Title: Elsa Chaney research cards
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Title: Elsa Chaney research cards
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Creator: Chaney, Elsa M.
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new models of develop. choncho]

The centre of political contention has tender
to shift rapidly away from what used to be the
great dividing issues a few decades ago, such
as the antithesis between secular and religious
society, lay education, the responsibility of
the state in ed., and so forth. In the fore-
front are matters connected with econ. devl.,
social welfare, and the equitable distribution
of income.
Recently, moreover, new models of econ.
dev. have made their appearance in L.A., models
which find political expression in a number
of popuiatlist movements--the Cuban Revolu-
tionary movement, the various groups of Marxist




inspiration, and the Chris. Dem. groupings--
whose importance is increasing in several
countries. All these new groupings and forces,
which are engaged in a political struggle both
with the traditional sectors and among them-
selves, have brought to the attention of the
people new formulas claiming to provide more
justice and welfare. This is not only shaking
the foundations of the traditional political
structures but it is also tending to strengther
the conviction of the people that a rapid
improvement in their living conditions is not
only just and necessary, but feasible. i7b-77)





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a growing recognition of the necessity
to take into account human resources and
their place in development...concerns for
programs affecting education, health, welfare,
housing, demographic issues, or the plethora
of considerations inherent in these microlevel
areas of growing concern.




human resource dev.-education CUMMINGS

The concept of human resources development
in Brazil, as elsewhere, has, in the past,
frequently received more word-of-mouth support
than de facto implementation at the elementary,
secondary, or higher education levels. Leader-
ship at the national level appears today to
be biased against the primary and secondary
levels. Failure to provide the eduational-
social overhead capital necessary to develop'
a nation's human resources at more than the
higher education level may very well contribute
to the conversion of the "revolution of rising
expectations" into the "expectation of rising
revolutions." (152)





Richard L. Cumminbs, "Human Resources as a
Development Concept in Latin America: The
Case of Brazil, in Frank T. Bachmura, ed.,
Human Resources in Latin America (Bloomington:
Indiana University, 1968), p. 152.





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more effective pol. participation chonchol

The peoples of Latin America are participation
more than ever before in the political process
of their respective countries. At the same
time politics appear to be increasingly focused
onthe opportunities for improving the living
conditions of the masses. In this connexion,
certain factors are worth bearing in mind. One
is the extraordinary speed with which the pol.
participation of the population in the elec-
toral system has increased during recent
years. (76)





Contemporary economic patterns of colonialism
are conducive to the maintenance of reliable
diplomatic allies for the United States in
L.A.; and the diplomatic reliability of the LA
states is faithfully registered, on many issues,
in the voting records of the General Assaumly
of the United Nations. But the same economic
conditions which ensure diplomatic reliability
weaken the power position of the L.A. states...
economic colonialism promotes political insta-
bility, which detracts from the power of relia-
ble diplomatic allies of the United States;
but while the achievement of political stability%
would augment the power of the L.A. states,
the elimination of a status of economic




colonialism may dimish the diplomatic relia-
bility of their governments: And the
dilemma thus brought to the surface y the
interpretation of L.A. politics offered in
this study has never been publicly acknowledged
by the United States Department of State.
p. 501




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Basic question: if women do not have the Gans, Marjorie: Miodernity
attitudes needed for modernization (and of Husbands and Wives
indeed retard the process), are men pp 4-5
anymore "modern"?


There has not been much research on attitudinal differences bctwcoen
men and women. Often research includes w;o.ien, but does not :.!hoc any
breakdowns by sex. Ex. Daniel Lerne's Passing of Traditional Society
includes weomn, but he makes no sex breakdowns. The Cornell-Peru study
anticipates making no breakdowns either, and was glad to give data to
the author because they were contemplating no comparisons between men
and women in the analysis of their data.
Other recent studios of men only: (in which attitudes and behaviors which
might characterize a "traditional" style of life are contrasted with those
deTr.xarded by a "modern") include David H. Smith and Alex Inkeles, "The
OM Scale: A Comparative Socio-Psychological Measure of Individual Modernity,"
in Sociometry, 29:4 (Dec., 1966), pp. 353-377 (5,50G men from six
countries Argentina, Chile, Indiao, Pakistan, Israel and Nigeria).
Also Joseph A Kahl, The Measurement of MIodernism: A Study of Values in
Brazil and Mexico, Latin American Monographs, No 12, Institute of Latin
American Studies, Univ. of Texas, 1966. (1,300 men between 25 and 49
yrs. old in Brazil and :e::ico). ,



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"traditional" vs "modern" not Gans, iIcrjorc, Modernity
a strict dichotomy of Husbands and Wives
p. 12
Gusfield points out that "traditional" and "modern" cultural systems
are too oftcn posited as exclusive opposites, whereas very often they
can comfortably co-etist with one another. (Joseph R. Gusfield, "Tra-
ditional and MIodernity: Misplaced Polarities in the Sudy of Social Ci.ian-o.,"
The American Jrl of Soc, 72:4 (Jan., 1967), p. 354. (Also see Lipset,
Political Man, and Gino Germani)
As quoted by Gans: "lie suc .-ts that the technological consequences
of increased transportation, communication, literacy, and horizontal
mobility, may not only be to Pfrtihr the soroad of new. ideas, but also
to intensify the spread and influence of the "great tradition" (e.g.,
religious pilgrimages) into more and more co:rmunities and across various
/social levels. His argument is that the new does not necessarily wholly
displace and replace the old. Traditional structures and traditional
values can sometimes legitimate modern behaviors and modernn aspirations.

7-- .7
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reluctance to accept change Klein, Feminine
Character, p. 167

"Women have often been characterized as having a greater capacity
for adapting to new conditions than men, although their gi'e;.ter resilctuance
to undertake changes has also been noted." (Gans)




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attitudes of women: influence whether
or not they will be
agents of change


Gans, Marjorie: modernity
of Husbands & Wives


Gans thesis: ..."women are in a position to greatly influence the
rate and diffusion of change in developing countries, (but) it is not
at all evident what the nature of their influence may be. For in order
to be transmitters of change they must also be recipients of new ideas. '
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Status of omen 1 A.L.H. Women & Ed. in Chile
...Most of the Conquistadores, coming womanless to Chile, entprd into
extra-legal unions with Indian girls and later, senior officials were forbid-
-- -den-to -marry in -their-districts-lest-the-resultant-Americanization-mi-ght---
lead them to neglect the__interests_ofthe _Crown ._..._ ... ...._.._
With a father bound to it only byhis whim,_the effective head of the..-
half-caste family was the mother. A Spaniard-soldier, officer of civilian
----arrived-in-Chiled, stayed-for-a-while-,and-then-returned- to-his-own -country,---
_after which no more was heardof him. The Indian mother,__left_to fend for _.
herself, had to bring up her children as best she could. In any case, by
- veneralle-Araucanian- tradition,--it-was -her-task -to-ti-l--the-soil-,- weave- ---
_clothing_and makepottery__while herman was at war or hunting. The basis of
native family life was polygamy, and a woman was therefore doing no more than
f-- following-her-destiny by living-with-a-S.--who-already -had wife-in -Europe -or-
America.
_As the colony developed, the "encomendero" now became a great landed pro-
prietor, and developed into a feudal lord throughout America. Not only did he
-people his vast-domains with his own-offppring, but-he-also -had-a legitimate--
family _and heirs who lived on his estates as a ruling caste....(3)
Spanish and colonial law recognized\and protected the children born in
-----wedlock;-they-were,-however,--always-a minority-of-the-pppulation. The insti-
tution of the right of primpgeniture made the eldest son the head of the
family in the absence or on the death of the father; his sisters and for
S-that-matter-his-mother---owed-him- obedience,--while-he- in turn was responsible
for "settling them," i.e., marrying them off. ...A woman-was a permanent minor;
marriage merely meant a change of guardianship (4)




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Status of Women 2 Labarca H., Amanda Women' Educa-
tion in Chile (Paris: UIESCO,
R july, 1952)
The earliest legal codes of thenewRepublics madeno.._great change in
the status of women, despite the abolition of slavery (1811) and the later
--right-of -primogegiture -(1852). .
--------Under Andres -Bello's Civil Code, promulgated in-1855 by P.-Jos J-.-Perez,-
a_woman was still a 'minor,' as she was also under the Penal and the Commer-
cial Codes: women could neither be buardians nor administrators of estates
--nor-witness-legal-instruments.
I-t--should-be- said, however,--that the laws--of inheritance made no distinc-
.tion between boys and girls, Providedshe was unmarried and .of age, a woman..
had the right to sell, mortgage property, and conduct business. On marriage,
---however, -she came under the authority of her husband. The husband alone
administered the ..common property of the marriage and he was the legal owner .
of the profits or salary of his wife, who could not practice a profession or
---hold-a- paid-position without his -authorization. -.
Under Articles 151 and 133 of the Civil-Code, whmch are taken almost word
for word from the Code Napoleon, the h. owes his w. "protection," while she
in turn owes 'obedience' to her h. and cannot, without his consent, dispose
-of-her own property, even after a--decree of separation.
The status- of women only began-to improve towards 1925. Law Nol 321 of 12
..March, 1o25, known as the "Maza .Law," makes the mother the.head of the f._ in
the event of the h death or incapacity, abolishes the incapacity of women to
act-- s-witnesses-and gives married women the right of -free disoosal of- "-pro- --
perty -which is the product of their work in industry or a proTession."




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Status of Women 3
There remained certain matters not covered by the above law, and its
provisions were supplemented by those of Law No. 5521 of 19 Dec., 1934.(4)More
-_particularly the latter improved the.position of married women- in-Employment;-
Law Nol 7612 of 1943 gives authority for the conversion of wholly or partially
c-ommunal-or-ownership of property -inmarriage into absolute separation of
_-ownership. (5)
_._Despitethese_.reforms, the civil equality .of the .-two sexes, advocated .by....-.
the U.N. and by the O.A.S., of which Chile is a member, is not a fact, and le-
gislati-on-establishing the inferiority of women is still in force.- "Thus, .
..-under the normal type of marriage contract _(community or -roprety), the .w.
cannot, without her husband's authority, sign or terminate a contract, remit
a -debt, accept or-refuse a donation, inheritance or legacy, acquire goods with
or without payment, or alienate, mortgage or pledge such goods."._ ..._.
..._W.. omen's_ associations in Ch. have vainly demanded-that parental authority,..
which today is only granted to the mother on the disappearance of the father,
--be exercised joiAtly by h. and-w.- Under-current legislation, the father can
even-appoint by will a third party whom the mother is'bbliged to consult in _
the exercise of parental authority. Another instance of discrimination is
that, in the-event of remarriage, a widower retinas his parental authority
.whereas,_.a widow loses hers.......
There are also many inequalities in the matter of adultery. A w _is an adul-
tress if she has "sexual relations with a man other than her husband." A man
is only built of adultery if he "introduces a concubine into the home or if
his infidelity elsewhere than in the home is open and notorious." The prison.
sentence to which an adultress is liable is from 61 days to 5 years; in the
case of an adulterer, it is from 61 to 340 days only. A husband finding his




M~o F C~o l -s(ac) a ) 8 / 3, 58 6
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Status of Women 4
w in flagrante delito, and killing her or her paramour or causing either
previous bodily harm, is liable to no penalty. There is no condonation of
_similaraction by .an injured_wife-..._ .... .............
___ Under_Chilean _law_ there is no divorce in the sense of final dissolution...
of marriage; however, there is provision for declarations of nullity, and suit!
-for-Tul-lity--are-constantly -resorted -to-by- persons-wishing to-di-vorce in order----
to remarry. __The fact is that,, from the point of view of the parties._civil..
status, a marriage is only valid if contracted before the authorities of the
-place-of-residence,-and-husband-and wife-can always-agree to state that-this----
condition was not fulfilled. In practice, this amounts to divorce by mutual..._
consent, with no legal safeguards for the wife and children. Should either
-----party decline-to cooperate,-divofce becomes impossible, and it is by-no-means-
..uncommon for consent to be secured by threats (5) or illegal transactions.
A -further point is that a man convicted of adultery continues to.
administer the common property of the marriage, whereas a wife, even after
---securing a-"permanent-divorce" (which-in-Ch. law dissoves-the conjugal -
establishment but not the marriage tie)., isdeprived of the right of enjoying
the use of such of her property as her h. was managing before the divorce (ie
Sof all-her property including that acquired subsequent to the marriage,
unless her marriage contract provided forseparation of property). (6)
Among the middle classes family bonds are more substantial (than in the
lower classes), though even hermale promiscuity is a commonplace; desertion
-ptthe legal family is not infrequent and the admission-of the paternity of
.....naturalchildren is the exception. On the whole, marriages regarded as
indissoluble. The husband manages the business and income of the household
-and-would-usually consider it a proff of weakness to discuss such questions




Status of women 5
with his w. The wife runs the house and almost always supervises the educa-
tion of the children. Servants, formerly numerous, are fewer now that the
resourcess of-._the middle-.classes _have shrunk_ and industry _isoffering_new__......._..
outlets for working women. (12)
Many women continue their studies or other occupations after marriage.
--Of the- first women to graduate from the Universities at -the end of the- last'--..
__century., __the majority have remained unmarried,..as men thought that love........
and submission which married life requires could not possible be expected
-of -them. This-prejudice has now -disappeared -(12)
Development of women's education -ebe ------





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