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 Low morale found among South African...
 Surviving catastrophe: The elderly...
 Ethical implications of working...
 Recent publications














Title: Population briefs
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00088809/00001
 Material Information
Title: Population briefs reports on Population Council research
Abbreviated Title: Popul. briefs
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Population Council
Publisher: Population Council
Place of Publication: New York NY
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in Jan. 1995.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 1, no. 2 (June 1995); title from caption.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00088809
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 33125454
lccn - sn 95002266
issn - 1084-6786

Table of Contents
    Low morale found among South African nurses
        Page 3
    Surviving catastrophe: The elderly in Cambodia
        Page 4
    Ethical implications of working with children
        Page 5
    Recent publications
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text



IS E lMHI ODIJ S


Low Morale Found Among South African Nurses


The emigration of trained professionals poses
an ongoing challenge in South Africa. Among
nurses, this phenomenon-and the pressure it
places on nurses who remain-may be con-
tributing to a high rate of maternal mortality
in that country. The Population Council's
Frontiers in Reproductive Health program, in
collaboration with the University of Witwaters-
rand, conducted a study to learn more about
the workloads, morale, and career plans of
maternity nurses in South Africa.
The study was carried out in Limpopo,
KwaZulu-Natal, and Mpumalanga provinces
in South Africa. All public sector hospitals
providing maternity services in the three
provinces were notified of the study and then
faxed a questionnaire. Site visits were made to
15 hospitals and 27 clinics.

Workload challenges and
poor motivation
Overall, hospitals and clinics had vacancy
rates of 23 percent and 27 percent respectively,
with clinics in Mpumalanga having the high-
est percentage of positions that had been
vacated. Turnover for skilled midwives was also
high. Eighty-three percent of hospitals but only
11 percent of clinics had nurses specially
trained in midwifery, and 42 percent of facili-
ties reported that they had lost an advanced
midwife during the last year.
The results suggest that although nursing
staff turnover, shortages of staff, and workload
are extremely problematic at some facilities,
not all facilities are equally badly affected. In
the sampled clinics, the mean workload was
770 clients per month per professional nurse.
The mean number of deliveries performed per
professional nurse per month in hospitals was
16.5. In terms of absenteeism, the study found
that although a large number of days were
taken off sick, these were often isolated days
and not long periods of sick leave. The average
length of service of sisters-in-charge (charge
nurses) was more than five years. The mean


number of years that professional nurses had
worked at a facility was nine years in
Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal and nearly
six years in Limpopo.
A high percentage of nursing staff work-
ing in public facilities said they were discour-
aged, burnt out, and considering leaving the
facility where they worked. Sixty percent of
professional nurses agreed or strongly agreed
with the statement, "These days I don't feel
motivated to work as hard as I could," and


"When I get up in the

morning, I dread

having to face

another day at workk"


43 percent agreed with the statement, "When I
get up in the morning, I dread having to face
another day at work."

Reasons for leaving service
A range of factors was associated with nurses
considering going overseas. Pay levels, poor
opportunities for promotion, feeling unsupport-
ed by management, and having bad relation-
ships at work were all associated with lack of
desire to stay in one's job. Nurses in the middle
age group of 30-49 years and those with chil-
dren under the age of 18 were more likely to be
considering going overseas than younger or
older nurses. Wanting a better future for their
children and needing money to pay for school
and university fees were mentioned as being
key motivations for nurses going overseas.
It is not possible to discuss any issue
related to health in South Africa without con-
sidering the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
The epidemic was found to have a role, but not


to be directly responsible for problems with
nursing morale in maternity units. Only 15
percent of nurses said that the risk of catching
HIV has made them think about leaving their
jobs. Indeed, more nurses (37 percent) were
worried about catching HIV outside of work.
The study found that both financial and
nonfinancial factors influenced nurses' deci-
sions on where to work. Good management
and a well-equipped hospital were as influen-
tial in nurses' choices as a 15 percent pay
increase. The qualitative data showed that vari-
ous policy initiatives instigated by government
to retain staff, such as an additional allowance
for nurses working in rural areas, have had
mixed outcomes. In the case of the rural
allowance, only professional nurses (and not
nursing assistants) receive extra pay when they
work in rural areas. This means that nurses
who receive the allowance feel badly for their
colleagues and in many cases are faced with
colleagues being uncooperative and saying,
"You get the rural allowance, you do the work."
The researchers note that interventions
are badly needed to improve this situation,
even though the low morale may be an obsta-
cle to successfully implementing such efforts.
Policymakers need to pay more attention to
how policies are implemented and to the
impact of policies on the relationships among
nurses, and between nurses and managers in
facilities. The researchers recommend that
improving facility management should be a
priority of South Africa's National Department
of Health. But they acknowledge that such a
task may be challenging, since many facility
managers themselves are demoralized. m

SOURCE
Penn-Kekana, Loveday, Duane Blaauw, Khin San Tint,
Desiree Monareng, and Jane Chege. 2005. Nursing
Staff Dynamics and Implications for Maternal Health
Provision in Public Health Facilities in the Context of
HIV/AIDS. Washington, DC: Population Council.
OUTSIDE FUNDING
President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the
United States Agency for International Development,
South Africa Mission


2 P O P U LAT I ON B R I E F S 12(1) JANUARY 2006











Surviving Catastrophe: The Elderly in Cambodia


For a period that began in the early 1970s and
lasted more than two decades, the Cambodian
people were victims in turn of bloody civil war,
genocide and starvation, and renewed civil war.
During the reign of the Khmer Rouge between
1975 and 1979, an estimated 1.5 to 2 million
people-more than 20 percent of the popula-
tion-lost their lives. Today, Cambodians
endure extreme poverty and one of the highest
HIV infection rates in Asia. Many of the people
who died during civil strife or because of HIV
infection were the spouses, sons, and daughters
of the current elderly population. Thus, in
addition to having endured extreme trauma,
these older people may now lack core family
support. However, relatively little systematic
data exist on the social and economic situation
or the health of Cambodia's elderly.
To fill this information gap, Population
Council demographer Zachary Zimmer and
University of Michigan researcher John Knodel
collaborated with Cambodian researchers Kiry
Sovan Kim and Sina Puch of the Royal
University of Phnom Penh. The investigators
conducted the 2004 Survey of Elderly in
Cambodia, a representative survey of 1,273
people aged 60 and older living in the six most
populous provinces, including Phnom Penh.
This study is the first comprehensive examina-
tion of the lives of the Cambodian elderly based
on a widely representative sample. To learn
more about the impact of HIV infection, the
researchers collected supplementary data from
a nonrandom sample of 100 older Cambodians
who lost children over the last five years as a
result of HIV and other illnesses.
In addition to providing information about
Cambodia's elderly population, "one of our chief
goals with this study is to strengthen the ability
of Cambodian scientists to conduct social science
research in their own country," states Zimmer.
The Khmer Rouge destroyed research capacity in
Cambodia by eliminating academic institutions.
The researchers, who are working closely with
faculty at the Royal University of Phnom Penh,
published three studies based on the survey data
and have several more papers planned.


Percent of the elderly reporting limitations in activities of daily living in
Cambodia compared to other countries
Cambodia Burma Indonesia Philippines Thailand
Getting up from lying down 18.8 7.8*** 3.8*** na na
Eating 8.7 5.4*** 3.1*** 4.5*** 3.7***
Bathing 8.4 6.4** 3.0*** 7.2 6.2***
Dressing 6.2 5.0* 2.2*** 5.9 3.2***
At least one limitation 23.0 10.5*** 5.6*** 9.0*** 76***
***p<.01; **p<.05; *p<.10 when comparing proportion versus Cambodia
Source: Zimmer 2005.


A history of violence
The survey revealed the devastation wrought
during the short but lethal period of Khmer
Rouge rule. More than 40 percent of
Cambodians over the age of 60 lost at least one
child, and close to 25 percent of the women lost
a spouse in those four years. Despite this bitter
legacy, almost all elderly Cambodians have liv-
ing children, owing to a high fertility rate. In
fact, older people in Cambodia today typically
have more surviving children than do older peo-
ple in Thailand, owing to a sharp decline in fer-
tility in the latter country. The Cambodian elder-
ly rely heavily on family support, usually living
with children and receiving modest amounts of
money and material goods from them.
The survey assessed health in a number of
ways. For instance, it asked respondents about
their ability to carry out four activities of daily
living: eating, bathing, dressing, and getting
up from lying down. Zimmer analyzed this
data and compared it to similar data from
Burma, Indonesia, the Philippines, and
Thailand. He found that elderly people in
Cambodia experience limitations in each of
these activities at higher rates than found in
any of the other four countries. Twenty-three
percent of older Cambodians report difficulties
with at least one of these activities, as com-
pared with 10.5 percent of the elderly popula-
tion in Burma, 9 percent in the Philippines,
and even lower proportions in Thailand and
Indonesia (see table).
Using the information about activities of
daily living, Zimmer calculated the "active life


expectancy," the expected remaining years of
functional well-being, of elderly Cambodians.
He found that women live longer than men but
spend a greater proportion of their lives with
disabilities. Not surprisingly, he found older age
to be related to higher rates of limitation and
less active lives.
"So far our research has shown that
elderly Cambodians have faced harsh and trau-
matic circumstances, most notably war and
extreme poverty, says Zimmer. "All of this has
affected their quality of life. Their health is
poor and their lives are difficult."
The study results point to a need for
greater recognition by the government and
international aid agencies of the requirements
of this hitherto largely ignored segment of the
population. m
SOURCES
Knodel, John, Sovan Kiry Kim, Zachary Zimmer, and
Sina Puch. 2005. "Older persons in Cambodia: A pro-
file from the 2004 Survey of Elderly" Population
Studies Center Research Report no. 05-576. Ann
Arbor: University of Michigan.
Zimmer, Zachary. 2005. "Active life expectancy and
functional limitations among older Cambodians:
Results from a 2004 survey," Policy Research
Division Working Paper no. 201. New York: Population
Council.
Zimmer, Zachary, John Knodel, Kiry Sovan Kim, and
Sina Puch. 2005. "The impact of past conflicts and
social disruption in Cambodia on the current genera-
tion of older adults": Population Studies Center
Research Report no. 05-582. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan.
OUTSIDE FUNDING
The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Andrew
W. Mellon Foundation, the National Institute on Aging,
the United Nations Population Fund/Cambodia, and the
US National Institutes of Health


B R I E F S 12(1) JANUARY 2006 3


POPULATI ON







HI-W.lS


Ethical Implications of Working with Children


To set up and evaluate programs for children
and adolescents affected by HIV/AIDS requires
solid data on their life situations and needs.
Investigators and program managers gathering
this information face thorny ethical issues.
Are children who lack adult protection and
guidance capable of understanding the poten-
tial consequences of participating in a study-
in other words, can they give truly informed
consent? Are survey questions about the death
of parents or other sensitive subjects likely to
cause anxiety or even emotional damage?
Could visits from a researcher "brand" a child
as HIV-affected and deepen the stigma he or
she may already experience?

Practical guidelines
Few resources exist to help program managers
and evaluators deal with the difficult and
potentially harmful situations that may arise
when working with children affected by
HIV/AIDS. At the request of the U.S. Agency for
International Development (USAID), a steering
group was formed composed of representatives
of the Horizons Program, Family Health
International's IMPACT Program, UNICEF, and
USAID to develop practical guidelines for those
who work with young people in international
settings. The insights and experiences of this
group and others working in the field were col-
lected and analyzed in a handbook, copies of
which are available free of charge. (To request
a print copy, send your mailing address to
horizons@pcdc.org; or you can download a
PDF at http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/
horizons/childrenethics.pdf.)

Identifying challenges
Recognizing that methods for working with
adults cannot simply be transferred to young
people, this new resource identifies challenges
that confront program implementers and
investigators who work with children and ado-
lescents and proposes practical approaches to
overcoming them.


Among the ethical questions the hand-
book explores in depth are:
Is the data collection activity necessary
and justified?
Is the activity designed to elicit valid
information?
Have community and stakeholder con-
cerns been considered?
Have adverse consequences of the activ-
ity been anticipated?
Are procedures in place to ensure that
the activity proceeds ethically?
Are there a clear plan and adequate
funding for follow-up activities?


"Gathering informa-

tion from children

requires additional

precautions to protect

their conffientiality

privacy, and emo-

tional wellbeing."



The handbook also provides case studies
that highlight the roles of interviewers, pro-
gram managers, data analysts, and others in
ensuring that child-related activities are not
harmful or unethical. These vivid descriptions
illustrate real-life struggles with ethical dilem-
mas and offer useful insights into appropriate
approaches to working with youth. They are
not examples of best practices: some frankly
identify missed opportunities or oversights and
examine the lessons to be learned.
As groundwork for the development of the
publication, an expert consultation meeting
took place in 2003. The gathering included


researchers and service providers with expertise
in psychology, child development, ethics, pedi-
atrics, sociology, anthropology, and social work.
This broad mix of perspectives and expertise
led to a fruitful exchange about both ethical
concerns and the practical issues involved in
implementing effective standards.
Participants discussed the ethical respon-
sibilities of professionals working with children
affected by AIDS and other difficult situations,
recognizing that such children often face
poverty, stigma, or abuse. Participants agreed
that program managers and researchers must
take steps in advance to ensure that referral
systems to local services are in place to help
children in these situations, and that both
parents or guardians and children know that
abuse will be reported to the appropriate
authorities.
Among other topics raised by participants
and covered by the publication are gaining
meaningful informed consent from children
and creating opportunities for children to
participate as advocates on their own behalf in
study design, instrument development, and
results interpretation.
"Because of the power imbalance
between adult investigators and child
informants, gathering information from
children requires additional precautions to
protect their confidentiality, privacy, and
emotional well-being," said Katie Schenk of
Horizons/Population Council, who coordinat-
ed the development of the handbook.
"Involving everyone who participates in pro-
gram development and research is critical to
ensuring that these precautions are met." u



SOURCE
Schenk, Katie and Jan Williamson. 2005. Ethical
Approaches to Gathering Information from Children
andAdolescents in International Settings: Guidelines
and Resources. Washington, DC: Population Council.
OUTSIDE FUNDING
U.S. Agency for International Development


4 POPULATION BRIEFS 12(1) JANUARY 2006









RECENT PUBLICATIONS


Biomedicine

Cheng, Chuen-yan, Dolores D. Mruk, Bruno Silvestrini,
Michelle Bonanomi, Ching-hang Wong, Michelle K.Y.
Siu, Nikki PY. Lee, Wing-Yee Lui, and Meng-Yun Mo.
"AF-2364 [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1 H-indazole-3-carbo-
hydrazide] is a potential male contraceptive: A review
of recent data," Contraception 72(4): 251-261.
Fraser, lan S., Edith Weisberg, Vivian Brache, Francisco
Alvarez, Rebeca Massai, Daniel R. Mishell, Jr., Dan
Apter, Judi Gale, Yun-yenTsong, and Irving Sivin.
"Serum Nestorone" and ethinyl estradiol levels, and
ovulation inhibition in women using three different
dosage combinations of a Nestorone progestogen-
ethinyl estradiol contraceptive vaginal ring on a bleed-
ing-signaled regimen," Contraception 72(1): 40-45.
Hardy, Matthew R, Hui-Bao Gao, Qiang Dong, Renshan
Ge, Qian Wang, Wei Ran Chai, Xing Feng, and Chantal
Sottas. "Stress hormone and male reproductive func-
tion," Cell and Tissue Research 322(1): 147-153.
Lee, Nikki P.Y., Dolores D. Mruk, Ching-hang Wong, and
Chuen-yan Cheng. "Regulation of Sertoli-germ cell
adherens junction dynamics in the testis via the nitric
oxide synthase (NOS)/cGMP/protein kinase G
(PRKG)/p-catenin (CATNB) signaling pathway: An in
vitro and in vivo study," Biology of Reproduction 73(3):
458-471.
Mukai, Motoko, Qiang Dong, Matthew R Hardy, Hiroaki
Kiyokawa, Richard E. Peterson, and Paul S. Cooke.
"Altered prostatic epithelial proliferation and apopto-
sis, prostatic development and serum testosterone in
mice lacking cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors,"
Biology of Reproduction 73(5): 951-958.
Sitruk-Ware, Regine. "Estrogen and progestogens:
Different routes of administration d,:l.r.oall "
Climateric 8(suppl 1): 1-2.
"Pharmacology of different progestogens: The
special case of drospirenone," Climateric 8(suppl 3):
4-12.
Sitruk-Ware, Regine and Pirjo Inki. "The levonorgestrel
intrauterine system: Long-term contraception and ther-
apeutic effects," Women's Health 1(2): 171-182.
Sprague, Wendy S., Melissa Pope, and Edward A.
Hoover. "Culture and comparison of feline myeloid den-
dritic cells vs macrophages," Journal of Comparative
Pathology 133(2-3): 136-145.
Vargas, Louis A., Richard Sewell, Aileen Marshall,
Josephine Galatioto, Yun-yenTsong, James F. Catterall,
and Gary R. Hunnicutt. "Immune complex deposition in
adult male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically immunized
with GnRH," American Journal of Reproductive
Immunology 54(5): 292-310.
Venken, Katrien, Steven Boonen, Erik Van Herck,
Liesbeth Vandenput, Narender Kumar, Regine Sitruk-
Ware, Kalyan Sundaram, Roger Bouillon, and Dirk
Vanderschueren. "Bone and muscle protective poten-
tial of the prostate-sparing synthetic androgen 7a-
methyl-19-nortestosterone: Evidence from the aged
orchidectomized male rat model," Bone 36(4): 663-670.
Weisberg, Edith, Vivian Brache, Francisco Alvarez,
Rebeca Massai, Daniel R. Mishell, Jr., Dan Apter, Judi
Gale, Irving Sivin, Yun-yenTsong, and lan S. Fraser.
"Clinical performance and menstrual bleeding patterns
with three dosage combinations of a Nestorone"
progestogen/ethinyl estradiol contraceptive vaginal
ring used on a bleeding-signaled regimen,"
Contraception 72(1): 46-52.


Weissman, Ben-Avi, Enmei Niu, Renshan S. Ge,
Chantal M. Sottas, Michael Holmes, James C. Hutson,
and Matthew R Hardy. "Paracrine modulation of
androgen synthesis in rat Leydig cells by nitric oxide,"
Journal ofAndrology26(3): 369-378.
Wong, Ching-hang and Chuen-yan Cheng. "Mitogen-
activated protein kinases, adherens junction dynamics,
and spermatogenesis: A review of recent data,"
Developmental Biology 286(1): 1-15.
Xia,Weiliang, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and Chuen-
yan Cheng. "Cytokines and junction restructuring dur-
ing spermatogenesis: A lesson to learn from the testis,"
Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews 16(4-5): 469-493.
Xia,Weiliang, Ching-hang Wong, Nikki P.Y. Lee, Will M.
Lee, and Chuen-yan Cheng. "Disruption of Sertoli-germ
cell adhesion function in the seminiferous epithelium of
the rat testis can be limited to adherens junctions with-
out affecting the blood-testis barrier integrity: An in
vivo study using an androgen suppression model,"
Journal of Cellular Physiology 205(1): 141-157.
Yan, Helen H.N. and Chuen-yan Cheng. "Blood-testis
barrier dynamics are regulated by an engagement/dis-
engagement mechanism between tight and adherens
junctions via peripheral adaptors," Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences 102(33): 11722-11727.


Gender and Family Dynamics

Deuba, Arzu Rana and Pinky Singh Rana. "A study on
linkages between domestic violence and pregnancy."
Kathmandu: SAMANATA-Institute for Social and
Gender Equality.
Espinoza, Henry. "Using edutainment and social activi-
ties to challenge machismo in Nicaragua: The example
of Somos Diferentes, Somos Iguales," Sexual Health
Exchange 2005(2): 9-10. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical
Institute.
Ghuman, Sharon, Helen J. Lee, and Herbert L. Smith.
"Measurement of women's autonomy according to
women and their husbands: Results from five Asian
countries," Social Science Research 35(1): 1-28.
Noumbissi, Amadou, AyagaA. Bawah, and Tukufu
Zuberi. "Parental survival and residential patterns in
South Africa," in Tukufu Zuberi, Amson Sibanda, and
Eric Udjo (eds.), The Demography of South Africa.
New York: Sharpe Publications, pp. 160-180.
Rogow, Deborah and Nicole Haberland. "Sexuality and
relationships education: Toward a social studies
approach," Sex Education 5(4): 333-344.
Verma, Ravi, Julie Pulerwitz, Vaishali Sharma
Mahendra, Sujata Khandekar, and Gary Barker.
"Promoting gender equity among young men: Positive
experiences of the Yari-dostiproject in India," Sexual
Health Exchange 2005(2): 5-6. Amsterdam: Royal
Tropical Institute.
Yonder, Ayse, Sengul Akcar, and Prema Gopalan.
"Women's participation in disaster relief and recov-
ery," SEEDS no. 22. New York: Population Council.


HIV/AIDS
Baiden, Frank, Rita Baiden, John Williams, Patricia
Akweongo, Christine Clerk, Cornelius Debpuur, James
F Phillips, and Abraham Hodgson. "Review of antena-
tal-linked voluntary counseling and HIV testing in sub-
Saharan Africa: Lessons and options for Ghana,"
Ghana Medical Journal 39(1): 8-13.


Barnes, Carolyn. "Microcredit and households coping
with HIV/AIDS: A case study from Zimbabwe," Journal
of Microfinance7(1): 55-77.
Braunstein, Sarah and Janneke van de Wijgert.
"Preferences and practices related to vaginal lubrica-
tion: Implications for microbicide acceptability and clin-
ical testing," Journal of Women's Health 14(5): 424-433.
Brown, Lisanne, Tonya Thurman, and Leslie Snider.
"Strengthening the psychosocial well-being of youth-
headed households in Rwanda: Baseline findings from
an intervention trial." Washington, DC: Population
Council.
Busza, Joanna. "How does a risk group perceive risk?
Voices of Vietnamese sex workers in Cambodia," Journal
of Psychology and Human Sexuality 17(1/2): 65-82.
Cooper, Diane, Hillary Bracken, Landon Myer, Virginia
Zweigenthal, Jane Harries, Phyllis Orner, Nontuthuzelo
Manjezi, and Pumeza Ngubane. "Reproductive inten-
tions and choices among HIV-infected individuals in
Cape Town, South Africa: Lessons for reproductive pol-
icy and service provision from a qualitative study,"
Policy Brief, September. Cape Town: Women's Health
Research Unit, University of Cape Town, and
Population Council.
Duerr, Ann, Stephen Hurst, Athena Kourtis, Naomi
Rutenberg, and Denise J. Jamieson. "Integrating family
planning and prevention of mother-to-child HIV trans-
mission in resource-limited settings," Lancet366(9481):
261-263.
Horizons Program and University of Cape Town Faculty
of Health Sciences. "Exploring current practices in
paediatric antiretroviral roll-out and integration with
early childhood programmes in South Africa: A rapid
situational analysis," Horizons Research Update.
Washington, DC: Population Council.
Juma, Milka, Margaret Mwaniki, and Charity Muturi.
"Evaluating the Kenya Girl Guides Association's
HIV/AIDS peer education program for younger youth:
Baseline results." Nairobi: Population Council.
Kaai, Susan, Carolyn Baek, Scott Geibel, Peter
McOdida, Benson Ulo, Grace Muthumbi, Carol Matiko,
and Naomi Rutenberg. "HIV serostatus and infant
feeding counseling and practice: Findings from a base-
line study among the urban poor in Kenya," Horizons
Research Update. Washington, DC: Population Council.
Kaai, Susan, Avina Sama, Johannes van Dam, and Mark
Hawken. "Operations research," in Delivering
Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Constrained Settings.
Arlington, VA: Family Health International, pp. 105-112.
Mahendra,Vaishali Sharma, Laelia Gilborn, Rupa
Mudoi, Sarita Jadav, Shalini Bharat, Indrani Gupta,
Bitra George, Luke Samson, Arhcana Panda, and
Shweta Bajaj. "Improving the hospital environment for
people living with HIV/AIDS in India: Findings from a
pilot study to reduce stigma and discrimination,"
Horizons Research Update. Washington, DC:
Population Council.
Meekers, Dominique and Kerry Richter. "Factors asso-
ciated with use of the female condom in Zimbabwe,"
International Family Planning Perspectives 31(1): 30-37.
Munyao, Paul, Avina Sama, Stanley Luchters, Scott
Geibel, Khadija Shikely, Kishor Mandaliya, Susan Kaai,
Mark Hawken, Johannes van Dam, and Marleen
Temmerman. "How feasible is a DAART strategyto pro-
mote adherence to ART? Lessons from Mombasa,
Kenya," Horizons Research Update. Nairobi: Population
Council.


Publications are by Population Council staff members, consultants, or staff from partner organizations. Year of publication is 2005 unless otherwise noted. Names in boldface are staff
members or those from partner organizations.
PO PULATION BRIEFS 12(1) JANUARY 2006 7








Ndhlovu, Lewis, Catherine Searle, Johannes van Dam,
Yodwa Mzaidume, Bareng Rasego, and Solly Moema.
"Reducing the transmission of HIV and sexually trans-
mitted infections in a mining community: Findings from
the Carletonville Mothusimpilo intervention project:
1998 to 2001," Horizons Final Report. Washington, DC:
Population Council.
Onyango-Ouma, W., Harriet Birungi, and Scott Geibel.
"Understanding the HIV/STI risks and prevention needs
of men who have sex with men in Nairobi, Kenya."
Nairobi: Population Council.
Penn-Kekana, Loveday, Duane Blaauw, Khin S. Tint,
Desiree Monareng, and Jane Chege. "Nursing staff
dynamics and implications for maternal health provi-
sion in public health facilities in the context of
HIV/AIDS," FRONTIERS Final Report Washington, DC:
Population Council.
Rutenberg, Naomi and Carolyn Baek. "Field experi-
ences integrating family planning into programs to pre-
vent mother-to-child transmission of HIV," Studies in
Family Planning 36(3): 235-245.
Sama,Avina, Stanley Luchters, Scott Geibel, Paul
Munyao, Susan Kaai, Khadija Shikely, Kishor
Mandaliya, Mark Hawken, Johannes van Dam, and
Marleen Temmerman. "Promoting adherence to anti-
retroviral therapy through a directly administered anti-
retroviral therapy (DAART) strategy in Mombasa,
Kenya," Horizons Research Update. Nairobi: Population
Council.
Sama,Avina, Stanley Luchters, Susan Kaai, Paul
Munyao, Scott Geibel, Khadija Shikely, Kishor
Mandaliya, Mark Hawken, Johannes van Dam, and
Marleen Temmerman. "Does being treated with HAART
affect the sexual risk behavior of people living with
HIV/AIDS? Insights from Mombasa, Kenya," Horizons
Research Update. Nairobi: Population Council.
Schenk, Katie. "Reducing stigma through care and sup-
port," in Nick Perkins and Sam Mulyanga (eds.), My
Right to Belong: Stories of Stigma Reduction Efforts
Across Africa. Nairobi: ActionAid International Africa.
Schenk, Katie and Jan Williamson. Ethical Approaches
to Gathering Information from Children and
Adolescents in International Settings: Guidelines and
Resources. Washington, DC: Population Council.


Infants and Children

Ghuman, Sharon, Jere Behrman, Judith Borja, Socorro
Gultiano, and Elizabeth King. "Family background, serv-
ice providers, and early childhood development in the
Philippines: Proxies and interactions," Economic
Development and Cultural Change 54(1): 129-164.


Quality of Care
Chege, Jane, lan Askew, Nzwakie Mosery, Mbali
Ndube-Nxumalo, Busi Kunene, Mags Beksinska, Janet
Dalton, Ester Snyman, Wilem Sturm, and Preshny
Moodley. "Feasibility of introducing a comprehensive
package of antenatal care services in rural public clin-
ics in South Africa," FRONTIERS Final Report.
Washington, DC: Population Council.
Das, N.P, Urvi Shah, Varsha Chitania, Pratibha Patel,
M.E. Khan, Anurag Mishra, and James R. Foreit.
"Systematic screening to integrate reproductive health
services in India," FRONTIERS Final Report.
Washington, DC: Population Council.
Fikree, Fariyal F, Sarah Saleem, and Neelofar Sami. "A
quality of care issue: Appropriate use and efficacy
knowledge of five contraceptive methods: Views of
men and women living in low socioeconomic settle-
ments of Karachi, Pakistan," Journal of Pakistan
Medical Association 55(9): 363-368.


7A POPULATION BRIEFS


Foreit, James R., Ricardo Vemon, and Patricia Riveros
Hamel. "Use of systematic screening to increase the
provision of reproductive health services in Bolivia,"
FRONTIERS Final Report Washington, DC: Population
Council.
Montufar, Edwin, Carlos Morales, Ricardo Vernon,
Carlos Brambila, and Jorge Solorzano. "Improving
access to long-term contraceptives in rural Guatemala
through the Ministry of Health," FRONTIERS Final
Report Washington, DC: Population Council.
Sanogo, Diouratie, Ricardo Vemon, James R. Foreit,
Awa Seck, Colonel A. Adoye, Laty G. Ndoye, Cheikh B.
Diop, Balla M. Mboup, and Omar Sarr. "Using system-
atic screening to increase integration of reproductive
health services delivery in Senegal," FRONTIERS Final
Report Washington, DC: Population Council.
Sathar, Zeba A., Anrudh Jain, Saumya RamaRao,
Minhaj ul Haque, and Jacqueline Kim. "Introducing
client-centered reproductive health services in a
Pakistani setting," Studies in Family Planning 36(3):
221-234.
Vernon, Ricardo, James R. Foreit, Fiorella Mancini,
Suyapa Pav6n, and Jheisy Torres. "Systematic screen-
ing as a strategy to increase services integration and
revenues in Honduras," FRONTIERS Final Report.
Washington, DC: Population Council.


Reproductive Health

Bracken, Hillary and Vijaya Nidadavolu. "Mixed mes-
sages? An analysis of communicating materials on
abortion and sex determination in Rajasthan,"
Economic and Political Weekly40(35): 3856-3862.
Bratt, John, Nahla Abdel-Tawab, Magdi A. Ibrahim, and
Mohamed Idrees. "Willingness-to-pay for services pro-
vided by the Clinical Services Improvement Project
(CSI) in Egypt," Summary of Key Findings. Cairo:
Population Council (in Arabic).
Bur, Mona. "Advancing knowledge of psycho-sexual
effects of female genital cutting: Assessing the evi-
dence: Seminar report, Alexandria, Egypt." Cairo:
Population Council.
"C6mo pueden las y los j6venes comunicarse en temas
de sexualidad planificaci6n familiar Informacidn
Jdvenes Mexico no. 3. Mexico City: Population Council.
"EC and young people/La jeunesse et le EC," ECafrique
Bulletin 3(1): 1-20.
Gonzales Salguero, Femando, Antonieta Martin,
Rosario Pirez Mendoza, and Ricardo Vemon. "Cross-
cultural adaptation of reproductive health services in
Bolivia," FRONTIERS Final Report Washington, DC:
Population Council.
"Introducing magnesium sulphate for the management
of pregnancy-induced hypertension," Safe Motherhood
PolicyAlert Nairobi: Population Council.
"Los y las j6venes y su derecho a la planificaci6n
familiar," Informacion Jovenes Mexico no. 1. Mexico
City: Population Council.
Khan, M.E., Anurag Mishra, and Sudhakar Morankar.
"Views on young men's sexual and reproductive health
needs in Uttaranchal," Research Update no. 4. New
Delhi: Population Council.
Khan, M.E. and Sohini Roychowdhury. "Poribar
porikolpona o projonon shastho: Shokoler ki ki jana
dorkar," key messages booklet for rickshaw pullers.
Dhaka: Population Council.
Mullick, Saiqa, Mags Beksinska, and Sibekezelo
Msomi. "Treatment for syphilis in antenatal care:
Compliance with the three dose standard treatment
regimen," Sexually Transmitted Infections 81(3):
220-222.


Mullick, Saiqa, Deborah Watson-Jones, Mags
Beksinska, and David Mabey. "Sexually transmitted
infections in pregnancy: Prevalence, impact on preg-
nancy outcomes, and approach to treatment in devel-
oping countries," Sexually Transmitted Infections 81(4):
294-302.
Nguyen T.N. Ngoc, Nancy L. Sloan, Tran S. Thach, Le
K.B. Liem, and Beverly Winikoff. "Incidence of postpar-
tum infection after vaginal delivery in Vietnam,"
Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition 23(2):
121-130.
"Postabortion family planning benefits clients and
providers," Program Brief no. 4. Washington, DC:
Population Council.
"Promoting role model of 'responsible man':
Gatekeepers' views of addressing young men's sexual
and reproductive health needs in Uttaranchal, India,"
Asia and Near East Regional OR Summary no. 6. New
Delhi: Population Council.
"Repositioning post partum care in Kenya," Safe
Motherhood PolicyAlert Nairobi: Population Council.
Rob, Ubaidur. "Men and reproductive health," World
Population Day special supplement. Dhaka: Directorate
General of Family Planning, Ministry of Health and
Family Welfare.
Rob, Ubaidur, Md. NoorunnabiTaluker, Md. Mahabub-
ul Anwar, Laila Rahman, and Marium ul Mutahara.
Health Sector Reform: Trends and Lessons Learned.
Dhaka: Population Council and Canadian International
Development Agency.
"Safai ki jankari," training manual. New Delhi:
Population Council.
"La salud reproductive de los y las j6venes de 8reas
rurales," Informacidn Jdvenes Mdxico no. 2. Mexico
City: Population Council.
Sebastian, Mary R, Shiv Kumar, M.E. Khan, Chander
Shekhar, and N.K. Gupta. "Studying the utilization of
emergency contraceptive services through paramedics
in India," Research Update no. 5. New Delhi:
Population Council.
Shaaban, Layla M. and Sarah Harbison. "Reaching the
tipping point against female genital mutilation," Lancet
366(9483): 347-349.
"The SMNH implementation framework for districts,"
Safe Motherhood PolicyAlert. Nairobi: Population
Council.
"Taking maternal services to pregnant women: The
community midwifery model," Safe Motherhood Policy
Alert. Nairobi: Population Council.
"Transferring Ghana's system of evidence-based health
program development: Program for an initial exchange
with Sierra Leone and Burkina Faso." Washington, DC:
Population Council.
Walraven, Gijs, Jennifer Blum, Yusupha Dampha,
Maimuna Sowe, Linda Morison, Beverly Winikoff, and
Nancy L. Sloan. "Misoprostol in the management of the
third stage of labour in the home delivery setting in
rural Gambia: A randomized trial," BJOG:An
International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
112(9): 1277-1283.
Weeks, Andrew, Godfrey Alia, Jennifer Blum, Beverly
Winikoff, Paul Ekwaru, Jill Durocher, and Florence
Mirembe. "A randomized trial of misoprostol compared
with manual vacuum aspiration for incomplete abor-
tion," Obstetrics and Gynecology 106(3): 540-547.


12(1) JANUARY 2006








Social Science

Bawah, Ayaga A. and Fred N. Binka. "How many years
of life could be saved if malaria were eliminated from a
hyperendemic area of northern Ghana?" Policy
Research Division Working Paper no. 203. New York:
Population Council.
Bawah, Ayaga and Tukufu Zuberi. "Socioeconomic sta-
tus and child mortality in Southern Africa," Genus
61(1-2): 55-83.
Bongaarts, John. "The causes of stalled fertility transi-
tions," Policy Research Division Working Paper no. 204.
New York: Population Council.
---. "Five period longevity measures," Demographic
Research 13(21): 547-558.
Bongaarts, John and Griffith Feeney. "The quantum
and tempo of life-cycle events," Policy Research
Division Working Paper no. 207. New York: Population
Council.
Keith-Brown, Kimberli. "Investing for life: Making the
link between public spending and the reduction of
maternal mortality," Mexico City: Fundar Centro de
AnBlisis e Investigaci6n.
Knodel, John, Sovan Kiry Kim, Zachary Zimmer, and
Sina Puch. "Older persons in Cambodia: A profile from
the 2004 Survey of Elderly," Population Studies Center
Research Reportno. 05-576. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan.
McNicoll, Geoffrey. "Population and sustainability,"
Policy Research Division Working Paper no. 205. New
York: Population Council.
Review of Gordon H. Sellon, Jr. led.), Global
Demographic Change: Economic Impacts and Policy
Challenges; A Symposium Sponsored by the Federal
Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Jackson Hole, Wyoming,
August 26-28, 2004, Population and Development
Review 31(4): 776-778.
Mensch, Barbara S., Monica J. Grant, and Ann K.
Blanc. "The changing context of sexual initiation in
sub-Saharan Africa," Policy Research Division Working
Paper no. 206. New York: Population Council.
Neumayer, Eric and Laura Spess. "Do bilateral invest-
ment treaties increase foreign direct investment to
developing countries?" World Development33(10):
1567-1585.
Nyonator, Frank K., Tanya C. Jones, Robert A. Miller,
James Phillips, and John K. Awoonor-Williams.
"Guiding the Ghana Community-based Health Planning
and Services approach to scaling up with qualitative
systems appraisal," International Quarterly of
Community Health Education 23(3): 189-213.
Phillips, James F., Ayaga A. Bawah, and Fred N. Binka.
"Accelerating reproductive and child health program
development: The Navrongo initiative in Ghana," Policy
Research Division Working Paper no. 208. New York:
Population Council.
Rob, Ubaidur. "Policy issues in Bangladesh population
planning program," The Guardian, pp. 50-51.
Zimmer, Zachary. "Health and living arrangement tran-
sitions among China's oldest-old," Research on Aging
27(5): 526-555.
Review of Roger Mark Selya, Development
and Demographic Change in Taiwan 1945-1995,
Population and Development Review 31(4): 780-781.
Zimmer, Zachary and Julia Dayton. "Older adults in
sub-Saharan Africa living with children and grandchil-
dren," Population Studies 59(3): 295-312.


Zimmer, Zachary, John Knodel, Sovan Kiry Kim, and
Sina Puch. "The impact of past conflicts and social dis-
ruption in Cambodia on the current generation of older
adults," Population Studies Center Research Report no.
05-582. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.


Transitions to Adulthood
Amin, Sajeda. "Kishori Abhijan: A pilot project to
empower adolescent girls," Promoting Healthy, Safe,
and Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief no. 13.
New York: Population Council.
Brady, Martha. "Letting girls play: Using sport to create
safe spaces and build social assets," Promoting
Healthy, Safe, and Productive Transitions to Adulthood
Brief no. 1. New York: Population Council.
Brady, Martha, Abeer Salem, and Nadia Zibani.
"Bringing new opportunities to adolescent girls in
socially conservative settings: The Ishraq program in
rural Upper Egypt," Promoting Healthy, Safe, and
Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief no. 12. New
York: Population Council.
Brady, Martha and Lydia Saloucou. "Addressing the
needs of married adolescent girls in Burkina Faso,"
Promoting Healthy, Safe, and Productive Transitions to
Adulthood Brief no. 9. New York: Population Council
(also available in French).
Bruce, Judith. "Child marriage in the context of the HIV
epidemic," Promoting Healthy, Safe, and Productive
Transitions to Adulthood Brief no. 11. New York:
Population Council (also available in French).
Catino, Jennifer, Kelly Hallman, and Marta Julia Ruiz.
"Building skills to enhance life opportunities for Mayan
girls," Promoting Healthy, Safe, and Productive
Transitions to Adulthood Brief no. 5. New York:
Population Council.
"Child marriage briefing," a series of two-page briefs
on Ethiopia, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Zambia.
New York: Population Council.
Chong, Erica. "Analyzing data to target the most vul-
nerable adolescents and to identify their needs,"
Promoting Healthy, Safe, and Productive Transitions to
Adulthood Brief no. 10. New York: Population Council
(also available in French).
Chong, Erica and Nicole Haberland. "Child marriage: A
cause for global action," Promoting Healthy, Safe, and
Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief no. 14. New
York: Population Council.
Erulkar, Annabel and Tekle-Ab Mekbib. "Reaching vul-
nerable youth in Ethiopia," Promoting Healthy, Safe,
and Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief no. 6.
New York: Population Council (also available in
French).
Grant, Monica, Barbara S. Mensch, and Mary P
Sebastian. "Introducing adolescent livelihoods training
in the slums of Allahabad, India," Promoting Healthy,
Safe, and Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief no.
2. New York: Population Council.
Haberland, Nicole. "Supporting married girls: Young
wives and young mothers," Promoting Healthy, Safe,
and Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief no. 3.
New York: Population Council.
Haberland, Nicole, Erca L. Chong, Hillary Bracken, and
Chris Parker. "Early marriage and adolescent girls,"
YouthLens on Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS no.
15. Arlington, VA: YouthNet.


Hallman, Kelly and Judith A. Diers. "Providing safe
spaces, financial skills, and HIV/AIDS awareness for
vulnerable South African youth," Promoting Healthy,
Safe, and Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief no.
4. New York: Population Council (also available in
French).
Hewett, Paul C. and Cynthia B. Lloyd. "Progress
toward education for all: Trends and current chal-
lenges for sub-Saharan Africa," in Cynthia B. Uoyd,
Jere R. Behrman, Nelly P. Stromquist, and Barney
Cohen (eds.), The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in
Developing Countries: Selected Studies. Washington,
DC: National Academies Press, pp. 84-117.
Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. "Investigating nonconsensual
sex: Silence threatens adolescents' health and rights,"
Promoting Healthy, Safe, and Productive Transitions to
Adulthood Brief no. 7. New York: Population Council.
Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. and Shiva S. Halli. "Marriage pat-
terns in rural India: Influence of sociocultural context,"
in Cynthia B. Lloyd, Jere R. Behrman, Nelly P.
Stromquist, and Barney Cohen (eds.), The Changing
Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries:
Selected Studies. Washington, DC: National Academies
Press, pp. 172-199.
Lloyd, Cynthia B. Review of United Nations, World
Youth Report 2003: The Global Situation of Young
People, Studies in Family Planning 36(4): 326-327.
Lloyd, Cynthia B., Jere R. Behrman, Nelly P. Stromquist,
and Barney Cohen (eds.). The Changing Transitions to
Adulthood in Developing Countries: Selected Studies.
Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Lloyd, Cynthia B., Jere R. Behrman, Nelly P. Stromquist,
and Barney Cohen. "Introduction," in Cynthia B. Lloyd,
Jere R. Behrman, Nelly P. Stromquist, and Barney
Cohen (eds.), The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in
Developing Countries: Selected Studies. Washington,
DC: National Academies Press, pp. 1-12.
Lloyd, Cynthia B. and Monica Grant. "Growing up in
Pakistan: The separate experiences of males and
females," in Cynthia B. Lloyd, Jere R. Behrman, Nelly P
Stromquist, and Barney Cohen (eds.), The Changing
Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries:
Selected Studies. Washington, DC: National Academies
Press, pp. 320-366.
Mensch, Barbara S., Susheela Singh, and John B.
Casterline. "Trends in the timing of first marriage
among men and women in the developing world," in
Cynthia B. Lloyd, Jere R. Behrman, Nelly P. Stromquist,
and Barney Cohen (eds.), The Changing Transitions to
Adulthood in Developing Countries: Selected Studies.
Washington, DC: National Academies Press, pp.
118-171.
"The Population Council's approach," Promoting
Healthy, Safe, and Productive Transitions to Adulthood
overview. New York: Population Council (also available
in French).
Quisumbing, Agnes R. and Kelly Hallman. "Marriage in
transition: Evidence on age, education, and assets from
six developing countries," in Cynthia B. Lloyd, Jere R.
Behrman, Nelly P. Stromquist, and Barney Cohen (eds.),
The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing
Countries: Selected Studies. Washington, DC: National
Academies Press, pp. 200-269.
Santhya, K.G. and Nicole Haberland. "Empowering
young mothers in India," Promoting Healthy, Safe, and
Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief no. 8. New
York: Population Council.


POPULATION BRIEFS 12(1) JANUARY 2006 7B




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