Marketing Florida
Citrus Summaries ably prepared by Mr. H. F. Willson, In Charge Federal-
State Citrus Market News Service, Lakeland, Fla.
Season 1945-46. Among promising new developments were frozen concen-
trated orange juice, conversion orange juice into dry powdered form, house
delivery orange juice through retail dairy channels and commercial use
seeds in manufacture oil. Largest proportion late bloom fruit ever ex-
perienced. Government purchase processed citrus very light. Fresh fruit
ceilings suspended for trial period Nov. 19, 1945, reinstated Jan. 4, 1946
in effect to July 1. Local and general strikes. Tug boat walkout New York
harbor, coal and rail strikes complicated marketing considerably. Auctior
offerings lightest since 1927-28 result of increased f.o.b. sales. Oranges
sold at ceilings generally. Strong supporting cannery prices. Apple cror
about half normal yield. Many other fruits below par, lack volume in com-
petitive canned fruits and good clean up old citrus products. Second con-
secutive year when Texas grapefruit shipments continued about late as
Florida, instead ending April. Only in early season Florida had exclusive
market east of Rockies on fresh grapefruit. Volume grapefruit hearts in.
creased sharply. Tangerines record breaking-production equal highest
on record, auction prices highest 18 years, season's length exceeded al
previous years mainly because heavy percentage late bloom, more thar
half-million boxes processed.
Season 1946-47. Citrus among first major fresh foods undergo switch sel
ler's to buyer's market, back to highly competitive selling. Unseasonabl(
weather both Florida and consuming centers as season opened, heav3
carryover costly canning citrus juices. Retailer slow accept smaller profile
margins and push increased volume. Industry called various meet
ings but little centralized constructive action taken. Agitation higher
maturity standards and grading, more comprehensive advertising, expan
ded outlets home and abroad, centralized sales, etc. Severe cold wave Feb
5 and 6, again Feb. 9, 10 and 11th. Some 900,000 boxes early and midseason
oranges, 800,000 tangerines, 2,600,000 grapefruit unharvested because(
economic conditions. After lapse of about 5 years, boat shipments resume
Jan. 12, 1947, continued through May. Citrus processed full 11 months.




FLORIDA CROPS 81

Record breaking early orange movement, ordinary eating quality, unseason-
ably warm weather, poor carrying quality, more critical consumer all con-
tributed abrupt price decline. Tangerine shipments lightest in 5 years.
Season 1947-48. Demand slow, with record breaking volume combined total
crop fresh oranges, sharp decrease consumption, processed output increased
sensationally accounting for over half total orange disposition first time.
Fresh orange consumption around 80-85% "normal," grapefruit also de-
clining. Among factors considered having definite bearing consumer ac-
ceptance were economical canned juice, staples first choice for consumer's
dollar, ordinary quality, abnormally cold midwinter weather receiving
centers, too high markup some retail channels. Tree, cannery, f.o.b., and
auction prices lower than previous year. Economic abandonment took
large increasing toll. Embargo following freeze, one prior threatened rail
strike, one shipping holiday during Christmas period. By April unprece-
ented low of nickel to dime accounted for nearly all 'on tree' sales grape-
fruit, and for greater part season were under quarter. By latter April and
in most of May the 'on tree' sale Valencia oranges was mostly 50-60c box.
Season 1948-49. Season continued through December at similar levels of
two preceding disastrously low price years then changed almost overnight
to finish with the highest returns in more than 20 years. Such reversal due
mainly to freezes in other citrus areas. First time since Texas became
major citrus factor there were devastating losses in both Texas and Cali-
ornia because of cold such as occurred January 1949. Prices advanced
within hours at all levels and greatly increased fresh fruit shipments from
Florida were too heavy for best merchandising. More orderly marketing
resulted from general industry cooperation in successful voluntary prorate
n Valencias operating with restrictions on grade and size. Prices advanced
steadily March through June to levels exceeding ceilings of recent war
years. Total fresh shipments exceeded previous season with grapefruit
volume being one of the two heaviest in history. The new frozen orange con-
entrate outlet of great importance, strong competitor in active bidding for
orange supply. Late bloom fruit prolonged Florida movement of exceed-
ingly early season over period when competition from other citrus produc-
ing states was limited. New markets opened for Florida citrus, distribution
very widespread with West taking unusually large amount of oranges and
rapefruit. Carlots moved to outlets which in years had not used Florida
ruit. California made temporary changes in quarantine regulations and
oth truck and rail shipments moved to Los Angeles, Oakland, San Fran-
isco, etc. Truck volume more than doubled that of previous year. Latter
art of season Florida furnished practically all U. S. grapefruit supplies,
distribution was from Coast to Coast and North to South. Legislature
f 1949 passed laws aimed at eliminating poor fruit leaving Florida fol-
owing urgent demand for "taste-test" basic restrictions. Florida Citrus
utual activity for membership to secure 75% or more tonnage for opera-
ion was successful and organization formed.
eason 1949-50. Although the season was slow in beginning and pre-holiday
itrus prices generally at relative low levels, the Florida orange grower soon
thereafter enjoyed the position of having the fresh, canned and frozen
branches of the industry actively bidding for raw fruit. The on-tree, f.o.b.,
nd processed prices of oranges exceeded the most optimistic preseason pre-
ictions and the seasonal auction average was the highest in 22 years, or
since 1927-28. Florida's seasonal grapefruit average was the highest dur-




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


ing volume production history or 31 seasons, even surpassing the light vol-
ume boom-time years in the 'twenties,' with an average of $5.04 per box
for the season, all varieties, all sections, both white and pink grapefruit.
Though tangerines were the least impressive they gave smashing perform
ance, particularly in production. Seasonal auction averages for Florida
oranges, grapefruit and tangerines broke all existing records of past
twenty years. Contributing factors to the peak prices were: Phenomenal
increase in frozen concentrate production; comparatively light crops in
Texas, California and Arizona following freezes; higher maturity and grade
standards; and the most complete organization of Florida growers in the
history of the citrus industry and the establishment by Florida Citrus Mu-
tual of minimum or floor prices at strategic periods. Cannery utilization of
oranges and tangerines broke all previous records. Several "multimillion"
citrus deals involving purchase of citrus grove properties. Consumer resis-
tance increased as orange prices at all levels reached dizzy heights.
Mexican imports to Canada cut heavily into Florida's Canadian business
on fresh fruits. Movement of citrus by boat resumed after two-year lapse.
Season 1950-51. All citrus production records broken with the crop of 67.3
million boxes oranges, 33.2 million grapefruit and 4.8 million tangerines,
total 105.3 million boxes. The previous 1947-48 record was exceeded by 9.9
million boxes. Fresh grapefruit shipments heaviest in history of industry,
auction prices second highest in last six years, for oranges and tangerines
second highest in past five seasons. The longest volume shipping season
record, larger crop than expected, competition from California oranges
and other competing commodities and delayed Valencia maturity resulted
in contrasting close of season to bullish market endings of recent seasons.
Early movement had good midwestern business for both grapefruit and
oranges as result of dry weather in Texas retarding maturity and sizing ol
grapefruit, and Valencia movement from California declining rapidly. The
pickers' strike in early January slowing down fresh movement was followed
by switchmen's strike, car shortage and FCC restrictive regulations all oj
which tended to slow down fresh movement. No overlapping of shipments
mid-season oranges and Valencias, 1950-51 coldest season since 1939-40.
Effort by voluntary prorates and other means to maintain supplies at whale
appeared the most acceptable basis. Minimum price program at f.o.b. levels
for fresh fruit shipment and at delivered cannery basis for processors ir
effect most of season, adjusted from time to time depending on existing con.
editions. Florida Citrus Mutual in its second year of operation showed
promise of being the organization that can successfully correlate the activi
ties of all segments of Florida citrus, namely grower, buyer, processor ant
shipper (both Independent and Cooperative) to the benefit of the industry
as a whole. Many past seasons have repeatedly demonstrated the vita
need for a 'united front' instead of disastrous objectives of opposing fac
tions. At the height of the tangerine marketing season conditions became
so critical that sufficient tonnage was signed up to organize an industry
super-cooperative which operated in limited manner in 1950-51 but was se,
up for another season. Shipment volume for August broke all records
Orange utilization by canneries exceeded the previous 1949-50 season'l
high by more than 7 million boxes, however, the season's utilization o:
grapefruit by canneries was only fourth highest in the last eight seasons-
exceeded by 1947-48, 1945-46 and 1943-44. Distribution very widespread
for third consecutive season, about 44% of as much Florida citrus goinj
to the "West," as destined to the "East."





































FLORIDA'S GOLDEN TR
FLORIDA'S GOLDEN CITRUS


;i i.?




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Season 1951-52. The season began under double handicap: A total cro]
in the 120,000,000 box bracket (second time Florida production exceeded
100,000,000 boxes), and a relatively heavy inventory of processed frui
from the previous season-the supply doubly impressive. The crop wa
slow getting under way, fresh and particularly processed. When industry:
activity at every level, fresh and processed, reached full swing, all prio
peaks and records were left far behind. Fresh fruit movement set an al
time high by wide margin. Combined cannery utilization for all Flori
citrus was the highest on record, with oranges increasing sharply an
frozen concentrate continuing its spectacular rise. Consumer purchases o
frozen orange concentrate attained high volume. Marketing the Florid
citrus crop has changed within few years from a comparatively simple fres!
fruit program to an intricate coalition of fresh and processed citrus, prc
cessed inventories and carryovers. Consumer preference and resultant
price differentials together with competition from other fruits and juice
assumed greater importance. The season's grapefruit crop was subject
to many of these strong contributing factors with devastating marketing
effects. Though Florida had a large grapefruit crop the total volume wa
not excessive with Texas out of the picture and California and Arizon,
competition of minor extent. Fresh fruit consumption and utilization wer
encouraging but grapefruit used by the canners dropped to the second
lowest volume in the past 10 seasons. Relatively low orange juice an
concentrate prices plus consumer-established price differentials result
in a grapefruit-for-processing price at the diminishing point during latte
part of the season, with some monthly on-tree prices for processing pui
poses in the minus column, and 3,000,000 boxes were left on the trees.
Some of the most controversial factors were floor prices and mainter
ance of them (floor prices on early and mid-season oranges for processing
were suspended Jan. 23, 1952); voluntary weekly shipping prorates, ol
and on, at times throughout the season with prominent industry authorities
supporting opposite views, and a widely publicized Government Hearing o
proposed truck shipments direct from the grove which was denied. Othe
proposals highlighted included the surplus disposal plans, controlled plan
ings and suggested increases in taxes for advertising and promotion. i
simplified sizing project, decreasing the number of packs materially, passe
through preliminary trial stages. Fresh fruit grades were tightened an
strengthened.
Season 1952-53. Florida citrus conditions and prices to about mid-Decembe
very similar to those in 1951-52. After the Dec. 10th estimate however
oranges, with sharp reduction in estimated production and strong car
nery support, showed most advance in prices. Grapefruit was next in linr
Temples and tangerines (exclusive Florida) following in order. Most irr
portant contributing factor in Florida's over-all citrus developments wa
the strong delivered cannery orange market. Unprecedented consumer cor
sumption of frozen orange concentrate was at rate of a million gallons pe
week. Continuing from the mid-December change throughout season
orange prices, aided by sound, constructive program for both fresh an
processed fruit, advanced consistently with season's averages in all char
nels far ahead of the previous year. Christmas holiday trading after slo1
start gained speed and finished in strong market position with late shi]
ments relatively heavy. Price decline immediately following holidays wa
less, and hold-over supplies cleaned up better than usual. Practically entire
marketing period of 1952-53 season characterized by well regulated market




FLORIDA CROPS


ing program without excessive fluctuations. Advance in orange prices,
fresh and processed, consistent and steady, with no sharp recessions of
prominence or long duration.
Ample supplies of good quality California Navel oranges offered strong
competition in fresh channels. Earlier in the season Mexican oranges with
good consumer acceptance, at their price level, were in heaviest supply in
Canada and nearby western U.S. points as Texas and Oklahoma. Early, mid-
season and Valencia oranges followed same maturity pattern, slow in reach-
ing high concentrate quality standard. Inventory of processed citrus at
close of 1952-53 season comparatively low, most favorable in years.
For the third successive year Florida citrus production topped the 100
million box mark substantially. The combined U.S. orange production in-
cluding tangerines for the tenth year exceeded 100 million boxes. On con-
trary U.S. grapefruit production with heaviest five years 1943-44 through
1947-48 was in 1952-53 lowest in thirteen seasons-result of temporary
reduction of Texas grapefruit down from normal production of 20 million
boxes (before severe cold damage in 1950) to 200,000 boxes.
Proportion moved by truck continued to increase, nearly half the total
movement in 1952-53. More oranges were shipped by truck that rail, less
grapefruit and tangerines. Combined cannery utilization 1952-53 of Florida
oranges, grapefruit and tangerines largest on record-56% of combined
total production, 62.9% oranges, 46.6% grapefruit and 21.7% tangerines
utilized for processing.
California Navels and Mexican oranges reduced Florida's orange volume
to the West, while tangerine volume to West gained materially. Grapefruit
distribution less changed and similar to that of 1951-52.
Average rail load of citrus 1952-53 basis 500 boxes per car 496.9-
oranges 503.5, grapefruit 493.5, tangerines 473.7.
Season 1953-54. Total Florida production of oranges, grapefruit and tan-
gerines approaching 140,000,000 boxes set new records. Approximately
20 million boxes above previous high. Processors accounted for nearly 84
million boxes, slightly less than Florida total production of 87,700,000 boxes
only 4 seasons back, 1949-50. Fresh fruit shipments almost reached 100,000
car mark-or 95,821 cars, equivalent of about 48 million boxes. Competi-
tively speaking, Florida held favored position. Texas was still in very
low production due to 1951 freeze, California had lightest orange crop in
20 years with adverse weather conditions cutting yields as season pro-
gressed. Internationally, Spain suffered devastating freeze, affecting not
only the 1953-54 crop but also immediate future production. This ac-
celerated export volume and possibilities for all principal citrus producing
areas in the U.S.
Florida again had good distribution of fresh citrus which moved into
every state of the Union, into Canada and Alaska, exceptional to the Mid-
west and West in general.
The season opened 10 days to 2 weeks earlier than previous year and
continued well into August. Prior to 1953-54, only 3 seasons when Florida
total production exceeded the 100 million box mark-or 1950-51 through
1952-53 with the 1951-52 season high equalling slightly more than 119,-
000,000 boxes.
Trucks accounted for slightly over 1/ of movement. Cannery utiliza-
tion spectacular, approximately 17 million more boxes of oranges used




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


than year ago with grapefruit up about 5,000 boxes, tangerines about same
volume as last season.
Average rail load Florida citrus 1953-54 season 500.1 boxes-oranges
503.7, grapefruit 499.8, and tangerines 475.1
Season 1954-55. Florida production of oranges, grapefruit and tangerines
around 10 million boxes below the record season of 1953-54, but still above
the average for the past five years. Fresh citrus shipments from State
dropped nearly 5000 cars and the total movement just exceeded 91,000 cars
-with truck volume increased to more than 55% of total movement. As
in recent years, processor's again took the larger share of Florida's citrus
crop or 77.2 million boxes compared to 45.6 million marketed through fresh
channels. Total box cannery utilization of raw fruit down materially, but
extremely high yield resulted in nearly same volume of finished products
as year ago. Excellent consumer demand for frozen orange concentrate
and record high consumption. Chilled juice made sensational increase, ac-
counting for more than 3 million boxes of oranges. Crystals, a new product,
went into commercial production-utilizing both grapefruit and oranges.
Fresh citrus exports highest in recent years, well over 1 million boxes.
Auction volume showed further decline. The half-box carton, formerly
used almost exclusively for export, increased very sharply in domestic
usage. Competitively, Texas grapefruit more than doubled the 1953-54
volume and oranges increased 2/3 above that season. There was no appre-
ciable lag at beginning or end of California's Valencia and Navel seasons.
Again the Florida citrus season continued to show appreciable ship-
ments every month of the year. August remains the lightest month of the
season's total citrus movement. Total production for 1954-55 was 128,-
600,000 boxes compared to 138,300,000 boxes in 1953-54. Most of reduction
in grapefruit, particularly Duncan and in Valencia oranges. Early and mid-
season oranges and tangerines slightly heavier than preceding season.
For year ending June 30, 1954, Florida orange, tangelo and lemon plantings
set all-time records. Total all citrus 1,565,816 trees, second only to 1949-50
when 1,614,168 trees planted. Grapefruit with critical marketing problems
in both fresh and processed channels, relatively light,-onlyl58,372 trees,
ranking twelfth seasons 1928-29 through 1953-54.
Tangerine shipments showed marked increase or 782 cars above pre-
ceding season and established all-time record for fresh shipments. Trend
opposite to 1953-54 when both oranges and grapefruit showed increases
and tangerines declined.
Distribution of Florida citrus again widespread. Such distant points
as Butte, Mont., Tulsa, Okla., Portland, Ore., Seattle, Spokane and Tacoma,
Wash., received straight rail cars of Florida oranges. Grapefruit had even
wider distribution to western points, including Denver, Salt Lake City
and Los Angeles, in addition to cities listed for oranges. It is interesting to
note the long hauls in truck volume: Dallas, Tex., received Florida c/1
equivalent by truck oranges 251, grapefruit 184, tangerines 10, limes 1.
Denver, 138 cars oranges, 252 grapefruit, 23 tangerines, 2 limes. Fort
Worth received grand total of 206 cars, Los Angeles 236.
Last season for first time, the Lakeland office issued monthly reports
on actual truck receipts of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines and limes in 21
cities by States of origin.




FLORIDA CROPS 87

Average rail load of Florida citrus during the 1954-55 season 502.3
boxes.
MARKETING FLORIDA CITRUS
SUMMARY OF 1955-56 SEASON
Florida's 1955-56 citrus crop topped the 130 million box mark for the
second time in the history of the Industry by a substantial margin. Also,
previous records were far surpassed in the all important net returns or
'on tree' trices. The market for oranges and tangerines was good from be-
ginning to end. Grapefruit was the problem child again, but there was more
concentrated effort to determine the reasons why, and much consideration
given to steps necessary to bring it back to par with other Florida citrus.
With higher standards than a year ago, the grapefruit movement, at the
beginning of the season, was lighter but it caught up with the previous
year's volume by late November. The gap or spread between the California
Valencia and Navel orange seasons handed Florida the Thanksgiving
market and shipments, while increasing by December, still left Florida in
a favored position for the Christmas trade. Texas production was cut, due
principally to unfavorable weather conditions at blooming time. Processing
prices for Florida oranges, during the early and midseason, were relatively
high. The fresh market on midseason oranges closed stronger than the
opening prices for Valencias which was unusual. Valencias were slow in
reaching the desired quality for frozen concentrate. Some of the recent
season's pronounced trends showed continued increases-such as more
volume shipped by truck and less by rail, a greater proportion of the crop
processed in one form or another, and a smaller percentage consumed fresh.
The continuing smaller amount of oranges consumed fresh, despite the
greatly increased production, caused concern among some. A most damag-
ing European freeze, particularly in Spain and in Italy gave the export
business a sensational boost the latter part of the 1955-56 season that will
continue for a number of years to come. The Mediterranean Fruit Fly men-
ace raised its head again, or 27 years after the 1929 outbreak. In 1929, it
was first discovered in the Orlando district, April 6th, while in 1956, it was
in the Miami area on April 22nd. Prompt appropriations were made at both
State and Federal levels. Improved methods of control and eradication
ere almost immediately placed into effect and progress of elimination was
ar ahead of the 1929 schedule. Also, throughout the 1955-56 season, an
active program was in effect to control Spreading Decline. Weather, in the
tate, was also a most important factor, with rainfall below normal for the
third consecutive year. Irrigation was started in some sections as early
s October and November. Fortunately, there is rain in time to hold the
loom and set the fruit for the 1956-57 crop. The lack of rain, generally,
resulted in many industry meetings and, finally professional 'rain makers'
ere hired to work some of the hardest hit drough stricken citrus counties
during the height of the Valencia season. The 1/,-box carton volume con-
inued to increase, being used extensively for export, and also increased
ery materially domestically, especially to the midwestern and far western
markets. The chilled juice output, while slightly more than the previous
ear, did not reach the generally predicted optimistic forecast for the 1955-
6 season. Potential over-all citrus production for Florida continued on its
pward spiral with citrus plantings for the year ending June 30, 1955, the
highest on record.
Citrus was again shipped from the State the year around. Oranges were
n the 100 car figure, beginning the first week in October and stayed in




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


this bracket until the last week in July. Grapefruit was in volume move-
ment a couple of weeks earlier than oranges, but had dropped below the
100 car figure by the last week in July. The light month of year for
Florida citrus continued to be August, but each season there is always
some of the old crop moving at the beginning of the new crop's shipments.
Florida's total citrus production for the 1955-56 season placed early
and midseason oranges at 51,500,000 (including 2,800,000 Temples) (Va-
lencias at 39,300,000, tangerines at 4,600,000, seedless grapefruit at 20,700,-
000 and other grapefruit (or Duncan) at 17,800,000 for a grand total of
of 133,900,000. This preliminary total is the second highest in the produc-
tion column for Florida citrus-being exceeded only by the 1953-54 season,
when the total production amounted to 138,300,000 boxes 1955-56 and
1953-54 were the only two seasons, when Florida's citrus production ex-
ceeded 130,000,000. In connection with producotin, it is interesting to note
the trend in plantings of citrus trees in the state. For the year ending
June 30, 1955, plantings of all citrus exceeded the previous record by more
than 300,000 trees, or totaled 1,926,829 trees. Oranges increased nearly
350,000 over the year before, but grapefruit was down nearly one-half or
dropped from 158,372 in 1953-54 to 90,426 in 1954-55. Mandarins increased
more than 50,000, lemons more than doubled, but other classes such as
limes and tangelos showed less change.
Total shipments of fresh citrus, by rail ,truck, boat and express (includ-
ing the proper proportion of 'mixed' cars) were down again approximately
4,000 cars, despite the increased production. In 1955-56, total shipments
equalled 87,405 cars compared to 91,401 in 1954-55. Oranges showed the
most change or amounted to 44,173 compared to 47,987 cars a year ago.
Tangerines also declined to totaled 6,988 cars compared to 7,685 the year
before. Grapefruit, however, was approximately 500 cars more in 1955-56
or 36,244 in contrast to 35,729 in 1954-55.
Auction sales of Florida citrus were substantially higher, particularly
for regular oranges and tangerines. Offerings on the 10 auction markets
through July 27th, 1956, were lighter in volume with no exception. Oranges
(exclusive of Temples) Totaled 5,500 cars, grapefruit 7,361, tangerines
1,740, and Temples 1,118, for a grand total of 15,719 cars. The seasonal
auction averages, as compared to a year ago, were as follows: Oranges
averaged $4.76 a box compared to $4.14 in 1954-55, or 620 higher; grape-
fruit averaged $4.01 compared to $3.70, an increase of 310; tangerines
averaged $3.11 in contrast to $2.66, or up 45' on a 1/2 box; and finally
Temples with an average of $2.64 in 1955-56 compared to $2.52 the previous
season, or 12 higher per 1/ box.
Combined cannery utilization of Florida citrus broke all records, with
a grand total of 84,512,623 boxes used-segregated as follows: Oranges
64,856,828 boxes, grapefruit 18,648,422, tangerines 982,603 and tangelos
24,770.
Distribution of Florida citrus in 1955-56 again was very wide spread.
Florida's rail unloads in '100 Cities' Sept. 1, 1955 through June 30, 1956
amounted to 9,957 cars oranges; 9,948 grapefruit; 1,870 tangerines; and
4,718 'mixed' citrus for a grand total of 26,493 cars. Actual truck receipts
of Florida citrus in 23 cities for the same period was surprisingly heavy or
amounted to 8,122 cars oranges; 7,311 grapefruit; 1,484 tangerines and 169
limes for a grand total of 17,086 carlot equivalents. Forty-six States, the
Dist. of Columbia and five Provinces in Canada received Florida citrus by
truck, as tabulated from the road guard station passing reports.
/7




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs