Group Title: Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History
Title: A New species of bass, Micropterus cataractae (Teleostei Centrarchidae), from the Apalachicola River Basin in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087411/00001
 Material Information
Title: A New species of bass, Micropterus cataractae (Teleostei Centrarchidae), from the Apalachicola River Basin in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia
Series Title: Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History ; vol. 42, no. 2
Physical Description: p. 81-114 : ill. (some col.), maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Williams, James D ( James David ), 1941-
Burgess, George H., 1949-
Publisher: Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: 1999
Copyright Date: 1999
 Subjects
Subject: Basses (Fish) -- Alabama   ( lcsh )
Basses (Fish) -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Basses (Fish) -- Georgia   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 100-102).
General Note: Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility: James D. Williams and George H. Burgess.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087411
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 43442585
issn - 0071-6154 ;

Full Text



BULLETIN


of the




FLORIDA
MUSEUM OF
NATURAL HISTORY


A NEW SPECIES OF BASS, Micropterus cataractae
(TELEOSTEI: CENTRARCHIDAE),
FROM THE APALACHICOLA RIVER BASIN
IN ALABAMA, FLORIDA, AND GEORGIA

James D. Williams and George H. Burgess


Volume 42 No. 2, pp. 80-114


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


GAINESVILLE











Numbers of the BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY are published
at irregular intervals. Volumes contain about 300 pages and are not necessarily completed in any one
calendar year.











JOHN F. EISENBERG, EDITOR
RICHARD FRANZ, CO-EDITOR
RHODAJ. BRYANT, MANAGING EDITOR












Communications concerning purchase or exchange of the publications and all manuscripts should be
addressed to: Managing Editor, Bulletin; Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida;
P. O. Box 117800, Gainesville FL 32611-7800; U.S.A.






This journal is printed on recycled paper.


ISSN: 0071-6154


CODEN: BF 5BAS


Publication date: October 8, 1999


Price: $ 6.50












A NEW SPECIES OF BASS, Micropterus cataractae
(TELEOSTEI: CENTRARCHIDAE),
FROM THE APALACHICOLA RIVER BASIN
IN ALABAMA, FLORIDA, AND GEORGIA



James D. Williams' and George H. Burgess2




ABSTRACT

The shoal bass, Micropterus cataractae (Centrarchidae), is described from the Apalachicola,
Chattahoochee, and Flint river drainages of Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. It has been introduced and is now
established in the Altamaha River drainage in central Georgia. A moderate sized bass, it attains a total length
of about 64 cm (25 in) and weight of 3.99 kg (8 Ib 12 oz). The new species differs from other species of
Micropterus in details of morphology and pigmentation. Morphologically it is most similar to the spotted bass,
M. punctulatus, but usually has been aligned with the redeye bass, M. coosae. It inhabits shoal areas of rivers
and large creeks throughout its range. Most of its riverine habitat has been destroyed by impoundments and
dredging, but it persists in the unimpounded portion of the Flint River. Populations also persist in some of the
larger, less disturbed, tributaries of the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee, and Flint rivers.


RESUME

Se describe el bass de raudal, Micropterus cataractae (Centrachidae) en las cuencas de los rios
Apalachicola, Chattahoochee y Flint, en Alabama, Florida y Georgia. AdemAs, ha sido introducido y est~ ahora
establecido en el Rio Altamaha en Georgia central. Este bass es de tamaflo moderado y alcanza un largo total
de cerca de 64 cm (25 pulgadas) y un peso de 3.99 kg (8 libras, 12 onzas). Esta nueva especie difiere de otros
Micropterus en detalles de morfologia y pigmentaci6n. Morfol6gicamente es mas parecido al bass moteado,
M. punctulatus, pero usualmente ha sido asignado al bass de ojo rojo, M. coosae. Esta nueva especie habitat
Areas de banco y arroyos grande a trav6s de su rango de distribuci6n. La mayor parte de su habitat a sido
destruido por embalser y operaciones de dragar, aunque persiste en areas del Rio Flint. Tambi6n persisten
poblaciones en algunos de los mis grandes tributaries de los rios Apalachicola, Chattahoochee y Flint.






'U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Florida Caribbean Science Center, 7920 NW 71st Street, Gainesville, Florida 32653.
'Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

Williams, J. D., and G. H. Burgess. 1999. A new species of bass, Micropterus cataractae (Teleostei:
Centrarchidae), from the Apalachicola River basin in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. Bull. Florida Mus.
Nat. Hist. 42(2):81-114.







BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 42(2)


INTRODUCTION

During the past 40 years, the shoal bass, described herein as Micropterus
cataractae, alternatively has been referred to as the redeye bass, M. coosae, as an
undescribed subspecies or variety of the redeye bass, or as an undescribed species. In
their monograph on the black basses, Hubbs and Bailey (1940) included a brief discussion
of a single large specimen of Micropterus from the Chipola River in western Florida.
They noted that insufficient material prevented a clear understanding of the status and
relationships of the specimen, which possibly represented a new species. Bailey and
Hubbs (1949) further discussed the single Chipola specimen in their original description
of the Suwannee bass, M. notius, and noted differences between it, the redeye bass, M.
coosae, and Alabama spotted bass, M. punctulatus henshalli. They concluded that it
likely represented an undescribed species of the spotted bass group. The first notice of
this undescribed bass in the popular sport fishing literature was by Dequine (1949). In
a later popular article on Micropterus, McClane (1972) provided a color illustration of
the shoal bass (referred to as redeye bass Apalachicola form) and gave characters
distinguishing it from other basses. Ramsey (1973) reviewed the M. coosae complex and
concluded that the shoal bass was an endemic species of the Apalachicola River basin.
While most recent popular and technical references to shoal bass have recognized it as a
distinct species (Bass 1996), the International Game Fish Association (IGFA) has
continued to treat it under the heading of redeye bass, Micropterus coosae but discusses
the confusion surrounding the common name and the lack of a scientific name (IGFA
1997).
The shoal bass has been the subject of a number of biological and management
investigations, including studies of life history (Wright 1967; Hurst 1969), spawning and
growth in ponds (Smitherman and Ramsey 1972), and growth in the Chipola River
population (Parsons and Crittenden 1959). Fishery management investigations include
creel surveys (Ober 1977; Scott 1981), a culture study (Johnson 1977), an evaluation of
supplemental stocking (Scott 1978), and a compilation of the taxonomy and biology
(Gilbert 1992).
The restricted distribution and habitat preference of the shoal bass has limited its
importance as a sport fish. However, in areas where it does occur it generally supports
a unique fishery. The confusion surrounding the identity of the shoal bass has likely
contributed to its relative anonymity. The current world record redeye bass, Micropterus
coosae, is based on a 3.99 kg (8 lb 12 oz) shoal bass taken in the Apalachicola River,
Florida (IGFA 1997). The redeye bass, M. coosae, does not occur in the Flint River
drainage. We recommend the world record for the "redeye bass" be transferred to the
shoal bass, M. cataractae, and new records be established for the smaller redeye bass, M.
coosae, which rarely exceeds 25.5 cm (10 in) in length and 0.5 kg (I lb).
In this contribution we describe and name this distinctive bass. A brief review of life
history data from published and unpublished sources is also included. Distributional data
for Micropterus cataractae and other native and introduced Micropterus in the
Apalachicola River basin are summarized. We did not undertake a phylogenetic analysis








WILLIAMS & BURGESS: Micropterus cataractae new species


of Micropterus to determine the relationship ofM. cataractae to other Micropterus
species. However, its coloration and morphology are most similar to that of the spotted
bass, M. punctulatus.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are indebted to the following individuals and institutions for the loan and exchange of material:
William G. Saul (ANSP); Jonathan W. Armbruster and Craig Guyer (AU); Charles M. Dardia and J. M.
Humphries (CU); Larry Page (INHS); Wayne C. Starnes (NCSM); Henry L. Bart, Jr. (TU); Richard L Mayden,
Herbert T. Boschung, and Bernard R. Kuhajda (UAIC); Bud Freeman, Tracie Jones, and Mary Freeman
(UGAMNH); Reeve M. Bailey and Douglas W. Nelson (UMMZ); Susan Jewett and Jeffrey T. Williams
(USNM); and David A. Etnier (UT). Field support was provided by the following individuals: Noel M.
Burkhead, D. Gray Bass, John Chick, Carter R. Gilbert, Russell Ober, William Smith-Vaniz, Steven J. Walsh,
and Douglas Weaver. D. Gray Bass, Dave Etnier, and William Smith-Vaniz reviewed and commented on the
final draft of the manuscript
We thank Sherry Bostick for her assistance in producing several drafts of this manuscript. We express
our gratitude to Amy Benson for the preparation of the distribution maps Lori Walz for the line drawings, and
Joseph Tomelleri for permission to use four of his excellent bass color illustrations.


MATERIALS AND METHODS

Type material ofMicropterus cataractae is deposited in the following institutions:
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP); Auburn University (AU); Cornell
University (CU); North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences (NCSM); Florida
Museum of Natural History, University of Florida (UF); National Museum of Natural
History (USNM); Museum of Natural History, University of Georgia (UGAMNH);
Tulane University (TU); University of Alabama Ichthyological Collection (UAIC);
University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ); and University of Tennessee (UT).
Meristic data were taken from 162 Micropterus cataractae, 55 M. coosae, and 36 M.
punctulatus punctulatus, all from the Apalachicola River basin in Alabama, Florida, and
Georgia. Material of Micropterus from several southeastern river systems outside the
Apalachicola River basin was examined for comparative purposes, but those specimens
are not cited in the material examined section.
Scale and fin ray counts and proportional measurements are based on the
methodology of Hubbs and Lagler (1958). Gill rakers on the upper and lower limb of the
first arch were combined for a total count. Rudiments were excluded and only those
rakers whose height exceeded their basal diameter were counted.


Micropterus cataractae new species
Shoal Bass
Plates 1,2, and 5

Micropterus sp.-Hubbs and Bailey 1940:16,28, Map 1 (Chipola R., FL); Bailey and Hubbs 1949:2, 8-9, 11-
13 (description of single large specimen from Chipola R.); Dequine 1949:10-13, 18-19 (undescribed bass








BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 42(2)


from Chipola R.); Carr and Goin 1959:87-88 (characteristics, biology, distribution); Ramsey and
Smitherman 1972:354 (coloration of young of Apalachicola River stock); Hurst et al. 1975:47-52
(distribution, biology); Ramsey 1975:71-72 (systematic relationships among basses); Ramsey 1976:54,
63 (conservation status); Carlander 1977 (summary of length-weight data); Yerger 1977:27 (distribution
in Apalachicola River basin); Gilbert 1978:27-28 (conservation status, distribution in Florida); Scott
1978:1-29 (supplemental stocking in Flint R., GA); Deacon etal. 1979:41 (assigned conservation status
of special concern in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia); Timmons et al. 1979:313, 315 (present in West
Point Reservoir, Chattahoochee R., GA, before and two years after impoundment); Ogilvie 1980 (life
history in Chipola R., FL); Hess and Ober 1981:16, 20 (present in Flint and Chattahoochee rivers,
relative abundance in Flint R. during 1974-1975); Scott 1981:1-23 (creel survey in Flint R., GA);
Williams 1981:333 (assigned conservation status of special concern); Ramsey 1984:10 (distribution);
Williams et al. 1989:11 (assigned conservation status of special concern in Alabama, Florida, and
Georgia); Page and Burr 1991:265, Plate 35 (characteristics, range); Gilbert 1992:98-104 (conservation
status, biology, distribution in Florida); Bass 1996:6-7 (shoal bass fishery in Florida); Couch et al.
1996:35, 38 (distribution in Apalachicola, Chattahoochee, and Flint rivers; federal and state conservation
status); Mettee et al. 1996:556-557 (characteristics, distribution in Alabama); Dunaway 1998:203
(illustration; sport fishing information); Hoehn 1998:32 (photograph ofjuvenile; distribution in Florida).
Micropterus coosae.-Dendy 1954:12 misidentificationn: Little Uchee Cr., Russell Co., AL); Kilby et al.
1959:77 (present in Chipola R., Jackson Co., FL); Parsons and Crittenden 1959:191-192 (growth in
Chipola R., Jackson Co., FL); Wright 1967:1-51 (life history, taxonomy in Flint R., GA); Gilbert
1969:45-46, Map 76 (distribution in central Chattahoochee R. drainage); Dahlberg and Scott 1971:39-40
(distribution, characteristics of "Flint River smallmouth"); Ramsey et al. 1972:66, 80 (conservation
status, distribution); Smitherman and Ramsey 1972:357-365 (spawning, growth in ponds); Ramsey
1973:76 (characteristics, distribution); Robbim and MacCrimmon 1974:109-113 (biology, range in Flint
and Chipola rivers); McClane 1974:132 (color illustration, characteristics); MacCrimmon and Robbins
1975:64-65 misidentificationn, in part; present in Flint R., GA, and Apalachicola and Chipola rivers, FL).

HOLOTYPE.-UF 92070, 387 mm standard length (SL), adult male, Florida,
Jackson County, Chipola River, ca. 1.5 miles downstream of bridge on State Route 278,
0.7 miles W of intersection with State Route 71, 8 May 1989. Collected by J. D.
Williams, G. H. Burgess, C. R. Gilbert, S. J. Walsh, and D. G. Bass.
PARATOPOTYPES.-UF 79980, 17:65-305 mm SL, taken with the holotype.
OTHER PARATYPES.-Apalachicola River. Florida, Gadsden County: TU
22843, 1:383 mm SL, Apalachicola River from Jim Woodruff Dam down to gravel bar
at Mosquito Creek, 15 December 1959; TU 22875, 2:322-385 mm SL, Apalachicola
River below Jim WoodruffDam at Chattahoochee, 28-29 March 1960; UF 37726, 1:235
mm SL, Apalachicola River (RM 106), Jim Woodruff Dam, 21 March 1983; UF 38743,
1:325 mm SL, Apalachicola River at tailwater of Jim Woodruff Dam, 10 May 1957; UF
38744, 1:314 mm SL, Apalachicola River at tailwater of Jim Woodruff Dam, 28
December 1957; UF 57447, 2:190-405 mm SL, Apalachicola River at Chattahoochee,
Jim Woodruff Dam, and downstream for 1.0 mile, 4-5 August 1960.
Chipola River drainage. Florida, Jackson County: AU 15128, 2:138-178 mm SL,
Chipola River (and Dry Creek at mouth), 2.7 air miles WNW of Altha and 8.3 air miles
SSE of Marianna, 14 August 1977; AU 15635, 2:112-405 mm SL, Chipola River, 2 air
miles SSW of Sink Creek, from just above Bell Pond (T2N, R9W, Sec. 6), 16 June 1977;
AU 15637, 2:61-159 mm SL, Chipola River just below Ring Jaw Island, 4.6 air miles
SSW of Sink Creek Village (T2N, R9W, Sec. 18), 29 July 1977; UF 1624, 12:230-345
mm SL, Chipola River, 1.0 mile below mouth of Dry Creek, 24 June 1957; UF 1950,
7:170-273 mm SL, Chipola River, shoal waters from near mouth of Dry Creek to a point
about 3 miles below Peacock Bridge, 6 October 1956; UF 6928, 1:262 mm SL, Dry








WILLIAMS & BURGESS: Micropterus cataractae new species


Creek (T3N, RIOW, Sec. 1), 17 September 1956; UF 24661, 5:163-325 mm SL, Chipola
River, about 2 miles S of Peacock Bridge, 20 September 1956; UF 110754, 4:266-304
mm SL, Chipola River, about 10 mi. SSE ofMarianna, 3 March 1970; UMMZ 110997,
1:310 mm SL, Chipola River, Marianna, 27 January 1933; UMMZ 201859, 5:155-302
mm SL, Chipola River, about 2 miles S of Peacock Bridge, 20 September 1956.
Chattahoochee River drainage. Alabama, Lee County: UAIC 11132.01, 1:229
mm SL, Halawakee Creek, ca. 10 miles NE of Opelika, 24 September 1968; UAIC
11135.01,2:268-315 mm SL, Wacoochee Creek, ca. 1.0 mile from Chattahoochee River,
17 April 1970; UAIC 11137.01, 1:310 mm SL, Wacoochee Creek, ca. 1.0 mile from
junction with Chattahoochee River, 2 May 1969. Russell County: CU 16198, 1:175 mm
SL, Uchee Creek, tributary of Chattahoochee River, 9.2 miles S of Phoenix City, 12 June
1949. Georgia, Fulton County: UAIC 11133.01, 1:195 mm SL, Chattahoochee River,
0.8 miles E of Vinings at US Highway 41, 13 February 1979; UAIC 11134.01, 4:53-116
mm SL, Big Creek, 0.9 air miles SE of Roswell at county road, 30 October 1978. Heard
County: UAIC 11136.01, 1:313 mm SL, Chattahoochee River at mouth of Centralhatchee
Creek, 1.0 mile N of Franklin, 4 November 1972.
Flint River drainage. Georgia, Baker County: UGAMNH 2378, 1:265 mm SL,
Ichawaynochaway Creek, between old power dam and State Route 200 crossing, 8 April
1992. Dougherty County: UMMZ 163920, 1:82 mm SL, Flint River, 0.25 miles below
the entrance to Radium Springs, 3 miles S of Albany, 19 September 1952; UMMZ
164094, 1:86 mm SL, Flint River between Radium Springs and Rivers Bend, 21
September 1952. Lee and Worth counties: AU 6604, 4:72-133 mm SL, Flint River, at
tailwaters of Lake Blackshear Dam, 31 December 1970. Meriwether County: NCSM
27361, 1:235 mm SL, Big Red Oak Creek on GA 85, about 3.5 air miles S of Gay, 13
December 1997; TU 187504, 2:220-280 mm SL, Big Red Oak Creek on GA 85, about
3.5 air miles S of Gay, 13 December 1997. Mitchell and Baker counties: UMMZ
174541, 1:390 mm SL, Flint River, probably near Newton, 6 October 1958. Talbot and
Upson counties: ANSP 152214, 2:56-76 mm SL, Flint River at Pobiddy Road, S of
Thomaston, 22 April 1983; ANSP 152222, 3:51-62 mm SL, Flint River at Pobiddy Road,
S of Thomaston, 22 April 1983; ANSP 152382, 7:42-218 mm SL, Flint River at Pobiddy
Road, S of Thomaston, August 1983; UGAMNH 61 IA, 10:73-223 mm SL, Flint River,
1.0 mile above Highway 36 crossing, 29 October 1958; USNM 341876, 5:93-236 mm
SL, Flint River at Pasley Shoal, 9 air miles W of Thomaston, 16 June 1971. Upson
County: UF 101804, 5:62-137 mm SL, Flint River, 7.3 air miles WSW of Thomaston,
above Highway 36 bridge (RM 260), Station 3, 12 June 1984; UF 101805, 2:81-192,
Flint River, 8 air miles SSW of Thomaston, 1.0 mile below Pobiddy Bridge (RM 251),
20 June 1984; TU 27521, 3:55-70 mm SL, Potato Creek, tributary to Flint River, 5 miles
SW of Thomaston, Highway 36, 23 April 1962; UT 90.165, 2:95-107 mm SL, Potato
Creek, 2 miles NW of Thomaston on GA 74, 28 May 1976.
DIAGNOSIS.-Micropterus cataractae (Plates 1, 2, and 5) can be distinguished
from the morphologically similar M. punctulatus punctulatus (Plates 3, 4, and 7) andM.
coosae (Plate 6) by one or a combination of the following characters: Micropterus
cataractae typically (92% of 136 specimens examined) lacks teeth on the tongue (M.
coosae andM. punctulatus have an oval to elongate patch); in adults, anterior half to two-








BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 42(2)


thirds of body has dark, vertically elongated, midlateral blotches which are separated by
a distance approximately equal to the width of a blotch (M. coosae and M. punctulatus
have irregular to more quadrate blotches; blotches usually confluent to form a stripe inM.
punctulatus); caudal fin margin of M. cataractae darkly pigmented (in M. coosae
posterior half to two-thirds dull reddish to copper colored except dorsal and ventral tips
white to cream colored); M. cataractae has weakly developed lines on the ventrolateral
portion of the body (M. coosae typically has 5-7 well developed parallel lines
ventrolaterally, including the caudal peduncle).
Pored lateral line scales 67-81, usually 72-77; scales below the lateral line 15-21,
usually 18-20; total caudal peduncle scales 27-35, usually 30-33; unbranched pyloric
caeca 8-14, usually 11-12.
Micropterus cataractae and other species ofMicropterus can be distinguished from
the largemouth bass, M. salmoides, by the presence of scales on the basal portions of the
interradial membranes of the soft dorsal and anal fins (lacking in M. salmoides). The
outline of the spinous dorsal fin is curved and the spinous and soft dorsal fins are
connected (inM. salmoides the spinous dorsal fm outline is angular and the spinous and
soft dorsal fins are almost separated). Pyloric caeca are usually simple (typically bifid near
their base in M. salmoides). Juveniles (20-30 mm SL) ofM. cataractae have a narrow
and lightly pigmented lateral stripe which ends in an oval to wedge shaped basicaudal spot
(M. salmoides juveniles have a well developed black lateral stripe which terminates in a
rectangular caudal spot).
DESCRIPTION.-Micropterus cataractae is a moderate sized species that attains
a total length of 64 cm (25 in) and a weight of 3.99 kg (8 lb 12 oz). The general body
shape ofM. cataractae is illustrated in Plates 1, 2, and 5. Proportional measurements
of the holotype and 31 paratypes are given in Table 1.
Frequency distributions of scale and fin-ray counts are presented in Tables 2 and 3.
Lateral line scales 67-81 (mean = 74.2); scales above the lateral line 8-10 (mean = 8.9);
scales below the lateral line 15-21 (mean = 18.5). Total caudal peduncle scales rows 27-
35 (mean = 31.4). Peduncle scales above the lateral line 12-16 (mean = 14.4); below the
lateral line 13-17 (mean = 15.1). Cheek scale rows 12-16 (mean = 15.0). Dorsal spines
9-11 (mean = 10.0); dorsal soft rays 10-13 (mean = 12.1); the anal fin typically has three
spines and 9-12 (mean = 10.1) soft rays. Pectoral rays 14-17 (mean = 16.1). Total gill
rakers 6-9 (mean = 7.6), typically with 2 rakers on the upper limb and 5 on the lower limb
of the first arch. We did not make vertebral counts, but Wright (1967) reported a modal
total count of 32 (including the hypural plate) with means of 13.98 precaudal vertebrae
and 18.00 caudal vertebrae (n = 50) for the Flint River population. Wright (1967) also
made pyloric caeca counts on 73 shoal bass from the Flint River, reporting a range of 8-
14, a mode of 12, and a mean of 11.61; he noted that the caeca are typically unbranched.
In adults, the ground coloration of the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the head and
body ranges from olive green to dark olive to almost black. A dusky to black blotch, about
half to two-thirds the diameter of the eye, is present on the posterior portion of the opercle.
Three diagonal dark lines are present laterally on the head. Two of these extend from the
posterior margin of the orbit posteriorly and ventrally across the cheek and opercle. The








WILLIAMS & BURGESS: Micropterus cataractae new species


Table 1. Proportional measurements of the holotype and 31 paratypes ofMicropterus cataractae expressed
as thousandths of standard length.


Holotype Minimum Maximum N Mean


Greatest body depth 299 218 302 32 268
Body width 155 133 208 32 162
Least depth caudal peduncle 112 94 118 32 109
Caudal peduncle length 209 186 251 32 227
Pectoral length 155 131 165 32 148
Pelvic length 126 118 149 32 134
Highest dorsal spine 72 63 101 32 76
Lowest dorsal spine 44 31 72 31 41
Highest dorsal ray 136 113 163 32 139
Highest anal spine 45 26 73 32 45
Highest anal ray 125 87 192 32 141
Head length 337 322 375 32 337
Head width 159 130 205 32 165
Orbit length 49 34 87 32 59
Interorbital width 82 53 91 32 77
Snout length 96 82 133 32 94
Upper jaw length 149 86 149 32 134
Lower jaw length 147 75 159 32 139



third originates between the eye and the upper jaw and extends posteriorly and ventrally
across the dorsal margin of the supramaxilla, terminating on the cheek. The iris is
typically bright red.
Body with 10 to 15 midlateral and 6 to 8 supralateral dark, vertically elongate
blotches. Anterior blotches vertically elongate but becoming gradually more quadrate
posteriorly. Blotches on the anterior half to two-thirds of the body often have a light
center. Interspaces between blotches approximately equal to width of individual blotches.
Dark vertically elongate dorsolateral blotches typically extend into the interspaces between
the lateral blotches, but may be obscured by the dark color of the dorsum. These dark
vertically elongate blotches ("tiger-stripes") are the most distinctive feature of coloration.
A large quadrate to rectangular basicaudal blotch is typically present Dusky to dark spots
on scales of the ventrolateral portion of the body frequently coalesce to form wavy lines.
Venter white to cream colored.
Median fins dark olivaceous to grey black. Dark spots present on the basal half of
the soft dorsal and anal fins. These spots, which may be obscured by darker pigment, are
usually more prominent basally and posteriorly on the fins. Pectoral fins dusky to greenish
grey. Leading edge of the pelvic fins (spine and first 1 to 2 rays) dusky, the inner rays
cream colored with scattered melanophores.












Table 2. Frequency distributions of scale counts in species ofMicropterus from the Apalachicola River basin.


Pored lateral line scales
59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 N Mean


M.cataractae -- 1 2 6 8 8 19 21 22 21 20 17 9 2 4 2 162 74.20
M.coosae 2 3 5 6 6 8 11 5 4 1 3 1 55 67.06
M.p.punctulatus 2 2 7 9 6 5 1 1 1 1 0 1 36 63.64


Scales above lateral line
6 7 8 9 10 N Mean


M. cataractae 29 124 9 162 8.88
M. coosae 13 35 7 55 7.89
M. p. punctulatus 1 23 10 2 -36 7.36


Scales below lateral line
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 N Mean


M. cataractae 1 3 16 66 53 17 6 162 18.49
M. coosae 3 16 29 6 55 14.75
M. p. punctulatus 2 19 3 2 36 13.56







Scale rows around caudal peduncle
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 N Mean


M. cataractae 2 4 1 18 62 53 20 1 1 162 31.37
M. coosae 2 3 8 29 7 5 1 55 28.00
M. p. punctulatus 3 11 9 6 7 36 25.08


Scale rows above lateral line on caudal peduncle
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 N Mean


M. cataractae 3 10 78 70 1 162 14.35
M. coosae 2 7 38 8 55 12.95
M. p. punctulatus 3 20 12 1 -- 36 11.30


Scale rows below lateral line on caudal peduncle
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 N Mean


M. cataractae 5 17 108 29 3 162 15.05
M. coosae 11 33 8 3 55 13.06
M. p. punctulatus 15 44 7 36 11.78


Scale rows on cheek
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 N Mean


M. cataractae 6 43 74 29 10 162 14.98
M.coosae 4 26 19 3 3 55 12.44
M. p. punctulatus 1 10 16 5 2 1 1 36 14.63








BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 42(2)


Table 3. Frequency distribution of fin ray counts in species ofMicropterus from the Apalachicola River
basin.

Dorsal spines
9 10 11 N Mean

M. cataractae 7 152 3 162 9.98
M. coosae 55 55 10.00
M. p. punctulatus 4 32 36 9.89

Dorsal rays
10 11 12 13 N Mean

M. cataractae 1 4 135 22 162 12.10
M. coosae 1 47 7 55 12.11
M. p. punctulatus 1 28 7 36 12.17

Anal rays
9 10 11 12 N Mean

M. cataractae 4 135 22 1 162 10.13
M. coosae 3 50 2 55 9.98
M. p. punctulatus 3 28 5 213 10.06

Pectoral rays
14 15 16 17 N Mean

M. cataractae 1 6 131 24 162 16.10
M.coosae 12 40 3 55 15.84
M. p. punctulatus 11 20 5 36 15.83



COMPARISONS.-Three species of basses, Micropterus cataractae, M. coosae,
and M. salmoides, are native to the Apalachicola River basin. The spotted bass, M.
punctulatus punctulatus, has been introduced into the Apalachicola River basin and is
established. Two additional basses, the Alabama spotted bass, M. punctulatus henshalli,
and smallmouth bass, M. dolomieu, were introduced into the Chattahoochee River
drainage, but are not known to have established reproducing populations. Differences in
color pattern are illustrated in Plate 5 (M. cataractae), Plate 6 (M. coosae), Plate 7 (M.
punctulatus punctulatus), and Plate 8 (M. punctulatus henshalli). A comparison of
pigment pattern and morphology of M. cataractae, M. coosae, M. punctulatus
punctulatus, and M. salmoides is presented in Table 4.
Of the four basses in the Apalachicola River basin, the largemouth and redeye basses
are the most distinctive and usually the easiest to identify. The following characters







Table 4. Comparison of pigment pattern and morphology of four species ofMicropterus from the Apalachicola River basin. Data forM. salmoides
based on our data and Bailey and Hubbs (1949).


CHARACTERISTICS cataractae coosae p. punctulatus salmoides

Parallel rows of spots on 5-7 weakly developed rows 5-8 well developed rows 4-6 weakly developed scattered dark spots may
ventrolateral portion of body of dark spots of dark spots extending rows of dark spots be present, rows of spots
posteriorly onto the caudal absent
peduncle
Midlateral pigment in adults dark vertical bars dark confluent irregular dark confluent irregular dark confluent irregular
blotches or stripe blotches or stripe blotches

Teeth on tongue typically none oval to rectangular patch oval to rectangular patch typically none
Dorsal fins connected or connected connected connected separate
separate
Scales on base of anal and present present present absent
second dorsal fins

Lateral line scales 67-81, usually 72-77 62-73, usually 64-69 59-70, usually 61-64 64-72, usually 65-70

Cheek scales 12-16, usually 13-15 11-15, usually 12-13 11-17, usually 12-13 10-13, usually 11-12
Scales above LL 8-10, usually 9 7-9, usually 7-8 6-9, usually 7-8 7-9, usually 8-9

Scales below LL 15-21, usually 18-20 13-16, usually 14-15 12-15, usually 13 14-18, usually 15-16
Total caudal peduncle scales 27-35, usually 30-33 25-31, usually 27-29 23-27, usually 24-25 26-30, usually 26-28
Peduncle scales above LL 12-16, usually 14-15 11-14, usually 13 10-13, usually 11-12 11-13, usually 13
Peduncle scales below LL 13-17, usually 15 12-15, usually 12-13 11-13, usually 11-12 12-13, usually 13
Approximate maximum size 3.99 kg (8 lb 12 oz) 1.0 kg (2 lb 4 oz) 4.1 kg(8 lb 15 oz) 7.6 kg (16 lb 12 oz)







BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 42(2)


distinguish the largemouth from the other basses in the Apalachicola River basin:
posterior end of spinous and anterior end of soft dorsal fins deeply incised, almost
separated; base of interradial membranes of anal and soft dorsal fins without scales; no
patch of teeth on the tongue; in adults the maxilla extends well beyond eye; pyloric caeca
typically branched near base; a midlateral row of confluent dark blotches; no ventrolateral
rows of spots on the body; and body generally more robust than in other species of
Micropterus.
The color pattern in young (to ca. 60 mm SL) Micropterus salmoides is
characterized by a dark midlateral stripe, 2-4 scale rows wide, which terminates in a
quadrate blotch which may be continuous or separated from the midlateral stripe. The
caudal fin is yellowish orange with a grey to black submarginal band.
The redeye bass, Micropterus coosae, is the smallest member of the genus in the
Apalachicola River basin, rarely exceeding 30 cm SL. It is distinguished from M.
cataractae by the presence of an oval to rectangular patch of teeth on the tongue, fewer
lateral line scales, and fewer scale rows above and below the lateral line. The juveniles
ofM. coosae can be distinguished from those ofM. punctulatus (Plate 4) by the presence
of vertical bars along the sides which become less pronounced in the adults. The caudal
fin of juvenile M. coosae is characterized by a dark submarginal band and a pronounced
oval caudal spot.
Although the shoal bass, Micropterus cataractae, has, in the past, been most often
confused with M. coosae, it is morphologically most similar to the spotted bass, M.
punctulatus. It differs from the spotted bass by the absence of teeth on its tongue.
Micropterus cataractae also has more lateral line scales, more rows of scales above and
below the lateral line, and more caudal peduncle scales than M. punctulatus. The color
pattern of adult M. cataractae is characterized by the presence of dark vertical bars along
the sides (Plates 1 and 5). These bars, which are also present in juveniles (Plate 2), easily
distinguish the shoal bass from spotted bass.
ETYMOLOGY.-The specific name cataractae is from the Latin cataracta,
which means waterfall, in reference to waterfalls and shoals, the preferred habitat of this
bass. We follow tradition and suggest the common name "shoal bass" for this species,
which almost exclusively inhabits shoal areas of rivers and large creeks, and has been
known as the shoal bass since the early 1970s (Ramsey 1973).
DISTRIBUTION.-The shoal bass is native to the Apalachicola and Chipola rivers
in west Florida, the Chattahoochee River in eastern Alabama and western and northern
Georgia, and the Flint River in southwestern Georgia (Fig. 1). In the Apalachicola River,
Florida, it is known from the main channel of the river from Jim Woodruff Dam
downstream for a distance of about 6 miles. The shoal bass likely ranged farther
downstream prior to dredging of shoal areas in the main channel of the river for
navigation. In the Chipola River, a tributary of the Apalachicola River, the shoal bass is
confined to the main channel from near the Alabama-Florida state line downstream to near
Clarksville, Calhoun County, Florida.
The shoal bass is known from the main channel of the Chattahoochee River and its
larger tributaries in eastern Alabama and northern and western Georgia, but has









WILLIAMS & BURGESS:Micropterus cataractae new species


Figure 1. Distribution of the shoal bass, Micropterus cataractae. Native distribution in the Apalachicola
drainage (closed circles) and the introduced population in the Altamaha drainage (triangles).







BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 42(2)


disappeared from most of the mainstem Chattahoochee River after creation of large
impoundments on the main channel of the river. It is known to persist in some of the
larger tributaries that continue to support some shoal or swift water habitat above and
below the Fall Line. In the Flint River, the shoal bass occurs throughout the main channel
and larger tributaries above and below the Fall Line, but has been eliminated from the
lowermost reaches of the river by the impounded waters behind Jim Woodruff Dam. It
also no longer occurs in two Flint River impoundments, Blackshear and Worth, located
upstream of Albany.
The shoal bass occurs sympatrically with two native basses, the redeye bass,
Micropterus coosae, and largemouth bass, M. salmoides, and two introduced subspecies
of the spotted bass, the northern spotted bass, M. punctulatus punctulatus, and Alabama
spotted bass, M. punctulatus henshalli. Within the native range of the shoal bass, the
redeye bass is restricted to the Chattahoochee River drainage above the Fall Line (Fig. 2).
The largemouth bass is the most widespread species of Micropterus in the Apalachicola
River basin where it occurs throughout the system.
The northern spotted bass, Micropterus punctulatus punctulatus, appears to have
been introduced in the Apalachicola River basin below the Fall Line prior to 1941 (Fig.
3). Bailey and Hubbs (1949) first recorded the species from this basin and speculated that
it was probably the result of stocking. Their record was based on two specimens (UMMZ
164613) taken from the mouth of the Flint River on 13 October 1941 by Archie F. Carr
and students. The northern spotted bass is currently found in the Apalachicola River
below Jim Woodruff Dam downstream for a distance of about 50 river miles (Gilbert
1973). Micropterus p. punctulatus is also known from several localities in the
Chattahoochee River drainage above the Fall Line. Based on dates of collection (none
before 1968), it appears that the introductions above the Fall Line occurred after those
from below the Fall Line (Fig. 3). Additional evidence in support of a second introduction
above the Fall Line is the presence of hydropower dams on the Chattahoochee River in the
vicinity of Columbus, Georgia which would limit the upstream dispersal of the population
from below the Fall Line. These dams were built between 1834 and 1926 (Couch et al.
1996). We have examined one specimen (UGAMNH 697) from the Flint River taken
below Lake Worth Dam on 7 October 1959. We are not aware of any records of the
northern spotted bass from the Flint River above the Lake Worth impoundment, which
was built in 1920 (Couch et al. 1996), just north of Albany, Georgia. The absence ofM.
punctulatus punctulatus from most of the Flint River drainage is evidence in support of
our opinion that the northern spotted bass is introduced in the Apalachicola River basin.
The source of the stock ofMicropterus punctulatus punctulatus in the Flint River
is not known. The first fish hatchery in the Apalachicola River basin was located at Cold
Spring (near Bullockville), Meriwether County, Georgia (Flint River drainage), and began
fish production in 1901 (Bowers 1902). Black bass (Micropterus species) production
and distribution from the Cold Spring hatchery was begun in 1901 (Ravenel 1902).
During the early 1900s, other hatcheries located in Georgia supplied bass to the state for
distribution.









WILLIAMS & BURGESS: Micropterus cataractae new species


Figure 2. Distribution of the redeye bass, Micropterus coosae (closed circles), in the Apalachicola and
Altamaha drainages.








BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 42(2)


0 Km 100


Figure 3. Distribution of three species of basses introduced in the Apalachicola drainage: smallmouth bass,
Micropterus dolomieu (closed square), Alabama spotted bass,M. punctulatus henshalli (closed triangles), and
northern spotted bass, M. punctulatus punctulatus (closed circles). The date (year) enclosed in the box indicates
the earliest date of collection for that species at that locality.







WILLIAMS & BURGESS: Micropterus cataractae new species


There are two collections of Alabama spotted bass, Micropterus punctulatus
henshalli, from the Chattahoochee River drainage in Georgia. The first was collected in
1970 (Chestatee River, Lumpkin County, AU 3482) and the second in 1978 (below
Buford Dam, Gwinett County, AU 21997), both from the upper portion of the river,
northeast of Atlanta, Georgia. The origin of the stock of these bass is unknown as there
are no records of official stocking of Alabama spotted bass by the Georgia Department of
Natural Resources in the upper portion of the Chattahoochee River. It is not known if the
Alabama spotted bass has established a reproducing population in the Chattahoochee
River drainage.
One additional species, the smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, was introduced
in the upper Chattahoochee River in Habersham County, Georgia, by the Georgia
Department of Game and Fish on 11 December 1967 (Gilbert 1969). A single specimen
of smallmouth bass (68 mm SL) was collected by J. S. Ramsey and R. J. Gilbert from the
Dog River, a tributary of the Chattahoochee River, Douglas County, Georgia, on 1 July
1967 (AU 219). This specimen, taken prior to stocking by the state, apparently represents
an unauthorized introduction. These two introductions were apparently unsuccessful, as
the species is not currently known to be established in the Chattahoochee River drainage
(B. Freeman pers. comm.).
There is one known introduction ofMicropterus cataractae outside its native range.
The Georgia Department of Game and Fish stocked the shoal bass in the Ocmulgee River,
a tributary of the Altamaha River, in northcentral Georgia, in the mid-1970s. It is now
well established in the main channel of the Ocmulgee River for a distance of
approximately 35 miles above and 25 miles below the Fall Line and in several large
tributaries near the vicinity of the Fall Line (Bart et al. 1994).
There have been several introductions of the redeye bass, Micropterus coosae, in
the United States and one in Puerto Rico. The introduction into Puerto Rico occurred in
1958 and 1959 when stock from the Chattahoochee River near Helen, White County,
Georgia was transferred to Maricao Hatchery (Erdman 1967). Robbins and MacCrimmon
(1974) erred in reporting that the stock introduced into Puerto Rico was from the Flint
River (should be Chattahoochee River) near Helen, Georgia. This could be misinterpreted
as an introduction ofM. cataractae, since M. coosae does not occur in the Flint River.
Based on the description and an excellent photograph provided by Erdman (1967), there
is no doubt that the introduced Puerto Rican Micropterus was M. coosae.
Micropterus cataractae has been held twice in hatcheries, once for the purpose of
development of propagation techniques and once for experimental purposes. As early as
1974, stock from the Flint River was held intermittently in the state of Georgia hatchery
in Cordele, Crisp County, Georgia. Progeny from this stock has been used for
supplemental stocking in the Flint River and for introduction into the Ocmulgee River.
Stock from the Chattahoochee River drainage also was held in ponds at Auburn
University, Lee County, Alabama (Tallapoosa River drainage) for research purposes.
None of this stock was intentionally released into the wild.
LIFE HISTORY.-The shoal bass life history has never been thoroughly
investigated, but various aspects of the biology have been reported. Biology of the shoal
bass was included in masters theses by Wright (1967) and Hurst (1969) and in a summary







BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 42(2)


by Gilbert (1992). Hatchery populations were discussed by Smitherman and Ramsey
(1972) and Johnson (1977). Other studies included an examination of the shoal bass
fishery (including a creel survey) in the upper Flint River (Ober 1977), supplemental
stockings (Scott 1978), and a creel survey on the Flint River to evaluate previous stocking
(Scott 1981). Smitherman (1975) examined the adaptability of several basses, including
the shoal bass, to a pond environment. Some publications on bass biology contain
information on both the shoal bass, Micropterus cataractae, and the redeye bass, M.
coosae (Hurst et al. 1975; MacCrimmon and Robbins 1975). Growth and habits of the
redeye bass (Parsons 1953) are based on an introduced population of M. coosae in
southeastern Tennessee. The reports of shoal bass, M. cataractae, under the name redeye
bass can be confusing and care should be taken to be certain which species is being
discussed. For example, some reports of record size for redeye bass, M. coosae, are
actually based on shoal bass, M. cataractae (Dendy 1954; Anonymous 1967).
Age and growth of the shoal bass has been reported from the Chipola, Flint, and
Chattahoochee rivers (Dendy 1954; Parsons and Crittenden 1959; Wright 1967; Hurst
1969; Hurst et al. 1975). In the Chipola River, Parsons and Crittenden (1959) found that
shoal bass have a relatively fast growth rate, attaining average total lengths (TL) of about
10 cm in the first year and 29 cm TL in the third year. They documented a five year old,
38.4 cm TL fish weighing 0.8 kg. Two other specimens, 41.9 cm TL/1.14 kg and 48.3
cm TL2.1 kg, were reported but no ages were given. Greatest growth (about 11 cm) in
the Chipola River was during the second year and the least (3.8 cm) during the fifth year.
In the Flint River, greatest growth occurred during the second and third year and least in
the sixth year (Wright 1967). In Halawakee Creek, an Alabama tributary of the
Chattahoochee River, the greatest growth occurred during the first and third year and least
during the sixth and seventh year (Hurst 1969). Maximum age reported was 8 years
(Wright 1967). One of the largest recorded shoal basses (reported as a redeye bass)
weighed 2.7 kg, was 52 cm TL, and had a girth of 40.1 cm (Anonymous 1967). The
International Game Fish Association angling record for Micropterus coosae, as discussed
in the introduction, is based on a shoal bass weighing 3.99 kg (8 lb 12 oz), taken in the
Apalachicola River, Florida, 28 January 1995.
Food of the shoal bass consists primarily of crayfishes, fishes, and insects (Wright
1967; Hurst 1969). Insects were the most important food item for the smaller individuals,
4-12 cm SL. The transition from insects to crayfishes and fishes occurred in the third year
of life. Food, listed in the order of importance, for larger fish is crayfishes, fishes, and
insects (Wright 1967; Hurst 1969).
Shoal bass attain sexual maturity at age 3 (Hurst et al. 1975). The smallest sexually
mature female, 2+ years of age, was 152 mm SL and weighed 70 g (Hurst 1969). Wright
(1967) reported fecundity ranging from 5,396 (31.4 cm SL; 844 g in weight) to 21,779
(44.2 cm SL; 2,314 g in weight) ova in Flint River fishes. Hurst (1969) reported an
average of 22,000 ova for 5-year-old fish weighing about 1 kg. Ripe female shoal bass
have been reported in streams during early April at temperatures of 14.4-18.3*C (Hurst
1969).
Spawning occurs during April and May and occasionally early June when water
temperatures are 18-23*C (Wright 1967; Hurst 1969). In ponds, spawning has been







WILLIAMS & BURGESS: Micropterus cataractae new species


reported at temperatures of 25-26.1 *C (Smitherman and Ramsey 1972) and 21.6-22.2"C
(Johnson 1977). Wright (1967) reported spawning in the Flint River in 1966-1967 after
a rapid rise in water level and suggested that both water temperature and water level were
important factors in initiating spawning. Hurst (1969) reported a shoal bass nest, at a
depth of 20 cm, at the end of a long pool. The nest was a shallow depression about 46 cm
in diameter. Eggs were found adhering to small rocks and pebbles in the depression. In
hatchery ponds, nests were observed in soft clay rubble and plant roots at a depth of 76
cm to 1.3 m (Johnson 1977). Nests were saucer shaped depressions 5-10 cm deep and
30-92 cm in diameter. Smitherman and Ramsey (1972) found nests constructed on hard
clay even when gravel or limestone chip substrate was present in hatchery ponds. Male
shoal bass vigorously guard the nest (Johnson 1977).
Spawning behavior of two shoal bass was observed from the bank of a hatchery pond
(Johnson 1977). The pair assumed a side by side position, facing the same direction, over
the nest. While on the nest, their coloration was blotched, the vertical bars on the sides
dark green on a background color of bronze. During a 45 minute period on the nest, the
pair was observed to roll over on their sides several times, presumably in the act of
spawning. Underwater examination of the nest after the female had left revealed
approximately 1,000 large amber colored ova. Another nest contained 500-3,000 ova
(Johnson 1977). Shoal bass eggs were approximately 2 mm in diameter and hatching
occurred in about 48 hours at 21.10C. Sac fry measured 6 mm TL (Smithennan and
Ramsey 1972). Fry were observed in tight aggregations at the bottom of the nest seven
days after hatching and had left the nest and dispersed 12-14 days after hatching (Johnson
1977). Smitherman and Ramsey (1972) reported that fry approximately 25 days old were
21-28 mm TL.
CONSERVATION STATUS-During the past two decades, the conservation
status of the shoal bass has been reviewed by biologists in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia.
The first review was conducted by Ramsey et al. (1972) for the shoal bass population in
the Chattahoochee River and its tributaries in Alabama. They noted that the species had
been eliminated from most of the Chattahoochee River proper in Alabama, but survived
in a few of the larger tributaries. Ramsey et al. (1972) assigned the shoal bass in Alabama
a conservation status of Rare-2 (a species that could be abundant but restricted to a few
localities or very limited habitat). In a subsequent review Ramsey (1976) reported the
shoal bass as an Alabama species of Special Concern (a species that must be continually
monitored because eminent degrading factors or limited distribution and restricted habitat
may cause it to become endangered or threatened in the foreseeable future). Without
explanation, the species was omitted from a more recent review of vertebrate animals of
Alabama in need of special attention (Ramsey 1986). That omission is surprising because
no recovery or habitat protection activities were initiated and no new populations of shoal
bass have been discovered in Alabama during the past 20 years.
An examination of the conservation status of shoal bass in Florida (Gilbert 1978)
concluded with a recommendation of threatened status (likely to become endangered in
the state in the foreseeable future if current trends continue). Threatened status also was
recommended in the most recent review (Gilbert 1992). The basis of the threatened status
in Florida was the limited habitat within a very restricted range. Pollution and siltation








BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 42(2)


continue to degrade shoal bass habitat in the Chipola River (Ogilvie 1980), and there has
been little effort to control or reduce the impact of these contaminants. The only other
known Florida locality, below Jim WoodruffDam on the Apalachicola River, is subject
to considerable alteration associated with dredging of the river channel for navigation, and
irregular flows associated with power generation, flood control, and lock operation.
In Georgia, shoal bass have disappeared from most of the main channel of the
Chattahoochee River as that river has been impounded from just below its junction with
the Flint River upstream to near Newnan, ca. 70 km southwest of Atlanta, Georgia. The
headwaters of the Chattahoochee River are also impounded by Buford Dam, forming
Sidney Lanier Reservoir northeast of Atlanta, Georgia. Much of the reach of the
Chattahoochee River between Buford Dam (northeast of Atlanta) and West Point
Reservoir (southwest of Atlanta) has been turned into a cold water stream by deep water
releases from Buford Dam.
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has never included the shoal bass in its list of
candidate species for consideration for listing as endangered or threatened status. The
American Fisheries Society Endangered Species Committee (Deacon et al. 1979)
considered the conservation status of shoal bass throughout its range and assigned the
species the status of Special Concern (a species that could become endangered or
threatened by relative minor disturbances in their habitat). Subsequent evaluation of the
conservation status of shoal bass (Williams et al. 1989) resulted in retention of the
previous classification.
The current distribution of shoal bass, based on museum records and information
from fishery biologists, and the continued loss of habitat indicate a continued decline of
this species. We strongly recommend a thorough survey for this species throughout its
range. Research should also be undertaken to determine microhabitat requirements which
would provide direction for the renovation of former habitat.


LITERATURE CITED

Anonymous. 1967. Shawmut fisherman catches worlds record Coosa bass. Alabama Conservation (November-
December):5-6.
Bailey, R. M., and C. L Hubbs. 1949. The black basses (Micropterus) of Florida with description of a new
species. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan 516:1-43.
Bart, H. L., M. S. Taylor, J. T. Harbaugh, J. W. Evans, S. L Schleiger, and W. Clark. 1994. New distribution
records of Gulf Slope drainage fishes in the Ocmulgee River system, Georgia. Proc. Southeastern Fishes
Council 30:4-10.
Bass, D. G. 1996. Running the river for shoal bass. Florida Wildlife (January-February):6-7.
Bowers, G. M. 1902. Report of the Commissioner. U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries Report for the year
ending June 30, 1901. 20 pp.
Carlander, K. D. 1977. Handbook of Freshwater Fishery Biology. Volume 2. Ames: Iowa State University
Press. 431 pp.
Carr, A., and C. J. Goin. 1959. Guide to the Reptiles, Amphibians and Fresh-Water Fishes of Florida.
Gainesville: University of Florida Press. 341 pp.
Couch, C. A., E. H. Hopkins, and P. S. Hardy. 1996. Influences of environmental settings on aquatic
ecosystems in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river basin. U.S. Geological Survey, National
Water-Quality Assessment Program, Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4278. 58 pp.
Dahlberg, M. D., and D. C. Scott. 1971. The freshwater fishes of Georgia. Bull. Georgia Acad. Sci. 29:1-64.









WILLIAMS & BURGESS: Micropterus cataractae new species


Deacon, J. E., G. Kobetich, J. D. Williams, and S. Contreras. 1979. Fishes of North America endangered,
threatened, or of special concern: 1979. Fisheries 4(2):29-44.
Dendy, J. S. 1954. How large do redeye bass grow? Alabama Conservation 26(3):12.
Dequine, J. F. 1949. Is the Florida smallmouth a fable? Florida Wildlife 3(4):10-13, 18-19.
Dunaway, V. 1998. Sport Fish of Florida. Wickstrom Publishers, Inc. 253 pp.
Erdman, D. S. 1967. Inland game fishes of Puerto Rico. Federal Aid Project F-I-R, Job No. 7. Department
of Agriculture, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, San Juan 82 unnumbered pp.
Gilbert, C. R. (ed.). 1978. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida. Volume 4: Fishes. Gainesville: University
Presses of Florida. 58 pp.
. (ed.). 1992. Shoal bass, Micropterus n. sp. cf coosae. Pp. 98-104 in Rare and Endangered Biota of
Florida. Volume II: Fishes, ed. C. R. Gilbert.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida xl + 247 pp.
Gilbert, R. J. 1969. The distribution of fishes in the central Chattahoochee River drainage. M.S. thesis, Auburn
University, Auburn, Alabama. 128 pp.
1973. Systematics ofMicropterusp. punclulatus andM. p. henshalli and life history ofM. p. henshalli.
Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquaculture, Auburn University, Auburn,
Alabama. 136 pp.
Hess, T. B., and R. D. Ober. 1981. Recreational use surveys on two Georgia rivers. Pp. 14-20 in The
Warnwater Streams Symposium, ed. L A. Krumholz. Southern Division American Fisheries Society.
Hoehn, T. S. 1998. Rare and imperiled fish species of Florida: A watershed perspective. Office of
Environmental Services, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee. 60 pp.
Hubbs, C. L, and R. M. Bailey. 1940. A revision of the black basses (Micropterus and Huro) with descriptions
of four new forms. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan 48:1-61 + pl.
Hubbs, C. L, and K. Lagler. 1958. Fishes of the Great Lakes Region. Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull. 26:1-186.
Hurst, H. N. 1969. Comparative life history of the redeye bass, Micropterus coosae Hubbs and Bailey, and
the spotted bass, Micropterus p. punctulatus (Rafmesque), in Halawakee Creek, Alabama. M.S. thesis,
Department of Zoology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. 56 pp.
Hurst, H. N., G. Bass, and C. Hubbs. 1975. The biology of the Guadalupe, Suwannee, and redeye basses. Pp.
47-53 in Black Bass Biology and Management, ed. R. H. Stroud and H. Clepper. Washington DC: Sport
Fishing Institute. 534 pp.
IGFA. 1997. World Record Game Fishes. International Game Fish Association, Pompano Beach, Florida. 352
pp.
Johnson, T. L 1977. Culture of the shoal bass. Final report to the Georgia Department of Natural Resources,
Game and Fish Division, Atlanta. Project Number F-28-3, Southwest Region Fisheries Investigations.
15 pp.
Kilby, J. D., E. Crittenden, and L Williams. 1959. Several fishes new to Florida freshwaters. Copeia
1959(1):77-78.
MacCrimmon, H. R., and W. H. Robbins. 1975. Distribution of the black basses in North America. Pp. 56-66
in Black Bass Biology and Management, ed. R. H. Stroud and H. Clepper. Washington DC: Sport
Fishing Institute. 534 pp.
McClane, A. J. (ed.). 1974. McClane's New Standard Fishing Encyclopedia and International Angling Guide.
(Second edition). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1156 pp.
McClane, J. W. 1972. I.D. guide to all the American bass. Field and Stream 76(10):52-57.
Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Birmingham,
Alabama: Oxmoor House, Inc. 820 pp.
Ober, R. D. 1977. Upper Flint River creel and recreational use survey. Final report to the Georgia Department
of Natural Resources, Game and Fish Division, Atlanta. Project Number F-28-3, Southwest Region
Fisheries Investigations. 43 pp.
Ogilvie, V. E. 1980. Shoal bass investigation. Completion report, Endangered Wildlife Project E-1, Study I-L,
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. 12 pp.
Page, L M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton
Mifflin Co. 432 pp.
Parsons, J. W. 1953. Growth and habits of the redeye bass. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 83:202-211.
, and E. Crittenden. 1959. Growth of the redeye bass in Chipola River, Florida. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc.
88:191-192.
Ramsey, J. S. 1973. TheMicropterus coosae complex in southeastern U.S. (Osteichthyes, Centrarchidae).
Assoc. Southeastern Biologist Bull. 20:76.









BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 42(2)


. 1975. Taxonomic history and systematic relationships among species ofMicroperus. Pp. 67-75 in Black
Bass Biology and Management, ed. R. H. Stroud and H. Clepper. Washington DC: Sport Fishing
Institute. 534 pp.
. 1976. Freshwater fishes. Pp. 53-65 in Endangered and Threatened Plants and Animals of Alabama, ed.
H. T Boschung.. Bull. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist. 2.
1984. Freshwater fishes. Pp. 1-14 in Vertebrate Wildlife of Alabama, ed. R. H. Mount Auburn
University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama.
1986. Freshwater fishes. Pp. 1-21 in Vertebrate Wildlife of Alabama, ed. R. H. Mount Auburn
University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama.
, W. M. Howell, and H. T. Boschung, Jr. 1972. Rare and endangered fishes of Alabama. Pp. 57-86 in Rare
and Endangered Vertebrates of Alabama, ed. J. E. Keeler. Alabama Department Conservation Natural
Resources, Division Game and Fish, Montgomery.
Ramsey, J. S., and B. O. Smitherman. 1972. Development of color pattern in pond-reared young of five
Micropterus species of southeastern U.S. Proc. Ann. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. Game Fish
Commissioners 25:348-356.
Ravenel, W. de C. 1902. Report on the propagation and distribution of food-fishes. U.S. Commission of Fish
and Fisheries Report for the year ending June 30, 1901, pp. 21-110.
Robbins, W. H., and H. R. MacCrimmon. 1974. The black bass in America and overseas. Biomanagement
and Research Enterprises, Sanlt Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. 196 pp.
Scott, T. M., Jr. 1978. An evaluation of supplemental stocking of the shoal bass as a management technique.
Final report to the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Game and Fish Division, Atlanta. Project
Number F-28-5, Southwest Region Fisheries Investigation. 29 pp.
1981. Creel survey on the Flint River between Lakes Blackshear and Worth. Final report to the Georgia
Department of Natural Resources, Game and Fish Division, Atlanta. Project Number F-28-8, Southwest
Region Fisheries Investigation. 23 pp.
Smitherman, R. 0. 1975. Experimental species associations of basses in Alabama ponds. Pp. 76- 84 in Black
Bass Biology and Management, ed. R. H. Stroud and H. Clepper. Washington DC: Sport Fishing
Institute. 534 pp.
and J. S. Ramsey. 1972. Observations on spawning and growth of four species of basses (Micropterus)
in ponds. Proc. 25th Ann. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. Game Fish Commissioners 1971:357-365.
Timmons, T. J., W. L. Shelton, and W. D. Davies. 1979. Initial fish population changes following
impoundment of West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia. Proc. Ann. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. Game
Fish Commissioners for 1977, 31:312-317.
Williams, J. D. 1981. Threatened warmwater stream fishes and the endangered species act a review. Pp. 328-
337 in The Warmwater Streams Symposium, ed. L A Krumholz. Southern Div. Amer. Fish. Soc.
Williams, J. E., J. E. Johnson, D. A. Hendrickson, S. Contreras-Balderas, J. D. Williams, M. Navarro-Mendoza,
D. E. McAllister, and J. E. Deacon. 1989. Fishes of North America endangered, threatened, or of special
concern: 1989. Fisheries 14(6):2-20.
Wright, S. E., IV. 1967. Life history and taxonomy of the Flint River redeye bass (Micropterus coosae, Hubbs
and Bailey). M.S. thesis, University of Georgia, Athens. 51 pp.
Yerger, R. W. 1977. Fishes of the Apalachicola River. Pp. 22-33 in Proceedings of the Conference on the
Apalachicola Drainage System, 23-24 April 1976, Gainesville, Florida, ed. R. J. Livingston and E. A
Joyce, Jr. Florida Mar. Res. Publ. 26, 177 pp.








WILLIAMS & BURGESS: Micropterus cataractae new species


OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED

Micropterus cataractae

Apalachicola River Basin

Alabama: Barbour County: UMMZ 168752 (3) Chattahoochee R. at US 28 bridge, just E ofEufala, 11 Sept.
1954. Lee County: AU 2108 (3) Wacoochee Cr., 3.4 air mi. above mouth, 0.7 mi S of Powledge, 27 Oct
1969. AU 2229 (1) Wacoochee Cr., 1.9 air mi. ENE ofSalem (TI9N, R28E, S25N), 18 Nov. 1969. AU 3573
(3) Wacoochee Cr., 5.3 airmi. ENE of Salem (R29E, T19N, S29NE) 13 Oct. 1970. AU 3664 (1) Wacoochee
Cr., 8.2 air mi. ENE of Salem (R29E, T19N, S23NW), 27 Oct. 1970. AU 3751 (2) Trib. to Wacoochee Cr.
just above mouth, 3.8 mi NE of Salem (R29E, T19N, S19NW) 19 Nov. 1970. AU 5020 (1) Wacoochee Cr.,
ca. 1 mi. above Chattahoochee R., 03 May 1968. AU 10789 (1) Sturkie Cr., Trib. to Little Uchee Cr., 8.7 air
mi. SSE of Salem, co. rd., (R28E, T18N, S1SSW), 17 Oct. 1971. AU 10801 (1) Little Uchee Cr., 4.9 air mi.
SSW of Salem, co. rd. (R28E, T18N, S29N), 17 Oct. 1971. AU 11918 (1) Halawakee Cr., 2.4 air mi. SW of
Beulah, co. rd., 08 May 1969. AU 15173 (1) Wacoochee Cr., ca. 1 mi. from mouth (in aquarium 1 day) 14
July 1977. AU 17234 (1) Cove of L Harding, W of Bartletts Ferry Dam, 29 Aug. 1979. AU 21383 (1)
Halawakee Cr. just below beans mill dam, 5.2 air mi. W of Beulah, Hwy. 29, 14 Nov. 1980. AU 21629 (24)
Auburn University experimental pond (R-31:broad), PI stock from Halawakee Cr., 21 days after hatching. 9
June 1969. AU 21630 (10) Auburn University experimental pond R-17 (rearing), PI stock from Halawakee
Cr., 32 days after hatching. 20 June 1969. AU 21631 (10) Auburn University experimental pond R-17
(rearing), P stock from Halawakee Cr., 43 days after hatching. 1 July 1969. AU 21632 (10) Auburn
University experimental pond R-17 (rearing) PI stock from Halawakee Cr., 58 days after hatching, 16 July
1969. AU 21633 (10) Auburn University experimental pond R-17 (rearing), PI stock from Halawakee Cr., 74
days after hatching, 1 Aug. 1969. AU 21635 (10) Auburn University experimental pond R-17 (rearing), PI
stock from Halawakee Cr., 102 days after hatching, 29 Aug. 1969. AU 21637 (10) Auburn University
experimental pond R-17 (rearing), PI stock from Halawakee Cr., 161 days after hatching, 27 Oct. 1969. AU
21638 (12) Aubum University experimental pond R-17 (rearing) PI stock from Halawakee Cr., 183 days after
hatching, 18 Dec. 1969. AU 21639 (36) Auburn University experimental ponds R-17 & R-18 (rearing), PI
stock from Halawakee Cr., 233 days after hatching, 6 Feb. 1970. AU 23995 (1) Halawakee Cr., 2.1 air mi.
SSW of Beulah, at covered bridge, 26 Oct 1971. UMMZ 175873 (1) Chattahoochee R., Goat Dam tailwaters,
14 Apr. 1958. Randolph County: AU 6523 (1) Wehadkee Creek, trib. to Chattahoochee R., 4.6 air mi. SE
of Rock Mills, co. rd., 30 June 1972. Russell County: AU 2897 (1) Uchee Cr., 6.3 air mi. S of Crawford,
Seale Rd., 1 Oct 1955. AU 5022 (1) Little Uchee Cr., 3 mi. E ofCrawford, S of Hwy. 80, Sta. 5, 10 Oct. 1953.
USNM 167961 (2) Uchee Cr., below bridge on Crawford to Seale (Chattahoochee Dr.), 5 Oct. 1954. USNM
245518 (2) Chattahoochee R. at Eufala, 6 Oct. 1966 (actually Barbour County).

Georgia: Baker County: UGAMNH 2378 (1) Ichawaynochaway Cr. between Old Power Dam and SR 200
Crossing, 8 Apr. 1992. UGAMNH 2399 (10) Ichawaynochaway Cr. at plantation site, 26 Sept 1985. Carroll
County: AU 13666 (1) Whooping Cr., 2.8 mi. E of Lowell, Hwy. 5, 29 July 1976. Dougherty County:
ANSP 84528 (1) Flint R., 1/4 mi. below entrance of Radium Springs &just below lower end of golf course, 29
Sept. 1952. ANSP 84538 (1) Flint R., 1/4 mi. below Merck Co. outlet, ca. 1 mi. S of Radium Springs outlet.
20 Sept. 1952. AU 6984 (1) Flint R., 5.0 air mi. S of Radium Springs outlet, 1.5 mi. S of Putney, 16 Sept.
1971. Douglas County: AU 9677 (1) Dog R., 4.0 air mi. E ofFairplay, Hwy. 166, station #2, Aug. 1974. AU
15798 (1) Anneewakee Cr., 7.1 air mi. E of Bill Arp, Hwy 166, 20 Oct. 1977. UT 90.649 (1) Unnamed trib.
to Chattahoochee R. at St Rt 166 xing, ca. 7.2 air mi. SSE ofDouglasville, 3.0 air mi W ofCampellton, 2 May
1982. Fulton County: AU 15597 (1) Chattahoochee R., 2.5 mi. above mouth of Peachtree Cr., 2 Aug. 1977.
Habersham/White counties: UGAMNH 838 (11) Chattahoochee R., 1 mi. S of GA 115, 24 Oct 1963.
Harris County: AU 3967 (1) Flat Shoal Cr., ca. 4 mi. SE of West Point, Hwy. 103, 21 Apr. 1970. AU 5021
(2) Mountain Oak Cr., 2.7 air mi. WNW of Mountain Hill, Hwy. 103, 25 Oct 1971. AU 5023 (2) Flat Shoal
Cr., ca. 4 mi. SE of West Point, Hwy. 103, 12 Sept 1971. AU 23085 (3) Mulberry Cr., ca. 3 mi. S of Mountain
Hill, 1 July 1981. Lee County: AU 7036 (3) Kinchafoonee Cr. at mouth of Middle Cr., 4.8 mi. WNW of
Leesburg, 30 Sept 1971. AU 12346 (1) Muckalee Cr., 3.8 airmi. SE of Leesburg Beverly Acres, 1 Oct 1973.
AU 18343 (1) Kinchafoonee Cr., 4.8 air mi. WNW of Leesburg at junction with Middle Cr., 19 Sept. 1975.
Lee/Worth counties: AU 6524 (37) Flint R., 8.5 air mi. E of Leesburg, 0.5 mi. downstream from Hwy. 32








BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 42(2)


bridge, 14 Sept. 1972. Lumpldn County: AU 3480 (2) Chestatee R., ca. 3 mi. SSE ofDahlonega, Hwy. 60,
20 May 1970. AU 4941 (1) Chestatee R., 2.7 air mi. E of Dahlonega, Hwy. 52, 4 Sept. 1971. AU 5911 (1)
Chestatee R., 0.2 air mi. S ofDahlonega, Hwy. 60,13 July 1972. UGAMNH 542 (5) Chestatee R. (Sta. 2), new
bridge, 22 May 1958. Macon County: ANSP 152396 (1) Flint R. below Ogelthorpe, above Buckeye cellulose
discharge & below mouth of Spring Cr., 27 Aug. 1983. ANSP 152390 (1) Flint R. below Ogelthorpe, above
Buckeye cellulose discharge, above island above mouth Camp Cr., 27 Aug. 1983. AU 24648 (1) Flint R., 2.6
airmi. SSE of Oglethorpe, RM 177,29-30 Sept 1981. Merlwether County: AU 7412 (6) Flint R. at bridge,
3.4 air mi. SE of Gay co. rd., 23 Oct. 1991. AU 24789 (2) Flint R., mire 280, between Plat Shoals and Hwy.
18, W of Molena, GA, Sta. 1, 21 June 1984. Mitchell County: AU 6602 (3) Flint R., 17.5 air mi. WSW of
Camilla near Harmon's Landing. 1 Dec. 1970. Putnam County: AU 6374 (5) Murder Cr., 2.6 air mi. NNE
of Stanfordville, 23 Aug. 1972. Taylor County: AU 24813 (8) Flint R., 11.5 air mi. SSE ofThomaston, 1.5
& 6.5 mi. above Hwy. 80 (RM 240), Sta. 5, 26 June 1984. AU 24814 (8) Flint R., 11.5 air mi. SSE of
Thomaston, 1.5 and 6.5 mi. above Hwy. 80 (RM 240), 26 June 1984. AU 24827 (9) Flint R., 13.2 air mi.
NNW of Reynolds, 2 mi. above Hwy. 128 (RM 230), Sta. 6, 19 June 1984. Terrell County: AU 15977 (4)
Sac-fry from nest at stove cake fish hatchery pond #2, brood-stock from Flint R., GA, 12 Apr. 1972. AU 15978
(1) Steve Cocke Hatchery, Dawson, pond #2; brood-stock from Flint R., GA, 14 Apr. 1972. AU 15979 (5) Fry
(ca. 14 days post-hatching), Stone Cocke Hatchery, Dawson, pond #2, brood-stock from Flint R., GA, 24 Apr.
1972. Troup County: AU 5218 (2) Chattahoochee R., 2.6 air mi. S ofAbbottsford preimpoundment, 21
Apr. 1972. AU 8785 (1) Chattahoochee R., 5.5 air mi. WNW of Lagrange, within 1 mi. N of Yellow Jacket
Cr., 14 Oct. 1972. AU 11422 (1) West Point Reservoir (Chattahoochee R.), Wehadkee Arm, 5.1 air mi. ENE
of Fredonia, 6 Oct. 1975. Upson County: AU 6901 (6) Flint R. at Adam's Is., 2.1 air mi. W of mouth of Potato
Cr., 8.5 air mi. SSW ofThomaston, 17 June 1971. AU 6958 (9) Potato Cr., 2.4 airmi. WNW ofThomaston
on Hwy. 36, 11 Sept 1971. AU 24798 (10) Flint R., 10.6 air mi. WNW of Thomaston, at Pleasant Valley (RM
270), 13 June 1984. Upson/Talbot counties: ANSP 152221 (1) Flint R. at Pobiddy Road, S of Thomaston,
22 Apr. 1983. ANSP 153219 (2) Flint R., Pobiddy Road, 8 mi. S of Thomaston, 26 Oct. 1983. UGAMNH
611 (5) Flint R., 0.5 mi. upstream from Hwy. 36 (station #2), 17 Oct. 1958. UGAMNH 611A (10) Flint R.,
I mi. above Hwy. 36,29 Oct. 1958. UGAMNH 611B (1) Flint R., 1 mi. upstream from Hwy. 36 (station #2),
10 Nov. 1958.


Altamaha River Basin

Georgia: Butts County: AU 19256 (1) Ocmulgee R., ca. 3.5 mi. below Jackson Lake Dam, June 1979.


Micropterus coosae

Apalachicola River Basin

Alabama: Randolph County: AU 5190 (1) Wehadkee Cr. below McLosh Mill, 4.6 air mi. SE of Rock Mills,
23 Apr. 1972.

Georgia: Carroll County: AU 27501 (3) Snake Cr. at USGS Gauging Station, N of Banning, 18 Sept. 1991.
UGAMNH 2349 (4) Snake Cr. at CR 809 crossing, 2.75 air mi. NNW of Whitesburg, 26 July 1991. Cobb
County: AU 15812 (1) Powder Springs Cr., trib. to Sweetwater Cr., 1.4 air mi. WNW of Clarkdale, Oglesby
Road, 24 Oct. 1977. Douglas County: AU 218 (1) Dog R., trib. to Chattahoochee R., 3.3 mi. NE of
McWhorter, Hwy. 5, 1 July 1967. Fulton County: AU 15597 (1) Chattahoochee R., 2.5 mi. above mouth of
Peachtree Cr., 2 Aug. 1977. UMMZ 88290 (1) Nancy Cr., about 10 mi. N of Atlanta, trib. of Chattahoochee
R., 2 Sept. 1929. Habersham County: UGAMNH 598 (1) Raper Cr. at the Mines, 13 Oct. 1958. Harris
County: AU 18905 (1) Trib. [Dowdell Cr.] to Mulberry Cr., 2 km SW of Hamilton, 15 Mar. 1979. AU 18906
(1) Dowdell Cr., trib. to Mulberry Cr., 3.6 air mi. NW of Waverly Hall, 3 July 1979. CU 17534 (7) Trib. to
Mulbeny Cr., 0.5 mi. W of Hamilton on Rt. 116, 29 Mar. 1950. UF 56693 (2) Trib. of Mulberry Cr., 7.9 mi.
E of Hamilton on Rt 116, 17 Aug. 1960. Heard County: AU 8787 (1) Central Hatchee Cr., ca. 3/4 mi. N
of Franklin, 200 yds. from confluence w/Chattahoochee R., 17 May 1974. Lumpldn County: AU 3370 (1)
Dicks Cr., trib. of Chestatee R., ca. 1.5 air mi. above mouth, 15 Nov. 1968. AU 3481 (1) Chestatee R., ca. 3
mi. SSE ofDahlonega, Hwy. 60,20 May 1970. AU 5912 (1) Chestatee R., 0.2 air mi. S ofDahlonega, Hwy.








WILLIAMS & BURGESS: Micropterus cataractae new species


60, 13 July 1972. CU 21455 (1) Yahoola Cr., 1 mi. E of Dahlonega on GA 52, 10 June 1952. UF UNCAT
(1) Yahooca Cr. at St Hwy. 9, ca. 2.2 air mi. N of Dahlonega, 15 July 1992. UGAMNH 414 (1) Boggs Cr.,
27 Aug. 1954. UGAMNH 541 (10) Chestatee R. at Grinnel Bridge, 15 May 1958 through 27 May 1958.
UGAMNH 581 (1) Ward Cr. (where soldiers wash their cars), 23 July 1958. UGAMNH 604 (4) Cane Cr. at
first bridge N of Dahlonega, 20 Oct. 1958. UMMZ 157963 (2) Cane Cr, trib. to Chestatee R, 1.25 mi. WSW
ofDahlonega, 25 Aug. 1939. UMMZ 175585 (1) Cane Cr. atjct ofSR 9E & US Rt. 19, ca. 2 mi. SSW of
Dahlonega, 9 Sept 1958. USNM 168075 (2) Trib. ofChattahoochee R., 0.3 mi. W of Dahlonega on US 19,
11 Sept 1954. USNM 162406 (1)Trib. ofChestatee R., 1.3 mi. WSW ofDahlonega on US Rt 19, 11 Sept
1947. Macon County: AU 24648 (1) Flint R., 2.6 air mi. SSE of Oglethorpe, RM 177, 29-30 Sept 1981.
Meriwether County: AU 24789 (2) Flint R., mile 280 between flat shoals and highway, W of Molena, 21
June 1984. Mitchell County: AU 6602 (3) Flint R., 17.5 air mi. WSW of Camilla near Harmon's landing,
1 Dec. 1970. Taylor County: AU 24827 (9) Flint R., 13.2 air mi NNW of Reynolds, 2 mi. above Hwy. 128
(RM 230, 19 June 1984. Troup County: AU 11422 (1) West Point Reservoir (Chattahoochee R.) Wehadkee
Arm, 5.1 air mi. ENE of Fredonia, 6 Oct. 1975. Upson County: AU 24788 (5) Flint R., 7.3 air mi. WSW of
Thomaston, above Hwy. 36 bridge (RM 260), 12 June 1984. AU 24801 (2) Flint R., 8.0 air mi. SSW of
Thomaston, 1 mi. below Pobiddy bridge (RM 251), 20 June 1984. AU 24798 (10) Flint R., 10.6 air mi. WNW
of Thomaston at Pleasant Valley (RM 270), 13 June 1984. Upson/Talbot counties: UGAMNH 611A (10)
Flint R., 1 mi. above Hwy. 36,29 Oct 1958. White County: TU 30434 (1) Trib. to Tesnatee Cr., 2 mi. NW
of Cleveland, Hwy. 129, 14 Apr. 1963. TU 38330 (4) Trib. to Tesnatee Cr., 1.8 mi. NW of Cleveland, Hwy.
129, 21 June 1965. UGAMNH 324A (1) Chattahoochee R. near Nora Mills, below Helen, 23 Apr. 1958.
UGAMNH 620 (2) Cane Cr., 0.25 mi. above jet. with Sautee Cr., 22 Oct 1958. UGAMNH 2075 (2)
Chattahoochee R., 1 mi. S of Helen, 26 June 1950. White/Habersham counties: UGAMNH 838 (15)
Chattahoochee R., 24 Oct 1963.


Altamaha River Basin

Georgia: Crawford County: UGAMNH 664 (2) Echeconnee Cr., 7 June 1959. Greene County: AU 18196
(1) Apalachee R., 6.5 air mi. WSW of Greensboro, 12 Sept 1978. Gwinett County: AU 5047 (2) Yellow R.,
2.9 air mi. E of Lilburn, 11 Sept 1970. AU 14130 (1) Gamer Cr., trib. of Yellow R., 2.7 air mi. SE of Lilbum,
Hwy. S2345, 4 Oct 1976. Hall County: AU 26462 (5) Candler Cr., W of Gillsville, 5 May 1990. CU 11200
(1) Oconee R, 2 mi. NW of Gillsville, 9 Apr. 1947. CU 43555 (1) East fork of Oconee R., W of Gillsville, 11
Sept. 1962. UMMZ 201118 (3) Chandler Cr., N ofGillsville atjd. of Rts. 323 & 52, 26 June 1977. Jasper
County: AU 4967 (1) Cedar Cr., about 5.5 mi. ENE of Hillsborough, 18 Aug. 1970. Jones County: AU
5949 (2) Cedar Cr., trib. to Big Cedar Cr., 5.5 air mi. E of Round Oak, on Union Hill Rd., 27 Aug. 1972. AU
26147 (2) Filling Cr. at Juliette Rd., 5.1 mi. E of Juliette, 24 Aug. 1989. Lamar County: AU 27550 (2) Buck
Cr., @ Chappel Mill Rd. at Chappel, 21 Sept 1991. Putnam County: AU 3455 (4) Hitchcock Br., southern
trib. to Murder Cr., 6.4 air mi. due NE of Jasper/Putnam/Jones co. line, 1969. AU 4956 (2) Little R., at mouth
of Glady Cr., 2.9 air mi. W of Eaton, 18 Aug. 1970. AU 6374 (5) Murder Cr., 2.6 air mi. NNE of Stanfordville,
23 Aug. 1972. UGAMNH 433 (1) Sinclair Reservoir, GA Hwy. 24 at Little R., May 1955.


Micropterus punctulatus henshalli

Apalachicola River Basin

Georgia: Gwinett County: AU 21997 (3) Chattahoochee R., 3.1 km S of Buford Dam, 5 mi. W of Buford,
15 Mar. 1978. Lumpldn County: AU 3482 (1) Chestatee R., ca. 3 mi. SSE of Dahlonega, Hwy. 60, 20 May
1970.








BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 42(2)


Micropterus punctulatus punctulatus

Apalachicola River Basin

Alabama: Barbour County: UMMZ 168752 (3) Just E ofEufala, Chattahoochee R. at US 28 Bridge, 11 Sept
1954. Chambers County: AU 24599 (1) Chattahoochee R. at Riverview, in rapids, ca. 1978. UF 95836 (1)
Chattahoodcee R., near Langdale, Aug. 1992. UF 95837 (1) Chattahoochee R, near Langdale, Aug. 1992. Lee
County: AU 1483 (4) Halawakee Cr., ca. 10 mi. NE ofOpelika (T20N, R28E, Sec. 27), 12 Oct. 1968. AU
1581 (2) Halawakee Cr., trib. to Chattahoochee R., ca. 10 mi. NE of Opelika, 8 Jan. 1969. AU 1611 (1)
Halawakee Cr., trib. to Chattahoochee R., ca. 10 air mi. NE of Opelika (T20N, R28E, S27) 23 Oct. 1968. AU
5335 (1) Lake Harding at mouth of Halawakee Cr. arm, 8 Feb. 1972. AU 11918 (1) Halawakee Cr., 2.4 air
mi. SW ofBeulah, co. rd., 8 May 1969. AU 17234 (1) Cove of Lake Harding, W of Bartletts Ferry Dam, 29
Aug. 1977. AU 23995 (1) Halawakee Cr., 2.1 air mi. SSW ofBeulah, at covered bridge, 26 Oct. 1971. AU
27604 (2) Halawakee Cr. at CR 390, NE ofOpelika, AL, 11 Oct. 1991. Russell County: USNM 167961 (2)
Uchee Cr. below bridge on Crawford to Seale (Chattahoochee Dr.) 5 Oct 1954.

Florida: Calhoun County: UF 65711 (1) Apalachicola R., west bank off sand bar behind deflector, 0.6 mi.
N of Blounts Landing (approx. 1 mi. S of SR 20 bridge), 9 Sept 1968. Gadsden County: TU 24405 (1)
Apalachicola R. from boat ramp to Jim Woodruff Dam, Nov. 1960. UMMZ 134613 (2) Mouth of Flint R., 13
Oct. 1941. Jadumo County: UMMZ 166286 (1) Chattahoochee R. at mouth of Mill Cr., 0.5 mi N of bridge,
on FL Hwy. 2 (T7N, R8W, S23, 26), 2 May 1952.

Georgia: Dougherty County: UGAMNH 697 (1) Flint R., Sta. #6, below Lake Worth dam, 7 Oct. 1959.
Harris County: AU 5193 (1) Mulberry Cr., 0.1 mi. above Chattahoochee R., 22 Oct. 1971. UNCAT (1)
Chattahoochee R. near Langdale, Aug. 1992. UNCAT (1) Chattahoochee R. near Langdale, Aug. 1992.
Quitman County: AU 4320 (1) Cove of Walter F. George Reservoir, 2.3 air mi. SSW of Georgetown, 7 June
1971. Troup County: AU 5219 (2) Chattahoochee R., 2.6 air mi. S of Abbottsford-preimpoundment, 21 Apr.
1972. AU 5834 (5) Chattahoochee R. at islands, ca. 1.0 air mi. N of West Point dam site, 3.5 air mi. N of West
Point, 18 Aug. 1970. AU 10376 (4) West Point Reservoir, Chattahoochee R., Wehadkee arm, 4.0 air mi. SSE
of Evansville, 2.8 air mi. SSW of Gabbettville, 15 July 1975. UT 90.313 (2) West Point Reservoir at Hwy. 219
xing,.25 Aug. 1977. UT 90.553 (1) West Point Reservoir, 5 July 1977.


Micropterus dolomieu

Apalachicola River Basin

Georgia: Douglas County: AU 219 (1) Dog R., trib. to Chattahoochee R., 3.3 mi. NE of McWhorter, Hwy.
5, 1 July 1967.













































Plate 1. Micropterus cataractae, Paratype, UF 110754, 304 mm SL, Florida, Jackson County, Chipola River, about 10 mi. SSE Marianna, 3 March 1970.



























.',, --------'- .,. .




z









Plate 2. Micropterus cataractae, juvenile (nontype), AU 15798 (1), 62 numm SL, Georgia, Douglas County, Anneewakee Creek, 7.1 air mi. E of Bill Arp,
Hwy 166,20 October 1977.


















)


A






















Plate 3. Micropterus punctulatus punchulatus. AU 1611, 215 mm SL, Alabama, Lee County, Halawakee Creek, tributary to Chattahoochee River, about 10
air mi. NE ofOpelika (T2ON, R28E, S27) 23 October 1968.








0








































Plate 4. Micropterus punctulatus punctulatus AU 5834, 59 mm SL, Georgia, Troup County Chattahoochee River at islands, about 1.0 air mi. N of West
Point dam site, 3.5 air mi. N of West Point, 18 August 1970.





























* AS ''I


Plate 5. Micropterus cataractae. Georgia, Dougherty County, Flint River, about 7 mi. S of Albany, 14 April 1989. Joseph R. Tomelleri.













































Plate 6. Micropterus coosae. Georgia, Walker County, West Fork Armuchee Creek, 21 April 1989. 0 Joseph R. Tomelleri.











.I I I ',


q/A~


I ( I I a rI I r ro r a V *oil 4 .I *
II,~~L IC ~ w d


Plate 7. Micropteruspunctulatuspunctulatus. Kansas, Chase County, North Fork Verdigris River, October 1997. Joseph R. Tomelleri.























^.-r'^W'~~, /a^M MB vV^1 .--'*~~ -C** '
Cl 'r* ^ ''^ .. "'t : =
alla ba ,F.. .. 1 ***3 ', ',- ... -"












Plate 8. Micropteruspunclulatus henshalli. Georgia, Gilmer County, Carters Reservoir, April 1989. Joseph R. Tomelleri.














Contributions to the BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY may be
in any field of biology. Manuscripts dealing with natural history or systematic problems involving the
southeastern United States or the New World tropics are solicited especially. Manuscripts should be of
medium length-circa 35-200 pages (10,500-60,000 words). Examination for suitability is made by an
Editorial Board.
The BULLETIN is distributed worldwide through institutional exchanges and standing orders. It is
considered the responsibility of the author to distribute his paper to all interested individuals. To aid in this,
the authors) receives) 50 copies free, and he/she(they) may purchase additional separates at cost if ordered
when page proof is returned. The author is also responsible for any charges incurred for alterations made by
him on galley or page proofs. The Museum will send an invoice to the author for this amount upon
completion of publication.


PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPT


Contributors should consult recent numbers of the BULLETIN for preferred style and format. Highly
recommended as a guide is the Scientific Style and Format, CBE Style Manual for Authors, Editors, and
Publishers, 6th Editio 1994 (published by the Council of Biology Editors).
Manuscripts must be submitted in duplicate and satisfy the following minimal requirements. They
must be double-saced throughout including tables, figure captions, and literature citations. Figure legends
and tables should be typed on separate sheets. Also, please submit a copy of the complete text, tables, figure
captions, and literature cited on a floppy disk (we use Word for Windows, yours has to be compatible with
it).
All illustrations are referred to as figures. They must comply with the following standards:
Photographs should be sharp, with good contrast, and printed on glossy paper, or the originals submitted. If
the background of photographs (especially those of specimens) is not desired, amberlith should be cut out
and used to cover the background. Drawings should be made with dense black waterproof ink on quality
paper or illustration board. All figures should have a cover sheet All lettering will be medium weight, sans-
serif type (e.g. Futura Medium, News Gothic) in cutout, dry transfer, or lettering guide letters. Make
allowance so that after reduction no lower case letter will be less than 1 mm high (2 mm is preferred) nor any
capital letter greater than 5 mm high. The maximum size for figures is 9" x 14" (twice BULLETIN page
size); figures should not be less than typepage width (4'/2"). With soft lead pencil, on the back of each
illustration, designate the top and identify each by author's name, manuscript title, and figure number.
All manuscripts not submitted in BULLETIN format will be returned to the author for retyping and/or
formatting.

Manuscripts, all editorial matters, and requests for more detailed preparation instructions should be
addressed to:

Managing Editor of the BULLETIN
Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida
P. O. Box 117800
Gainesville FL 32611-7800, U.S.A.
Phone: 352-392-6724
FAX: 352-846-0287
email: rjbryant@flmnh.ufl.edu







University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs